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1

Millimeter Wave Attenuation in Moist Air: Laboratory Measurements and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were performed with a millimeter wave resonance-spectrometer capable of measuring absolute attenuation rates alpha (dB/km) by water vapor up to saturation pressures. Vapor (e) and air (p) pressures were varied at constant temperature and set f...

H. J. Liebe

1984-01-01

2

Measurement and calculation of shock wave attenuation in a rough duct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock wave attenuation a duct with rough walls was calculated using an approximate method and measured experimentally in a systematic manner, which made it possible to determine impulse losses in shock waves by comparing the analytical and experimental data. Expressions relating the loss coefficient to the regular surface roughness were then used for calculating the rate of gas detonation in ducts with rough walls.

Gel'Fand, B. E.; Frolov, S. M.; Medvedev, S. P.

1990-06-01

3

The first direct measurements of upper oceanic crustal compressional wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first direct measurement of compressional wave attenuation of the uppermost 650 m of oceanic crust was performed using data recorded by seafloor hydrophones and large (56-116 kg), deep, explosive sources. The site was 13 km east of the southernmost Juan de Fuca Ridge on crust 0.4 m.y. old Spectral ratios were performed between bottom refracting waves and direct water waves, adjusted for spreading losses and transmission coefficient losses. Several tests of the data were performed, demonstrating that attenuation is linearly related to frequency between 15 and 140 Hz, but frequency-independent components of attenuation are also evident. Values of compressional wave Q cluster between 20 and 50 and do not show any systematic variation with depth over 650 m. The attenuation results also indicate the presence of heterogeneities within the crust, as the solutions for each receiver's data set are significantly different. No evidence for azimuthal variations of attenuation are supported by the data, although the data do not optimally sample a wide variation of azimuths. Our attenuation values are judged to be normal to higher than expected for the whole oceanic crust, based upon comparisons to results from synthetic seismogram modeling by others and by modeling signal to noise ratios of typical seismic refraction profiles. The results are consistent with recent laboratory measurements at ultrasonic frequencies for dry and saturated basalts at seafloor pressures and temperatures.

Jacobson, R. S.; Lewis, B. T. R.

1990-10-01

4

Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a large transmitter and a near-point receiver. The properties of the porous plate are measured in independent laboratory experiments. Waveforms are acquired as a function of the angle of incidence over the range from -50° to +50° with respect to the normal. The porous plate is fully characterized, and the physical properties are used to calculate the wave speeds and attenuations of the P1, the P2, and the shear S waves. Comparisons of theory and observation are further facilitated by numerically modeling the observed waveforms. This modeling method incorporates the frequency and angle of incidence-dependent reflectivity, transmissivity, and transducer edge effects; the modeled waveforms match well those observed. Taken together, this study provides further support for existing poroelastic bulk wave propagation and boundary condition theory. However, observed transmitted P1 and S mode amplitudes could not be adequately described unless the attenuation of the medium's frame was also included. The observed P2 amplitudes could be explained without any knowledge of the solid frame attenuation.

Bouzidi, Youcef; Schmitt, Douglas R.

2009-08-01

5

Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.

Saint-Pierre, Francois [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Rivard, Patrice [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2007-06-15

6

Pure path attenuation measurements of long-period Rayleigh waves across the Tibet Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented to derive pure path attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves, in the period range 30-90 s, across the Tibet Plateau, using events located within Tibet and observed at teleseismic distances. This method uses data from 2 events and 2 stations simultaneously, these being aligned along a great circle path, and, for relatively small events, is practically free

Barbara Romanowicz

1984-01-01

7

Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.

2012-04-01

8

Compressional head waves in attenuative formations  

SciTech Connect

The attenuation of compressional head waves in a fluid-filled borehole is studied with the branch-cut integration method. The borehole fluid and solid formation are both assumed lossy with quality factors Q{sub f}({omega}) for the fluid, and Q{sub c}({omega}) and Q{sub s}({omega}) for the compressional and shear waves in the solid, respectively. The branch-cut integration method used in this work is an extension of that for a lossless medium. With this branch-cut integration method, the authors can isolate the groups of individual arrivals such as the compressional head waves and shear head waves, and study the attenuation of those particular wavefields in lossy media. This study, coupled with experimental work to be performed, may result in an effective way of measuring compressional head wave attenuation in the field.

Liu, Q.H.; Chang, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1994-12-31

9

Regional dependence of very low-frequency sound attenuation in the deep sound channel: Correlation with internal wave measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most promising mechanism for the very low-frequency sound attenuation observed in the deep sound channel is diffusive scattering by internal waves, Mellen, et al. (1976) have obtained estimates for the extra attenuation using the Garrett-Munk internal wave model and found consistency with the lower experimental values reported. Kibblewhite, et al, (1978) have shown a definite regional dependence in the

D. G. Browning; M. J. Fecher; R. H. Mellen

1981-01-01

10

Attenuation of high-frequency shear waves in the crust: Measurements from New York State, South Africa, and Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the attenuation of high-frequency (3-30 Hz) shear waves for crystal paths in New York State, South Africa, and southern California over source-Receiver distances of about 10-400 km. The data consist of digital recordings of S waves (Delta=5-100 km) and Lg waves (Delta=100-400) produced by earthquakes. We use a coda normalization method to remove the effects of site amplification

Arthur Frankel; Art McGarr; John Bicknell; Jim Mori; Leonardo Seeber; Edward Cranswick

1990-01-01

11

Ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus and extensional wave attenuation in refractory metal wires at elevated temperatures with application to ultrasonic thermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements have been made by traveling-wave methods on several refractory metals and their alloys. Broad-band pulses centered around 120 kHz were used for extensional waves (and some torsional waves) in wire specimens. Elastic moduli calculated from the velocities decrease with increasing temperature; the slope increases in magnitude at about half the absolute melting point. At the

E. P. Papadakis; K. A. Fowler; L. C. Lynnworth; A. Robertson; E. D. Zysk

1974-01-01

12

Spatial and seasonal variation in wave attenuation over Zostera noltii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave attenuation is a recognized function of sea grass ecosystems which is believed to depend on plant characteristics. This paper presents field data on wave attenuance collected over a 13 month period in a Zostera noltii meadow. The meadow showed a strong seasonality with high shoot densities in summer (approximately 4,600 shoots/m2) and low densities in winter (approximately 600 shoots/m2). Wave heights and flow velocities were measured along a transect at regular intervals during which the site was exposed to wind waves and boat wakes that differ in wave period and steepness. This difference was used to investigate whether wave attenuation by sea grass changes with hydrodynamic conditions. A seasonal change in wave attenuation was observed from the data. Results suggest that a minimum shoot density is necessary to initiate wave attenuation by sea grass. Additionally, a dependence of wave attenuation on hydrodynamics was found. Results suggest that the threshold shoot density varies with wave period and a change in energy dissipation toward the shore was observed once this threshold was exceeded. An attempt was made to quantify the bed roughness of the meadow; the applicability of this roughness value in swaying vegetation is discussed. Finally, the drag coefficient for the meadow was computed: A relationship between wave attenuance and vegetation Reynolds number was found which allows comparing the wave attenuating effect of Zostera noltii to other plant species.

Paul, M.; Amos, C. L.

2011-08-01

13

Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a

Youcef Bouzidi; Douglas R. Schmitt

2009-01-01

14

Attenuation of seismic waves at regional distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A report on the attenuation of seismic waves at regional distances contains the following topics: Yield estimates of Nevada Test Site explosions obtained from siesmic Lg waves; Inter-station surface wave analysis by frequency-domain Wiener deconvolution and modal isolation; New insights on crustal Q structure in stable continental regions - preliminary results.

Nuttli, O. W.; Mitchell, B. J.; Hwang, H. J.

1985-08-01

15

Seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic seismogram is a tool to investigate seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media. A numerical technique for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous, as well as in a multilayered anisotropic medium was developed. Full waveform theory is used to compute the synthetic seismograms. The medium can be elastic or viscoelastic. In the latter case, attenuation is

Satish Sinha

2006-01-01

16

The attenuation of strong shock waves  

E-print Network

THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1963 Major Subject: Physics. THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee (He of Departme ) May 1963 TABLE OF CONTENTS INT R ODU C TI ON ~Pe e...

Kirkpatrick, Ronald Crecelius

2012-06-07

17

Low attenuation waveguide for leaky surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface wave on a liquid\\/solid interface is well-known to radiate acoustic energy into the liquid and is therefore rapidly attenuated. In this work, we have been able to show by experiments and calculations that the proximity of another surface (layer 1 to layer 3 and layer 3 to layer 1) sustains the surface wave through long distances for layers

K. Joseph; B. R. Tittmann; M. Pedrick; M. Kropf

2006-01-01

18

Seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic seismogram is a tool to investigate seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media. A numerical technique for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous, as well as in a multilayered anisotropic medium was developed. Full waveform theory is used to compute the synthetic seismograms. The medium can be elastic or viscoelastic. In the latter case, attenuation is introduced by giving materials complex elastic constants. To ensure that there are no false arrivals in the synthetic seismogram, it is important to carefully control the integration kernel singularity points, especially those due to repeated roots of the associated Green-Christoffel equation. A novel approach is developed to safely track the continuity of the integration kernel and, hence, the polarization vectors in critical and supercritical zones. The reflectivity approach is followed to consider wave propagation in a multilayered medium. A simple and concise implementation of this method is developed. This approach also enables one to investigate frequency dependent reflection coefficients varying with incidence angle and azimuth. The modeling of reflection coefficients in fractured media suggests that amplitude versus offset and azimuth (AVOAz) can be helpful in detecting fractured reservoirs. In a new development, the effect of attenuation on P- and S-wave radiation patterns in viscoelastic anisotropic media is investigated. The understanding of radiation patterns in homogeneous media is applied to interpret various wave types in attenuating multilayered media. Both the amplitude and the frequency content of the synthetic seismograms are affected by attenuation properties of the media. The spectral decomposition technique is found to be useful in our understanding of the attenuation effects. Seismic anisotropy in shales is a complex phenomenon. A number of theoretical shale models are investigated to study the effects of clay orientation, aspect ratio of cracks, porosity and fluid types on the synthetic seismograms.

Sinha, Satish

19

Attenuation of propagating spin wave induced by layered nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin wave attenuation in the layered [FeNi/Pt]6/FeNi thin films was investigated by the time-domain electrical measurement. The spin-wave waveform was detected with an asymmetric coplanar strip transmission line, as an induced voltage flowing into a fast oscilloscope. We report that the amplitude of a spin-wave packet was systematically changed by controlling the thickness of a platinum layer, up to a maximum change of 50%. The virtues of spin wave, ultrafast propagation velocity and non-reciprocal emission, are preserved in this manner. This means that the Pt layer can manipulate an arbitral power-level of spin-wave input signal (reliable attenuator).

Sekiguchi, K.; Vader, T. N.; Yamada, K.; Fukami, S.; Ishiwata, N.; Seo, S. M.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, K. J.; Ono, T.

2012-03-01

20

The laboratory study of seismic wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the experimental investigation of the anelasticity of rocks is reviewed with particular emphasis upon studies of nearly-dry rocks at relatively low frequencies and strain amplitudes. An introduction to the phenomenology of anelasticity, illustrated with simple mechanical models, is followed by a brief outline of experimental methods. A survey of the literature is presented in order to highlight the factors which most strongly influence the internal friction of nearly-dry rocks. Included among these are the concentration of adsorbed H2O, pressure, temperature and microstructure. For practical reasons these effects have generally been studied in isolation. It is argued that the future of laboratory study of seismic wave dispersion and attenuation lies in the simultaneous control of all these important variables. A recently developed apparatus is described which will ultimately facilitate the study of rock anelasticity under conditions which closely approach those of seismic wave propagation: simultaneous high pressure (to 700 MPa) and temperature (to 1400°C), low frequency (10-3 -1 HZ) and strain amplitude (< 10-6), and controlled pore pressure of volatiles. Its performance has been tested in a series of preliminary high pressure room temperature experiments in which the specimen pore space was vented to atmosphere. Measurements on a steel standard have demonstrated the sensitivity of the apparatus to very small departures (QG-1 < 10-3) from ideal elasticity. Experimental data for a fine-grained granitic rock show that both the shear modulus G and quality factor Q increase sharply with increasing pressure below ˜100 MPa, beyond which pressure both parameters become markedly less pressure sensitive. These observations are in accord with those of previous studies at higher frequencies and larger strains, and are consistent with the view that the anelasticity of rocks at ambient pressure is dominated by mechanisms operative at open cracks and grain boundaries.

Jackson, Ian

21

OTDR calibration for attenuation measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cut-back method is the standard test method to check the attenuation of optical fibers. The advantages of this method are low uncertainty, good reproducibility, and an applicability in a broad spectral range. But for some applications, especially in the field service, the optical time domain reflectometry seems to be more useful because (1) this method is non-destructive, (2) measurements can be made from one end of the fiber, and (3) the back-scattered signal contains information about the longitudinal homogeneity of the fiber or the fiber system. For an approval of this technique as a second standard test method, an uncertainty of 0.01 dB/km of the attenuation coefficient measurement is required. This small uncertainty demands a calibration of the loss scale of the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) used. Therefore, a calibration procedure is proposed using a standard fiber as a scale unit. The specification of this fiber, the preparation as a standard and its calibration in an accredited calibration laboratory, are discussed. An uncertainty of about 0.005 dB should be achievable in attenuation measurement of the standard. The calibration of the power scale of the OTDR with the aid of transfer standard, lead-in fiber and/or attenuator, and a proposal for linearizing the scale of power response are presented.

Moeller, Werner; Heitmann, Walter; Reich, Manfred

1991-09-01

22

Fault-zone attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a technique to measure seismic attenuation within an active fault-zone at seismogenic depths. Utilizing a pair of stations and pairs of earthquakes, spectral ratios are performed to isolate attenuation produced by wave-propagation within the fault-zone. The empirical approach eliminates common source, propagation, instrument and near-surface site effects. The technique was applied to a cluster of 19 earthquakes recorded by a pair of downhole instruments located within the San Andreas fault-zone, at instruments located within the San Andreas fault-zone, at Parkfield, California. Over the 1-40 Hz bandwidth used in this analysis, amplitudes are found to decrease exponentially with frequency. Furthermore, the fault-zone propagation distance correlates with severity of attenuation. Assuming a constant Q attenuation operator, the S-wave quality factor within the fault-zone at a depth of 5-6 kilometers is 31 (+7,{minus}5). If fault-zones are low-Q environments, then near-source attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves may help to explain phenomenon such as f{sub max}. Fault-zone Q may prove to be a valuable indicator of the mechanical behavior and rheology of fault-zones. Specific asperities can be monitored for precursory changes associated with the evolving stress-field within the fault-zone. The spatial and temporal resolution of the technique is fundamentally limited by the uncertainty in earthquake location and the interval time between earthquakes.

Blakeslee, S.; Malin, P.; Alvarez, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1989-11-01

23

Lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the French Alps and surrounding regions. The area of investigation extends from the Rhine Graben in the north, to the northern Apennine Range in the south, and includes the Eastern and Western Alps. Following the classical work of Aki and Chouet (1975), coda wave attenuation has been characterized by measuring the coda quality factor of short-period S waves (Qc). We have selected about 2000 weak to moderate earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5. Waveform data recorded by permanent seismic networks have been collected at the ORFEUS data center through the ArcLink protocol. Qc has been measured in five frequency bands [1-2], [2-4], [4-8], [8-16], [16-32] Hz, by applying a simple linear regression to the smooth energy envelopes of seismograms in the time domain. Various choices of coda window length (Lw), and coda onset time (tw, as measured from the origin time) have been tested to ensure that our measurements are free from any systematic effects of lapse-time dependence in the range of epicentral distance considered. The optimal choice, which simultaneously maximizes the geographical coverage and minimizes the measurement biases, is obtained for Lw=50s and tw=70s, for epicentral distances smaller than 180 km. The map of Qc is obtained by discretizing the Alpine region into pixels of dimension (20km x 20km). For each source/receiver pair, the estimated value of Qc is distributed along the direct ray path. An average over all paths that cross an individual pixel is performed to obtain the local value of Qc. A spatial smoothing over an area covering a square of 9 pixels is subsequently applied. The maps of Qc display strong lateral variations of attenuation in the Alpine area. At all frequencies, the ratio between the lowest and largest value of Qc is typically larger than 2. The attenuation pattern is complex but relatively independent of frequency. A notable exception is a low attenuation region located between Torino and Geneva, which is clearly visible in the 1-2 Hz frequency band and disappears at higher frequencies. Some geological formations such as the Upper Rhine Graben and the eastern Alps show up clearly on the maps and systematically exhibit lower attenuation than the Po Valley and the Apennines. The French Alps are characterized by an attenuation gradient increasing from the north-west to the south-east. The typical scale of the spatial variations of the coda quality factor is of the order of 100km, which suggests rapid lateral variation of attenuation properties in the crust.

Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Traversa, Paola

2014-05-01

24

Laboratory velocities and attenuation of P-waves in limestones during freeze-thaw cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity and the attenuation of compressional P-waves, measured in the laboratory at ultrasonic frequencies during a series of freezing and thawing cycles, are used as a method for predicting frost damage in a bedded limestone. Pulse transmission and spectral ratio techniques are used to determine the P-wave velocities and the attenuation values relative to an aluminum reference samples with

Jean-Michel Remy; M. Bellanger; F. Homand-Etienne

1994-01-01

25

Influences of obstacle geometries on shock wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of planar shock waves with obstacles of different geometries were investigated numerically using large eddy simulation and a high-order numerical scheme. The immersed boundary method was also employed to handle complex boundary geometries. The development and variations of shock wave structures during the interaction processes were discussed. The influences of the upper side, windward and leeward geometries of the obstacles on shock wave attenuation were also examined. Our numerical results showed that the shock wave attenuation is inversely related to the width of the upper side of the obstacles. For the windward sides of the obstacles, negative slopes have better effects on shock wave attenuation than do other values. In addition, the influence of the leeward slope on shock wave attenuation is weaker than that of the upside and windward slopes. Finally, obstacle shapes with a high efficiency for shock wave attenuation have been obtained and validated.

Sha, S.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, X.

2014-11-01

26

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE  

E-print Network

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE Historically, acoustic is the scientific study of sound. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles to their original position [24]. Vibrating objects produces sound. Regardless of what vibrating object is creating

Cambridge, University of

27

Current-induced control of spin-wave attenuation.  

PubMed

The current-induced modification of the attenuation of a propagating spin wave in a magnetic nanowire is studied theoretically and numerically. The attenuation length of spin wave can increase when the spin waves and electrons move in the same direction. It is directly affected by the nonadiabaticity of the spin-transfer torque and thus can be used to estimate the nonadiabaticity. When the nonadiabatic spin torque is sufficiently large, the attenuation length becomes negative, resulting in the amplification of spin waves. PMID:19392477

Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo; Ono, Teruo

2009-04-10

28

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

SciTech Connect

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1 - 9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (QE dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2002-06-17

29

Wave Dispersion and Attenuation on Human Femur Tissue  

PubMed Central

Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to “dispersion”, these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011

Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

2014-01-01

30

Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network\\u000a (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the\\u000a frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves (Q\\u000a c) and S-waves (Q\\u000a d)

Ahmed Badawy; Mamdouh A. Morsy

2011-01-01

31

Parametric studies on attenuation of cylindrical guided waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided wave techniques have been used for pipeline inspection because of their long-range inspection capability. One of main concerns of these techniques is how ones decide axial interval of sensors. This question is related to the characteristics of attenuation of cylindrical guided waves. Parametric density concept is proposed for a long-range pipeline inspection. This concept is designed to obtain the attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves propagating in underwater pipeline without complicated calculation of attenuation dispersion curves. For this study, three pipe materials are considered, then different transporting fluids are assumed, and four different pipe geometries are adopted. It is shown that the attenuation values based on the parametric density concept reasonably match with the attenuation values obtained from the dispersion curves. However, it seems that the parametric concept is only applicable for fluid-filled underwater pipes. The limitations of the parametric density concept are also discussed.

Na, Won-Bae; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Lee, Juwon; Hong, Dong-Soo

2007-04-01

32

Tide Effects on Wave Attenuation and Wave Set-up on a Caribbean Coral Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of tides on wave attenuation and wave set-up were investigated at Great Pond Bay, a Caribbean reef located in St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at three stations across the reef profile. Total wave set-up was measured between the forereef and the reef crest or backreef lagoon. Wave spectra indicate significant filtering of energy at the peak frequencies as waves traveled across the reef. The energy dissipation calculations imply an average energy reduction of 62% between the forereef and reef crest. Mean energy reduction between the forereef and lagoon was 90%. Energy dissipation between the forereef and reef crest increased 15% between high and low tide and 6% between forereef and lagoon. Tidal reduction of water depth at the reef crest intensified wave breaking and this condition increased energy dissipation. Measurements of wave set-up ranged from 0·8 to 1·5 cm. Calculations of wave set-up using Tait's 1972 model showed good agreement with observations.

Lugo-Fernández, A.; Roberts, H. H.; Wiseman, W. J., Jr.

1998-10-01

33

Wave energy attenuation and shoreline alteration characteristics of submerged breakwaters  

E-print Network

WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Approved as to style and content by: John...

Krafft, Katherine Margaret

2012-06-07

34

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges on the surface of sand grains, which is not easy to measure, can be approximately determined by measuring the attenuation value of electromagnetic waves. Some effects of sand radius, dielectric permittivity, frequency of electromagnetic wave, and visibility of sandstorms on the attenuation are also discussed quantitatively. Finally, a new electric parameter is introduced to describe the roles of scattering, absorption and effect of charges in attenuation.

Zhou, You-He; Shu He, Qin; Zheng, Xiao Jing

2005-06-01

35

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles.  

PubMed

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges on the surface of sand grains, which is not easy to measure, can be approximately determined by measuring the attenuation value of electromagnetic waves. Some effects of sand radius, dielectric permittivity, frequency of electromagnetic wave, and visibility of sandstorms on the attenuation are also discussed quantitatively. Finally, a new electric parameter is introduced to describe the roles of scattering, absorption and effect of charges in attenuation. PMID:15909076

Zhou, You-He; Shu He, Qin; Jing Zheng, Xiao

2005-06-01

36

Stress-associated scattering attenuation and intrinsic attenuation of laboratory ultrasonic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In comparison with seismic velocity and static moduli connected with the large-scale heterogeneous structure, seismic coda attenuation, in response to the small-scale random heterogeneities, has proved to be more sensitive to stress changes. Thus, it has a better chance to become one of the critical values for examining the state of stress changes in rocks. We perform an experiment on ultrasonic scattering using a cylindrical rock sample associated with intra-grain pores and fractures to study the effect of pore-pressure induced stress changes on coda attenuation as a combination of intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. The main problem is to handle multiple side-reflected waves from the rock sample boundaries that may contaminate the ultrasonic coda waves. We analyze the ultrasonic coda data by employing a strongly scattering cylindrical model with two types of extreme boundary conditions. The study confirms that the induced heterogeneous cracks in cylindrical rock make a great impact on estimate of scattering parameters and lead to different stress or frequency dependence of coda attenuation. Comparisons of scattering attenuation and intrinsic attenuation indicate the ultrasonic coda attenuation is mainly contributed by scattering attenuation especially at high frequencies or high stresses.

Wei, W.; Fu, L.

2012-12-01

37

Attenuation anisotropy and the relative frequency content of split shear waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular, it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause measurable velocity and attenuation anisotropy, while preferred crystal orientation leads to significant velocity anisotropy but may cause only small amounts of attenuation. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic data set previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). Attenuation anisotropy values obtained show a temporal variation which appears to correlate with the temporal variation in the velocity anisotropy. The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy, where present, should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarizations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on a spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic data set acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation attribute correlates with the angle between the strike of the inferred initial shear-wave source polarization and the fast shear-wave polarization, which suggests that the split shear wave with the larger amplitude is preferentially attenuated. Our attribute also correlates with the event backazimuth, and the minimum percentage anisotropy.

Carter, Andrew J.; Kendall, J.-Michael

2006-06-01

38

Seismic wave attenuation in carbonates L. Adam,1,2  

E-print Network

) of the complex modulus is small. Different waves and flexural modes allow us to study the shear wave (QS Ã?1) and ultrasonic frequencies (0.8 MHz) and reservoir pressures. Attenuation modeled from the modulus data using be defined as QÃ?1 = Im[M*]/Re[M*], where M* is the complex modulus or velocity; and the imaginary part (Im

Boise State University

39

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three P wave attenuation models for sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical treatment. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at “mesoscopic” scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single

S. R. Pride; J. G. Berryman; J. M. Harris

2004-01-01

40

Wave velocity dispersion and attenuation in media exhibiting internal oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamical and acoustical behavior of porous and heterogeneous rocks is of great importance in geophysics, e.g. earthquakes, and for various seismic engineering applications, e.g. hydrocarbon exploration. Within a heterogeneous medium oscillations with a characteristic resonance frequency, depending on the mass and internal length of the heterogeneity, can occur. When excited, heterogeneities can self-oscillate with their natural frequency. Another example of internal oscillations is the dynamical behavior of non-wetting fluid blobs or fluid patches in residually saturated pore spaces. Surface tension forces or capillary forces act as the restoring force that drives the oscillation. Whatever mechanism is involved, an oscillatory phenomena within a heterogeneous medium will have an effect on acoustic or seismic waves propagating through such a medium, i.e. wave velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation. We present two models for media exhibiting internal oscillations and discuss the frequency-dependent wave propagation mechanism. Both models give similar results: (1) The low-frequency (i.e. quasi-static) limit for the phase velocity is identical with the Gassmann-Wood limit and the high-frequency limit is larger than this value and (2) Around the resonance frequency a very strong phase velocity change and the largest attenuation occurs. (1) Model for a homogeneous medium exhibiting internal oscillations We present a continuum model for an acoustic medium exhibiting internal damped oscillations. The obvious application of this model is water containing oscillating gas bubbles, providing the material and model parameters for this study. Two physically based momentum interaction terms between the two inherent constituents are used: (1) A purely elastic term of oscillatory nature that scales with the volume of the bubbles and (2) A viscous term that scales with the specific surface of the bubble. The model is capable of taking into account an arbitrary number of oscillators with different resonance frequencies. Exemplarily, we show a log-normal distribution of resonance frequencies. Such a distribution changes the acoustic properties significantly compared to the case with only one resonance frequency. The dispersion and attenuation resulting from our model agree well with the dispersion and attenuation (1) derived with a more exact mathematical treatment and (2) measured in laboratory experiments. (2) Three-phase model for residually saturated porous media We present a three-phase model describing wave propagation phenomena in residually saturated porous media. The model consists of a continuous non-wetting phase and a discontinuous wetting phase and is an extension of classical biphasic (Biot-type) models. The model includes resonance effects of single liquid bridges or liquid clusters with miscellaneous eigenfrequencies taking into account a visco-elastic restoring force (pinned oscillations and/or sliding motion of the contact line). In the present investigation, our aim is to study attenuation due to fluid oscillations and due to wave-induced flow with a macroscopic three-phase continuum model, i.e. a mixture consisting of one solid constituent building the elastic skeleton and two immiscible fluid constituents. Furthermore, we study monochromatic waves in transversal and longitudinal direction and discuss the resulting dispersion relations for a typical reservoir sandstone equivalent (Berea sandstone).

Frehner, Marcel; Steeb, Holger; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

2010-05-01

41

Determining attenuation properties of interfering fast and slow ultrasonic waves in cancellous bone  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that interference between fast waves and slow waves can lead to observed negative dispersion in cancellous bone. In this study, the effects of overlapping fast and slow waves on measurements of the apparent attenuation as a function of propagation distance are investigated along with methods of analysis used to determine the attenuation properties. Two methods are applied to simulated data that were generated based on experimentally acquired signals taken from a bovine specimen. The first method uses a time-domain approach that was dictated by constraints imposed by the partial overlap of fast and slow waves. The second method uses a frequency-domain log-spectral subtraction technique on the separated fast and slow waves. Applying the time-domain analysis to the broadband data yields apparent attenuation behavior that is larger in the early stages of propagation and decreases as the wave travels deeper. In contrast, performing frequency-domain analysis on the separated fast waves and slow waves results in attenuation coefficients that are independent of propagation distance. Results suggest that features arising from the analysis of overlapping two-mode data may represent an alternate explanation for the previously reported apparent dependence on propagation distance of the attenuation coefficient of cancellous bone. PMID:21973378

Nelson, Amber M.; Hoffman, Joseph J.; Anderson, Christian C.; Holland, Mark R.; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami; Miller, James G.

2011-01-01

42

Anisotropic changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during deformation and fluid infiltration of granite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.

Stanchits, S. A.; Lockner, D. A.; Ponomarev, A. V.

2003-01-01

43

On attenuation of seismic waves associated with flow in fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of porous media induces a number of fluid-flow mechanisms causing attenuation of seismic waves. Attenuation induced by squirt-type mechanisms has previously been analyzed for aspect ratios smaller or equal to 103. Using a hybrid-dimensional modeling approach, particularly apt for large aspect ratio conduits, we numerically simulated deformation-induced fluid flow along two intersecting fractures to investigate the physics of attenuation related to the interaction of fracture-induced fluid flow and to leak-off. Attenuation related to fracture flow increases in magnitude with increasing geometrical aspect ratio of the fracture. The inherent time scales of both flow mechanisms do not influence each other, but the faster process is associated with stronger attenuation than the slower process. Models relying on simple diffusion equations have rather limited potential for approximation of pressure transients.

Vinci, C.; Renner, J.; Steeb, H.

2014-11-01

44

Attenuation of coda waves in the Northeastern Region of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coda wave attenuation quality factor Qc is estimated in the northeastern region of India using 45 local earthquakes recorded by regional seismic network. The quality factor Qc was estimated using the single backscattering model modified by Sato (J Phys Earth 25:27-41, 1977), in the frequency range 1-18 Hz. The attenuation and frequency dependence for different paths and the correlation of the results with geotectonics of the region are described in this paper. A total of 3,890 Qc measurements covering 187 varying paths are made for different lapse time window of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 s in coda wave. The magnitudes of the analyzed events range from 1.2 to 3.9 and focal depths range between 7 and 38 km. The source-receiver distances of the selected events range between 16 and 270 km. For 30-s duration, the mean values of the estimated Qc vary from 50 ± 12 (at 1 Hz) to 2,078 ± 211(at 18 Hz) for the Arunachal Himalaya, 49 ± 14 (at 1 Hz) to 2,466 ± 197 (at 18 Hz) for the Indo-Burman, and 45 ± 13 (at 1 Hz) to 2,069 ± 198 (at 18 Hz) for Shillong group of earthquakes. It is observed that Qc increases with frequency portraying an average attenuation relation Qc=52.315± 1.07f ^{left( {1.32 ± 0.036} right)} for the region. Moreover, the pattern of Qc - 1 with frequency is analogous to the estimates obtained in other tectonic areas in the world, except with the observation that the Qc - 1 is much higher at 1 Hz for the northeastern region. The Qc - 1 is about 10 - 1.8 at 1 Hz and decreases to about 10 - 3.6 at 18 Hz indicating clear frequency dependence. Pertaining to the spatial distribution of Qc values, Mikir Hills and western part of Shillong Plateau are characterized by lower attenuation.

Hazarika, Devajit; Baruah, Saurabh; Gogoi, Naba Kumar

2009-01-01

45

Origin, propagation and attenuation of pressure waves in gas—solid fluidized beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently reported results on the origin, propagation and attenuation of pressure waves in bubbling gas—solid fluidized beds are re-evaluated and the results are compared with additional experiments reported here. It is found that the measured pressure fluctuations are a result of slow and fast propagating pressure waves. Pressure waves with high propagation velocities (> 10 m\\/s) are unambiguously identified as

J. van der Schaaf; J. C. Schouten; C. M. van den Bleek

1998-01-01

46

The effect of frequency on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effect of frequency, water-saturation, and strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation on rock cores recovered on or near the site of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of this investigation is to perform the measurements using four techniques: cyclic loading, waveform inversion, resonant bar, and ultrasonic velocity. The measurements ranged in frequency between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 6} Hz. For the dry specimens Young`s modulus and attenuation were independent of frequency; that is, all four techniques yielded nearly the same values for modulus and attenuation. For saturated specimens, a frequency dependence for both Young`s modulus and attenuation was observed. In general, saturation reduced Young`s modulus and increased seismic wave attenuation. The effect of strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and attenuation was measured using the cyclic loading technique at a frequency of 10{sup {minus}1} Hz. The effect of strain amplitude in all cases was small. For some rocks, such as the potential repository horizon of the Topopah Spring Member tuff (TSw2), the effect of strain amplitude on both attenuation and modulus was minimal.

Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). YMP Performance Assessment Applications Dept.; Martin, R.J. III; Haupt, R.W. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States)

1994-07-01

47

Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results  

SciTech Connect

Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Brodsky, N.S. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-11-01

48

Anisotropic dispersion and attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow: Quasi-static finite element modeling in poroelastic solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous porous media such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks are effectively described as anisotropic viscoelastic solids. They show characteristic velocity dispersion and attenuation of seismic waves within a broad frequency band, and an explanation for this observation is the mechanism of wave-induced pore fluid flow. Various theoretical models quantify dispersion and attenuation of normal incident compressional waves in finely layered porous media. Similar models of shear wave attenuation are not known, nor do general theories exist to predict wave-induced fluid flow effects in media with a more complex distribution of medium heterogeneities. By using finite element simulations of poroelastic relaxation, the total frequency-dependent complex stiffness tensor can be computed for a porous medium with arbitrary internal heterogeneity. From the stiffness tensor, velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation are derived for compressional and shear waves as a function of the angle of incidence. We apply our approach to the case of layered media and to that of an ellipsoidal poroelastic inclusion. In the case of the ellipsoidal inclusion, compressional and shear wave modes show significant attenuation, and the characteristic frequency dependence of the effect is governed by the spatiotemporal scale of the pore fluid pressure relaxation. In our anisotropic examples, the angle dependence of the attenuation is stronger than that of the velocity dispersion. It becomes clear that the spatial attenuation patterns show specific characteristics of wave-induced fluid flow, implying that anisotropic attenuation measurements may contribute to the inversion of fluid transport properties in heterogeneous porous media.

Wenzlau, F.; Altmann, J. B.; Müller, T. M.

2010-07-01

49

INFLUENCE OF CLOUDS ON ATTENUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-empirical method for determination of the cloud attenuation was used. The cloud attenuation was determined by using the meteorological data measured at the ground level. It was assumed that the clouds would form at some height above the ground level when the conditions for vapour condensation would be present and the liquid water content in the air would be

M. Tamoöifl

50

Attenuation Anisotropy and the Relative Frequency Content of Split Shear-Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause both velocity and attenuation anisotropy, whilst preferred crystal orientation should lead only to velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic dataset previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear-waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarisations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on the spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic dataset acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation measurements correlate with the angles between the initial shear-wave source polarization and the crack normal, the event back azimuths, and the splitting times.

Carter, A. J.; Kendall, J.

2004-12-01

51

Attenuation of seismic shear wave energy in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the attenuation of shear wave energy is an important component of seismic hazard analysis. Previous studies have shown how attenuation, particularly in the uppermost layers of the crust, is regionally dependent. The impact of this is that the decay of energy radiating from an earthquake will vary from place to place. To quantify the regional attenuation in Switzerland we model the Fourier spectral amplitude of small-to-moderate earthquakes, recorded on the local seismic networks. High-frequency decay is parametrized by Q and ?, while apparent geometrical spreading models account for the frequency-independent decay of energy. We analyse ground motion encompassing the significant duration of shaking to provide models that are useful for the purpose of seismic hazard analysis. Two methods are used to estimate the whole path attenuation parameter, t*: first, a simultaneous fit of the source model and attenuation effects across the entire spectral bandwidth for earthquakes with M > 2; and secondly, a linear fit of an attenuation model to the high-frequency part of the spectrum for earthquakes with M > 3.5. The t* parameter is found to vary with hypocentral distance consistent with a weakly attenuating crust and strongly attenuating uppermost layer. 1-D tomographic inversions indicate a profile of increasing Q with depth down to the Moho. Frequency-independent decay is parametrized using a three-part model which allows for the inclusion of Moho reflection phases in the spectrum in the range of 20-140 km in the Swiss Foreland and from 70 to 140 km in the Swiss Alps.

Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat; Giardini, Domenico

2011-05-01

52

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

SciTech Connect

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1-9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (Q{sub E} dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2001-08-10

53

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA Anatoli L. Levshin1  

E-print Network

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA Anatoli L. Levshin1 , Xiaoning (David for short-period (10-25s) Rayleigh waves in Central Asia. This model will be defined by maps of attenuation-period (10 ­ 18s), two-dimensional (2-D) Rayleigh-wave attenuation models for Central Asia along

Ritzwolle, Mike

54

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pressure Wave Attenuation due to Bubbly Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of dispersed microbubbles on a steep pressure wave and its attenuation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations were carried out using a compressible Euler equation solver, where the liquid-gas mixture was modeled using direct numerical simulations involving discrete deforming bubbles. To reduce computational costs a 1D configuration is used and the bubbles are assumed distributed in layers and the initial pressure profile is selected similar to that of a one-dimensional shock tube problem. Experimentally, the pressure pulse was generated using a submerged spark electric discharge, which generates a large vapor bubble, while the microbubbles in the bubbly layer are generated using electrolysis. High speed movies were recorded in tandem with high fidelity pressure measurements. The dependence of pressure wave attenuation on the bubble radii, the void fraction, and the bubbly layer thickness were parametrically studied. It has been found that the pressure wave attenuation can be seen as due to waves reflecting and dispersing in the inter-bubble regions, with the energy absorbed by bubble volume oscillations and re-radiation. Layer thickness and small bubble sizes were also seen as having a strong effect on the attenuation with enhanced attenuation as the bubble size is reduced for the same void fraction.

Jayaprakash, Arvind; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

2013-03-01

55

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy ?1018 eV. Though insensitive to 1011 to 1016 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because owing to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves produced by interactions of such neutrinos in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced at horizontal distances ˜1 km, in contrast to the 0.12 km distances between strings of IceCube modules. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size ˜0.2 cm at depths ?600 m, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 and 25 km at frequencies 10 and 30 kHz, respectively; for grain size ˜0.4 cm at 1500 m (the maximum depth to be instrumented acoustically), scattering lengths are calculated to be 250 and 3 km. These are within the range of frequencies where most of the energy of the acoustic wave is concentrated. The absorption length is calculated to be 9 ± 3 km at all frequencies above ˜100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 and 1.4 km at 10 and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 3 × 104 and 3300 km at 10 and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor. Both media would be suitable for detection of acoustic waves from ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions.

Price, P. B.

2006-02-01

56

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes  

E-print Network

Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

P. B. Price

2005-06-27

57

Attenuation of seismic waves obtained by coda waves analysis in the West Bohemia earthquake swarm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc with depth, where 1/Qc seems to be frequency independent in depth range of upper lithosphere. Lateral changes of 1/Qc were also reported - it decreases in the south-west direction from the Novy Kostel focal zone, where the attenuation is the highest. Results from more advanced methods that allow for separation of scattering and intrinsic loss show that intrinsic loss is a dominant factor for attenuating of seismic waves in the region. Determination of attenuation due to scattering appears ambiguous due to small hypocentral distances available for the analysis, where the effects of scattering in frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz are not significant.

Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas

2014-05-01

58

Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal communities around the world face an increasing risk from flooding as a result of rising sea level, increasing storminess and land subsidence. Salt marshes can act as natural buffer zones, providing protection from waves during storms. However, the effectiveness of marshes in protecting the coastline during extreme events when water levels are at a maximum and waves are highest is poorly understood. Here we experimentally assess wave dissipation under storm surge conditions in a 300-metre-long wave flume tank that contains a transplanted section of natural salt marsh. We find that the presence of marsh vegetation causes considerable wave attenuation, even when water levels and waves are highest. From a comparison with experiments without vegetation, we estimate that up to 60% of observed wave reduction is attributed to vegetation. We also find that although waves progressively flatten and break vegetation stems and thereby reduce dissipation, the marsh substrate remained stable and resistant to surface erosion under all conditions. The effectiveness of storm wave dissipation and the resilience of tidal marshes even at extreme conditions suggest that salt marsh ecosystems can be a valuable component of coastal protection schemes.

Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

2014-10-01

59

Attenuation of an air shock wave by perforated baffles  

SciTech Connect

One of the ways of attenuating an air shock wave (ASW) is to use a perforated shield; the parameters of the ASW behind a perforated baffle in the form of a steel sheet with holes are determined by the amplitude of the incident ASW and the sheet perforation coefficient. The authors examine the effects of the perforated shield structure on the ASW behind it and examples are given where the results can be used in the design of test chambers.

Klapovskii, V.E.; Grigor'ev, G.S.; Logvenov, A.Y.; Mineev, V.N.; Vershinin, V.Y.

1984-03-01

60

Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have\\u000a been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using\\u000a single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5–3.5) recorded at\\u000a six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband

Babita Sharma; Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; B. K. Rastogi; Arun K. Gupta; Srichand Prajapati

2011-01-01

61

Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity by Collinear Mixing Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter ? is correlated to fatigue damage in metallic materials. Various methods have been developed to measure ?. One of the most often used methods is the harmonic generation technique, in which ? is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the second order harmonic waves. An inherent weakness of this method is the difficulty in distinguishing material nonlinearity from the nonlinearity of the measurement system. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using collinear mixing waves to measure ?. The wave mixing method is based on the interaction between two incident waves in a nonlinear medium. Under certain conditions, such interactions generate a third wave of different frequency. This generated third wave is also called resonant wave, because its amplitude is unbounded if the medium has no attenuation. Such resonant waves are less sensitive to the nonlinearity of the measurement system, and have the potential to identify the source location of the nonlinearity. In this work, we used a longitudinal wave and a shear wave as the incident waves. The resonant shear wave is measured experimentally on samples made of aluminum and steel, respectively. Numerical simulations of the tests were also performed using a finite difference method.

Liu, M.; Tang, G.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.

2011-06-01

62

Water saturation effects on elastic wave attenuation in porous rocks with aligned fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic wave attenuation anisotropy in porous rocks with aligned fractures is of interest to seismic remote sensing of the Earth's structure and to hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in particular. We investigated the effect of partial water saturation on attenuation in fractured rocks in the laboratory by conducting ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements on synthetic, silica-cemented, sandstones with aligned penny-shaped voids (fracture density of 0.0298 ± 0.0077), chosen to simulate the effect of natural fractures in the Earth according to theoretical models. Our results show, for the first time, contrasting variations in the attenuation (Q-1) of P and S waves with water saturation in samples with and without fractures. The observed Qs/Qp ratios are indicative of saturation state and the presence or absence of fractures, offering an important new possibility for remote fluid detection and characterization.

Amalokwu, Kelvin; Best, Angus I.; Sothcott, Jeremy; Chapman, Mark; Minshull, Tim; Li, Xiang-Yang

2014-05-01

63

On wave radar measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

2014-09-01

64

Attenuation of whistler waves through conversion to lower hybrid waves in the low-altitude ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLF waves excited by powerful ground-based transmitters propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and leak through the ionosphere to the magnetosphere, where they are often recorded by satellites. Simulations of the propagation of whistler waves using coupled transionospheric VLF propagation and three-dimensional ray-tracing models have shown systematic overestimates of the VLF wavefield strength near 20 kHz in the magnetosphere by about 20 dB in the night and 10 dB during the day. The paper presents numerical simulations of the conversion between whistler and lower hybrid waves interactions in the presence of short-scale field-aligned density irregularities (striations) in Earth's lower ionosphere. The simulations, which incorporate a realistic ionospheric density profile, show that the mode conversion of whistler waves to lower hybrid waves leads to significant attenuation of whistler waves at altitudes between 90 and 150 km. The striation width plays an important role in the conversion efficiency between whistler and lower hybrid wave. Uniformly distributed striations with 8 m transverse size result in 15 dB attenuation in the 90-150 km propagation range, while a spectrum from 2 to 10 m results in 9 dB attenuation. It is argued that the attenuation of whistler waves in the presence of short-scale density striations in Earth's ionosphere can account for most of the observed ˜20 dB loss in VLF intensity. Furthermore, it predicts that VLF/ELF waves with frequencies below 5 kHz will not suffer similar attenuation.

Shao, X.; Eliasson, B.; Sharma, A. S.; Milikh, G.; Papadopoulos, K.

2012-04-01

65

An experimental model of ice floe induced attenuation of ocean waves  

E-print Network

An experimental model of ocean wave attenuation due to interactions with an ice floe is presented. Evolution of mechanically-generated, regular waves is monitored in front and in the lee of a solitary, square floe, made of a synthetic material. Results confirm dependence of attenuation on the period of the incident wave. Results also indicate dependence of attenuation on the depth of wave overwash on the floe.

Toffoli, Alessandro; Bennetts, Luke G; Meylan, Michael H; Cavaliere, Claudio; Babanin, Alexandr

2014-01-01

66

Seismic Wave Attenuation Estimated from Tectonic Tremor and Radiated Energy in Tremor for Various Subduction Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground motion prediction is an essential component of earthquake hazard assessment. Seismic wave attenuation with distance is an important, yet difficult to constrain, factor for such estimation. Using the empirical method of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), seismic wave attenuation with distance, which includes both the effect of anelastic attenuation and scattering, can be estimated from the distance decay of peak ground velocity (PGV) or peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ordinary earthquakes; however, in some regions where plate-boundary earthquakes are infrequent, such as Cascadia and Nankai, there are fewer data with which to constrain the empirical parameters. In both of those subduction zones, tectonic tremor occurs often. In this study, we use tectonic tremor to estimate the seismic wave attenuation with distance, and in turn use the attenuation results to estimate the radiated seismic energy of tremor. Our primary interest is in the variations among subduction zones. Ground motion attenuation and the distribution of released seismic energy from tremors are two important subduction zone characteristics. Therefore, it is very interesting to see whether there are variations of these parameters in different subduction zones, or regionally within the same subduction zone. It is also useful to estimate how much energy is released by tectonic tremor from accumulated energy to help understand subduction dynamics and the difference between ordinary earthquakes and tremor. We use the tectonic tremor catalog of Ide (2012) in Nankai, Cascadia, Mexico and southern Chile. We measured PGV and PGA of individual tremor bursts at each station. We assume a simple GMPE relationship and estimate seismic attenuation and relative site amplification factors from the data. In the Nankai subduction zone, there are almost no earthquakes on the plate interface, but intra-slab earthquakes occur frequently. Both the seismic wave attenuation with distance and the site response obtained from intra-slab earthquakes is almost the same as that determined from tectonic tremor. This means the attenuation parameter should be well estimated from tremor. Furthermore, we find substantial along-strike variation in the estimated attenuation parameter in the Nankai subduction zone, allowing us to infer with-in region differences in behavior.

Yabe, S.; Baltay, A.; Ide, S.; Beroza, G. C.

2013-12-01

67

The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.

Jackson, D. D.

1971-01-01

68

Attenuation of shock waves propagating in polyurethane foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock wave attenuation in polyurethane foams is investigated experimentally and numerically. This study is a part of research\\u000a project regarding shock propagation in polyurethane foams with high-porosities\\u000a $$\\\\phi_{g}$$  =  0.951 ~ 0.977 and low densities of ?c  =  27.6 ~55.8 kg\\/m3. Sixty Millimeter long cylindrical foams with various cell numbers and foam insertion condition were installed in a horizontal\\u000a shock tube

K. Kitagawa; M. Yasuhara; K. Takayama

2006-01-01

69

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS  

E-print Network

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS Anatoli L model for short-period (10-20 s) Rayleigh waves in Central Asia and surrounding regions. This model), two-dimensional (2-D) Rayleigh-wave attenuation models for Central Asia along with associated

Ritzwolle, Mike

70

A seismic attenuation zone below Popocatépetl volcano inferred from coda waves of local earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a single scattering model, weighted averages of the quality factor were estimated at 6 Hz for coda wave windows 25s after S-wave arrival at depths ranging from 2 to 10 km and magnitudes between 2 and 3. Considering Q c -1 as intrinsic attenuation, we find a zone of seismic wave attenuation between 6 and 8

D. A. Novelo-Casanova; A. Martínez-Bringas

2005-01-01

71

Attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves in northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied attenuation of S and coda waves, their frequency and lapse time dependencies in northeast India in the frequency range of 1-24 Hz. We adopted theories of both single and multiple scattering to bandpass-filtered seismograms to fit coda envelopes to estimate Q for coda waves (QC) and Q for S-waves (QS) at five central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz. The selected data set consists of 182 seismograms recorded at ten seismic stations within epicentral distance of 22-300 km in the local magnitude range of 2.5-5.2. We found that with the increase in lapse time window from 40 to 60 s, Q0 (QC at 1 Hz) increases from 213 to 278, while the frequency dependent coefficient n decreases from 0.89 to 0.79. Both QC and QS increase with frequency. The average value of QS obtained by using coda normalization method for NE India has the power law form of (96.8 +/- 21.5)f(1.03+/-0.04) in 1-24 Hz. We adopted energy flux model (EFM) and diffusion model for the multiple scattered wave energy in three-dimensions. The results show that the contribution of multiple scattering dominates for longer lapse time close to or larger than mean free time of about 60 s. The estimates of QC are overestimated at longer lapse time by neglecting the effects of multiple scattering. Some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical predictions and the observations, the difference could be due to the approximation of the uniform medium especially at large hypocentral distances. Increase in QC with lapse time can be explained as the result of the depth dependent attenuation properties and multiple scattering effect.

Padhy, Simanchal; Subhadra, N.

2010-04-01

72

Elimination of bandwidth effect in attenuation measurement with picosecond ultrasonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the broadening effect of probing pulse light on the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation measured with picosecond ultrasonics. We observe experimentally that the attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation is sensitive to the bandwidth, and the apparent attenuation coefficient increases as the bandwidth increases, being far from the intrinsic attenuation coefficient. Theoretical calculation is performed to reconstruct the observed oscillations, and it is confirmed that there are several factors affecting the apparent attenuation in addition to the bandwidth. We finally propose equations that deduce the contribution of the broadening to the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation.

Maehara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko

2014-08-01

73

Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.

1988-05-10

74

Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves ( Q c) and body waves ( Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 ± 49, 63 ± 6, and 93 ± 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 ± 124, 945 ± 84 and 1,520 ± 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships ( Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 ± 10) f (0.96±0.01), Q p = (50 ± 5) f (1.01±0.04), and Q s = (75 ± 6) f (1.03±0.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.

Mahood, M.

2014-09-01

75

Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves (Q c) and body waves (Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 ± 49, 63 ± 6, and 93 ± 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 ± 124, 945 ± 84 and 1,520 ± 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships (Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 ± 10)f (0.96±0.01), Q p = (50 ± 5)f (1.01±0.04), and Q s = (75 ± 6)f (1.03±0.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.

Mahood, M.

2014-03-01

76

Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the New Madrid seismic zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/ or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.

Hamilton, R.M.; Mooney, W.D.

1990-01-01

77

Shock wave measurements  

SciTech Connect

Much of our knowledge of the properties of matter at high pressures, from the static ruby pressure scale to shock compression at Gbar pressures, rests ultimately on the use of shock waves. Simple conservation relations define the initial and final states, leading to absolute measurements. I will describe some methods for measuring the equation of state of materials under shock loading for a variety of methods of shock production, and also describe the basis for other optical methods used widely in shock physics.

Holmes, N.C.

1995-09-12

78

Wave Velocity Attenuation and Sediment Retention among Different Vegetation Types in a Pacific Northwest Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedbacks between vegetation, wave climate, and sedimentation create stable ecosystem states within estuaries that provide ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, erosion control, and pollution filtration. Flume and field studies conducted with cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and sea grasses (Zostera spp., Halodule spp.) have demonstrated that the presence of vegetation reduces wave energy and increases sediment retention. Since the spatial distribution of plant species and the presence of unique plant species differ between estuaries, there is a need to understand how individual plant species, or groups of species with similar morphology, influence wave characteristics and sedimentation. Within Tillamook Bay, Oregon, three species of emergent vascular vegetation species (Carex lyngbyei, Eleocharis sp., Schoenoplectus pungens) and one species of submergent vascular vegetation species (Zostera marina) are present in the high wave energy portion of the estuary at the border of open water and the start of vegetation. These species represent three distinct growth forms (emergent reeds, emergent grasses, submergent grasses) and occur at varying densities relative to each other, as well as within the estuary. Using paired acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), we quantify the relative attenuation of wave velocity between vegetation types and densities within the estuary and compare these results with published attenuation rates from flume and field studies in different environments. The effect of decreased wave velocity on sediment retention is measured using permanent sediment markers within and outside of vegetation stands and paired with ADV data. Sediment retention is predicted to vary seasonally with seasonal vegetation composition changes and remain constant in unvegetated areas. From this experiment we expect to identify like groups of plant species whose attenuation characteristics are the same, allowing for models of wave-vegetation-sediment interaction to be created with multiple vegetation types.

Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.; Blackmar, P.

2012-12-01

79

The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.

Reethof, G.

1976-01-01

80

Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.

Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.

2014-04-01

81

Seismic?wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground?motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ?3–8 are used to develop ground?motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground?motion prediction (i.e., ?2–8??Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore?fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

2014-01-01

82

Reflection, radiation and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled finite cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding wave propagation in fractured fluid-rock systems is important for estimating, for example, fluid properties or fracture densities from geophysical measurements such as ground motion. In this study, the reflection, radiation and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled cracks is studied numerically. Stoneley guided waves have been used, for example, to explain long-period volcanic tremor signals or to propose potential methods for estimating the fluid properties in fractured rocks. However, direct numerical simulations of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled fractured rocks are rare. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) is used to model two-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic rock with an elliptically shaped finite crack (aspect ratio of length to thickness is 333.3) filled either with a viscous or inviscid fluid. The surrounding rock is fully elastic with non-dispersive P- and S-waves able to propagate without attenuation. The fluid filling the crack is elastic in its bulk deformation behavior but viscous in its shear deformation behavior. Therefore, only P-waves are able to propagate in the crack, which are dispersive and attenuated. The crack geometry, especially the crack tips, is resolved in detail by the applied unstructured finite element mesh using 7-node triangles. The presence of a fluid filled crack in the elastic rock gives rise to a so called Stoneley guided wave that is bound to and propagates along the crack walls with a much smaller velocity than all other waves in the system. Its amplitude decreases exponentially away from the crack and is therefore not detectable anymore at a certain distance. At the tip of the crack the Stoneley guided wave is reflected. The interference of incoming and reflected Stoneley guided waves leads to nodes (zero amplitude) and anti-nodes (maximum amplitude). One of the nodes is exactly at the crack tip. Therefore, the reflection is similar to a one-dimensional reflection of a wave propagating in a medium with lower impedance at the interface to a medium with higher impedance. At anti-nodes the amplitude is increased. However, the exponential decay away from the crack is stronger compared to an undisturbed Stoneley guided wave propagating along an infinite crack. Therefore, the reflection by itself does not enhance the detectability of Stoneley guided waves away from the crack. However, the reflection coefficient at the crack tip for cracks filled with common natural fluids (water, oil, hydrocarbon gas, magma) is around 0.8. In other words, a part of the Stoneley guided wave energy is transferred at the crack tip into the surrounding elastic rock in the form of P- and S-waves. The decay of these P- and S-waves away from the crack tip due to geometrical spreading is smaller than that of the Stoneley guided wave and they can eventually be detected. The relatively high reflection coefficient of 0.8 at the crack tip enables the Stoneley guided wave to travel several times back and forth along a finite crack before it lost too much of its initial energy. This leads to a periodic radiation of P- and S-waves at the crack tip each time the Stoneley guided wave is reflected. This periodic radiation can have very low frequencies in relatively small cracks due to the small velocity of Stoneley guided waves. Such low frequency signals may explain low frequency volcanic tremor, long-period volcanic earthquakes or low frequency tremor related to fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Frehner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

2009-04-01

83

Excitation and Attenuation of Hypersonic Waves in Quartz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the generation and detection of hypersonic waves, which has only been briefly described earlier, together with some absorption measurements in quartz, is discussed in some detail. Further measurements of the hypersonic absorption in quartz at different crystal orientations and after neutron irradiation are reported. The results are in qualitative agreement with a phonon-phonon relaxation process.

H. E. Bömmel; K. Dransfeld

1960-01-01

84

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING  

E-print Network

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING PART that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing (Bergant and Tijsseling 2001). New sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water hammer theory include viscoelastic behaviour

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

85

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1  

E-print Network

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape and Timing by Anton Bergant1 and Arris.s.tijsseling@TUE.nl This paper investigates parameters that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by the classical water hammer theory include unsteady

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

86

WAVELET BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION IN POLYMERS USING LAMB WAVE MODES  

E-print Network

of acrylic (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate), thermoplastic, using guided Lamb wave. Lamb waves are generated the attenuative properties of the thermoplastic from selective propagating Lamb wave modes. KEYWORDS : Lamb wave, Gabor Transform, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), thermoplastic, wavelet transform. 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Boyer, Edmond

87

Measurement by reflection analysis of optical attenuation through windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free space optical communication systems deployed in office buildings are subject to transmission loss through windows. Window attenuation varies between 0.4 and more than 15 dB. Window attenuation values are required to calculate communications link power budget and availability. But direct measurement of window attenuation in high-rise buildings is difficult since it requires access to both sides of the window.

Eric C. Eisenberg; Jeff C. Adams; Carrie S. Cornish

2001-01-01

88

Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic and attenuative solid materials.  

PubMed

The axisymmetric elastodynamic finite element code developed is capable of predicting quantitatively accurate displacement fields for elastic wave propagation in isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The numerical algorithm incorporates viscous damping by adding a time-dependent tensor to Hooke's law. Amplitude comparisons are made between the geometric attenuation in the far field and the corresponding finite element predictions to investigate the quality and validity of the code. Through-transmission experimental measurements made with a 1 MHz L-wave transducer attached to an aluminum sample support the code predictions. The algorithm successfully models geometric beam spreading dispersion and energy absorption due to viscous damping. This numerical model is a viable tool for the study of elastic wave propagation in nondestructive testing applications. PMID:18267605

You, Z; Lusk, M; Ludwig, R; Lord, W

1991-01-01

89

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 52865295, doi:10.1002/jgra.50469, 2013 Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves  

E-print Network

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related

Santolik, Ondrej

90

Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

Houghton, W. M.

1983-01-01

91

Measurement of Snowfall by Optical Attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmissometer has been used to provide a continuous record with good time resolution of falling snow. The pulsed light, of wavelength 0.45, traversed a path 71 m long about 20 m above ground level A total snow amount of 160 millimeters of water (mmw) from 20 storms through the 1966-67 winter season was recorded and analyzed, Attenuation by snow

Charles Warner; K. L. S. Gunn

1969-01-01

92

The Self Attenuation Correction for Holdup Measurements, a Historical Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Self attenuation has historically caused both conceptual as well as measurement problems. The purpose of this paper is to eliminate some of the historical confusion by reviewing the mathematical basis and by comparing several methods of correcting for self attenuation focusing on transmission as a central concept.

Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.

2006-07-11

93

Compressional wave velocity and attenuation at ultrasonic and sonic frequencies in near-surface sedimentary rocks  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory ultrasonic measurements of compressional wave velocity and attenuation were made as a function of effective pressure on samples of limestone, sandstone and siltstone taken from a shallow borehole test site. The results indicate that the sandstones are pervaded by grain contact microcracks which dramatically affect their compressional wave attenuations. Clean sandstone shows a compressional wave quality factor (Q{sub p}) of 24 {+-} 2 at 5 MPa effective pressure (close to the estimated in situ burial pressure) and a Q{sub p} of 83 {+-} 29 at 60 MPa. The Q{sub p} of limestones and siltstones at the site show negligible and small increases with pressure in the laboratory, respectively. The strong pressure dependence of Q{sub p} in clean sandstone was used to infer the presence of in situ microcracks. Sediment velocities measured in the laboratory at about 1 MHz were compared with those from the full waveform sonic log at about 10 kHz implies that they must also be highly attenuating over a significant part of the frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz, to account for the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Assuming the laboratory Q{sub p} values measured at 5 MPa remain constant down to 10 kHz predicts the observed dispersion quite well. Furthermore, the sonic log velocities of sandstones, limestones and siltstones (after normalizing each lithology for porosity and clay content) were found to reflect the same pressure (depth) trends observed in the laboratory. The results provide evidence for the existence of in situ microcracks in near-surface sediments.

Best, A.I. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology; Sams, M.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

1997-03-01

94

Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.

Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr

2012-07-01

95

A three-dimensional model of wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model of wave scattering by a large array of floating thin elastic plates is used to predict the rate of ocean wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone in terms of the properties of the ice cover and the incoming wavefield. This is regarded as a small step toward assimilating interactions of ocean waves with areas of sea

L. G. Bennetts; M. A. Peter; V. A. Squire; M. H. Meylan

2010-01-01

96

Estimation of seismic wave attenuation using sonic logging data -Comparison of estimating methods-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane hydrates (MHs) that form in marine sediments at water depths greater than a few hundred meters are naturally occurring ice-like crystalline solids composed of methane molecules surrounded by water molecules. Several authors have estimated the amount of MH from seismic velocity data, as MH within sediment pore space stiffens the sediment and results in an increase in seismic velocity. Although seismic velocity is potentially a useful indicator of MH concentration, seismic velocity is also strongly controlled by the microscale MH distribution in pore spaces. While the presence of MH increases the seismic velocity of the host sediment, recent work on sonic logging data shows that sonic waveforms are also significantly attenuated by the presence of MH. The combined use of velocity and attenuation data provides greater insight into the MH-bearing sediments. Seismic attenuation can be conveniently separated into intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Scattering attenuation is the diminution in the amplitude of a seismic wave caused by the scattering of energy from a propagating pulse by heterogeneities in the medium of propagation. In scattering attenuation, energy is only redistributed to other parts of the wavefield. Scattering attenuation needs to be separated from total attenuation for precise estimation of attenuation value. Although there are many methods exist for estimating attenuation, it is not easy to determine which method is the best. The purpose of this study is to compare two methods for estimating attenuation. The method to be applied for estimating attenuation in this study was the median frequency shift method and spectral ratio method. Firstly, we estimated attenuation at Nankai Trough area. Secondly, we calculated scattering attenuation results by an inversion method, assuming the total attenuation factors to be linear combinations of the scattering and intrinsic attenuation factors. After introducing some assumptions to these relationships, we can estimate the scattering attenuation and isolate the intrinsic attenuation. Our results suggested that most part of total attenuation is scattering attenuation. Additionally, in order to validate our results we calculated scattering attenuation using synthetic data generated by the frequency-wavenumber integration method. To calculate synthetic data, we use a complex velocity with various enhancements such as causal attenuation, complex frequencies, and Filon integration. We estimated scattering attenuation from these synthetic data using two methods (inversion method and frequency-wavenumber integration method). Then we compared two methods (median frequency shift method and spectral ratio method) using these estimated scattering attenuation.

Suzuki, H.; Matsushima, J.

2010-12-01

97

Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

Salim, M. S.; Abd Malek, M. F.; Sabri, Naseer; Omar, M. Iqbal bin; Mohamed, Latifah; Juni, K. M.

2013-04-01

98

Time-reverse modelling of acoustic wave propagation in attenuating media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-reverse modelling (TRM) of acoustic wave propagation has been widely implemented in seismic migration and time-reversal source imaging. The basic assumption of this modelling is that the wave equation is time-invariant in non-attenuating media. In the Earth, attenuation often invalidates this assumption of time-invariance. To overcome this problem, I propose a TRM approach that compensates for attenuation and dispersion effects during the wave propagation in attenuating media. This approach is based on a viscoacoustic wave equation which explicitly separates attenuation and dispersion following a constant-Q model. Compensating for attenuation and dispersion during TRM is achieved by reversing the sign of the attenuation operator coefficient while leaving the counterpart dispersion parameter unchanged in this viscoacoustic wave equation. A low-pass filter is included to avoid amplifying high-frequency noise during TRM. I demonstrate the effects of the filter on the attenuation and the phase velocity by comparing with theoretical solutions in a 1-D Pierre shale homogeneous medium. Three synthetic examples are used to demonstrate the feasibility of attenuation compensation during TRM. The first example uses a 1-D homogeneous model to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the methodology. The second example shows the applicability of source location using a 2-D layering model. The last example uses a 2-D cross-well synthetic experiment to show that the methodology can also be implemented in conjunction with reverse-time migration to image subsurface reflectors. When attenuation compensation is included, I find improved estimation of the source location, the excitation timing of the point source, the magnitude of the focused source wavelet and the reflectivity image of reflectors, particularly for deep structures underneath strongly attenuating zones.

Zhu, Tieyuan

2014-04-01

99

Investigation of the Attenuation of Plane Shock Waves Moving over very Rough Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of the attenuation of plane shock waves moving over rough walls have been made in a shock tube. Measurements of the boundary-layer characteristics, including thickness and velocity distribution behind the shock, have also been made with the aid of new cal techniques which provide direct information on the local boundary-layer conditions at the rough walls. Measurements of shock speed and shock pressure ratio are presented for both smooth-wall and rough-wall flow over lengths of machined-smooth and rough strips which lined all four walls of the shock tube. A simplified theory based on Von Karman's expression for skin-friction coefficient for flow over rough walls, along with a wave-model concept and extensions to include time effects, is presented. In this theory, the shock-tube flow is assumed to be one-dimensional at all times and the wave-model concept is used to relate the local layer growth to decreases in shock strength. This concept assumes that local boundary-layer growths act as local mass-flow sinks, which give rise to expansion waves which, in turn, overtake the shock and lower its mass flow accordingly.

Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.; Levine, Philip

1953-01-01

100

Spatial variation of Lg-wave attenuation in the Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a global context, the Iberian Peninsula is a region where low to moderate (Mw < 5.5) earthquakes occur, most of them at shallow depths (h < 40 km). Seismicity concentrates mainly around the Pyrenean Range, the northwestern part of the peninsula, and the southern deformation zone that includes the Betics, the Alborán Sea and the Gulf of Cádiz. In recent years, considerable improvements in seismic data quality and geographic coverage have been made by the deployment of new permanent and portable broadband seismic stations in the Iberian Peninsula. The dense accumulation of seismic data has allowed us to investigate lateral variation of crustal seismic attenuation to develop the first regional 2D Lg-wave attenuation model for the entire Iberian Peninsula and its frequency dependence. Seismic data used consist of 71 events with magnitudes 3 ? mbLg ? 5.4 focal depths less than 30 km and epicentral distances from 100 to 1000 km which were recorded by 343 seismic stations between January 2008 and October 2013. To avoid confusion with fundamental-mode Love-wave energy on the transverse components, we only analyzed vertical component recordings. Among all the methods proposed to measure Lg attenuation, we considered the reliable Two-Station Method that allows removing the common source term by taking the ratio of Lg amplitudes recorded at two different stations along the same great-circle path from the same event. It requires, however, strict source-station configuration and dense event and station coverage. The spectral ratios collected over high-quality interstation paths were used to determine 1 Hz Lg Q (Q0) and its frequency dependence ?. Then, the lateral variations of the attenuation parameters were mapped using inversion. Lg-wave propagation was found to be inefficient or blocked for most of the paths crossing the Mediterranean Sea, the western Alborán Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Our results reflect large variations in Q0 values across the Iberian Peninsula which is in accordance with the different geotectonic characteristics present in the region. Low Lg Q0 values (high attenuation) were found in the Pyrenean Range and in the southern area whereas the most stable western part of Iberia showed high Lg Q0. The obtained Lg ? spatial variation map show that intermediate ? values characterize most of the analyzed region.

Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; José Jurado, María

2014-05-01

101

Estimation of compressional seismic wave attenuation of carbonate rocks in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface geology of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is primarily composed of carbonate rocks. Such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Very few studies have attempted to estimate attenuation in carbonate rocks. In Abu Dhabi no attenuation profile has been published. This study provides the first seismic wave attenuation profiles in Abu Dhabi using dense array of VSP data. We estimated three attenuation profiles: the apparent, the scattering, and the intrinsic attenuations. The apparent attenuation profile was computed using amplitude decay and spectral-ratio methods. The scattering attenuation profile was estimated using a generalized reflection-transmission matrix forward model. It is usually estimated from the sonic log, but to be more consistent with the apparent attenuation, we succeeded in this paper to estimate it from the VSP data. We subtracted the scattering attenuation from the apparent attenuation to deduce the intrinsic attenuation. The results of the study indicate that the scattering attenuation is significant compared to the published studies that are mainly based on clastic rocks. The high scattering attenuation can reach up to 0.02. It can be explained by the strong heterogeneity of the carbonate rocks. This study demonstrates that the Simsima and Rus Formations have considerable scattering and intrinsic attenuations. These formations are considered aquifers in Abu Dhabi; we therefore interpreted this high intrinsic attenuation zones to be due to the heterogeneity and to the fluids contained in these formations. The Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation is a more homogenous formation with limited aquifer potential. Hence, scattering and intrinsic attenuations of the Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation are low.

Bouchaala, Fateh; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Farid, Asam

2014-07-01

102

The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

103

Frequency-dependent effects on global S-wave traveltimes: wavefront-healing, scattering and attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a globally distributed data set of ~400000 frequency-dependent SH-wave traveltimes. An automated technique is used to measure teleseismic S, ScS and SS traveltimes at several periods ranging from 10 to 51 s. The targeted seismic phases are first extracted from the observed and synthetic seismograms using an automated time window algorithm. Traveltimes are then measured at several periods, by cross-correlation between the selected observed and synthetic filtered waveforms. Frequency-dependent effects due to crustal reverberations beneath each receiver are handled by incorporating crustal phases into WKBJ synthetic waveforms. After correction for physical dispersion due to intrinsic anelastic processes, we observe a residual traveltime dispersion on the order of 1-2 s in the period range of analysis. This dispersion occurs differently for S, ScS and SS, which is presumably related to their differing paths through the Earth. We find that: (1) Wavefront-healing phenomenon is observed for S and to a lesser extent SS waves having passed through very low velocity anomalies. (2) A preferred sampling of high velocity scatterers located at the CMB may explain our observation that ScS waves travel faster at low-frequency than at high-frequency. (3) A frequency-dependent attenuation q(?) ~ q0 × ?-?, with ? ~ 0.2, is compatible with the globally averaged dispersion observed for S waves.

Zaroli, Christophe; Debayle, Eric; Sambridge, Malcolm

2010-08-01

104

Reflective attenuator for high-energy laser measurements  

SciTech Connect

A high-energy laser attenuator in the range of 250 mJ (20 ns pulse width, 10 Hz repetition rate, 1064 nm wavelength) is described. The optical elements that constitute the attenuator are mirrors with relatively low reflectance, oriented at a 45 deg. angle of incidence. By combining three pairs of mirrors, the incoming radiation is collinear and has the same polarization orientation as the exit. We present damage testing and polarization-dependent reflectance measurements for 1064 nm laser light at 45 deg. angle of incidence for molybdenum, silicon carbide, and copper mirrors. A six element, 74 times (18 dB) attenuator is presented as an example.

Lehman, John H.; Livigni, David; Li Xiaoyu; Cromer, Christopher L.; Dowell, Marla L

2008-06-20

105

Wave attenuation and mode dispersion in a waveguide coated with lossy dielectric material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modal attenuation constants in a cylindrical waveguide coated with a lossy dielectric material are studied as functions of frequency, dielectric constant, and thickness of the dielectric layer. A dielectric material best suited for a large attenuation is suggested. Using Kirchhoff's approximation, the field attenuation in a coated waveguide which is illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is also studied. For a circular guide which has a diameter of two wavelengths and is coated with a thin lossy dielectric layer (omega sub r = 9.1 - j2.3, thickness = 3% of the radius), a 3 dB attenuation is achieved within 16 diameters.

Lee, C. S.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.

1984-01-01

106

Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

1992-01-01

107

Reconciling mantle attenuation-temperature relationships from seismology, petrology, and laboratory measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

attenuation measurements provide a powerful tool for sampling mantle properties. Laboratory experiments provide calibrations at seismic frequencies and mantle temperatures for dry melt-free rocks, but require ˜102-103 extrapolations in grain size to mantle conditions; also, the effects of water and melt are not well understood. At the same time, body wave attenuation measured from dense broadband arrays provides reliable estimates of shear wave attenuation (QS-1), affording an opportunity for calibration. We reanalyze seismic data sets that sample arc and back-arc mantle in Central America, the Marianas, and the Lau Basin, confirming very high attenuation (QS ˜ 25-80) at 1 Hz and depths of 50-100 km. At each of these sites, independent petrological studies constrain the temperature and water content where basaltic magmas last equilibrated with the mantle, 1300-1450°C. The QS measurements correlate inversely with the petrologically inferred temperatures, as expected. However, dry attenuation models predict QS too high by a factor of 1.5-5. Modifying models to include effects of H2O and rheology-dependent grain size shows that the effects of water-enhanced dissipation and water-enhanced grain growth nearly cancel, so H2O effects are modest. Therefore, high H2O in the arc source region cannot explain the low QS, nor in the back arc where lavas show modest water content. Most likely, the high attenuation reflects the presence of melt, and some models of melt effects come close to reproducing observations. Overall, body wave QS can be reconciled with petrologic and laboratory inferences of mantle conditions if melt has a strong influence beneath arcs and back arcs.

Abers, G. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Hirth, G.; Wiens, D. A.; Plank, T.; Holtzman, B. K.; McCarthy, C.; Gazel, E.

2014-09-01

108

Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic regionn, California ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use seismograms of local earthquakes to image relative shear wave attenuation structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of E California. Seismograms of 16 small earthquakes show SV amplitudes which are greatly diminished at some azimuths and takeoff angles, indicating strong lateral variations in S wave attenuation in the area. 3-D images of the relative S wave attenuation structure are obtained from forward modeling and a back projection inversion of the amplitude data. The results indicate regions within a 20 by 30 by 10 km volume of the shallow crust (one shallower than 5 km) that severely attenuate SV waves passing through them. These anomalies lie beneath the Indian Wells Valley, 30 km S of the Coso volcanic field, and are coincident with the epicentral locations of recent earthquake swarms. No anomalous attenuation is seen beneath the Coso volcanic field above about 5 km depth. Geologic relations and the coincidence of anomalously slow P wave velocities suggest that the attenuation anomalies may be related to magmatism along the E Sierra front.-from Authors

Sanders, C.; Ho-Liu, P.; Rinn, D.; Hiroo, Kanamori

1988-01-01

109

Determination of the profile of the attenuation factor in an aerosol using two-wave sounding  

SciTech Connect

One of the more important problems in laser sounding of the atmosphere is the determination of the spatial distribution of the aerosol which is created by local sources of either artificial or natural origin. In such a case, the aerosol medium generally has the form of a cloud or a stream which is elongated along the direction of the wind. In this study, the authors consider the possibility of determining the profile of the aerosol attenuation factor using two-wave laser sounding without the use of a priori information on the unknown profile and without applying data on independent measurements. The authors assume that there is knowledge of the lidar ratios and of the ratios of the attenuation factors at the sounding wavelengths. Using the above assumptions on the aerosol medium, the authors derive a geometric expression of the experiment using two wavelengths for the equations for laser location. The results of the calculations show that the solution guarantees small errors of electric field intensity in comparison with the one-wave solutions.

Korshunov, V.A.

1986-12-01

110

Application of sound-absorbent plastic to weak-shock-wave attenuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device for attenuating weak shock waves propagating in a duct has been developed utilizing sound-absorbent plastic which is usually used for attenuating sound waves. The device has a tube made of the sound-absorbent plastic installed coaxially to a surrounding metal tube with a clearance between them. The clearance acts as an air layer to enhance the performance of the shock wave attenuation. When a weak shock wave propagates through this device, the pressure gradient of the shock wave is gradually smeared and hence its overpressure is decreased. The performance of the device was examined using a 1/250-scaled train tunnel simulator which simulated the discharge of weak shock waves created by high-speed entry of trains to tunnels. The overpressure of the shock waves ranged up to 5 kPa. The shock wave overpressure was decreased by 90% with the present attenuator attached. This device can be applied to various industrial noise suppressions which are associated with unsteady compressible flows.

Ootsuta, Katsuhisa; Matsuoka, Kei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

1998-04-01

111

Origin of coda waves: Source, attenuation, and scattering effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coda waves from small local earthquakes are interpreted as backscattering waves from numerous heterogeneities distributed uniformly in the earth's crust. Two extreme models of the wave medium that account for the observations on the coda are proposed. In the single backscattering model the scattering is considered to be a weak process, and the loss of seismic energy by scattering is

Keiiti Aki; Bernard Chouet

1975-01-01

112

The large-scale influence of the Great Barrier Reef matrix on wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore reef systems consist of individual reefs, with spaces in between, which together constitute the reef matrix. This is the first comprehensive, large-scale study, of the influence of an offshore reef system on wave climate and wave transmission. The focus was on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, utilizing a 16-yr record of wave height from seven satellite altimeters. Within the GBR matrix, the wave climate is not strongly dependent on reef matrix submergence. This suggests that after initial wave breaking at the seaward edge of the reef matrix, wave energy that penetrates the matrix has little depth modulation. There is no clear evidence to suggest that as reef matrix porosity (ratio of spaces between individual reefs to reef area) decreases, wave attenuation increases. This is because individual reefs cast a wave shadow much larger than the reef itself; thus, a matrix of isolated reefs is remarkably effective at attenuating wave energy. This weak dependence of transmitted wave energy on depth of reef submergence, and reef matrix porosity, is also evident in the lee of the GBR matrix. Here, wave conditions appear to be dependent largely on local wind speed, rather than wave conditions either seaward, or within the reef matrix. This is because the GBR matrix is a very effective wave absorber, irrespective of water depth and reef matrix porosity.

Gallop, Shari L.; Young, Ian R.; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Durrant, Tom H.; Haigh, Ivan D.

2014-12-01

113

Measurement and Modeling of Ultrasonic Attenuation in Aluminum Rolled Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When fabricating a new set of calibration blocks for Aluminum 7075 plate inspections, it is advantageous that the new blocks have similar ultrasonic attenuation to existing block sets. This allows the new set to qualify under the same ASTM procedures used for older sets. In the course of surveying candidate materials for possible use as calibration blocks, some interesting attenuation results were observed. When a candidate block was cut from a thick section of rolled plate, measured back-wall attenuation values in the rolling or transverse direction were quite sensitive to position in the plate-normal direction. Such variations are presumably tied to microstructural variations within the plate, as revealed by metallography. Some measured attenuation values were found to be in good agreement with predictions of the Stanke-Kino model, while others were not. The measurements and modeling work are reviewed, and additional experiments conducted to clarify certain issues are discussed. Those additional experiments suggest that beam distortion effects, due to microstructure variations within the beam cross-section, are primarily responsible for differences between measured and predicted attenuation values.

Li, Anxiang; Kim, Hak-Joon; Margetan, Frank; Thompson, R. B.

2006-03-01

114

Measurement and Modeling of Ultrasonic Attenuation in Aluminum Rolled Plate  

SciTech Connect

When fabricating a new set of calibration blocks for Aluminum 7075 plate inspections, it is advantageous that the new blocks have similar ultrasonic attenuation to existing block sets. This allows the new set to qualify under the same ASTM procedures used for older sets. In the course of surveying candidate materials for possible use as calibration blocks, some interesting attenuation results were observed. When a candidate block was cut from a thick section of rolled plate, measured back-wall attenuation values in the rolling or transverse direction were quite sensitive to position in the plate-normal direction. Such variations are presumably tied to microstructural variations within the plate, as revealed by metallography. Some measured attenuation values were found to be in good agreement with predictions of the Stanke-Kino model, while others were not. The measurements and modeling work are reviewed, and additional experiments conducted to clarify certain issues are discussed. Those additional experiments suggest that beam distortion effects, due to microstructure variations within the beam cross-section, are primarily responsible for differences between measured and predicted attenuation values.

Li, Anxiang; Kim, Hak-Joon; Margetan, Frank; Thompson, R. B. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2006-03-06

115

Measurements and Linear Wave Theory Based Simulations of Vegetated Wave Hydrodynamics for Practical Applications  

E-print Network

wave attenuation is dependent on relative vegetation height, stem density, and stem spacing standard deviation. As stems occupy more of the water column, an increase in attenuation occurred given that the highest wave particle velocities are being...

Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

2011-10-21

116

Fast compressional wave attenuation and dispersion due to conversion scattering into slow shear waves in randomly heterogeneous porous media.  

PubMed

Within the viscosity-extended Biot framework of wave propagation in porous media, the existence of a slow shear wave mode with non-vanishing velocity is predicted. It is a highly diffusive shear mode wherein the two constituent phases essentially undergo out-of-phase shear motions (slow shear wave). In order to elucidate the interaction of this wave mode with propagating wave fields in an inhomogeneous medium the process of conversion scattering from fast compressional waves into slow shear waves is analyzed using the method of statistical smoothing in randomly heterogeneous poroelastic media. The result is a complex wave number of a coherent plane compressional wave propagating in a dynamic-equivalent homogeneous medium. Analysis of the results shows that the conversion scattering process draws energy from the propagating wave and therefore leads to attenuation and phase velocity dispersion. Attenuation and dispersion characteristics are typical for a relaxation process, in this case shear stress relaxation. The mechanism of conversion scattering into the slow shear wave is associated with the development of viscous boundary layers in the transition from the viscosity-dominated to inertial regime in a macroscopically homogeneous poroelastic solid. PMID:21568383

Müller, Tobias M; Sahay, Pratap N

2011-05-01

117

Attenuation zones of periodic pile barriers and its application in vibration reduction for plane waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic theory of solid-state physics is introduced to study the reduction characteristics of periodic pile barriers. The attenuation zones of a two-dimensional infinite periodic pile barrier subjected to plane waves are analyzed by plane wave expansion method. Influences of soil parameters and pile configurations on the first no-directional attenuation zone are discussed. The screening effectiveness of finite periodic pile barriers is simulated by the finite element method. The present theoretical results are in well agreement with experimental data, which validates the existence of attenuation zones in the periodic structures. The results show that vibrations with frequencies in the attenuation zones can be reduced significantly. The present investigation provides a new concept for designing pile barriers to block mid-frequency vibration.

Huang, Jiankun; Shi, Zhifei

2013-09-01

118

A web-based tutorial for ultrasonic attenuation measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic attenuation-versus-frequency curve can serve as an "ultrasonic signature" which may be correlated with microstructural properties of interest such as grain size in metals or porosity level in composites. Attenuation also plays a role in ultrasonic inspections and is consequently a key input into many inspection simulation models. A web-based self-tutorial on practical attenuation measurements is under development. The focus is on pulse/echo immersion measurements made using a broadband transducer to deduce attenuation within the transducer's useable bandwidth. Two approaches are considered: one using a calibration specimen having a known attenuation curve, and one without. In the first approach a back-wall (BW) echo in the calibration specimen is compared with a BW echo in the test specimen. In the second approach various BW reverberation echoes in the test specimen are compared with one another or with a front-wall echo. The web-based tutorial incorporates three classes of materials. The first includes written documentation and videos describing the measurement setups, the data-acquisition and analysis procedures, and the underlying models use to analyze the raw UT data. Secondly, general purpose "stand-alone" data-analysis software is supplied that is designed to be used with any ultrasonic inspection system that can output A-scan data as a text file. This includes both FORTRAN software and Excel spreadsheet calculators that accept A-scan text data as inputs. Thirdly, we supply demonstration software where the data acquisition and analysis procedures are integrated with a specific class of commercial ultrasonic test instruments, namely those running UTEX Winpect control software. This paper provides an overview of the measurement methods and tutorial materials. We also present early results from round-robin trials in which selected metal and composite specimens are being sent to participating partners for attenuation measurement.

Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Dan; Orman, David; Feygin, Alex; Pavel, Brittney

2014-02-01

119

Laboratory measurements of seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory measurements of seismic attenuation and transient pore fluid pressure are performed on partially saturated Berea sandstone and synthetic borosilicate samples. Various degrees of water (liquid) and nitrogen (gas) saturation are considered. These measurements are carried out at room temperature and under confining pressures varying from ambient conditions up to 25 MPa. The cylindrical samples are 25 cm long and have a diameter of 7.6 cm. In the context of the experimental setup, the solid frames of both the Berea sandstone and the borosilicate samples can be considered homogenous, which in turn allows for isolating and exploring the effects of partial saturation on seismic attenuation. We employ the sub-resonance method, which is based on the application of a time-harmonic vertical stress to the top of the sample and the measurement of the thus resulting strain. For any given frequency, the attenuation is then inferred as the tangent of the phase shift between the applied stress and the observed strain. Using five equally spaced sensors along the central axis of the cylindrical sample, we measure the transient fluid pressure induced by the application of a step-function-type vertical stress to the top of the sample. Both the sensors and the sample are sealed off with the regard to the confining environment. Together with the numerical results from corresponding compressibility tests based on the quasi-static poroelastic equations, these transient fluid pressure measurements are then used to assist the interpretation of the seismic attenuation measurements.

Chapman, Samuel; Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus

2014-05-01

120

Study on energy attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves going through girth welds.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic guided wave is introduced as a new non-destructive long range pipe inspection method. It can be used to inspect pipe which is inaccessible to other conventional NDT methods, and rapid, long distance inspection can be achieved. An investigation of the guided ultrasonic waves traveling along pipe with special geometry characteristics, such as elbow, several girth welds, and some artificial defects is described. In this paper, factors that may cause attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves are discussed and energy attenuation of longitudinal and torsional guided waves is studied on an experimental pipe having seven girth welds. Good agreement has been obtained between the experiments and the predictions. In the end, the detection sensitivity and locating precision of two guided waves, namely longitudinal and torsional, were compared on defects, such as notch, burr and branch. PMID:17070566

Yibo, Li; Liying, Sun; Zhidong, Song; Yuankai, Zhang

2006-12-22

121

Ultrasonic attenuation - Q measurements on 70215,29. [lunar rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have been made on an aluminum alloy, obsidian, and rock samples including lunar sample 70215,29. The measurement technique is based on a combination of the pulse transmission method and the forced resonance method. The technique is designed to explore the problem of defining experimentally, the Q of a medium or sample in which mode conversion may occur. If modes are coupled, the measured attenuation is strongly dependent on individual modes of vibration, and a range of Q-factors may be measured over various resonances or from various portions of a transient signal. On 70215,29, measurements were made over a period of a month while the sample outgassed in hard varuum. During this period, the highest measured Q of this sample increased from a few hundred into the range of 1000-1300.

Warren, N.; Trice, R.; Stephens, J.

1974-01-01

122

Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.  

PubMed

A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones. PMID:24433745

Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

2014-04-01

123

Seismic attenuation above 10 Hz in southern California from coda waves recorded in the Cajon Pass borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the attenuation around Cajon Pass, southern California, for frequencies above 10 Hz, and we find total Q to exhibit only weak frequency dependence, ranging from ˜800 at 10 Hz to ˜1500 at 100 Hz. The intrinsic attenuation is approximately twice the level of the scattering attenuation. Measurements are made using earthquake seismograms recorded at 0-3 km depth using the multiple lapse time window method. The results are not dependent on receiver depth and are consistent with previous estimates of Q made from direct waves recorded at 2.5 km depth. Our Q values are therefore thought to be representative of the seismogenic crust, and the technique used is uncontaminated by the highly attenuating near surface, at least above ˜10 Hz. We also calculate Q from surface data between 1 and 10 Hz and find a clear change in the frequency dependence of both intrinsic and scattering attenuation at ˜10 Hz. Q exhibits strong frequency dependence below 10 Hz ( ?ƒ1.8), consistent with previous studies in active tectonic regions, and only weak frequency dependence at higher frequencies ( ?ƒ0.34). This change in behavior renders it unwise to extrapolate Q measurements outside the frequency range from which they were derived, for example, in earthquake-source studies. Possible factors responsible for the apparent change in frequency dependence of Q are considered. Further work is required, however, to resolve the causes of this change.

Adams, David A.; Abercrombie, Rachel E.

1998-10-01

124

Near-surface seismic attenuation of P-waves in West Texas  

E-print Network

(Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) el S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT Near-surface Seismic Attenuation of P-Waves in West Texas. (August 1992) Said Awdhah AI-Zahrani, B. S, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi... (Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) el S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT Near-surface Seismic Attenuation of P-Waves in West Texas. (August 1992) Said Awdhah AI-Zahrani, B. S, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi...

Al-Zahrani, Said Awdhah

2012-06-07

125

Attenuation of wave propagation in a novel periodic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel periodic mount was presented. A theoretical model was developed to describe the dynamics of wave propagation in the\\u000a novel periodic mount. The model was derived using Hamilton’s energy conservation principle. The characteristics of wave propagation\\u000a in unit cell were analyzed by transfer matrix formulation. Numerical examples were given to illustrate the effectiveness of\\u000a the periodic mount. The experiments

Ling Zheng; Yi-nong Li; A. Baz

2011-01-01

126

Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.

Haney, M. M.; van, Wijk, K.

2008-01-01

127

Attenuation of P, S, and coda waves in Koyna region, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation properties of the crust in the Koyna region of the Indian shield have been investigated using 164 seismograms\\u000a from 37 local earthquakes that occurred in the region. The extended coda normalization method has been used to estimate the\\u000a quality factors for P waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\alpha } } \\\\right)} $$ and S waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\beta } }

Babita Sharma; S. S. Teotia; Dinesh Kumar

2007-01-01

128

Measurements of path loss in MM-wave for indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the indoor environment, millimeter wave channel will be probably limited in the indoor environment due to severe attenuations by furniture, partitions, walls, and floors for non line of sight (NLOS). Therefore, in order to analysis a radio system at millimeter wave bands we need to measure path loss characteristics of a millimeter wave indoor channel, the influence of geometry

Myoung-Won Jung; Jongho Kim; Young-Keun Yoon

2009-01-01

129

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow  

E-print Network

Jan 14, 2004 ... quality factor Q?1 which represents the fraction of wave energy lost to heat in .... by one fluid type (say gas), the outer shell is saturated by another fluid type (say ... more compressible and have a higher intrinsic permeability than the ..... We will find it natural to define phase 2 as being more compliant than ...

2004-01-03

130

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges

You-He Zhou; Qin Shu He; Xiao Jing Zheng

2005-01-01

131

Journal of Sound and Vibration (1996) 196(1), 107127 ATTENUATION OF WAVES IN PLATES AND BARS  

E-print Network

Journal of Sound and Vibration (1996) 196(1), 107­127 ATTENUATION OF WAVES IN PLATES AND BARS USING that shear effects are important in this attenuation mechanism. Numerical simulations indicate situation is often required in order to perform certain critical experiments in elastic wave propagation

Norris, Andrew

132

A study of tensile damage and attenuation effect of perforated concrete defense layer on stress waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil defense shelters are often constructed beneath the ground to provide protection against blast loadings. Concrete is widely used as the material for the defense layer of the shelters. This paper adopts a continuum damage model of brittle media to numerically investigate the dynamic fracture and attenuation effect of perforated concrete defense layer on stress waves from planar charge. The

Zhi-liang Wang; Yong-chi Li; J. G. Wang; R. F. Shen

2007-01-01

133

Excess attenuation of leaky Lamb waves due to viscous fluid loading  

E-print Network

acoustic field from a fluid­solid interface has a wealth of information which, if exploited, revealsExcess attenuation of leaky Lamb waves due to viscous fluid loading Adnan H. Nayfeh and Peter B. Nagy Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati

Nagy, Peter B.

134

Solution of coupled acousticelastic wave propagation problems with anelastic attenuation using automatic hp-adaptivity  

E-print Network

Solution of coupled acoustic­elastic wave propagation problems with anelastic attenuation using Science and Modeling, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH ­ University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland c Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

135

Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

1970-01-01

136

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

137

Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric VS and QS. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic VS and QS with theoretical VST and QST values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic VS and QS in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical VS in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic VS and QS in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling VS and QS anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining VS and QS variations in the continental mantle. ?? 2004 RAS.

Artemieva, I. M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J. -J.; Mooney, W. D.

2004-01-01

138

Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, Q-1s, and seismic velocity, Vs, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global Q-1s and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 s. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between Vs and T and of <0.47 between Qs and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling artefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the Vs and Qs anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, Vs and Qs usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high Vs and Qs and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero Qs anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 °C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 °C. East-west profiles of Vs, Qs and T where continental data coverage is best (50°N latitude for North America and 60°N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric Vs and Qs. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic Vs and Qs with theoretical VTs and QTs values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic Vs and Qs in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical Vs in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic Vs and Qs in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling Vs and Qs anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining Vs and Qs variations in the continental mantle.

Artemieva, Irina M.; Billien, Magali; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Mooney, Walter D.

2004-05-01

139

Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions  

E-print Network

. A., Kirby, J. T. & Hwang, P. A. Wave diffraction due to areas of energy 269 dissipation. J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 110 (1), 67-79 (1984). 270 13 30. Mendez, F. & Losada, I. An empirical model to estimate the propagation of random... for supporting the 278 research time of IM, and Chris Rolfe, Cambridge University, for the soil analysis. The work described 279 in this publication was supported by the European Community’s 7th Framework Programme through 280 the grant to the budget...

Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

2014-09-29

140

Attenuation of Non-Physical Oscillations in Supernova Shock Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial viscosity is widely used in numerical calculations of stellar core collapse. The failure or success of the prompt mechanism explosion of type-II supernovae is strongly dependent on the numerical code, and the study of a suitable and efficient method of capturing the shock front is a current problem. We present a novel one-term artificial viscosity which is dependent on the velocity field along the shock front. We show that this form of artificial viscosity is able to capture the profile of a plane shock wave, removing the non-physical oscillations originated by the artificial viscosity of von Neumann and Richtmyer type.

Duarte, S. B.; Rodrigues, H.; Portes, D.

141

Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Crust in Southwest Anatolia (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of coda waves in the earth's crust in southwest (SW) Anatolia is estimated by using the coda wave method, which is based on the decrease of coda wave amplitude in time and distance. A total of 159 earthquakes were recorded between 1997 and 2010 by 11 stations belonging to the KOERI array. The coda quality factor Q c is determined from the properties of scattered coda waves in a heterogeneous medium. Firstly, the quality factor Q 0 (the value of Q c at 1 Hz.) and its frequency dependency ? are determined from this method depending on the attenuation properties of scattered coda waves for frequencies of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12 and 20 Hz. Secondly, the attenuation coefficients ( ?) are estimated. The shape of the curve is controlled by the scattering and attenuation in the crustal volume sampled by the coda waves. The average Q c values vary from 110 ± 15 to 1,436 ± 202 for the frequencies above. The Q 0 and ? values vary from 63 ± 7 to 95 ± 10 and from 0.87 ± 0.03 to 1.04 ± 0.09, respectively, for SW Anatolia. In this region, the average coda Q- f relation is described by Q c = (78 ± 9) f 0.98±0.07 and ? = 0.012 km-1. The low Q 0 and high ? are consistent with a region characterized by high tectonic activity. The Q c values were correlated with the tectonic pattern in SW Anatolia.

?ahin, ?akir; Çinar, Mutlu

2014-07-01

142

Sensitivity of seismic measurements to frequency-dependent attenuation and upper mantle structure: An initial approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the sensitivity of seismic attenuation measurements to dissipative mechanisms and structure in the Earth's upper mantle. The Andrade anelastic model fits experimental attenuation data with a mild power law frequency dependence and can be scaled from laboratory to Earth conditions. We incorporate this anelastic model into 400km 1-D thermal profiles of the upper mantle. These continuous-spectrum models are approximated by multiple relaxation mechanisms that are implemented within a finite-difference scheme to perform wave propagation simulations in 1-D domains. In two sets of numerical experiments, we evaluate the measurable signature of the intrinsic attenuation structure. The two sets are defined by thermal profiles with added step functions of temperature, varying in (i) amplitude and depth or (ii) amplitude and sharpness. The corresponding synthetic data are processed using both the conventional t* approach, i.e., a linear regression of the displacement frequency spectrum, and an alternative nonlinear fit to identify the integrated value of attenuation and its frequency dependence. The measured sensitivity patterns are analyzed to assess the effects of the anelastic model and its spatial distribution on seismic data (in the absence of scattering effects). We have two straightforward results: (1) the frequency dependence power law is recoverable from the measurements; (2) t* is sensitive to both the depth and the amplitude of the step, and it is insensitive to the sharpness of the step, in the 0.25 to 2 Hz band. There is much potential for gaining information about the upper mantle thermodynamic state from careful interpretation of attenuation.

Bellis, C.; Holtzman, B.

2014-07-01

143

Ultrasonic attenuation in the transverse spin density wave phase of chromium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong hysteretic attenuation peak is seen when a polarizing field itHp is applied perpendicular to both the longitudinal ultrasonic wavevector itq and the wavevector itQ of the transverse spin density wave (TSDW) in chromium, i.e., itHp? itq? itQ, but not when ( itHp? itq)? itQ. This effect is discussed in relation to the various models for the configuration of the polarization that have been proposed to explain the anomalous attenuation seen in the TSDW phase for itq? itQ.

Muir, W. C.; Fawcett, E.; Perz, J. M.

1987-10-01

144

Multiscale Measurements of Ocean Wave Breaking Probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent numerical model studies of nonlinear deep water wave group evolution suggest that wave breaking onset is associated primarily with a threshold behavior linked to the nonlinear wave group hydrodynamics. Motivated by these findings, a recently published probability analysis of observed dominant ocean wind wave breaking events reported a threshold behavior using the significant wave steepness as a measure of

Michael L. Banner; Johannes R. Gemmrich; David M. Farmer

2002-01-01

145

A Summary of Attenuation Measurements from Borehole Recordings of Earthquakes: The 10 Hz Transition Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake seismograms recorded by instruments in deep boreholes have low levels of background noise and wide signal bandwidth. They have been used to extend our knowledge of crustal attenuation both in the near-surface and at seismogenic depths. Site effects are of major importance to seismic hazard estimation, and the comparison of surface, shallow and deep recordings allows direct determination of the attenuation in the near-surface. All studies to date have found that Q is very low in the near-surface ( 10 in the upper 100 m), and increases rapidly with depth. Unlike site amplification, attenuation at shallow depths exhibits little dependence on rock-type. These observations are consistent with the opening of fractures under decreasing lithostatic pressure being the principal cause of the severe near-surface attenuation. Seismograms recorded in deep boreholes are relatively unaffected by near-surface effects, and thus can be used to measure crustal attenuation to higher frequencies (>= 100 Hz) than surface recordings. Studies using both direct and coda waves recorded at over 2 km depth find Q to be high ( 1000) at seismogenic depths in California, increasing only weakly with frequency between 10 and 100 Hz. Intrinsic attenuation appears to be the dominant mechanism. These observations contrast with those of the rapidly increasing Q with frequency determined from surface studies in the frequency range 1 to 10 Hz. Further work is necessary to constrain the factors responsible for this apparent change in the frequency dependence of Q, but it is clearly unwise to extrapolate Q estimates made below about 10 Hz to higher frequencies.

Abercrombie, R. E.

146

INVESTIGATION OF THE ATTENUATION OF SHOCK WAVES PROPAGATED THROUGH AN IONIZED GAS IN THE PRESENCE OF A TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC FIELD. Project Squid Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation measurements were made of shock waves propagated through ; ionized gas in the presence of a transversc magnetic field. Ionization was ; produced by maintaining a radio frequency discharge in the low pressure section ; of a shock tube. The electrical gas conductivity achieved by this means was less ; than 1 mho\\/m, a value much smaller than was

S. P. Carfagno; G. P. Wachtell

1961-01-01

147

Teleseismic P wave attenuation and nuclear explosion source functions inferred from Yellowknife Array data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the results of a comprehensive seismic attenuation investigation along the paths connecting Canada's Yellowknife seismic array (YKA) with seven active nuclear explosion testing areas. The data consist of more than 600 explosion-generated teleseismic P wave records. A dual time-frequency averaging technique is used to take advantage of the array recording characteristics without the drawback of the conventional beam-forming, excessive annihilation of high-frequency signal energies. The dual averaging technique, deployed in conjunction with a multiwindow spectral analysis method, yields smooth amplitude spectra whose falloff at high frequencies suffers little from spectral leakage due to the familiar presence of a prominent low-frequency plateau. Measured in terms of t*, the highest attenuation (0.66 s) is found along the path which originates from the Tuamotu test area; somewhat less attenuating are the two paths which depart from the Pahute Mesa (0.59 s) and Yucca Flat (0.50 s) nuclear test areas, both located within the U.S. Nevada Test Site. We find t* for these three paths to be substantially (up to 0.21 s) higher than recently published estimates (e.g., Der et al., 1985). We attribute these disparities largely to differences in spectral leakage control capability between the conventional single window and the improved multiwindow spectral analysis methods. The least attenuating paths all originate from the Soviet test areas: Novaya Zemlya (NZ), west Kazakhstan, Degelen Mountain (DM), and Shagan River (SR). The last two of these test areas, DM and SR, are both located in east Kazakhstan. The P wave signatures of the Soviet explosions are rich in high-frequency (>4.5 Hz) energies, and the YKA data (0.5-8.0 Hz) support a frequency-dependent t* whose value at high frequencies (>4.5 Hz) is as small as 0.17 s. To gain a grasp of the ramifications of the t* disparity between the multiple-window and the single-window results, we have compared explosion source time functions obtained by the multichannel deconvolution technique of Shumway and Der (1985) in order to assess their sensitivity to the input t* value. In our example involving the deconvolved source functions of five French Tuamotu explosions, we find that a 0.1-s t* difference is large enough to cause clearly discernible signature differences, in terms of the signal frequency content as well as the extractability of a secondary arrival some 0.4 s behind the first P arrival. This secondary arrival is believed to be the depth phase pP, a seismic signature of importance in both yield estimation and earthquake/explosion source discrimination. The absorption band modeling (Minster, 1978a, b) of the French Tuamotu explosion data yields 1.08±0.05 and 0.079±0.008 s for t*0 and ?m, respectively. The corresponding parameter estimates derived from the U.S. explosion data are somewhat smaller. The t*0 and ?m estimates are the smallest along the paths which depart from the four Soviet test areas. For the NZ-YKA path the t*0 and ?m estimates are 0.56±0.08 and 0.061±0.013 s, respectively. Plagued by a strong trade-off between the two model parameters, these estimates are not tightly constrained, however.

Chun, Kin-Yip; Zhu, Tianfei; West, Gordon F.

1991-07-01

148

Numerical Analysis of Pulsed Pressure Waves in Attenuative and Dispersive Media.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the behavior of pulsed pressure waves as they propagate through dissipative fluids whose attenuation is characterized by a frequency power law. This means that the degree of attenuation increases as the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal increases where the rate of change is a physical property of the substance. Previously published experimental data indicates that this form of attenuation is typical of many viscous materials including biological tissues and fluids, adhesive glues, etc. The model developed to describe this behavior is based on the assumption that the pulsed waves have finite amplitude and can therefore be uniquely represented in the Fourier frequency domain in which the attenuation is equal to the imaginary part of the complex wavenumber. To ensure causality of the system impulse response, it is shown that the real part of the wavenumber must be nonlinearly dependent on frequency. This means that the physical system must be dispersive as well as attenuative and consequently pulsed waves are distorted as they propagate. Based on the complex wavenumber, a dispersive version of the wave equation which satisfies continuity conditions at material interfaces is derived. A spatial and temporal discretization of this equation allows for the analysis of realistic imaging regions. Due to noninteger powers of frequency in the wavenumber a continuous time version of the wave equation is not easily obtained making traditional finite difference time domain operators inapplicable. The interdependence of imaginary and real parts of the wavenumber, however, makes it possible to combine the corresponding terms in the wave equation into a single factor. This factor can then be mapped into discrete time frequency. In this domain noninteger exponents can be eliminated via a power series expansion and the resulting equations transform naturally to discrete time operators. The validity of this method is verified by comparing the results with those obtained through a numerical frequency domain implementation. The algorithm is demonstrated in two dimensions by simulating pulsed pressure waves radiating from a finite aperture through an adhesive bond layer in which case a thin dispersive layer is sandwiched between two lossless fluids.

Wismer, Margaret Gertrude

149

Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.  

PubMed

Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle. PMID:22517856

Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E

2012-04-20

150

Optical measurement of the liquid surface wave amplitude with different intensities of underwater acoustic signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple measurement system is developed to study the optical effect of the low-frequency liquid surface wave excited underwater acoustic source. The high stability and clear diffraction patterns were observed experimentally. The relationship between the diffraction patterns divergence angle and the distance of the acoustic signal was derived. Furthermore, with the increase in distance, the diffraction patterns divergence angle will decrease. The damping characters of the liquid surface wave were theoretically obtained when underwater acoustic wave spread to the liquid surface. The analytical expression between the diffraction patterns divergence angle and the liquid surface wave amplitude was theoretically derived. It was found that the surface wave amplitude is exponently attenuated with the change of the horizontal distance. The attenuation coefficients are dependent on the frequency of the liquid surface acoustic wave, and the greater the frequency, the smaller is the attenuation coefficient.

Miao, Runcai; Wang, Yuming; Meng, Feng; Ma, Jing

2014-02-01

151

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid–structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

152

Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient  

PubMed Central

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

2014-01-01

153

Representative elementary length to measure soil mass attenuation coefficient.  

PubMed

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?(s)) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?(es)), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?(es) measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed ((241)Am and (137)Cs), three collimators (2-4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-15 cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12-15 and 2-4 cm for the sources (137)Cs and (241)Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?(es) average values obtained for x > 4 cm and source (241)Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?(s)). As a consequence, ?(s) might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

Borges, J A R; Pires, L F; Costa, J C

2014-01-01

154

INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

155

Surface-wave amplitude analysis for array data with non-linear waveform fitting: Toward high-resolution attenuation models of the upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anelastic attenuation of seismic waves provides us with valuable information on temperature and water content in the Earth's mantle. While seismic velocity models have been investigated by many researchers, anelastic attenuation (or Q) models have yet to be investigated in detail mainly due to the intrinsic difficulties and uncertainties in the amplitude analysis of observed seismic waveforms. To increase the horizontal resolution of surface wave attenuation models on a regional scale, we have developed a new method of fully non-linear waveform fitting to measure inter-station phase velocities and amplitude ratios simultaneously, using the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) as a global optimizer. Model parameter space (perturbations of phase speed and amplitude ratio) is explored to fit two observed waveforms on a common great-circle path by perturbing both phase and amplitude of the fundamental-mode surface waves. This method has been applied to observed waveform data of the USArray from 2007 to 2008, and a large-number of inter-station amplitude and phase speed data are corrected in a period range from 20 to 200 seconds. We have constructed preliminary phase speed and attenuation models using the observed phase and amplitude data, with careful considerations of the effects of elastic focusing and station correction factors for amplitude data. The phase velocity models indicate good correlation with the conventional tomographic results in North America on a large-scale; e.g., significant slow velocity anomaly in volcanic regions in the western United States. The preliminary results of surface-wave attenuation achieved a better variance reduction when the amplitude data are inverted for attenuation models in conjunction with corrections for receiver factors. We have also taken into account the amplitude correction for elastic focusing based on a geometrical ray theory, but its effects on the final model is somewhat limited and our attenuation model show anti-correlation with the phase velocity models; i.e., lower attenuation is found in slower velocity areas that cannot readily be explained by the temperature effects alone. Some former global scale studies (e.g., Dalton et al., JGR, 2006) indicated that the ray-theoretical focusing corrections on amplitude data tend to eliminate such anti-correlation of phase speed and attenuation, but this seems not to work sufficiently well for our regional scale model, which is affected by stronger velocity gradient relative to global-scale models. Thus, the estimated elastic focusing effects based on ray theory may be underestimated in our regional-scale studies. More rigorous ways to estimate the focusing corrections as well as data selection criteria for amplitude measurements are required to achieve a high-resolution attenuation models on regional scales in the future.

Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

2013-12-01

156

Measurement of ultrasonic scattering attenuation in austenitic stainless steel welds: realistic input data for NDT numerical modeling.  

PubMed

Multipass welds made of 316L stainless steel are specific welds of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. Because of their strong heterogeneous and anisotropic nature due to grain growth during solidification, ultrasonic waves may be greatly deviated, split and attenuated. Thus, ultrasonic assessment of the structural integrity of such welds is quite complicated. Numerical codes exist that simulate ultrasonic propagation through such structures, but they require precise and realistic input data, as attenuation coefficients. This paper presents rigorous measurements of attenuation in austenitic weld as a function of grain orientation. In fact attenuation is here mainly caused by grain scattering. Measurements are based on the decomposition of experimental beams into plane-wave angular spectra and on the modeling of the ultrasonic propagation through the material. For this, the transmission coefficients are calculated for any incident plane wave on an anisotropic plate. Two different hypotheses on the welded material are tested: first it is considered as monoclinic, and then as triclinic. Results are analyzed, and validated through comparison to theoretical predictions of related literature. They underline the great importance of well-describing the anisotropic structure of austenitic welds for UT modeling issues. PMID:24759567

Ploix, Marie-Aude; Guy, Philippe; Chassignole, Bertrand; Moysan, Joseph; Corneloup, Gilles; El Guerjouma, Rachid

2014-09-01

157

Tracking accelerated aging of composites with ultrasonic attenuation measurements  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials are steadily replacing traditional materials in many industries. For many carbon composite materials, particularly in aerospace applications, durability is a critical design parameter which must be accurately characterized. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group have established a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to assist in the high speed research program at Boeing. LLNL`s expertise in fiber composites, computer modeling, mechanical testing, chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation (ND) will contribute to the study of advanced composite materials in commercial aerospace applications. Through thermo-mechanical experiments with periodic chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation, the aging mechanisms in several continuous fiber polymer composites will be studied. Several measurement techniques are being studied for their correlation with aging. This paper describes through-transmission ultrasonic attenuation measurements of isothermally aged composite materials and their use as a tracking parameter for accelerated aging.

Chinn, D.J.; Durbin, P.F.; Thomas, G.H.; Groves, S.E.

1996-10-01

158

Overtopping Wave Detection based on Wave Contour Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overtopping wave which is high wave exceeding breakwaters causes damage to a coast area. In this paper, we describe a novel detection method of the overtopping wave and other high wave from a video sequence of a coastal camera. This detection is performed directly by measuring wave contour in each image using Active Contour Models and by tracking the contour. Since our method measures and tracks the wave contour, it has the following advantages: 1) it is robust to other moving objects; 2) it can be applied to occurrence prediction of overtopping wave. In experiments using real video sequences including both of typhoon approaching and tranquil scenes, we confirmed the effectiveness of our method.

Seki, Makito; Taniguchi, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Manabu

159

Analysis of dispersion and attenuation of surface waves in poroelastic media in the exploration-seismic frequency band  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) < 0) at low frequencies. For R2 waves, velocities are slightly lower than the bulk slow P2 waves. At low frequencies, both velocity and attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.

2011-01-01

160

Estimation of the intrinsic absorption and scattering attenuation in Northeastern Venezuela (Southeastern Caribbean) using coda waves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.

Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.

1998-01-01

161

Radiometric observations of atmospheric attenuation at 20.6 and 31.65 GHz: The Wave Propagation Laboratory data base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) presently operates five dual-channel microwave radiometers, one triple-channel microwave radiometer, and one six-channel microwave radiometer. The dual-channel radiometers operate at frequencies of 20.6 or 23.87 GHz and 31.4 or 31.65 GHz. The triple-channel radiometer operates at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz. The six-channel radiometer operates at frequencies of 20.6, 31.65, 52.85, 53.85, 55.45, and 58.8 GHz. Recent brightness temperature measurements and attenuation values from some of the above radiometers are presented. These radiometric measurements, taken in different locations throughout the world, have given WPL a diverse set of measurements under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We propose to do a more complete attenuation analysis on these measurements in the future. In addition, a new spinning reflector was installed recently for the dual-channel radiometer at the Platteville, Colorado site. This reflector will extend our measurement capabilities during precipating conditions. Locating the three-channel and portable dual-channel radiometers at or near Greeley, Colorado to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is discussed.

Jacobson, Mark D.; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.

1993-01-01

162

A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4wave particle motion, that appears rather difficult to explain if we assume the homogeneity of the P waves (that means attenuation is scalar). Note that the degree of nonlinearity is very low given that the maximum strain can be roughly estimated as 10-5 on the basis of maximum ground velocity of the P wave train considered and the Vp. On the contrary we show that P wave particle motion can be fully (and easily) described by a Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic model (HILV). HILV, as in the 2009 Borcherdt formulation adopted here, allows two different directions of propagation and attenuation; in other words attenuation becomes a vector that is not necessarily parallel to the propagation vector. The results evidence that the incidence angle and the inhomogeneity angle (it is the angle between propagation and attenuation vectors and it is closely related to Q factor) are in good agreement with the geological conditions of the site. Finally, we observed that these results are very similar to the ones obtained when we analyzed two explosions recorded by a seismic station in Milano, also situated in the Po valley at some 140 km from Mantova (Marcellini & Tento, 2011). Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 305 pp. Marcellini, A. and A. Tento (2011) ' Explosive Sources Prove the Validity of Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Models', BSSA, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 1576-1583.

Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.

2013-12-01

163

Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.  

SciTech Connect

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01

164

Attenuation characteristics of the guided THz wave in parallel-plate ferroelectric-graphene waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided THz wave characteristics in a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) consisting of ferroelectric film (LiNbO3 and LiTaO3) and multilayer graphene (MLG) is studied in this paper, with their low and tunable attenuation valley predicted. The electrical conductivity of MLG is calculated by a set of closed-form equations with the coupling effect between the bottom graphene layer (BGL) and its substrate taken into account carefully, while the dispersive behavior of ferroelectric film itself is described by the Lorentz model over an ultra-wide THz band. It is shown that the guided TM-mode propagation can be adjusted effectively by changing temperature, frequency, optical pumping intensity, MLG layer number, film thickness and its transverse optical-phonon frequency. Moreover, one low attenuation valley of TM-mode in such ferroelectric-graphene waveguide is captured, which can be exploited for developing some THz planar tunable waveguides with ultra-low loss.

Gu, Xiao-Qiang; Yin, Wen-Yan; Zheng, Ting

2014-11-01

165

S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10 < r < 190 km) permits us to analyze the spectral amplitude decay of the records using a nonparametric approach [e.g., Anderson and Quaas, 1988; Castro et al., 1990; Anderson, 1991]. We obtained attenuation functions for a set of 18 frequencies ranging between 0.4 and 25.0 Hz. The values of Q retrieved from the attenuation functions obtained follow the frequency-dependent relation Q = 20.4f. A test of the method was made using a second data set consisting of digital seismograms from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Seismograph Network. In spite of the different size of the volume sampled by these data (10 < r < 131 km), the frequency dependence of Q obtained (Q = 16.1f0.92) is similar to that obtained with the strong motion data set. The near-surface attenuation was also estimated using the model proposed by Anderson and Hough [1984] and Anderson [1991]. We found that ?0 is smaller for the strong motion stations located on rock compared to stations located on either shallow or soft sediments. To estimate the site response of the strong motion stations, we corrected the spectral records for the attenuation effect and then inverted the corrected records to separate source and site effects using the inversion scheme proposed by Andrews [1986]. To verify the site amplification estimates obtained, we also calculated the transfer function of each site using Nakamura's [1989] method for S wave [e.g., Lermo and Chavez-García, 1993]. In general, the shapes of the site functions obtained with the inversion are consistent with the transfer functions obtained calculating the horizontal to vertical component ratio.

Castro, Raúl R.; Pacor, Francesca; Sala, Alfio; Petrungaro, Carmine

1996-10-01

166

Technique for measuring ultrasonic velocity and attenuation changes in attenuative materials at temperature such as during sintering processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a PC-based automatic measuring system for ultrasonic velocity and attenuation changes in highly attenuating green-body ceramics during sintering temperatures. The system uses pulse-echo/through-transmission buffer rod technique and records pulse-echo and through-transmission waveforms at programmed time or temperature intervals. Data can be taken without interruption during temperature schedules lasting many days. Archival files of the waveform data are saved on disks for later analysis. Accuracy of the technique is demonstrated for solid fused silica for which dynamic resonance and Brillouin scattering data of the longitudinal velocity are compared at temperatures up to 1200 °C. The system has been used successfully for measuring longitudinal velocity and attenuation changes at 5 MHz during sintering of ZnO-based varistor materials and YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting ceramics.

Gieske, John H.; Frost, Harold M., III

1991-12-01

167

Seismic waves attenuation in the lithosphere of the northern Basin and Range Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic quality factor of the direct body waves (P- and S-waves) and coda and their frequency dependence (n) were estimated for the northern Basin and Range Province using traces of 66 local earthquakes and explosions recorded during 1988-1989 PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment. For calculation of Q-coda the single backscattering model by Aki was used. Q-coda values were estimated for six central frequencies (f): 0.3±0.1, 0.75±0.25, 1.5±0.5, 3.0±1.0, 6.0±2.0 and 12.0±4.0 Hz and for 18 lapse time windows (W) - from 10 to 95 sec with a step 5 sec. The Qp and Qs values were obtained by the method of the maximum amplitudes for the frequency bands 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 ? 4.0-8.0 Hz. Also we tired to evaluate the part of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation (Qi and Qsc respectively) in the total attenuation using Wennerberg's method. The Q-coda increases and the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? decrease with increasing of frequency and lapse time windows. This fact shows that the upper part of the lithosphere is more heterogeneous compared to its lower layers. The deep variations of the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? show the sharp change at the depth about 150 km - at the same depth the boundary of the low velocity anomaly is observed (Bensen et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012). The Qs and Qp values also increase with frequency: Qs varies from 42 (0.84 Hz) to 298 (5.52 Hz) and Qp - from 60 (0.84 Hz) to 279 (6.05 Hz). The following empirical relations of Q vs. f are deduced for P- and S-waves respectively: Qp(f)=69*f0.78 and Qs(f)=53*f1.08. The Q-values, describing the intrinsic and scattering attenuation, also show a significant dependence on frequency and lapse time windows: the empirical relations of Q vs. f are: Qi(f)=8*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=13*f1.1 (for W=10 sec) and Qi(f)=5*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=102*f1.0 (for W=95 sec) respectively. The comparison of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation shows that the intrinsic attenuation is dominant over scattering attenuation in the frequency range analyzed for all deep levels. The reported study was supported by RFBR, research project No. 12-05-31038.

Dobrynina, Anna

2013-04-01

168

Directional wave spectrum measurement with multistatic HF surface wave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

HF surface wave radars (HFSWR) measure sea surface currents and current profiles via the Doppler shift of the discrete (first-order scattering) line structure in the radar Doppler spectrum. They can also exploit the higher-order scattering contributions to the Doppler spectrum which yield information on the sea surface directional spectrum in the gravity wave band. Most HFSWR systems operate in a

S. J. Anderson

2000-01-01

169

Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic waves in random media: a spectral function approach.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (?, p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic waves. PMID:22423683

Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

2012-03-01

170

Physical Models of Seismic-Attenuation Measurements on Lab Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic attenuation in Earth materials is often measured in the lab by using low-frequency forced oscillations or static creep experiments. The usual assumption in interpreting and even designing such experiments is the "viscoelastic" behavior of materials, i.e., their description by the notions of a Q-factor and material memory. However, this is not the only theoretical approach to internal friction, and it also involves several contradictions with conventional mechanics. From the viewpoint of mechanics, the frequency-dependent Q becomes a particularly enigmatic property attributed to the material. At the same time, the behavior of rock samples in seismic-attenuation experiments can be explained by a strictly mechanical approach. We use this approach to simulate such experiments analytically and numerically for a system of two cylinders consisting of a rock sample and elastic standard undergoing forced oscillations, and also for a single rock sample cylinder undergoing static creep. The system is subject to oscillatory compression or torsion, and the phase-lag between the sample and standard is measured. Unlike in the viscoelastic approach, a full Lagrangian formulation is considered, in which material anelasticity is described by parameters of "solid viscosity" and a dissipation function from which the constitutive equation is derived. Results show that this physical model of anelasticity predicts creep results very close to those obtained by using empirical Burger's bodies or Andrade laws. With nonlinear (non-Newtonian) solid viscosity, the system shows an almost instantaneous initial deformation followed by slow creep towards an equilibrium. For Aheim Dunite, the "rheologic" parameters of nonlinear viscosity are ?=0.79 and ?=2.4 GPa-s. Phase-lag results for nonlinear viscosity show Q's slowly decreasing with frequency. To explain a Q increasing with frequency (which is often observed in the lab and in the field), one has to consider nonlinear viscosity with ? < 0.5 and/or include thermoelastic effects. The model also shows how the Q values measured on the samples depend on the shapes and dimensions of the elements of the experimental system.; Non-linear creep approximating the anelastic part of Burgers' model for Aheim dunite (Chopra, 1997). Non-linear model parameters are ?=0.79, ?=2.4 GPa-s, and the Burger's model parameters are: ?=15.75 GPa and viscosity ?=2040 GPa-s.

Coulman, T. J.; Morozov, I. B.

2012-12-01

171

Characteristics of the near-bottom suspended sediment field over the continental shelf off northern California based on optical attenuation measurements during STRESS and SMILE  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Time-series measurements of current velocity, optical attenuation and surface wave intensity obtained during the Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) experiments, combined with shipboard measurements of conductivity, temperature and optical attenuation obtained during the Shelf Mixed Layer Experiment (SMILE), provide a description of the sediment concentration field over the central and outer shelf off northern California. The questions addressed are: (1) existence and characteristics of bottom nepheloid layers and their relationship to bottom mixed layers; (2) characteristics of temporal fluctuations in sediment concentration and their relationship to waves and currents; (3) spatial scales over which suspended sediment concentrations vary horizontally; and (4) vertical distribution of suspended sediment. ?? 1994.

Trowbridge, J. H.; Butman, B.; Limeburner, R.

1994-01-01

172

P-wave seismic attenuation by slow-wave diffusion. Effects of ...  

E-print Network

saturated with small amounts of gas (around 10 % saturation) and water. Grain- .... tained the P-wave quality-factor as a function of frequency for 1D finely ..... erties of granular sedimentary materials, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University. Norris

2005-09-20

173

Velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in random media: A spectral function approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (?,p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Applications of the proposed theory to the structure of the inner core of the Earth will be presented. In particular, it will be shown that our scattering theory can explain the striking correlation between velocity and attenuation and the associated hemispherical variations revealed by PKP waves propagating through the inner core of the Earth. The implications for inner core dynamics will be summarized.

Margerin, Ludovic; Calvet, Marie; Monnereau, Marc; Souriau, Annie

2013-04-01

174

Experimental measurements of seismic attenuation in microfracture sedimentary rock  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper (Peacock et al., 1994), the authors related ultrasonic velocities in water-saturated Carrara Marble to crack densities in polished sections to verify Hudson's (1980, 1981, 1986) theory for velocities in cracked rock. They describe the empirical relationships between attenuation and crack density that they established during these experiments in the hope of clarifying the mechanism of attenuation in rocks with fluid-filled cracks. Relating seismic velocity and attenuation to crack density is important in predicting the productivity of fractured petroleum reservoirs such as the North Sea Brent Field. It also allows cracks to be used as stress indicators throughout the shallow crust (Crampin and Lovell, 1991).

Peacock, S.; McCann, C.; Sothcott, J.; Astin, T.R. (Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Research Inst. for Sedimentology)

1994-09-01

175

Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

2014-10-01

176

Producing acoustic 'Frozen Waves': Simulated experiments with diffraction/attenuation resistant beams, in lossy media  

E-print Network

The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have arisen significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction (self-healing) property, after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's; while the FWs, a sub-class of theirs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the field longitudinal intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0 < z < L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with frequency f_o = 1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present res...

Prego-Borges, Jose' L; Recami, Erasmo; Tavares-Costa, Eduardo

2013-01-01

177

Suppression of short sea waves in ship wakes: Measurements and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of short wave energy, surface tension distributions, and radar imagery of centerline ship wakes are presented. A direct association between reduced radar return and reduced scattering wave energy is demonstrated. The dominant influences of ship-generated turbulence and surface film distributions upon reduced short wave energy in ship wakes are shown. The effect of turbulence is emphasized by the very slow regrowth of attenuated wave energy in the especially turbulent wake of a towed barge. The effect of surface film distributions is emphasized by the suppression of short wave growth during a wind puff in a wake that is about 1 hour old.

Milgram, J. H.; Peltzer, R. D.; Griffin, O. M.

1993-01-01

178

Measurement of elastic wave dispersion on human femur tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cortical bone is one of the most complex heterogeneous media exhibiting strong wave dispersion. In such media when a burst of energy goes into the formation of elastic waves the different modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components as usually occurs in waveguides. In this study human femur specimens were subjected to elastic wave measurements. The main objective of the study is using broadband acoustic emission sensors to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Additionally, waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, are also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for acoustic emission monitoring during fracture. To do so, four sensors were placed at adjacent positions on the surface of the cortical bone in order to record the transient response after pencil lead break excitation. The results are compared to similar measurements on a bulk metal piece which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the scale of the propagating wave lengths. It is shown that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals.

Strantza, M.; Louis, O.; Polyzos, D.; Boulpaep, F.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Aggelis, D. G.

2014-03-01

179

Measurements for the JASPER Program radial shield attenuation experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tower Shielding Facility during FY 1986 to: provide data for calculating the shielding effectiveness of combinations of stainless steel, graphite, and boron carbide shield designs; verify the accuracy of related radiation transport methods and nuclear data; and substantiate the effectiveness of shield designs currently proposed by advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) designers in Japan and the United States. The Tower Shielding Reactor source was modified to represent neutron spectra at a specified location near the core and in the sodium pool of a typical liquid-metal-cooled reactor. The experimental configurations resulted from successive additions of the various layers of material as specified in the program plan. Integral neutron fluxes were measured behind each of the configurations at specified locations, and neutron spectra were obtained for selected mockups. The experimental data are presented in both tabular and graphical form. This experiment is the first in a series of six experiments to be performed as part of a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy and the Japan Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The research program is intended to provide support for the development of advanced sodium-cooled reactors.

Mukenthaler, F.J.

1987-05-01

180

High-resolution 3-D P wave attenuation structure of the New Madrid Seismic Zone using local earthquake tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution P wave seismic attenuation model for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is determined using P wave path attenuation (t*) values of small-magnitude earthquakes (MD < 3.9). Events were recorded at 89 broadband and short-period seismometers of the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Zone Network and 40 short-period seismometers of the Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition experiment. The amplitude spectra of all the earthquakes are simultaneously inverted for source, path (t*), and site parameters. The t* values are inverted for QP using local earthquake tomography methods and a known 3-D P wave velocity model for the region. The four major seismicity arms of the NMSZ exhibit reduced QP (higher attenuation) than the surrounding crust. The highest attenuation anomalies coincide with areas of previously reported high swarm activity attributed to fluid-rich fractures along the southeast extension of the Reelfoot fault. The QP results are consistent with previous attenuation studies in the region, which showed that active fault zones and fractured crust in the NMSZ are highly attenuating.

Bisrat, Shishay T.; DeShon, Heather R.; Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford

2014-01-01

181

Analysis of P-wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the wave attenuation characteristics in hydrate-bearing sediments, the Biot-Squirt (BISQ) porous medium model was implemented in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Theoretical studies indicated that decrease of P-wave attenuation at seismic frequency range is observed with the increasing hydrate saturation. In the case studies in the Shenhu area, we estimated the quality factor from seismic reflection data after spectral correction by using the centroid-frequency method. The quality factor in the hydrate-bearing sediments is greater than 30, and with the hydrate saturation increasing to 40 % the quality factor increases from 30 to 50. This shows good agreement with the theoretical results based on the BISQ model. The field data example indicated that seismic wave attenuation is an effective attribute to identify the distribution of gas hydrates.

Li, Chuanhui; Feng, Kai; Liu, Xuewei

2014-11-01

182

Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly  

E-print Network

Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly­28%. © 2004 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 010.4450, 120.4640, 010.7340. 1. Introduction Spectral beam of natural aquatic media1,2 that has long been measured routinely in situ.3­5 The beam-attenuation meter

Stramski, Dariusz

183

Measurement of the acoustic impedance of liquid 4He by acoustic surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the acoustic impedance of liquid 4He in the vicinity of the lambda-point was measured by the surface wave method at the frequencies 155 and 45 MHz. From the observed value of the attenuation for the liquid helium loading of the surface waves on the transducers, the impedance varrhoLVL of liquid 4He has been measured in the

M. Tokumura; F. Akao

1979-01-01

184

Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave attenuation in a nonequilibrium chemically reacting hypervelocity flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various gasdynamic phenomena on the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave propagating through the nonequilibrium chemically reacting air flow field generated by an aerodynamic body travelling at high velocity is investigated. The nonequilibrium flow field is assumed to consist of seven species including nitric oxide ions and free electrons. The ionization of oxygen and nitrogen atoms is ignored. The aerodynamic body considered is a blunt wedge. The nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow field around this body is numerically simulated using a computer code based on computational fluid dynamics. The computer code solves the Navier-Stokes equations including mass diffusion and heat transfer, using a time-marching, explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. A nonequilibrium air kinetics model consisting of seven species and twenty-eight reactions as well as an equilibrium air model consisting of the same seven species are used. The body surface boundaries are considered as adiabatic or isothermal walls, as well as fully-catalytic and non-catalytic surfaces. Both laminar and turbulent flows are considered; wall generated flow turbulence is simulated using an algebraic mixing length model. An electromagnetic wave is considered as originating from an antenna within the body and is effected by the free electrons in the chemically reacting flow. Analysis of the electromagnetics is performed separately from the fluid dynamic analysis using a series solution of Maxwell's equations valid for the propagation of a long-wavelength plane electromagnetic wave through a thin (i.e., in comparison to wavelength) inhomogeneous plasma layer. The plasma layer is the chemically reacting shock layer around the body. The Navier-Stokes equations are uncoupled from Maxwell's equations. The results of this computational study demonstrate for the first time and in a systematic fashion, the importance of several parameters including equilibrium chemistry, nonequilibrium chemical kinetics, the reaction mechanism, flow viscosity, mass diffusion, and wall boundary conditions on modeling wave attenuation resulting from the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an aerodynamic plasma. Comparison is made with experimental data.

Nusca, Michael Joseph, Jr.

185

The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

2007-01-01

186

Differential shear-wave attenuation (deltat) across the East Pacific Rise  

SciTech Connect

SS phases from earthquakes on fracture zones near the Easter Island Cordillera and the West Chile Rise which are recorded in the United States have reflection points on either side of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the equator. The east-west records from seven WWSSN stations of seven events in this region were used to obtain spectral amplitudes of horizontally polarized S and SS waves. SS-to-S amplitude ratios were formed, and differential attenuation (deltat) computed within the frequency band 0.01 to 0.11 Hz. The values of deltat vary between -0.1 sec and +35.8 sec for the 23 station-event paris used. However, the change in deltat with distance from the axis of the EPR does not reflect the smooth variation expected using a model of a simple cooling slab.

Schlue, J.W.

1981-08-01

187

Wave attenuation in nonlinear periodic structures using harmonic balance and multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the attenuation, caused by weak damping, of harmonic waves through a discrete, periodic structure with frequency nominally within the Propagation Zone (i.e., propagation occurs in the absence of the damping). The period of the structure consists of a linear stiffness and a weak linear/nonlinear damping. Adapting the transfer matrix method and using harmonic balance for the nonlinear terms, a four-dimensional linear/nonlinear map governing the dynamics is obtained. We analyze this map by applying the method of multiple scales upto first order. The resulting slow evolution equations give the amplitude decay rate in the structure. The approximations are validated by comparing with other analytical solutions for the linear case and full numerics for the nonlinear case. Good agreement is obtained. The method of analysis presented here can be extended to more complex structures.

Marathe, Amol; Chatterjee, Anindya

2006-02-01

188

Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 103 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom.

Blom, M. R.; Beker, M. G.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Mul, F. A.; Rabeling, D. S.; Schimmel, A.

2013-08-01

189

Mucosal wave measurement and visualization techniques.  

PubMed

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical for high-quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so-called "mucosal wave." Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography, photoglottography, and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography, stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging. The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations and its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

Krausert, Christopher R; Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Taylor, Lindsay N; McMurray, James S; Dailey, Seth H; Jiang, Jack J

2011-07-01

190

Mucosal Wave Measurement and Visualization Techniques  

PubMed Central

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical to high quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so called “mucosal wave”. Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography (EGG), photoglottography (PGG), and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography (VKG), stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations as well as its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

Krausert, Christopher R.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; McMurray, James S.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

191

40 CFR 211.206 - Methods for measurement of sound attenuation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Methods for measurement of sound attenuation. 211.206 Section 211...ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206 Methods for measurement of sound...

2010-07-01

192

40 CFR 211.206 - Methods for measurement of sound attenuation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Methods for measurement of sound attenuation. 211.206 Section 211...ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206 Methods for measurement of sound...

2011-07-01

193

40 CFR 211.206 - Methods for measurement of sound attenuation.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods for measurement of sound attenuation. 211.206 Section 211.206 Protection of Environment...Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206 Methods for measurement of sound...

2014-07-01

194

Anisotropic physical properties of myocardium characterized by ultrasonic measurements of backscatter, attenuation, and velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of elucidating the physical mechanisms underlying the propagation of ultrasonic waves in anisotropic soft tissue such as myocardium has posed an interesting and largely unsolved problem in the field of physics for the past 30 years. In part because of the vast complexity of the system being studied, progress towards understanding and modeling the mechanisms that underlie observed acoustic parameters may first require the guidance of careful experiment. Knowledge of the causes of observed ultrasonic properties in soft tissue including attenuation, speed of sound, and backscatter, and how those properties are altered with specific pathophysiologies, may lead to new noninvasive approaches to the diagnosis of disease. The primary aim of this Dissertation is to contribute to an understanding of the physics that underlies the mechanisms responsible for the observed interaction of ultrasound with myocardium. To this end, through-transmission and backscatter measurements were performed by varying acoustic properties as a function of angle of insonification relative to the predominant myofiber direction and by altering the material properties of myocardium by increased protein cross-linking induced by chemical fixation as an extreme form of changes that may occur in certain pathologies such as diabetes. Techniques to estimate acoustic parameters from backscatter were broadened and challenges to implementing these techniques in vivo were addressed. Provided that specific challenges identified in this Dissertation can be overcome, techniques to estimate attenuation from ultrasonic backscatter show promise as a means to investigate the physical interaction of ultrasound with anisotropic biological media in vivo. This Dissertation represents a step towards understanding the physics of the interaction of ultrasonic waves with anisotropic biological media.

Baldwin, Steven L.

195

Wave effects on submarine groundwater seepage measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation of sea-surface and water pressure above the sea bed induces temporal variation of submarine groundwater discharge over time scales ranging from seconds to years. Hydrodynamic theory and measurements suggest that wave-induced exchange between a permeable sediment bed and overlying water column is significant but conventional seepage-meter studies have focussed mainly on tidal dynamics and ignored waves. At Cockburn Sound in Western Australia we measured wave-induced flow reversals through a seepage meter of amplitude 60cmd; however, it was unclear whether the measured flows were real seepage or, partly or wholly, an artifact of wave action on the seepage meter. A numerical model of seepage patterns beneath a vented benthic chamber demonstrated an observer effect introduced by the chamber and not previously identified. Placing a chamber on the sediment bed disturbed the pressure field and changed both the pattern and magnitude of the wave-induced flow. A separate analysis of benthic-chamber movements under the action of shallow surface waves established that micron-scale movements of the chamber at the wave frequency were sufficient to produce apparent seepage amplitudes of O(1-100) cm d -1. We concluded that wave action is a key control on bed seepage and should not be neglected without justification in direct-measurement studies of marine bed discharge. A systematic error during each wave cycle can accumulate to a significant measurement error if the wave cycle error is large or if wave-induced flow is the dominant component of the seepage. In the latter case, the error could potentially be misinterpreted as a steady seepage component.

Smith, Anthony J.; Herne, David E.; Turner, Jeffrey V.

2009-06-01

196

Dynamic Measurements of Laser Light Attenuation by Cryogen Film and Frost Formation  

E-print Network

Dynamic Measurements of Laser Light Attenuation by Cryogen Film and Frost Formation Bernard Choi1 surface. The cryogen pool eventually evaporates as frost forms on the skin surface due to condensation. The purpose of this study was to investigate laser light attenuation by the cryogen film/frost layer. Medical

Aguilar, Guillermo

197

Correlation Attenuation Due to Measurement Error: A New Approach Using the Bootstrap Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues with correlation attenuation due to measurement error are well documented. More than a century ago, Spearman proposed a correction for attenuation. However, this correction has seen very little use since it can potentially inflate the true correlation beyond one. In addition, very little confidence interval (CI) research has been done for…

Padilla, Miguel A.; Veprinsky, Anna

2012-01-01

198

A Simultaneous Multi-phase Approach to Determine P-wave and S-wave Attenuation of the Crust and Upper Mantle  

SciTech Connect

We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.

Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

2009-02-26

199

Attenuation of stress waves in single and multi-layered structures. [mitigation of elastic and plastic stress waves during spacecraft landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.

Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.

1972-01-01

200

SUPPLEMENTING GROUND TRUTH DATA WITH SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY, SEISMIC ATTENUATION, AND THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground truth data provide the opportunity to calibrate regional seismic velocity and Q (inverse attenuation) models. However, in many cases, available wave propagation data are too sparse to characterize seismic velocities and Q everywhere. It is therefore of interest to examine on a global basis the relationship between regional geology and heat flow versus the seismic properties (Vs and Qs)

Walter D. Mooney; Irina Artemieva; Shane T. Detweiler; Magali Billien; Jean-Jacques Leveque

201

Three-dimensional compressional wave attenuation tomography for the crust and uppermost mantle of Northern and central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a frequency-independent three-dimensional (3-D) compressional wave attenuation model (indicated by quality factor Qp) for the crust and uppermost mantle of Northern and central California. The tomographic inversion used t? values measured from amplitude spectra of 80,988 P wave arrivals of 3247 events recorded by 463 network stations through a 3-D seismic velocity model. The model has a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 15 km, and the vertical node intervals range between 2 and 10 km down to 45 km depth. In general, the resulting Qp values increase with depth and agree with the surface geology at shallow depth layers. The most significant features observed in the Qp model are the high Qp values in the Sierra Nevada mountains and low Qp anomalies in the western fault zones. Low Qp values are also imaged in Owens Valley and Long Valley at shallow depths and the Cape Mendocino region in the lower crust (˜25 km depth). An overall contrast of Qp values across the fault is observed in the creeping, Parkfield and Cholame-Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault. The new 3-D Qp model provides an important complement to the existing regional-scale velocity models for interpreting structural heterogeneity and fluid saturation of rocks in the study area.

Lin, Guoqing

2014-04-01

202

An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland  

E-print Network

We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be 947 +92/-85 meters at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. The measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as the most promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.

Avva, J; Miki, C; Saltzberg, D; Vieregg, A G

2014-01-01

203

An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland  

E-print Network

We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be 947 +92/-85 meters at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. The measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as the most promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.

J. Avva; J. M. Kovac; C. Miki; D. Saltzberg; A. G. Vieregg

2014-09-18

204

Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals.  

PubMed

This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves. PMID:22346618

Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen

2011-01-01

205

Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography  

SciTech Connect

This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes.

Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita [The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612-4799 (United States)

2006-11-15

206

Using Kinect to Measure Wave Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas exchange at the air-sea interface is enhanced by aqueous turbulence generated by capillary-gravity waves, affecting the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean. The mean squared wave slope of these waves correlates strongly with the gas transfer velocity. To measure the energy in capillary-gravity waves, this project aims to use the Microsoft Xbox Kinect to measure the short period wave spectrum. Kinect is an input device for the Xbox 360 with an infrared laser and camera that can be used to map objects at high frequency and spatial resolution, similar to a LiDAR sensor. For air-sea gas exchange, we are interested in the short period gravity waves with a wavenumber of 40 to 100 radians per meter. We have successfully recorded data from Kinect at a sample rate of 30 Hz with 640x480 pixel resolution, consistent with the manufacturer specifications for its scanning capabilities. At 0.5 m distance from the surface, this yields a nominal resolution of approximately 0.7 mm with a theoretical vertical precision of 0.24 mm and a practical 1 ? noise level of 0.91 mm. We have found that Kinect has some limitations in its ability to detect the air-water interface. Clean water proved to be a weaker reflector for the Kinect IR source, whereas a relatively strong signal can be received for liquids with a high concentration of suspended solids. Colloids such as milk and Ca(OH)2 in water proved more suitable media from which height and wave spectra were detectable. Moreover, we will show results from monochromatic as well as wind-wave laboratory studies. With the wave field measurements from Kinect, gas transfer velocities at the air-sea interface can be determined.

Fong, J.; Loose, B.; Lovely, A.

2012-12-01

207

Attenuation of a Stoneley wave and higher Lamb modes due to the scattering by two-dimensional irregularities of the walls of a fluid-filled borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of Stoneley waves and higher Lamb modes propagating along an irregular surface of a fluid-filled borehole is investigated. This problem generalizes the problem on the attenuation of Rayleigh waves by an irregular surface of an empty borehole [10]. The technique used to evaluate the attenuation coefficient is based on the perturbation method (surface irregularity heights are considered to be small in comparison with the wavelength) and the mean field method. As a result, an expression is obtained for the partial coefficients of the eigenmode attenuation due to the scattering of eigenmodes by the irregularities of the borehole walls into the same or other eigenmodes, as well as into the bulk longitudinal and transverse waves. The frequency-dependent behavior of the partial attenuation coefficients of both Stoneley waves and higher modes is analyzed against the ratio between the irregularity correlation length and the borehole radius for different correlation functions of irregularities.

Maximov, G. A.; Ortega, E.; Pod”Yachev, E. V.

2007-02-01

208

Dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type using in vivo measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key measures of response to treatment for patients in multicenter clinical trials is the lung density measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) from Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The purpose of this work is to determine the dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type by using in vivo measurements made from homogeneous anatomic areas. In vivo measurements were made in areas within the trachea, aorta, fat and muscle regions of CT scans obtained from subjects scanned as part of a multicenter treatment trial. Scans were selected so that exams from all four major manufacturers were included in the study. For each anatomic region of interest, the mean and standard deviation values were computed to investigate attenuation dependence on scanners. For example, trachea mean (standard deviation) measurements for exams from GE, Siemens, Philips and Toshiba scanners were -986 HU(+/-15), - 993 HU(+/-9), -988HU(+/-8), -1046(+/-10) respectively. Inter-scanner variability was observed for each scanner showing significant differences (all p-values <0.005). Previous work in examining attenuation dependence on scanners has been performed using anthropomorphic phantoms. The novelty of this work is the use of in vivo measurements from homogeneous regions in order to examine scanner effects on CT attenuation values. Our results show that CT attenuation values for the anatomic regions vary between scanners and hence, dependence of CT attenuation values on scanners is observed.

Prasad, Mithun; Meza, Alicia; Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

2008-03-01

209

Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.  

PubMed

Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

2014-03-01

210

Field measurement of guided wave modes in rail track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development of guided wave systems for rail monitoring it is useful to be able to measure the amplitude of the individual modes of propagation. The availability of scanning laser vibrometers makes it possible to measure the displacement at a large number of points on the rail surface. This paper describes scanning laser vibrometer measurements performed in the field and the estimation of the amplitudes of the propagating waves from these measurements. The process makes use of mode shape information obtained from semi-analytical finite element analysis and a pseudoinverse technique. Field measurements are performed by exciting the rail with a piezoelectric transducer and performing scans at various distances from the excitation. Results of two scans performed at short-range and on the same section of rail are compared to assess the repeatability of the process. Results from scans performed at 200m and 400m from the transducer are then used to estimate the attenuation of selected modes of propagation.

Loveday, P. W.; Long, C. S.

2013-01-01

211

Measurements of shock-induced guided and surface acoustic waves along boreholes in poroelastic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the excitation of the surface modes. A fast Fourier transform-Prony-spectral ratio method is implemented to transform the data from the time-space domain to the frequency-wave-number domain. Frequency-dependent phase velocities and attenuation coefficients were measured using this technique. The results for a Berea sandstone material show a clear excitation of the fundamental surface mode, the pseudo-Stoneley wave. The comparison of the experimental results with numerical predictions based on Biot's theory of poromechanics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 168 (1956)], shows that the oscillating fluid flow at the borehole wall is the dominant loss mechanism governing the pseudo-Stoneley wave and it is properly described by the Biot's model at frequencies below 40 kHz. At higher frequencies, a systematic underestimation of the theoretical predictions is found, which can be attributed to the existence of other losses mechanisms neglected in the Biot formulation. Higher-order guided modes associated with the compressional wave in the porous formation and the cylindrical geometry of the shock tube were excited, and detailed information was obtained on the frequency-dependent phase velocity and attenuation in highly porous and permeable materials. The measured attenuation of the guided wave associated with the compressional wave reveals the presence of regular oscillatory patterns that can be attributed to radial resonances. This oscillatory behavior is also numerically predicted, although the measured attenuation values are one order of magnitude higher than the corresponding theoretical values. The phase velocities of the higher-order modes are generally well predicted by theory.

Chao, Gabriel; Smeulders, D. M. J.; van Dongen, M. E. H.

2006-05-01

212

Phase measurements on terahertz waves.  

PubMed

The change in phase of the free space terahertz (THz) electric field as a sample of material introduced into the THz beampath of a CW THz system is measured and used to calculate the index of refraction of materials at 250 GHz. PMID:24081031

Cordes, A H; Thomas, D H; von der Weid, J P

2013-10-01

213

Improvement of the seismic noise attenuation performance of the Monolithic Geometric Anti-Spring filters for gravitational wave interferometric detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monolithic Geometric Anti-Spring (GAS) filter is one of the most efficient vertical seismic isolation devices for Gravitational Wave (GW) interferometers. However, the attenuation of this filter was previously limited to around 60 dB due to the high frequency saturation associated with the filter's distributed mass—a problem typical of passive mechanical filters. We show that it is possible to circumvent this limit using a compensation wand based on the Center Of Percussion (COP) effect. When this device is mounted in parallel with the blade springs of a GAS filter, attenuation improves to 80 dB in the region above 10 Hz. Using this device it is therefore possible to design simpler attenuation chains consisting of fewer stages.

Stochino, Alberto; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Huang, Yumei; Sannibale, Virginio

2007-10-01

214

Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system's density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior-and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions-are suggested and discussed.

Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

2014-11-01

215

Weak Measurement and (Bohmian) Conditional Wave Functions  

E-print Network

It was recently pointed out (and demonstrated experimentally) by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be "directly measured" using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a (perhaps entangled) multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called "conditional wave function" of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics (uniquely) makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system's density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian "conditional density matrix" as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior -- and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions -- are suggested and discussed.

Travis Norsen; Ward Struyve

2013-05-10

216

CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attenuation and cross-polarization isolation at 11.7 GHz, measured at Austin, Texas by receiving the circularly polarized emissions from the CTS satellite are presented. A 12 month summary for Feb 78 to Jan 79 is presented. For .016 percent of the time the attenuation was greater than 10 dB, the isolation was less than 21 dB and the rainrate exceeded 55 mm/hr. Ice depolarization was observed frequently.

Vogel, W. J.

1979-01-01

217

Understanding differences between OTDR and cut-back attenuation measurements in multimode graded index fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In measuring the attenuation of multimode graded index fiber, differences have been noted between the results of the cut-back method and the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) method. Under certain conditions, the OTDR results can be higher by 0.1 to 0.3 dB\\/km than the cut-back results. In attempting to understand the origin of these differences, we have characterized the attenuation

M. Smith; D. Roland

1996-01-01

218

Attenuation of high frequency P and S waves in the crust of the East-Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simultaneously estimated Qp-1 and Qs-1 by applying the extended coda-normalization method at 39 stations of three local networks in the East-Central Iran. We measured frequency-dependent attenuation of both P and S waves for the frequency range of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hz. We have analysed 266 three-component seismograms of 53 local earthquakes, having focal depths less than 25 km, which occurred from 2003 December 28 to 2005 April 11. By fitting power-law frequency dependence to the estimated values over the whole stations, we obtained Qp-1 = (25 +/- 3) × 10-3 f (-0.99+/-0.04) and Qs-1 = (19 +/- 2) × 10-3 f(-1.02+/-0.06) in the upper crust of the East-Central Iran, where f is frequency in Hz. Our results are in the range of those estimated for Qp-1 and Qs-1 of the other seismically active regions.

Ma'hood, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Doloei, G. J.

2009-12-01

219

The Characteristics Of Intrinsic And Attenuative Dispersion Of Direct P-waves: Application In The Study Of Earthquake Precursory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Morlet wavelet multiple-filter method is applied to measure relative group delays from first cycle P waves, from eight CWBSN stations located near the source of the 1999 Chi Chi, and Chia-Yi, Taiwan earthquakes. The data used in this study is from the year between 1998 and 2000. The epicentral distance is less than 30 km with depth less than 25 km and ML?3.0. Using continuous relaxation model, we can relates intrinsic dispersion to attenuation and by applying the genetic algorithm (GA), we are able to determine Qp, which allows us to investigate the temporal variations of Qp before and after the occurrence of a large earthquake. Our results indicate that the Qp is highly sensitive to crack density. Before the occurrence of a large earthquake, Qp increases significantly, which indicates that the pre-seismic stress accumulation may associate with fluid-filled higher density fractured rock in the source area and causes crack density to increase. One interesting phenomena that we find is that Qp decreases right before the occurrence of a large earthquake, not after the occurrence of an earthquake. This observation implies that t the temporal variation pattern of Qp can serve as an important indicator for stress level change before an earthquake occurs, which also provides another perspective to understand the siemogeneric process in the source area.

Chen, C.; Weng, C.; Chang, W.

2007-12-01

220

Temperature Measurements of the Low-Attenuation Radiographic Ice Ball During CT-Guided Renal Cryoablation  

SciTech Connect

During renal cryoablation a low-attenuation area on CT develops around the cryoprobe. Knowledge of the temperature of the growing low-attenuation area can guide therapy and ensure lethal temperatures. Herein, we report thermocouple results and correlating CT images during the development of the low-attenuation 'radiographic ice ball.' Five patients who underwent percutaneous CT-guided renal cryoablation were identified who had thermocouples inserted and serial intraprocedural CT images that included images with thermocouple measurements of 0{sup o} and sub-0{sup o}C. Thermocouples had been percutaneously placed just beyond the edge of the tumors either to ensure adequate cooling or to ensure safety to adjacent critical structures. Renal cryotherapy under CT guidance produced a growing low-attenuation area corresponding to the radiographic ice ball. When the thermocouple measured 0{sup o}C, CT images showed the thermocouple tip at the edge of the low-attenuation ice ball. At lower temperatures the tip was within the low-attenuation ice ball. We conclude that knowledge of the temperature at the ice ball edge during cryoablation can be used to predict the extent of tissue necrosis and thus provide an estimate of cryotherapy effectiveness during the procedure. Further work is necessary to establish a firm relationship between the thermal conditions and the zone of damage.

Permpongkosol, Sompol [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute (United States); Link, Richard E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Scott Department of Urology (United States); Kavoussi, Louis R. [North Shore LIJ Health System, Institute for Urology (United States); Solomon, Stephen B. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: Solomons@mskcc.org

2008-01-15

221

Spectroscopic measurement of an atomic wave function  

SciTech Connect

We present a simple spectroscopic method based on Autler-Townes spectroscopy to determine the center-of-mass atomic wave function. The detection of spontaneously emitted photons from a three-level atom, in which two upper levels are driven by a classical standing light, yields information about the position and momentum distribution of the atom [A. M. Herkommer, W. P. Schleich, and M. S. Zubairy, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2507 (1997)]. In this paper, we show that both the amplitude and phase information of the center-of-mass atomic wave function can be obtained from these distributions after a series of conditional measurements on the atom and the emitted photon.

Kapale, Kishore T. [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Qamar, Shahid [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2003-02-01

222

Validation of RADARSAT-2 Polarimetric SAR Measurements of Ocean Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four C-band fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) images of ocean waves from the RADARSAT-2 SAR are used to measure ocean slopes and wave spectra. A new technique has been developed to measure wave slopes in the SAR azimuth and range directions. The POLSAR ocean wave parameter measurements were validated with in situ observations from an NOAA National Data buoy

Yijun He; Biao Zhang; William Perrie

2009-01-01

223

The effect of methane hydrate morphology and water saturation on seismic wave attenuation in sand under shallow sub-seafloor conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of seismic wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments is needed for the improved geophysical quantification of seafloor methane hydrates, important for climate change, geohazard and economic resource assessment. Hence, we conducted a series of small strain (<10-6), seismic frequency (50-550 Hz), laboratory resonant column experiments on synthetic methane hydrate-bearing sands under excess-water seafloor conditions. The results show a complex dependence of P- and S-wave attenuation on hydrate saturation and morphology. P- and S-wave attenuation in excess-water hydrate-bearing sand is much higher than in excess-gas hydrate-bearing sand and increases with hydrate saturation between 0 and 0.44 (the experimental range). Theoretical modelling suggests that load-bearing hydrate is an important cause of heightened attenuation for both P- and S-waves in gas and water saturated sands, while pore-filling hydrate also contributes significantly to P-wave attenuation in water saturated sands. A squirt flow attenuation mechanism, related to microporous hydrate and low aspect ratio pores at the interface between sand grains and hydrate, is thought to be responsible for the heightened levels of attenuation in hydrate-bearing sands at low hydrate saturations (<0.44).

Best, Angus I.; Priest, Jeffrey A.; Clayton, Christopher R. I.; Rees, Emily V. L.

2013-04-01

224

Structure of the Cocos subduction zone in central and southern Mexico from three-dimensional body-wave attenuation and travel time tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D P- and S-wave attenuation and velocity structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico is imaged using seismic events recorded by the MASE (100 seismometers running across central Mexico, 2005-2007) and VEOX (47 seismometers running across southern Mexico, 2007-2009) arrays, supplemented by stations from the National Seismic Network in Mexico (SSN). Using a spectral-decay method, we obtain a path attenuation operator t* for each seismogram in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for 3D spatial variations in attenuation. Direct body-wave arrivals from local events are used for 3D velocity inversion. Deeper velocity structures along MASE and VEOX arrays are obtained by including teleseismic events. Inversion results show low attenuation associated with the Cocos slab, and show the slab dip angle increases from central to southern Mexico. High attenuation is imaged in the mantle wedge and the crust above. The highest attenuation is found in the crust near the active Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, probably related to the dehydration and melting process. Low velocity is observed in the mantle wedge and the crust above from velocity inversion. The Cocos slab is traced as high-velocity structure. The Cocos slab dips down to about 500 km in central Mexico along MASE array as shown by previous study (Perez-Campos, GRL, 2008). In southern Mexico along VEOX line, no clear continuous Cocos slab is observed deeper than about 150 km, which is also found by receiver function studies (Kim et al., in press; Perez-Campos et al., in press). There are some indications that the Cocos slab in southern Mexico near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is truncated by some high-velocity structure dipping south from the Gulf of Mexico. This anomalous south-dipping structure is also seen in receiver function images, and may be related to the collision between the Yucatan Block and Mexico in the Miocene (Kim et al., in press).

Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.

2011-12-01

225

Measurement of Equivalent Dielectric Parameters of Sandstorms from the Microwave Attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory is presented for one method of determining the equivalent dielectric parameters of sand storms from microwave propagation measurement over a line of sight link. The method required the transmission of linear polarized or circle-polarized signal and attenuation measurement. The equivalent dielectric parameters of sandstorms determined at frequencies of 33.5 GHz and 93 GHz over a terrestrial link.

Y. Yan; J. Y. Huang

2000-01-01

226

The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

Generazio, E. R.

1984-01-01

227

Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography.  

PubMed

The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation. PMID:20702925

Chen, R C; Longo, R; Rigon, L; Zanconati, F; De Pellegrin, A; Arfelli, F; Dreossi, D; Menk, R-H; Vallazza, E; Xiao, T Q; Castelli, E

2010-09-01

228

Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

2010-09-01

229

Measurement of neutron attenuation through thick shields and comparison with calculation  

SciTech Connect

The large neutrino experiments conducted over the last several years at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) have provided the opportunity to measure the effects of neutron attenuation in very thick shields. These experiments have featured detectors with active masses of 6 to 150 tons and shield thicknesses ranging from 3000 to 5280 g/cm{sup 2}. An absolute measurement of the high-energy neutron flux was made from the beam stop in a neutrino cave at ninety degrees and nine meters from the beam stop. Differential neutron shielding measurements in iron were also performed, resulting in an attenuation length of 148 g/cm{sup 2}. These measurements allow for the testing of radiation shielding codes for deep penetration problems. The measured flux and attenuation length is compared to calculations using the LAHET Code System (LCS). These codes incorporate biasing techniques, allowing for direct calculation of deep penetration shielding problems. Calculations of the neutron current and attenuation length are presented and compared with measured values. Results from the shielding codes show good agreement with the measured values.

Bull, J.S.; Donahue, J.B.; Burman, R.L.

1998-12-31

230

Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation in the East Anatolia Fault Zone, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the attenuation of coda waves Q c( f) has been estimated for different lapse times and frequencies in the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) in Turkey using a single back-scattering model of S-coda envelopes. The data include 255 earthquakes recorded by ten stations. The frequency-dependent Q c values are estimated at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 8, 12, and 18 Hz using 20-30-40 s lapse time windows. Along this fault zone, the frequency-dependent Q c obtained for all data and lapse time is Q c = 57.5 f 0.82. The entire study area is divided into six subregions according to the magnitude of the earthquakes and the location of the fault segments. The estimated average frequency-dependent relation for all lapse times are; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{I}} )}} }} = 3 4. 3f^{0. 9 3} for Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{II}} )}} }} = 56.3f^{0.71} for Bingol-Lake Hazar segment; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{III}} )}} }} = 68.5f^{0.75} for Lake Hazar-Sincik segment; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{IV}} )}} }} = 72.5f^{0.78} Hazar-Sincik and Çelikhan-Gölba?? faults; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{V}} )}} }} = 59.7f^{0.87} for Kahramanmaras triple junction and Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{VI}} )}} }} = 67.4f^{0.94} for Amanos Range and Karasu Basin. The lowest Q c is determined between Bingol and Malatya. The highest Q c value is along Amanos Range. In addition, Q c values are calculated for each regions at different lapse times. The average Q c value of the study region varies from 53 ± 11 at 1.5 Hz to 498 ± 41 at 18 Hz for 20 s lapse time window, as its variation is from 116 ± 11 at 1.5 Hz to 749 ± 75 at 18 Hz of central frequency for 40 s lapse time window. The increase of Q c with lapse times changes from one subregion to another along the fault zone. The rate of increment is significantly higher in Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction than in the other subregions. This rapid increase of low Q c values in the junction reaches the general attenuation characteristics of the fault at 40 s lapse time. Finally, the low Q 0 and high n values can be attributed to the energy loss as a result of the heterogeneity and activity along the fault zone. The increase of Q c with frequency, lapse time may be related to heterogeneity decreases with depth. The rapid increase of Q c with depth in Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction may be interpreted that the effect of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone is effective in the upper crust is not so deep compared to EAFZ.

Sertçelik, Fadime

2012-07-01

231

Investigation of the tone-burst tube for duct lining attenuation measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tone burst technique makes practical the laboratory evaluation of potential inlet and discharge duct treatments. Tone burst apparatus requires only simple machined parts and standard components. Small, simply made, lining samples are quickly and easily installed in the system. Two small electromagnetric loudspeaker drivers produce peak sound pressure level of over 166 db in the 3-square-inch sample duct. Air pump available in most laboratories can produce air flows of over plus and minus Mach 0.3 in the sample duct. The technique uses short shaped pulses of sound propagated down a progressive wave tube containing the sample duct. The peak pressure level output of the treated duct is compared with the peak pressure level output of a substituted reference duct. The difference between the levels is the attenuation or insertion loss of the treated duct. Evaluations of resonant absorber linings by the tone burst technique check attenuation values predicted by empirical formulas based on full scale ducts.

Soffel, A. R.; Morrow, P. F.

1972-01-01

232

The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.

Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.

1980-01-01

233

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from preseismic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

2013-08-01

234

Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-print Network

The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser data and the results will be discussed.

Laura Valore; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-02-25

235

Blood glucose measurement by using hollow optical fiber-based attenuated total reflection probe.  

PubMed

A noninvasive glucose monitoring system based on mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection spectroscopy using a hollow optical fiber probe is developed. Owing to the flexible fiber probe, measurement of oral mucosa, where blood capillaries are near the skin surface, is possible. Blood glucose levels are measured by detecting the peak intensity of glucose absorption bands, and the experimental results showed that the reproducibility of the measurement is high enough for monitoring blood glucose. PMID:24849387

Kino, Saiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Matsuura, Yuji

2014-05-01

236

Blood glucose measurement by using hollow optical fiber-based attenuated total reflection probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A noninvasive glucose monitoring system based on mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection spectroscopy using a hollow optical fiber probe is developed. Owing to the flexible fiber probe, measurement of oral mucosa, where blood capillaries are near the skin surface, is possible. Blood glucose levels are measured by detecting the peak intensity of glucose absorption bands, and the experimental results showed that the reproducibility of the measurement is high enough for monitoring blood glucose.

Kino, Saiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Matsuura, Yuji

2014-05-01

237

Effect of Rain Attenuation for a 10Gb\\/s 120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Wireless Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the effects of rain attenuation on 120-GHz band wireless link during the heavy rainy period (from July to September, 2008) and annual period (from March to December, 2008). The heavy rainy period data are used as a basis for the wireless link design, and the annual data are used to calculate the reliability of the wireless link. The

Akihiko Hirata; Ryoichi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Toshihiko Kosugi; Koichi Murata; Naoya Kukutsu; Yuichi Kado

2009-01-01

238

Rain rate estimation from attenuation measurements using a 35 GHz dual polarization microwave link  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35 GHz dual polarization microwave link has been built at Penn State University. The operating principle of this instrument is essentially that of a pulsed bi-static radar. Rain attenuation measurements are made by placing a corner reflector in the beam of the antennas. Calibration and stability requirements are simplified compared to standard uni-directional propagation links. Taking the ratio of

C. S. Ruf; K. Aydin; S. Mathur

1994-01-01

239

CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of data obtained at The University of Texas at Austin during a total of 551 days of righthand circularly polarized transmission at 11.7 GHz from the CTS satellite are presented. Measured were attenuation, cross-polarization and rain rate. Results indicate that ice depolarization can be of significant importance.

Vogel, W. J.

1978-01-01

240

Measurements on variable optical attenuator based on ion-exchange waveguides in glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various measurements on Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) based on ion-exchange waveguides in glass are presented. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) was fabricated, and a thermo-optical effect was reached via heating electrodes besides the waveguides. The insertion loss (IL) of the device was 1dB, the dynamic range was 38dB and maximal power consumption was 138mW. Study concluded on the polarization origin allowed reduction of Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) to 0.2dB/0.6dB at 10dB/20dB attenuations respectively

Hurvitz, Tali; Ruschin, Shlomo; Brooks, David; Hurvitz, Gilad; Arad, Eli

2004-06-01

241

Active high-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity and attenuation structure at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California Cascade Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine compressional wave velocity and attenuation structures for the upper crust beneath Medicine Lake volcano in northeast California using a high-resolution active source seismic tomography method. Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the

John R. Evans; John J. Zucca

1988-01-01

242

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the vicinity of earthquakes observed in the upper ionosphere by the DEMETER satellite  

E-print Network

1 Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the vicinity of earthquakes of VLF electromagnetic waves observed in the upper ionosphere. A robust two-step data processing has been is the first satellite specially dedicated to observe the electromagnetic10 phenomena connected

Santolik, Ondrej

243

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed by the DEMETER satellite in the vicinity of  

E-print Network

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed frequency electromagnetic waves recorded in the upper ionosphere. Robust two-step data processing has been was the first satellite specifically dedicated to the recording of electromagnetic phenomena connected

Santolik, Ondrej

244

Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography  

E-print Network

A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. It is shown that the fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation, and the fractional Laplacian wave equation in the causal and non-causal forms all are low frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations while the former wave equations are ad hoc, heuristic equations. We show that this has consequences for use in modelling and simulation especially for applications that do not satisfy the low frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the preferred ones.

Holm, Sverre

2013-01-01

245

New method to measure the attenuation of hadrons in extensive air showers  

SciTech Connect

Extensive air showers are generated through interactions of high-energy cosmic rays impinging the Earth's atmosphere. A new method is described to infer the attenuation of hadrons in air showers. The numbers of electrons and muons, registered with the scintillator array of the KASCADE experiment, are used to estimate the energy of the shower inducing primary particle. A large hadron calorimeter is used to measure the hadronic energy reaching observation level. The ratio of energy reaching ground level to the energy of the primary particle is used to derive an attenuation length of hadrons in air showers. In the energy range from 10{sup 6} to 3x10{sup 7} GeV the attenuation length obtained increases from 170 to 210 g/cm{sup 2}. The experimental results are compared to predictions of simulations based on contemporary high-energy interaction models.

Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschlaeger, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

2009-07-15

246

Attenuation and Shock Waves in Linear Hereditary Viscoelastic Media; Strick-Mainardi, Jeffreys-Lomnitz-Strick and Andrade Creep Compliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

Hanyga, Andrzej

2014-09-01

247

Frequency-Dependent Squeeze Amplitude Attenuation and Squeeze Angle Rotation by Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Gravitational Wave Interferometers  

E-print Network

We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze amplitude attenuation and squeeze angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intra-cavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have several advantages over the previous filter designs with regard to optical losses, compactness, and the tunability of the filter linewidth.

Eugeniy E. Mikhailov; Keisuke Goda; Thomas Corbitt; Nergis Mavalvala

2005-08-25

248

Attenuation, dispersion, and anisotropy by multiple scattering of transmitted waves through distributions of scatterers  

E-print Network

approach to describe the effect of heterogeneity on the coherent wave as well as the coda for surface wave. These phenomena express the fact that the pulse loses coherence by which incoherent coda energy is created. First-order scattering theory violates the law of energy conservation and therefore cannot be used when the wave field

Snieder, Roel

249

Acoustic velocity and attenuation measurements in thin rods with application to temperature profiling in coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the application of ultrasonic thermometry for temperature profiling in the reactors of coal gasification plants. A temperature profiling sensor typically uses a thin rod with several notches to segregate the sensor length into various zones. An acoustic pulse transmitted through the multizone sensor is partially reflected back at each notch, and measurement of the time interval between each pair of the reflected signals provides an indication of the average temperature in the corresponding zone. The main contributions of this paper are (1) delineation of the reflection and transmission phenomenon of sound waves at a notch, (2) development of an improved method of attenuation measurement in single-zone and multizone sensors employing notches, and 3) determination of the acoustic properties, namely, velocity and attenuation of six candidate materials suitable to the gasifier environment in the temperature range from ambient to 1093/sup 0/C. Computer simulation was employed to analyze the reflected signals from the notches, and the simulation results were corroborated at each stage by experiments. 19 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A.C.

1984-01-01

250

Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.

2014-06-01

251

Attenuation length measurements of liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device  

E-print Network

The attenuation length measuring device was constructed by using oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested with a variety of ways, the test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10 plus or minus 0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.

L. Gao; BX. Yu; YY. Ding; L. Zhou; LJ. Wen; YG. Xie; ZG. Wang; X. Cai; XL. Sun; J. Fang; Z. Xue; AW. Zhang; QW. LÜ; LJ. Sun; YS. Ge; YB. Liu; SL. Niu; T. Hu; J. Cao; JG. LÜ

2013-05-07

252

Estimation of effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences for volumetric breast density measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast density has been identified to be a risk factor of developing breast cancer and an indicator of lesion diagnostic obstruction due to masking effect. Volumetric density measurement evaluates fibro-glandular volume, breast volume, and breast volume density measures that have potential advantages over area density measurement in risk assessment. One class of volume density computing methods is based on the finding of the relative fibro-glandular tissue attenuation with regards to the reference fat tissue, and the estimation of the effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences between the fibro-glandular and fat tissue is key to volumetric breast density computing. We have modeled the effective attenuation difference as a function of actual x-ray skin entrance spectrum, breast thickness, fibro-glandular tissue thickness distribution, and detector efficiency. Compared to other approaches, our method has threefold advantages: (1) avoids the system calibration-based creation of effective attenuation differences which may introduce tedious calibrations for each imaging system and may not reflect the spectrum change and scatter induced overestimation or underestimation of breast density; (2) obtains the system specific separate and differential attenuation values of fibroglandular and fat for each mammographic image; and (3) further reduces the impact of breast thickness accuracy to volumetric breast density. A quantitative breast volume phantom with a set of equivalent fibro-glandular thicknesses has been used to evaluate the volume breast density measurement with the proposed method. The experimental results have shown that the method has significantly improved the accuracy of estimating breast density.

Chen, Biao; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue; Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Kshirsagar, Ashwini

2014-03-01

253

Attenuation distance of low frequency waves upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock: GEOTAIL and ISEE 3 comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.

Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1995-01-01

254

Lee-Yang measures and wave functions  

E-print Network

We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for a Borel measure to be a Lee-Yang one which means that its Fourier transform possesses only real zeros. Equivalently, we answer a question of P\\'olya who asked for a characterisation of those positive positive, even and sufficiently fast decaying kernels whose Fourier transforms have only real zeros. The characterisation is given in terms of Wronskians of polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to the measure. The results show that Fourier transforms of a rather general class of measures can be approximated by symmetrized Slater determinants composed by orthogonal polynomials, that is, by some wave functions which are symmetric like the Boson ones. Brief comments on possible interpretation and applications of the main results in quantum and statistical mechanics, to Toda lattices and the general solution of the heat equation, are given. We discuss briefly the possibility of represent the Riemann $\\xi$ function as a partition function of a statistical mechanics system.

Dimitar K. Dimitrov

2013-11-04

255

Effect of duct shape, Mach number, and lining construction on measured suppressor attenuation and comparison with theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise attenuation was measured for several types of cylindrical suppressors that use a duct lining composed of honeycomb cells covered with a perforated plate. The experimental technique used gave attenuation data that were repeatable and free of noise floors and other sources of error. The suppressor length, the effective acoustic diameter, suppressor shape and flow velocity were varied. The agreement among the attenuation data and two widely used analytical models was generally satisfactory. Changes were also made in the construction of the acoustic lining to measure their effect on attenuation. One of these produced a very broadband muffler.

Olsen, W. A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Coats, J. W.

1972-01-01

256

Estimation of shear-wave interval attenuation from mode-converted data Bharath Shekar1  

E-print Network

be inverted for the interval attenuation parameters. The method is tested on multicomponent syn- thetic data sonic logs in sandstone formations with variable oil, water, and gas saturation and observes that QP due to the pre- sence of gas in the near-surface layers causes distortions in the amplitudes

Tsvankin, Ilya

257

Seismic velocities and attenuation from borehole measurements near the Parkfield prediction zone, Central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shear (S)- and compressional (P)- wave velocities were measured to a depth of 195 m in a borehole near the San Andreas fault where a recurrence of a moderate Parkfield earthquake is predicted. S-wave velocities determined from orthogonal directions of the S-wave source show velocity differences of approximately 20 percent. An average shear-wave Q of 4 was determined in relatively unconsolidated sands and gravels of the Paso Robles Formation in the depth interval 57.5-102.5 m.

Gibbs, James F.; Roth, Edward F.

1989-01-01

258

Determination of rain rate from a spaceborne radar using measurements of total attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies shows that path-integrated rain rates can be determined by means of a direct measurement of attenuation. For ground based radars this is done by measuring the backscattering cross section of a fixed target in the presence and absence of rain along the radar beam. A ratio of the two measurements yields a factor proportional to the attenuation from which the average rain rate is deduced. The technique is extended to spaceborne radars by choosing the ground as reference target. The technique is also generalized so that both the average and range-profiled rain rates are determined. The accuracies of the resulting estimates are evaluated for a narrow beam radar located on a low earth orbiting satellite.

Meneghini, R.; Eckerman, J.; Atlas, D.

1981-01-01

259

Nondestructive scheme for measuring the attenuation coefficient of polymer optical fiber.  

PubMed

Based on the fiber macrobending and the refractive index matching technologies, a measurement scheme is proposed to gauge the attenuation coefficient of polymer optical fibers in this Letter. It is noteworthy that, by realizing both the light injecting into and the light extracting out the fiber core via the fiber cladding, this scheme will not induce any destruction during the whole measurement. Some related experiments and the theoretical verifications are given together with the nondestructive measurement principle. The comparison between the experimental results of this scheme and that of the cut-back scheme indicates a good feasibility of our scheme. As a result, it is promised to have a potential application for achieving the on-line attenuation monitoring that has never been introduced. PMID:23455125

Lin, Xiao; Ren, Liyong; Liang, Jian

2013-02-15

260

Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth`s atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters` worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location.

Osterhuber, R. [Univ. of California, Soda Springs, CA (United States). Central Sierra Snow Lab.; Fehrke, F. [California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States); Condreva, K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1998-05-01

261

High pressure hugoniot measurements using mach waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, most dynamic shock compression experiments are conducted using a plane one-dimensional wave of uniaxial strain. In this case, the evaluation of the equation of state is simplified due to the geometry, but the amplitude of the induced shock wave is limited by the magnitude of the input load. In an effort to dramatically increase the range of pressures that can be accessed by traditional loading methods, a composite target assembly is examined. The target consists of two concentric cylinders aligned with the axial direction parallel to the loading. The target is designed such that on initial loading, the outer cylinder will have a higher shock velocity than the inner material of interest. Conically converging shocks will be generated at the interface between the two materials due to the impedance mismatch. Upon convergence, an irregular reflection occurs and the conical analog of a Mach reflection develops. The Mach reflection will grow until it reaches a steady state, at which point the wave configuration becomes self similar. The resulting high pressure Hugoniot state can then be measured using velocity interferometry and impedance matching. The technique is demonstrated using a planar mechanical impact generated by a powder gun to study the shock response of copper. Two systems are examined which utilize either a low impedance (6061-T6 aluminum) or a high impedance (molybdenum) outer cylinder. A multipoint VISAR experiment will be presented to validate the technique, and will be compared to numerical simulations. The feasibility of measuring an entire Hugoniot curve using full field velocity interferometry (ORVIS) will also be discussed.

Brown, Justin; Ravichandran, Guruswami

2012-03-01

262

Seismic-wave attenuation and yield determination at regional distances. Final report, 1 May 1987-30 April 1989  

SciTech Connect

Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q (sub beta) which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances > 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back-projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large-scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States, Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.

Mitchell, B.J.; Nuttli, O.W.; Xie, J.K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.

1989-05-25

263

Filter Paper: Solution to High Self-Attenuation Corrections in HEPA Filter Measurements  

SciTech Connect

An 8 by 8 by 6 inch High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter was measured as part of a uranium holdup survey in June of 2005 as it has been routinely measured every two months since 1998. Although the survey relies on gross gamma count measurements, this was one of a few measurements that had been converted to a quantitative measurement in 1998. The measurement was analyzed using the traditional Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) approach, using HMS3 software, with an area calibration and self-attenuation corrected with an empirical correction factor of 1.06. A result of 172 grams of {sup 235}U was reported. The actual quantity of {sup 235}U in the filter was approximately 1700g. Because of this unusually large discrepancy, the measurement of HEPA filters will be discussed. Various techniques for measuring HEPA filters will be described using the measurement of a 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter as an example. A new method to correct for self attenuation will be proposed for this measurement Following the discussion of the 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter, the measurement of the 8 by 8 by 6 inch will be discussed in detail.

Oberer, R.B.; Harold, N.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Brummett, M.; Chaing, L.G.

2005-10-01

264

Attenuated direct and scattered wave propagation on simulated land mobile satellite service paths in the presence of trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made of direct path with no trees, attenuated direct, and tree scattered signal levels at 1.3 GHz. Signals were received in two small groves of mixed hardwood trees. In the groves studied, average total signal levels were about 13 dB below adjacent no-trees locations, with attenuated direct signal levels about 14.6 dB below the no-trees case and scattered signals about 17.3 dB below the no-trees case. A simple model for land mobile satellite service (LMSS) propagation in groves of trees is proposed. The model assumes a constant scattered signal contribution at 17 dB below no-trees levels added to an attenuated direct signal which varies, depending on the number and density of trees in the direct path. When total signal levels are strong, the attenuated direct signal dominates. When total signal levels are more than 15 dB below no-trees levels, the scattered signals dominate.

Campbell, Richard L.; Estus, Robert

1988-01-01

265

Estimation of seabed sound speed and attenuation using broadband acoustic measurements from L-shaped arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step inversion algorithms using a cost function defined only by energy loss may not result in a unique solution of geo-acoustic inversion problem because of the coupling between seabed sound speed and attenuation [Zhou, Zhang, and Knobles, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 125, 2009]. The present paper utilizes different characteristics of normal modes, including modal dispersion and modal based spatial coherence, to define appropriate cost functions in a two-step inversion scheme for geo-acoustic parameter estimation. This inversion scheme is applied to the long rang broadband acoustic data obtained from L-shaped arrays in the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. The sound speed in the half-space basement over a frequency range of 18-160 Hz and the seabed attenuations over a frequency range of 50-500 Hz are estimated by minimizing the cost function at each step. The results show a nonlinear frequency dependence of attenuation, which is similar to the seabed attenuation derived from measured time series and Transmission Loss data at the same experimental site [Knobles, Wilson, Goff, and Cho, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124, 2008].

Wan, Lin; Badiey, Mohsen

2012-11-01

266

Interpretation of measured spectral attenuation curves of optical fibers by deconvolution with source spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays spectral attenuation measurements on optical fibers are performed using high- precision, commercially available measurement equipment and the cut-back technique. Most instruments use a combination of halogen lamp and monochromator and operate with spectral widths of 5-10 nm. Since the spectral width of the absorption peaks of Si-O-H bonds in standard silica fibers is of the same order of magnitude, a significant error is introduced into these measurements. Simulations show considerable distortion of the measured data. Basically, the measured curve is a convolution of the true attenuation curve and the source spectral distribution. When measured curves are to be interpreted, the inverse problem, deconvolution of the respective curves, must be dealt with. The authors developed an algorithm to compute the true attenuation values from the measured data by numerically deconvoluting the measured curve with the source spectrum. It is show how the mathematical problem can be reduced to solving a system of linear equations. The algorithm is very unstable with respect to measurement errors, as a Monte-Carlo simulation shows. The necessary stability for practical purposes is achieved by fitting the data with a smooth function prior to the deconvolution. A procedure to deal with practical curves is derived: The measured data are first fitted with a special set of Gauss functions describing the OH-absorption peak at 1.4 micrometers . Then the numerical deconvolution is carried out with the source spectrum and the curve-fit performed earlier is repeated. By comparing the two fits and their parameter values, the influence of the spectral width is discussed.

Hoefle, Wolfgang

1991-09-01

267

Modification Of The Insertion Loss Method For Accurate Measurements Of Attenuation In A Installed Optical Link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are 3 popular methods for measuring of optical fiber attenuation i.e. cut-back, backscattering and insertion loss. In field applications the last two methods are frequently used in spite of the best accuracy of the first one. The backscattering has a disadvantage of limited dynamic range in comparison with the other two, but is very easy to apply. For the whole long link attenuation measurements the insertion loss method is in popular use. It's main drawback is an error resulting from unknown connector loss. This paper presents an explanation of all these methods with error analysis as well as field tested modification of the insertion loss method aimed to eliminate errors caused by connector loss.

Kowar, Julian; Pacewicz, Maciej; Zielinski, Andrzej

1986-11-01

268

Development of far infrared attenuation to measure electron densities in cw pin discharge lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two beam attenuation technique was devised to measure electron densities 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 11th power cm/3 resolved to 1 cm, in a near atmospheric COFFEE laser discharge, using 496 micrometer and 1,220 micrometer radiations from CH3F, optically pumped by a CO2 laser. A far infrared generator was developed which was suitable except for a periodic intensity variation in FIR output deriving from frequency variation of the pump radiation.

Babcock, R. V.

1977-01-01

269

Extraordinary views of ordinary galaxies: Multiwavelength measures of star formation and attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meaningful comparison of models of galaxy evolution to observations is critically dependent on the accurate treatment of dust attenuation. To investigate dust absorption and emission in galaxies we have assembled a sample of ~1000 galaxies from the ultrviolet (UV) through the Infrared (IR) by the GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer observatories. The ratio of IR to UV emission (IRX) is used to constrain the dust attenuation in galaxies. We consider this measure in optically red galaxies making several simplfying assumptions we estimate the fraction of IR emission due to the heating of by old stars to be as much as 99%. We use the 4000Å break as a robust and useful, though coarse, indicator of star formation history (SFH). Dust attenuation and star formation history (SFH) are the dominant factors affecting the color of galaxies. We explore the empirical relation between SFH, attenuation, and color (especially the UV color) for a wide range of galaxies, including early types. This relation is compared to models that separately predict the effects of dust and SFH on color. We perform fits to the relation between SFH, attenuation, and color, which links the production of starlight and its absorption by dust to the subsequent reemmision of the absorbed light in the IR. Galaxy models that self-consistently treat dust absorption and emission as well as stellar populations will need to reproduce these fitted relations in the low-redshift universe. We construct estimates of dust attenuation and star formation rate (SFR) from the UV and IR photmetry and compare them to optical indicators, including the SFR b of Brinchmann et al. (2004). We find that there is a significant trend of the ratio of SFR b to the IR+UV luminosity with D n (4000) that cannot be explained as due to the additional IR emission from dust heatred by old stars. We find that the dust attenuation inferred from the ratio of optical emission lines is ~ 2-3 times higher than that inferred from IRX for a wide range of galaxies, consistent with the the interpretation that very young stars are enshrouded by more dust than slightly older stars.

Johnson, Benjamin D.

2008-01-01

270

Sparse signal reconstruction from polychromatic X-ray CT measurements via mass attenuation discretization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer's law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach for reconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ?1-norm penalty terms. We propose a two-step scheme for refining the mass attenuation discretization grid by using higher sampling rate over the range with higher photon energy, and eliminating the discretization points that have little effect on accuracy of the forward projection model. This refinement allows us to successfully handle the characteristic lines (Dirac impulses) in the incident energy density spectrum. We compare the proposed method with the standard filtered backprojection, which ignores the polychromatic nature of the measurements and sparsity of the image density map. Numerical simulations using both realistic simulated and real x-ray ct data are presented.

Gu, Renliang; Dogandži?, Aleksandar

2014-02-01

271

High frequency ultrasound measurements of the attenuation and backscatter from biological tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are now diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices that operate at very high frequencies (VHF) of 20 MHz and beyond for clinical applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to better interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, knowledge of ultrasonic attenuation and scattering of biological tissues in this high frequency range is crucial. Though currently VHF ultrasound is applied mostly to the eye and skin tissue, in this thesis, VHF experiments were performed on porcine red blood cell suspensions and bovine myocardium, liver, and kidney because these tissues are easy to obtain, are similar in structure to their human counterparts and have been used in ultrasound experiments by many investigators but in a lower frequency range. Attenuation and backscatter coefficients of porcine blood and bovine tissues were measured, respectively, using substitution methods. Unfocused and focused transducers were employed in the experiments and corresponding results were compared. This dissertation presents the results of measurements of acoustic attenuation and backscatter from various biological materials (bovine myocardium, liver, and kidney, and porcine blood) in a wide frequency range (10 to 90 MHz) and compares them to previous lower frequency results. Based on the methods used to calculate the acoustic parameters, the frequency limits of the measurements are also defined.

Maruvada, Subha

272

Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: first results on cyst fluid.  

PubMed

Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to better characterize cysts at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development is hampered by the lack of attenuation data for cysts. We have developed a method to measure x-ray attenuation of tissue samples using a prototype photon-counting spectral mammography unit. The method was applied to measure the attenuation of 50 samples of breast cyst fluid and 50 samples of water. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The attenuation of cyst fluid was found to be significantly different from water. There was a relatively large natural spread between different samples of cyst fluid, whereas the homogeneity of each individual sample was found to be good; the variation within samples did not reach above the quantum noise floor. The spectral method proved stable between several measurements on the same sample. Further, chemical analysis and elemental attenuation calculation were used to validate the spectral measurement on a subset of the samples. The two methods agreed within the precision of the elemental attenuation calculation over the mammographic energy range. PMID:24254377

Fredenberg, Erik; Dance, David R; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; von Tiedemann, Miriam; Young, Kenneth C; Wallis, Matthew G

2013-12-21

273

Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: first results on cyst fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to better characterize cysts at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development is hampered by the lack of attenuation data for cysts. We have developed a method to measure x-ray attenuation of tissue samples using a prototype photon-counting spectral mammography unit. The method was applied to measure the attenuation of 50 samples of breast cyst fluid and 50 samples of water. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The attenuation of cyst fluid was found to be significantly different from water. There was a relatively large natural spread between different samples of cyst fluid, whereas the homogeneity of each individual sample was found to be good; the variation within samples did not reach above the quantum noise floor. The spectral method proved stable between several measurements on the same sample. Further, chemical analysis and elemental attenuation calculation were used to validate the spectral measurement on a subset of the samples. The two methods agreed within the precision of the elemental attenuation calculation over the mammographic energy range.

Fredenberg, Erik; Dance, David R.; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; von Tiedemann, Miriam; Young, Kenneth C.; Wallis, Matthew G.

2013-12-01

274

Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of wave attenuation through artificial vegetation  

E-print Network

density, wave period, plant type, and water depth with respect to stem length. In wetland regions vegetation is one of the main factors influencing hydraulic roughness. Traditional open-channel flow equations, including the Manning and Darcy- Weisbach...

Augustin, Lauren Nicole

2009-05-15

275

Attenuation of P and S waves in a magma chamber in Long Valley caldera, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow earthquakes around the southwest boundary of Long Valley caldera, west of the Hilton Creek Fault, are characterized by lack of s-waves at regional seismic network stations to the northwest, north and northeast, and P-waves for these same station-event combinations are deficient in frequencies higher than about 2-3 Hz. Earthquakes east of the Hilton Creek fault and southeast of the

Floriana Ryall; Alan Ryall

1981-01-01

276

Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system  

E-print Network

My view on the meaning of the quantum wave function and its connection to protective measurements is described. The wave function and only the wave function is the ontology of the quantum theory. Protective measurements support this view although they do not provide a decisive proof. A brief review of the discovery and the criticism of protective measurements is presented. Protective measurements with postselection are discussed.

Lev Vaidman

2014-01-26

277

Shock propagation and attenuation in Green River oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock waves produced by planar impact of thin plates onto samples of oil shale are monitored with time-resolved velocity interferometer diagnostics. Peak shock stresses are below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Stress wave measurements at successive sample thickness are analysed to determine the experimental shock energy attenuation with propagation distance. Shock attenuation is attributed to stress wave scattering at planes of oil shale kerogen within the shale matrix. Wave scattering from planar defects are evaluated from a shock physics perspective and a scattering model is constructed that sensibly reproduces the experimental observation of shock energy attenuation.

Grady, D. E.

2014-05-01

278

Measuring the speed of cosmological gravitational waves  

E-print Network

In general relativity gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, however in alternative theories of gravity that might not be the case. We study the effects of a modified speed of gravity, $c_T^2$, on the B-modes of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy in polarisation. We find that a departure from the light speed value would leave a characteristic imprint on the BB spectrum part induced by tensors, manifesting as a shift in the angular scale of its peaks. We derive constraints by using the available {\\it Planck} and BICEP2 datasets showing how $c_T^2$ can be measured, albeit obtaining weak constraints due to the overall poor accuracy of the current BB power spectrum measurements. The present constraint corresponds to $c_T^2 = 1.30 \\pm 0.79$ and $c_T^2< 2.85$ at $95%$ C.L. by assuming a power law primordial tensor power spectrum and $c_T^2<2.33$ at $95%$ C.L. if the running of the spectral index is allowed. We derive forecasts for the next generation CMB satellites, which we find capable of tightly constraining $c_T^2$ at percent level, comparable with bounds from binary pulsar measurements, largely due to the absence of degeneracy with other cosmological parameters.

Marco Raveri; Carlo Baccigalupi; Alessandra Silvestri; Shuang-Yong Zhou

2014-05-30

279

High-frequency Po/So guided waves in the oceanic lithosphere: II-heterogeneity and attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western Pacific, high-frequency seismic energy is carried to very great distances from the source. The Po and So phases with observed seismic velocities characteristic of the mantle lithosphere have complex and elongated waveforms that are well explained by a model of stochastic heterogeneity. However, in the eastern part of the Pacific Basin equivalent paths show muted Po and weak, or missing, So. Once established, it is hard to eliminate such guided Po and So energy in the mantle lithosphere by purely structural effects. Even sharp changes in lithospheric thickness or complex transitions at fracture zones only weaken the mantle ducted wave trains, but Po and So remain distinct. In contrast, the effect of attenuation is much more severe and can lead to suppression of the So phase to below the noise level after passage of a few hundred kilometres. The differing characteristics of Po and So across the Pacific can therefore be related directly to the thermal state via the enhanced attenuation in hotter regions, such as the spreading ridges and backarc regions.

Kennett, B. L. N.; Furumura, T.; Zhao, Y.

2014-10-01

280

An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error and Effect Attenuation in Bipollutant Epidemiologic Models  

PubMed Central

Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult to interpret. Objectives: We aimed to quantify relationships between multiple pollutants and their associated exposure errors across metrics of exposure and to use empirical values to evaluate potential attenuation of coefficients in epidemiologic models. Methods: We used three daily exposure metrics (central-site measurements, air quality model estimates, and population exposure model estimates) for 193 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area from 1999 through 2002 for PM2.5 and its components (EC and SO4), as well as O3, CO, and NOx, to construct three types of exposure error: ?spatial (comparing air quality model estimates to central-site measurements), ?population (comparing population exposure model estimates to air quality model estimates), and ?total (comparing population exposure model estimates to central-site measurements). We compared exposure metrics and exposure errors within and across pollutants and derived attenuation factors (ratio of observed to true coefficient for pollutant of interest) for single- and bipollutant model coefficients. Results: Pollutant concentrations and their exposure errors were moderately to highly correlated (typically, > 0.5), especially for CO, NOx, and EC (i.e., “local” pollutants); correlations differed across exposure metrics and types of exposure error. Spatial variability was evident, with variance of exposure error for local pollutants ranging from 0.25 to 0.83 for ?spatial and ?total. The attenuation of model coefficients in single- and bipollutant epidemiologic models relative to the true value differed across types of exposure error, pollutants, and space. Conclusions: Under a classical exposure-error framework, attenuation may be substantial for local pollutants as a result of ?spatial and ?total with true coefficients reduced by a factor typically < 0.6 (results varied for ?population and regional pollutants). Citation: Dionisio KL, Baxter LK, Chang HH. 2014. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement error and effect attenuation in bipollutant epidemiologic models. Environ Health Perspect 122:1216–1224;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307772 PMID:25003573

Baxter, Lisa K.; Chang, Howard H.

2014-01-01

281

Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

2008-01-01

282

Synthetic aperture radar imaging of ocean waves: Comparison with wave measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar images of ocean waves were obtained in conjunction with reference wave data near Marineland, Florida, December 14, 1975. Each of the various types of measurements were processed into a form that allowed direct comparisons with the others. Maxima of radar spectra occurred at the same frequencies as the maxima of reference wave height spectra. In a comparison

William McLeish; Duncan Ross; Robert A. Shuchman; Paul G. Teleki; S. Vincent Hsiao; O. H. Shemdin; W. E. Brown

1980-01-01

283

Measuring rms wave height and the scalar ocean wave spectrum with HF skywave radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of rms wave height and the scalar ocean wave frequency spectrum were made by inverting high-frequency (HF) skywave radar-measured sea-echo Doppler spectra. Whereas low-power surface-wave radars can make these measurements out to approximately 100 km from the radar, coverage out to 3000 km can be obtained with skywave radars that illuminate the sea via a single ionospheric reflection. To demonstrate this capability, we used the Wide Aperture Research Faculty (WARF) HF skywave radar to measure Pacific Ocean sea backscatter near NOAA data buoy EB 20 during the passage of an at mospheric cold front. The height of the wind-generated waves measured at the buoy doubled within a 6-h period. Two new analysis techniques were used to derive rms wave height and the scalar ocean wave frequency spectrum from radar echoes. Estimates of rms wave height were made east and west of the front by using a power-law relation that was derived from theoretical simulations of the sea-echo Doppler spectrum for a wide range of wave conditions. Two of the rms wave height estimates were compared with the estimates made at EB 20 at two different times and are in agreement to within 7 and 17%, respectively. Scalar wave spectrum and rms wave height estimates were made by matching a theoretical Doppler spectrum derived in terms of a five-parameter model of the wind-wave spectrum to the measured Doppler spectrum. The radar and buoy estimates of the rms wave height agree within 7%. Agreement between the WARF-derived and buoy-derived rms wave height and wave spectra is within the combined experimental error of the buoy and the radar measurements.

Maresca, Joseph W.; Georges, T. M.

1980-05-01

284

Theoretical examination of the growth and attenuation of acoustic and entropy waves in ideal Faraday generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a theoretical investigation of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and acoustic and entropy waves in a partially ionized gas are presented. The simulation uses for the first time actual property curve fits for a coal-combustion plasma rather than the perfect gas relationships that were used in previous studies. The working fluid employed was a combustion plasma from

Manohar R. Kulkarni; John P. Barton

1989-01-01

285

S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10

Raúl R. Castro; Francesca Pacor; Alfio Sala; Carmine Petrungaro

1996-01-01

286

Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver

Jianghai Xia; Richard D. Miller; Choon B. Park; James A. Hunter; James B. Harris; Julian Ivanov

2002-01-01

287

Another Approach to Model Attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation in the upper crust is a complex problem and a full understanding of where intrinsic attenuation remains problematic. This is particularly true in earth materials saturated with highly viscous liquids such as magma or bitumens. In fluid saturated materials, attenuation mechanisms have focused primarily on global and local type of fluid displacements. That is, the mechanisms have assumed that attenuation was produced only by fluid motions relative to the solids. Less emphasis has been placed on the potential mechanism for absorption within the fluids themselves. Here, we examine the mechanism of attenuation within the fluids themselves via rheological relaxation theory approach. In particular, the role of viscosity is generally examined with results on the frequency dependence on wave speed dispersion and attenuation. The evolution of elastic waveforms through such absorbing materials are also studied to evaluate the potential effects on seismic wave propagation. This work may also have implications towards the use of ultrasonic laboratory measurements in the interpretation of seismic frequency measurements.

Schmitt, D. R.; Qi, X.

2006-12-01

288

Measurement of dispersion and attenuation in granular media using a filter-correlation method.  

PubMed

A wideband technique for measuring sound dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation in granular media is presented. The measurements were done on a mono-disperse medium of 2-cm solid polypropylene balls, over the frequency range of 500 Hz-20 kHz, enough to cover both weak- and strong-scattering regimes. A horn driver was used to launch sound into a foam-lined bucket containing the granular medium. The latter was mechanically isolated from the driver so as to minimize direct-contact coupling. The foam isolation was not enough, especially at resonances of the bucket-granular system. To account for the mass loading of the bucket by the granulars, the response of the bucket wall was measured by laser Doppler vibrometry both without and with the granulars. The response of the granular medium itself was extracted from the overall response through successive measurements of the individual responses of the driver, driver + bucket, and driver + bucket + granular. The frequency-dependent wavenumber of the granular is obtained by a filter-correlation method, using the driver response as reference. After successive bandpass filtering, the phase speed and attenuation are obtained within each band, respectively, by signal alignment and amplitude log ratio. PMID:25235302

O'Connor, Caleb; Petculescu, Andi

2014-04-01

289

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

2002-05-01

290

Measuring rms Wave Height and the Scalar Ocean Wave Spectrum With HF Skywave Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of rms wave height and the scalar ocean wave frequency spectrum were made by inverting high-frequency (HF) skywave radar-measured sea-echo Doppler spectra. Whereas low-power surface- wave radars can make these measurements out to approximately 100 km from the radar, coverage out to 3000 km can be obtained with skywave radars that illuminate the sea via a single ionospheric reflection.

Joseph W. Maresca; T. M. Georges

1980-01-01

291

Differential spectral attenuation measurements at microwaves in a LEO-LEO satellites radio occultation geometry: a novel approach for limiting scintillation effects in tropospheric water vapor measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DSA (Differential Spectral Attenuation) approach, presented in a companion paper in this conference's proceedings, has the potential to provide the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along the propagation path between two Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. The interest towards the DSA, based on the ratio of simultaneous measurements of the total attenuation at two relatively

Luca Facheris; Enrica Martini; Fabrizio Cuccoli; Fabrizio Argenti

2004-01-01

292

Sub-wavelength position measurements with running wave driving fields  

E-print Network

A scheme for sub-wavelength position measurements of quantum particles is discussed, which operates with running-wave laser fields as opposed to standing wave fields proposed in previous setups. The position is encoded in the phase of the applied fields rather than in the spatially modulated intensity of a standing wave. Therefore, disadvantages of standing wave schemes such as cases where the atom remains undetected since it is at a node of the standing wave field are avoided. Reversing the directions of parts of the driving laser fields allows to switch between different magnification levels, and thus to optimize the localization.

J. Evers; S. Qamar

2009-01-29

293

Electron density measurements of argon surface-wave discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron density of microwave-generated surface-wave discharges in argon have been measured using Stark broadening and calculated from the measured wavelengths of the standing surface wave. Results obtained from these two techniques compare well. The electron density varies from 1013 to 1014\\/cm3 for pressures ranging from 50 to 800 torr.

M. Brake; J. Rogers; M. Peters; J. Asmussen; R. Kerber

1985-01-01

294

Attenuation of Spurious Oscillations in the Numerical Capture of Shock Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial viscosity is often expressed as a superposition of linear and quadratic terms in the first derivative of the velocity field. In trying to find a continuous solution for the hydrodynamic equations, we propose an alternative one-term artificial viscosity which is a linear form of the derivative of the specific volume. It is shown that this artificial viscosity is able to capture the profile of the steady plane shock wave, largely removing the non-physical oscillations originated by the artificial viscosity of von Neumann and Richtmyer. Analytical and numerical calculations for one-dimensional shock using both artificial viscosities are compared.

Portes, D.; Rodrigues, H.; Duarte, S. B.

295

Compressional Wave Q in the Uppermost Mantle Beneath the Tibetan Plateau Measured Using Pn Wave Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pn waves from three near-colocated seismic events in the eastern Tarim Basin are well-recorded by the INDEPTH III and II arrays, which are deployed from northern to southern Tibet with a small east-west spread (between ˜88 and 91° E). The paths run southward and sample the Tibetan mantle with epicentral distances increasing from 870 to 1540 km. These waves have spectral contents that are distinctly different from those collected from the Kyrghistan network (KNET), to which the paths traverse westward through the eastern Tienshan. Pn Q beneath Tibet and Tienshan must therefore be different. Xie and Patton (1999,JGR, 104, 941-954) have simultaneously estimated source spectra of the co-located events, and path-averaged Pn Q to the KNET stations. Under a simplified geometrical spreading of ? -1.3, they have estimated Q0 and ? (Pn Q at 1 Hz and its frequency dependence) to KNET to be about 360 and 0.5, respectively. Using those estimates as a priori knowledge, we estimate that Q0 and ? are ~180 and 0.3 along paths to northern Tibet, and ˜260 and 0.0 along paths to southern Tibet. The southward increase of Q0 correlates well with a similar increase in Pn velocity contained in previous tomographic images. Additionally, we measured Pn Q using a two-station method along two profiles (from station SANG to TUNL, and GANZ to MAQI) deployed during the 1991-1992 Sino-US Tibetan Plateau experiment. Both profiles are located to the east of 92° E. Along profile SANG-TUNL, we estimate Q0 and ? to be ˜270 and 0.0, respectively. The Q0 value is rather high, but correlates well with the high Pn velocities of > 8.1 km/s re-measured in this study. Our results suggest that the zone of low Pn Q0 and velocity in northern Tibet, which is likely caused by high mantle temperature and partial melting, is confined to the west of 92° E. This is so despite that the zone of high Sn attenuation extends to further east.

Xie, J.

2003-12-01

296

Interferometric Measurement of the Biphoton Wave Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interference between an unknown two-photon state (a "biphoton") and the two-photon component of a reference state gives a phase-sensitive arrival-time distribution containing full information about the biphoton temporal wave function. Using a coherent state as a reference, we observe this interference and reconstruct the wave function of single-mode biphotons from a low-intensity narrow band squeezed vacuum state.

Beduini, Federica A.; Zieli?ska, Joanna A.; Lucivero, Vito G.; de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A.; Mitchell, Morgan W.

2014-10-01

297

Attenuation of the S+Lg+Surface Wave Group out to 600 km in Northeastern North America: A Baseline Study?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the S+Lg+surface wave groups radiated out to 600 km by four moderate (4 ? M ? 5) earthquakes in Quebec, New York, and Maine: the 1997 Cap Rouge, 2002 Ausable Forks, 2005 Rivière du Loup, and 2006 Bar Harbor earthquakes. The raypaths predominately sample the Appalacian Province, and the crustal velocity structure is roughly homogeneous across the study area. We compute spectra using 20-60 s windows of the horizontal broadband components. We restrict our analysis to hard-rock (Vs > 1500 m/s) and soft-rock (Vs > 700 m/s) sites, avoiding resonant sedimentary sites; we model site amplification using average 1D impedance functions (Boore and Joyner, 1997). We use ro = 50 km instead of ro = 100 km for the crossover distance in the Street et al. (1975) function for geometrical spreading: this distance adjusts the corrected spectra at 10 s to the moment tensor estimates. This simple correction scheme allows us to regress for Q directly as a function of frequency: the source spectral shape is entirely unconstrained. Fitting a Qo f q function to the Q estimates from 0.2 to 25 Hz yields Q = 410 f 0.5 for a group velocity of 3.5 km/s. This attenuation is stronger than the Lg attenuation of 650 f 0.36 obtained by Erickson et al. (2004). The Q estimates are consistent for individual events. For f > 20 Hz, the Q estimates increase more rapidly than f 0.5: this deviation from the Qo f q form appears characteristic. To gauge how these Q estimates depend on the distance limit, we will rerun the analysis using broadband data out to 1000 km, adding 30% more recordings to the dataset.

Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L. C.

2009-12-01

298

Measurement of evanescent wave properties of a bulk acoustic wave resonator.  

PubMed

Acoustic wave fields in a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator are studied using a heterodyne laser interferometer. The measurement area is extended outside the active electrode region of the resonator, so that wave fields in both the active and surrounding regions can be characterized. At frequencies at which the region surrounding the resonator does not support laterally propagating acoustic waves, the analysis of the measurement data shows exponentially decaying amplitude fields outside the active resonator area, as suggested by theory. The magnitude of the imaginary wave vectors is determined by fitting an exponential function to the measured amplitude data, and thereby the experimentally determined dispersion diagram is extended into the region of imaginary wave numbers. PMID:22481792

Kokkonen, Kimmo; Meltaus, Johanna; Pensala, Tuomas; Kaivola, Matti

2012-03-01

299

Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

300

Terahertz reflection response measurement using a phonon polariton wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new technique for the measurement of terahertz reflection responses utilizing a propagating phonon polariton wave. Frequency tunable phonon polariton waves were generated by the recently developed continuously variable spatial frequency transient grating method [K. Katayama, H. Inoue, H. Sugiya, Q. Shen, T. Taro, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031906 (2008)]. The phonon polariton wave traveled in a ferroelectric crystal in an in-plane direction with an inclined angle of 26°, and the wave reflected at the crystal edge where a sample was positioned. The reflected polariton wave was detected by the same method as that used for the generation of the polariton waves. By comparing the reflection intensities in the presence and absence of the sample, reflectivity of the polariton wave was calculated, and the refractive index and absorption in the terahertz region were obtained.

Inoue, Hayato; Katayama, Kenji; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Nelson, Keith A.

2009-03-01

301

Global Measurements of Stratospheric Mountain Waves from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperatures acquired by the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) during shuttle mission STS-66 have provided measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space. Large-amplitude, long-wavelength mountain waves at heights of 15 to 30 kilometers above the southern Andes Mountains were observed and characterized, with vigorous wave breaking inferred above 30 kilometers. Mountain waves also occurred throughout the stratosphere (15 to 45 kilometers) over a broad mountainous region of central Eurasia. The global distribution of mountain wave activity accords well with predictions from a mountain wave model. The findings demonstrate that satellites can provide the global data needed to improve mountain wave parameterizations and hence global climate and forecast models.

Eckermann, Stephen D.; Preusse, Peter; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

302

Electron temperature measurements in plasmas with surface wave absorption and wave cutoff frequency  

SciTech Connect

A method for the measurements of electron temperature in the plasma using cutoff frequency and surface wave absorption frequency is described. The cutoff frequency, which gives directly the plasma density, is obtained from the transmission spectrum measured between two antennas exposed to the plasma. The surface wave absorption frequency, which has the information of the sheath determined by the electron density and the electron temperature, is obtained from the reflection spectrum measured at radiating antenna. The electron temperature is derived from the dispersion equation of the surface wave with the electron density measured from cutoff frequency.

Kim, Jung-Hyung; You, S. J.; Seong, Dae-Jin; Shin, Yong-Hyeon [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-11-12

303

Ultrasonic attenuation studies in deuterated and undeuterated chromium potassium alum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation of 10- and 30-MHz sound waves in deuterated and undeuterated chromium potassium alum have been measured over the temperature range 300–4.2 K. A very large attenuation peak occurs in the temperature range 70–160 K. It is believed that this is associated with phonon-phonon scattering.

R. E. Miller; M. H. Norwood; B. J. Marshall

1972-01-01

304

Compressive Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wave Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct measurement of a complex wave function has been recently realized by using weak values. In this Letter, we introduce a method that exploits sparsity for the compressive measurement of the transverse spatial wave function of photons. The procedure involves weak measurements of random projection operators in the spatial domain followed by postselection in the momentum basis. Using this method, we experimentally measure a 192-dimensional state with a fidelity of 90% using only 25 percent of the total required measurements. Furthermore, we demonstrate the measurement of a 19 200-dimensional state, a task that would require an unfeasibly large acquiring time with the standard direct measurement technique.

Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; Hashemi Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad; Boyd, Robert W.

2014-08-01

305

Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

306

Low attenuation of GHz Rayleigh-like surface acoustic waves in ZnO/GaAs systems immersed in liquid helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low attenuation of Sezawa modes operating at GHz frequencies in ZnO/GaAs systems immersed in liquid helium has been observed. This unexpected behaviour for Rayleigh-like surface acoustic waves (SAWs) is explained in terms of the calculated depth profiles of their acoustic Poynting vectors. This analysis allows reproduction of the experimental dispersion of the attenuation coefficient. In addition, the high attenuation of the Rayleigh mode is compensated by the strengthening provided by the ZnO layer. The introduction of the ZnO film will enable the operation of SAW-driven single-photon sources in GaAs-based systems with the best thermal stability provided by the liquid helium bath.

Pedrós, J.; García-Gancedo, L.; Ford, C. J. B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Flewitt, A. J.

2013-01-01

307

Direct measurement of evanescent wave enhancement inside passive metamaterials.  

PubMed

Electric-field measurements inside a negative-permeability-positive-permittivity metamaterial composed of arrays of split-ring resonators directly show that the theoretically predicted enhancement of evanescent waves in passive materials is physically realizable. To circumvent the extreme sensitivity of this phenomenon to the material parameters, we show how the basic phenomenon occurs under relaxed conditions for a single transverse wave number and use this approach in our measurements. Measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric field in a three-slab configuration confirm that the evanescent wave enhancement responsible for the subwavelength focusing effect occurs in an electromagnetic material in a manner in close agreement with theory. PMID:16486305

Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

2006-01-01

308

Estimating directional wave spectrum based on stationary ship motion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Useful information can be derived from on-board estimation of the directional wave spectrum of the sea, especially concerning feed forward control of dynamically positioned systems. This work discusses the feasibility of using stationary ship motion measurements for in-site directional wave spectrum estimation, focusing on the particular problems that may arise in the application of adapted estimation methods to this kind

Eduardo A. Tannuri; João V. Sparano; Alexandre N. Simos; José J. Da Cruz

2003-01-01

309

Measurements of colliding shock wave and supersonic gas flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision between a laser generated shock wave and a supersonic flow from a gas jet was studied using pump-probe Schlieren shadowgraphy. The velocity of a gas escaping into vacuum from a high pressure gas jet nozzle was measured and verified in simulation. Time resolved tracking of the shock wave provided critical information about the gas jet vertical velocity and

D. Kaganovich; M. H. Helle; D. F. Gordon; A. Ting

2010-01-01

310

High frequency measurement of P- and S-wave velocities on crystalline rock massif surface - methodology of measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of non-destructive monitoring of rock properties in the underground excavation it is possible to perform repeated high-accuracy P- and S-wave velocity measurements. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained during the preparation of micro-seismic long-term monitoring system. The field velocity measurements were made by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock outcrop (granite) in Bedrichov gallery (northern Bohemia). The gallery at the experimental site was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) and it is used for drinking water supply, which is conveyed in a pipe. The stable measuring system and its automatic operation lead to the use of piezoceramic transducers both as a seismic source and as a receiver. The length of measuring base at gallery wall was from 0.5 to 3 meters. Different transducer coupling possibilities were tested namely with regard of repeatability of velocity determination. The arrangement of measuring system on the surface of the rock massif causes better sensitivity of S-transducers for P-wave measurement compared with the P-transducers. Similarly P-transducers were found more suitable for S-wave velocity determination then P-transducers. The frequency dependent attenuation of fresh rock massif results in limited frequency content of registered seismic signals. It was found that at the distance between the seismic source and receiver from 0.5 m the frequency components above 40 kHz are significantly attenuated. Therefore for the excitation of seismic wave 100 kHz transducers are most suitable. The limited frequency range should be also taken into account for the shape of electric impulse used for exciting of piezoceramic transducer. The spike pulse generates broad-band seismic signal, short in the time domain. However its energy after low-pass filtration in the rock is significantly lower than the energy of seismic signal generated by square wave pulse. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

Vilhelm, Jan; Slavík, Lubomír

2014-05-01

311

Measurement of ocean wave spectra using polarimetric AIRSAR data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarimetric technique for improving the visibility of waves, whose propagation direction has an azimuthal component, in RAR (real aperture radar) or SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images has been investigated. The technique shows promise as a means of producing more accurate 2-D polarimetric RAR ocean wave spectra. For SAR applications domination by velocity-bunching effects may limit its usefulness to long ocean swell. A modification of this technique involving measurement of polarization signature modulations in the image is useful for detecting waves in SAR images and, potentially, estimating RMS wave slopes.

Schuler, D. L.

1993-01-01

312

Measurements of the interaction of wave groups with shorter wind-generated waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fields of statistically steady wind-generated waves produced in a wind wave facility were perturbed by the injection of groups of longer, mechanically generated waves with various slopes. The time histories of the surface displacements were measured at four fetches in ensembles consisting of 100 realizations of each set of experimental conditions; the data were stored and analyzed digitally. Four distinct stages in the overall interaction are identified and characterized. The properties of the wave energy front are documented, and a preliminary discussion is given of the dynamic processes involved in its formation.

Chu, Jacob S.; Long, Steven R.; Phillips, O. M.

1992-01-01

313

Direct Measurement of Wave Kernels in Time-Distance Helioseismology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar f-mode waves are surface-gravity waves which propagate horizontally in a thin layer near the photosphere with a dispersion relation approximately that of deep water waves. At the power maximum near 3 mHz, the wavelength of 5 Mm is large enough for various wave scattering properties to be observable. Gizon and Birch (2002,ApJ,571,966)h ave calculated kernels, in the Born approximation, for the sensitivity of wave travel times to local changes in damping rate and source strength. In this work, using isolated small magnetic features as approximate point-sourc'e scatterers, such a kernel has been measured. The observed kernel contains similar features to a theoretical damping kernel but not for a source kernel. A full understanding of the effect of small magnetic features on the waves will require more detailed modeling.

Duvall, T. L., Jr.

2006-01-01

314

Synthetic aperture radar imaging of ocean waves - Comparison with wave measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic aperture radar images of ocean waves were obtained in conjunction with reference wave data near Marineland, Florida, December 14, 1975. Each of the various types of measurements were processed into a form that allowed direct comparisons with the others. Maxima of radar spectra occurred at the same frequencies as the maxima of reference wave height spectra. In a comparison of a radar spectrum with observed spectra of wave height, wave orbital velocity, and surface slope the high-frequency portion of the radar spectrum lay near and between the wave height and the orbital velocity spectra but differed significantly from the surface slope spectrum. The radar-derived mean directions and model-fitted directional spreads of wave energy were close to the values from a directional wave buoy and indicated the accuracy of radar measurements of wave direction. However, a directional plot of a radar spectrum near shore at the frequency of the maximum showed a sharper peak than such a plot of a fitted spectrum derived from reference data.

Mcleish, W.; Ross, D.; Shuchman, R. A.; Teleki, P. G.; Hsiao, S. V.; Shemdin, O. H.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

1980-01-01

315

Measurement of Attenuation with Airborne and Ground-Based Radar in Convective Storms Over Land and Its Microphysical Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations by the airborne X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) and the NCAR S-band polarimetric (S-POL) radar from two field experiments are used to evaluate the Surface ref'ercnce technique (SRT) for measuring the path integrated attenuation (PIA) and to study attenuation in deep convective storms. The EDOP, flying at an altitude of 20 km, uses a nadir beam and a forward pointing beam. It is found that over land, the surface scattering cross-section is highly variable at nadir incidence but relatively stable at forward incidence. It is concluded that measurement by the forward beam provides a viable technique for measuring PIA using the SRT. Vertical profiles of peak attenuation coefficient are derived in vxo deep convective storms by the dual-wavelength method. Using the measured Doppler velocity, the reflectivities at. the two wavelengths, the differential reflectivity and the estimated attenuation coefficients, it is shown that: supercooled drops and dry ice particles probably co-existed above the melting level in regions of updraft, that water-coated partially melted ice particles probably contributed to high attenuation below the melting level, and that the data are not readil explained in terms of a gamma function raindrop size distribution.

Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.; Starr, D. OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

316

Measurement of Attenuation with Airborne and Ground-Based Radar in Convective Storms Over Land Its Microphysical Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations by the airborne X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) and the NCAR S-band polarimetric (S-Pol) radar from two field experiments are used to evaluate the surface reference technique (SRT) for measuring the path integrated attenuation (PIA) and to study attenuation in deep convective storms. The EDOP, flying at an altitude of 20 km, uses a nadir beam and a forward pointing beam. It is found that over land, the surface scattering cross-section is highly variable at nadir incidence but relatively stable at forward incidence. It is concluded that measurement by the forward beam provides a viable technique for measuring PIA using the SRT. Vertical profiles of peak attenuation coefficient are derived in two deep convective storms by the dual-wavelength method. Using the measured Doppler velocity, the reflectivities at the two wavelengths, the differential reflectivity and the estimated attenuation coefficients, it is shown that: supercooled drops and (dry) ice particles probably co-existed above the melting level in regions of updraft, that water-coated partially melted ice particles probably contributed to high attenuation below the melting level.

Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.; O'C.Starr, D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

317

A short-pulse K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements.  

PubMed

A portable K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements has been designed. It uses direct dielectric resonator oscillator multiplier pulse modulation giving a half power pulse width of 17 ns. The dual conversion scalar receiver utilizes either a digital storage oscilloscope in envelope detection format or a special gated comparator arrangement providing 1 m resolution and associated led seven segment display for data analysis. The calibrated dynamic range is better than 37 dB with an equivalent noise floor of 0.005 dBsm at 25 m test range distance. First experiments indicate an effective beamwidth close to 1 degree. The total weight is below 5 kg and the unit can be mounted on a conventional photographic tripod. Power is supplied from a 12 V/6 A h sealed lead acid battery giving an operating time in excess of 10 h. PMID:19044750

Puranen, Mikko; Eskelinen, Pekka

2008-10-01

318

A short-pulse Ka-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable Ka-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements has been designed. It uses direct dielectric resonator oscillator multiplier pulse modulation giving a half power pulse width of 17 ns. The dual conversion scalar receiver utilizes either a digital storage oscilloscope in envelope detection format or a special gated comparator arrangement providing 1 m resolution and associated led seven segment display for data analysis. The calibrated dynamic range is better than 37 dB with an equivalent noise floor of 0.005 dBsm at 25 m test range distance. First experiments indicate an effective beamwidth close to 1°. The total weight is below 5 kg and the unit can be mounted on a conventional photographic tripod. Power is supplied from a 12 V/6 A h sealed lead acid battery giving an operating time in excess of 10 h.

Puranen, Mikko; Eskelinen, Pekka

2008-10-01

319

Lateral variations of coda Q and attenuation of seismic waves in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Suez consists mainly of three tectonic provinces that are separated by two accommodation zones. The southern edge\\u000a of the gulf is bordered by N–S faults which mark the transition between the shallow water, Suez Basin and the deep northern\\u000a Red Sea Basin. The sensitivity of coda Q measurements with respect to geological differences in the crust is demonstrated

Mamdouh A. Morsy; Sherif El Hady; Salah M. Mahmoud; Enayat Abdel Moneim Awad

320

An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

Figurski, J. D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J. R.; Denny, M.

2011-01-01

321

Hypersonic Attenuation by Low-Frequency Optical Phonons in SrTiO3 Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersonic attenuation above the structural phase transition temperature Ta~=103°K has been measured from 0.4 to 1 GHz in SrTiO3. Studies were made for both polarizations in - and -oriented single crystals. For temperatures above 150°K, the attenuation of shear waves is temperature-independent, while that of longitudinal waves is monotonically increasing with decreasing temperature. As T-->Ta from above, the attenuation of

R. Nava; R. Callarotti; H. Ceva; A. Martinet

1969-01-01

322

Temperature Measurements of the Low-Attenuation Radiographic Ice Ball During CT-Guided Renal Cryoablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During renal cryoablation a low-attenuation area on CT develops around the cryoprobe. Knowledge of the temperature of the growing low-attenuation area can guide therapy and ensure lethal temperatures. Herein, we report thermocouple results and correlating CT images during the development of the low-attenuation 'radiographic ice ball.' Five patients who underwent percutaneous CT-guided renal cryoablation were identified who had thermocouples inserted

Sompol Permpongkosol; Richard E. Link; Louis R. Kavoussi; Stephen B. Solomon

2008-01-01

323

Temperature Measurements of the Low-Attenuation Radiographic Ice Ball During CT-Guided Renal Cryoablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During renal cryoablation a low-attenuation area on CT develops around the cryoprobe. Knowledge of the temperature of the\\u000a growing low-attenuation area can guide therapy and ensure lethal temperatures. Herein, we report thermocouple results and\\u000a correlating CT images during the development of the low-attenuation “radiographic ice ball.” Five patients who underwent percutaneous\\u000a CT-guided renal cryoablation were identified who had thermocouples inserted

Sompol Permpongkosol; Richard E. Link; Louis R. Kavoussi; Stephen B. Solomon

2008-01-01

324

Measurement of elastic waves induced by the reflection of light.  

PubMed

The reflection of light from the surface of an elastic solid gives rise to various types of elastic waves that propagate inside the solid. The weakest waves are generally those that are generated by the radiation pressure acting during the reflection of the light. Here, we present the first quantitative measurement of such light-pressure-induced elastic waves inside an ultrahigh-reflectivity mirror. Amplitudes of a few picometers were observed at the rear side of the mirror with a displacement-measuring conical piezoelectric sensor when laser pulses with a fluence of 1 J/cm(2) were reflected from the front side of the mirror. PMID:24237537

Požar, Tomaž; Možina, Janez

2013-11-01

325

Determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for X-ray fluorescence measurements correction by the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.

Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.

2014-09-01

326

Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xia, J.; Miller, R. D.; Park, C. B.; Hunter, J. A.; Harris, J. B.; Ivanov, J.

2002-01-01

327

Simultaneous synthetic schlieren and PIV measurements for internal solitary waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-amplitude internal solitary waves in a stratification comprising a thick, lower, homogeneous layer separated from a thin, upper, homogeneous layer by a broad gradient region are studied using simultaneous measurements of the density and velocity fields. Density field measurements are achieved through synthetic schlieren, operating in an absolute mode to allow efficient and accurate measurements of density in systems with

Stuart B. Dalziel; Magda Carr; J. Kristian Sveen; Peter A. Davies

2007-01-01

328

Seismic viscoelastic attenuation Submitted to  

E-print Network

the resultant elastic deformation (strain) in the material lags in time the applied stress induced by the wave T of a seismic body wave given by the expression exp(- f T/Q). The apparent Q combines the energy lost to heat attenuate? The attenuation of seismic waves is due to three effects: geometric spreading, intrinsic

Cormier, Vernon F.

329

In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry.  

PubMed

Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O? may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O? is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO? in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO? changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16-20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO? in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO? was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO? to 64%. More importantly, pO? did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after administration of a single dose of METH and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO? indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO?, which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. PMID:24412707

Weaver, John; Yang, Yirong; Purvis, Rebecca; Weatherwax, Theodore; Rosen, Gerald M; Liu, Ke Jian

2014-03-01

330

The precise measurement of the attenuation coefficients of various IR optical materials applicable to immersion grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

2014-07-01

331

Measurement of semi-rigid coaxial cables at cryogenic temperature -thermal conductance and attenuation-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing semi-rigid coaxial cables for low temperature experiments which require fast readout with low noise. Coaxial cables used at low temperature are made of low thermal conductivity materials, such as stainless-steel, cupro-nickel and polytetrafluoroethylene to suppress heat penetration through cables. As the thermal conductivity of such alloys is affected by the thermal and mechanical treatment in forming process, we have to measure thermal property of coaxial cables after forming. The low thermal conductance of 5.5 cm specimen was measured by the steady-state heat-flow method with 1m long and thin niobium-titanium wiring for thermometers and heaters. Signal attenuation of coaxial cables was measured at 3K stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. In order to cool center electrical conductor, the cables with 1m long length were coiled, and surrounded by copper blocks then attached to 3K stage. We successfully observed superconducting transition of center conductor of superconducting niobium-titanium coaxial cables with this method.

Kasai, Soichi; Kushino, Akihiro

2013-03-01

332

Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

2013-04-01

333

Mechanical Loss Measurements of Coated Substrates for Gravitational Wave Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational waves from sources such as binary star systems, supernovae explosions and stochastic background radiation have yet to be directly detected by experimental observations. Alongside international collaborators, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is designed to realize direct detection of gravitational waves using interferometric techniques. The second generation of gravitational wave observatories, known as Advanced LIGO, are currently undergoing installation and commissioning at sites in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana. The ultimate sensitivity of Advanced LIGO within select spectral bands is limited by thermal noise in the high-reflective coatings of the interferometer optics. The LIGO lab at American University is measuring the mechanical loss of coated substrates to predict thermal noise within these spectral bands. These predictions are used to ensure the ultimate design sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and to study coating and substrate materials for future gravitational wave detectors.

Newport, Jonathan; Belyea, David; Robie, Raymond; Harry, Gregg

2013-03-01

334

New constraints on the properties of the Yellowstone mantle plume from P and S wave attenuation tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate attenuation (t*) for teleseismic P and S arrivals to seismometers in the Yellowstone Intermountain Seismic Array; tomographically invert these data for upper mantle Qp-1 and Qs-1 structure; and, with the aid of the upper mantle velocity model of Waite et al. (2006), interpret the results for mantle temperature, partial melt, and water content. Because attenuation analysis is susceptible

David C. Adams; Eugene D. Humphreys

2010-01-01

335

Lidar Measurements of Gravity Wave Spectra from Eureka, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compositional variations of critical species such as ozone and water vapour in the polar middle atmosphere are intimately tied to dynamical variations, including perturbations and mixing due to waves. The suite of instruments at the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change's (CANDAC) Polar Environment Atmosphere Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Canada (80°N, 86°W) is particularly well instrumented with sensors capable of measuring the chemical and dynamic state of the lower, middle and upper atmosphere. During the intensive Polar Sunrise ACE Validation Campaign of February and March 2009, 19 nights of relative density measurements were made with the CANDAC - Environment Canada DIAL lidar, and the perturbations due to gravity waves in the stratosphere above Eureka were found to have nightly-averaged potential energy per unit mass on the order of 10 J/kg. The variability evident over the course of each night, as well as variations on timescales of days, were similar to previous measurements from this system in the 1990's by Whiteway, Duck and colleagues, who interpreted these spectra as a superposition of many waves. Further analysis of the current measurements using Prony's method will be carried out to determine if only a few waves are present at high latitudes, and whether these waves carry most of the wave energy, similar to what was found in the upper stratosphere at middle latitudes by the University of Western Ontario's Purple Crow Lidar.

McCullough, E. M.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Drummond, J. R.

2009-12-01

336

Single-experiment simultaneous-measurement of elemental mass-attenuation coefficients of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen for 0.123–1.33 MeV gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is inconvenient to use elements like hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in pure forms for measurement of their gamma mass-attenuation coefficients, the measurements are to be done indirectly, by using compounds of the elements or a mixture of them. We give here a simple method of measuring the total mass-attenuation coefficients ?\\/? of the elements in a compound simultaneously

M. T. Teli; R. Nathuram; C. S. Mahajan

2000-01-01

337

Measuring seismic waves using a towed underwater acoustic array.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the possibility of detecting shear and interface (Scholte) wave effects in the ocean using a towed hydrophone array. The shear field will be evanescent in the water and so may only be detected near to the ocean bottom interface. A benefit of measuring the acoustic field with a towed array is that a Hankel transform can be used to construct the horizontal wavenumber spectrum. If a shear or interface wave is measured, then it will be visible in the horizontal spectrum. The possibility of detecting the shear field will be strongly dependent on the shear wave speed in the sediment and this will also affect the detection of the more difficult to detect Scholte wave, which travels at about 90 % the shear wave velocity. The Scholte wave has a circular polarization where the shear wave may be vertical, horizontal, or a combination of the two polarities and may not be detectable for all frequency and source depth configurations. [Work supported by ONR.]. PMID:25235368

Collis, Jon M; Pierce, Allan D

2014-04-01

338

Measurement of velocity field in parametrically excited solitary waves  

E-print Network

Paramerically excited solitary waves emerge as localized structures in high-aspect-ratio free surfaces subject to vertical vibrations. Herein, we provide the first experimental characterization of the hydrodynamics of thess waves using Particle Image Velocimetry. We show that the underlying velocity field of parametrically excited solitary waves is mainly composed by an oscillatory velocity field. Our results confirm the accuracy of Hamiltonian models with added dissipation in describing this field. Remarkably, our measurements also uncover the onset of a streaming velocity field which is shown to be as important as other crucial nonlinear terms in the current theory. The observed streaming pattern is particularly interesting due to the presence of oscillatory meniscii.

Gordillo, Leonardo

2014-01-01

339

Practical Physics: Measuring Waves in a Ripple Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains two experiments on wave measurement in a ripple tank, appropriate for use in high school physical science or physics classrooms. Students are introduced to using the stroboscope to âfreezeâ waves in a ripple tank, and to confirm the relationship between wave speed, frequency and wavelength. SEE RELATED ITEMS on this page for a Teachers' Guide on using ripple tanks, by the same authors. **NOTE In all work with stroboscopes, teachers must be aware of any student suffering from photo-induced epilepsy.

Centre, Nuffield C.

2009-03-20

340

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data  

E-print Network

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth and at ultrasonic frequencies (0.8MHz). The measurements were carried on heavy-oil sand sample from Asphalt Ridge

341

X ray attenuation measurements for high-temperature materials characterization and in situ monitoring of damage accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application is examined of x ray attenuation measurement systems that are capable of (1) characterizing density variations in high temperature materials, e.g., monolithic ceramics, ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites and (2) noninvasively monitoring damage accumulation and failure sequences in ceramic matrix composites under room temperature tensile testing. Results are presented in the development of (1) a point

George Youssef Baaklini

1991-01-01

342

Measurement of waves in flows across a surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for sensing wave flow across a surface wherein at least two pressure levels are sensed and combined to provide a representation of waves within the flow. In the preferred embodiment holes bored through the aircraft surface at an interval of one-half the wavelength of the flow being measured introduce pressure perturbations into a cavity so they may acoustically interfere. The interfering waveform is sensed by at least one microphone disposed in the cavity.

Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

343

Measurement of waves in flows across a surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for sensing wave flow across a surface wherein at least two pressure levels are sensed and combined to provide a representation of waves within the flow. In the preferred embodiment holes bored through the aircraft surface at an interval of one-half the wavelength of the flow being measured introduce pressure perturbations into a cavity so they may acoustically interfere. The interfering waveform is sensed by at least one microphone disposed in the cavity.

Kendall, James M., Jr. (inventor)

1990-01-01

344

DE-1 measurements of AKR wave directions. [auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to its wave rotation sense, the direction of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) can also be measured with the plasma wave instrument on Dynamics Explorer 1, from the relative phase of the signals received by its orthogonal electric dipole antennas. By this method, which differs in principle from the previous spin-null method for measuring wave directions, it has been found possible to pinpoint the AKR source by triangulation, using measurements from different points along the DE-1 orbit. The resulting apparent source, in one instance, seemed to occupy a well-defined auroral-zone invariant magnetic latitude and showed the expected increase of altitude with decreasing frequency. An analysis of the method also confirmed the validity of the previous rotation sense measurements.

Calvert, W.

1985-01-01

345

Laser measurements of bacterial endospore destruction from shock waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of shock waves on bioaerosols containing endospores were measured by combined laser absorption and scattering. Experiments were conducted in the Stanford aerosol shock tube for post-shock temperatures ranging from 400 K to 1100 K. Laser intensity measurements through the test section of the shock tube at wavelengths of 266 and 665 nm provided real-time monitoring of the morphological changes (includes changes in shape, structure and optical properties) in the endospores. Scatter of the visible light measured the integrity of endospore structure, while absorption of the UV light provided a measure of biochemicals released when endospores ruptured. For post-shock temperatures above 750 K the structural breakdown of Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) endospores was observed. A simple theoretical model using laser extinction is presented for determining the fraction of endospores that are ruptured by the shock waves. In addition, mechanisms of endospore mortality preceding their disintegration due to shock waves are discussed.

Lappas, Petros P.; McCartt, A. Daniel; Gates, Sean D.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

2013-12-01

346

Acoustic Interferometer for Localized Rayleigh Wave Velocity Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instrumentation systems for measurement of Rayleigh surface wave (RSW) velocity are described. The first system consists of a more conventional methodology using matched RF amplifiers and phase detector/mixer circuits. In the second system, a lock-in amplifier, operating at high frequency, replaces the matched RF amplifiers and phase detector/mixer circuit, therefore simplifying the instrumentation. Both systems have been used to measure relative Rayleigh wave velocity using a cylindrically focused acoustic transducer consisting of three elements. A high-precision relative velocity measurement of Rayleigh surface waves is performed by exciting the central element and one of the outer elements with a tone burst signal and measuring the phase difference between the two received signals.

Martin, Richard W.; Sathish, Shamachary; Reibel, Richard; Moran, Thomas J.; Blodgett, Mark P.

2003-03-01

347

MEASUREMENT OF THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE FROM {gamma}-RAY ATTENUATION  

SciTech Connect

A measurement of the expansion rate of the universe (that is, the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}) is derived here using the {gamma}-ray attenuation observed in the spectra of {gamma}-ray sources produced by the interaction of extragalactic {gamma}-ray photons with the photons of the extragalactic background light (EBL). The Hubble constant determined with our technique, for a {Lambda}CDM cosmology, is H{sub 0}=71.8{sub -5.6}{sup +4.6}(stat){sub -13.8}{sup +7.2}(syst) km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}. This value is compatible with present-day measurements using well-established methods such as local distance ladders and cosmological probes. The recent detection of the cosmic {gamma}-ray horizon (CGRH) from multiwavelength observations of blazars, together with the advances in the knowledge of the EBL, allow us to measure the expansion rate of the universe. This estimate of the Hubble constant shows that {gamma}-ray astronomy has reached a mature enough state to provide cosmological measurements, which may become more competitive in the future with the construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We find that the maximum dependence of the CGRH on the Hubble constant is approximately between redshifts 0.04 and 0.1, thus this is a smoking gun for planning future observational efforts. Other cosmological parameters, such as the total dark matter density {Omega}{sub m} and the dark energy equation of state w, are explored as well.

Dominguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Prada, Francisco, E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Campus of International Excellence UAM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-10

348

Properties of material in the submillimeter wave region (instrumentation and measurement of index of refraction)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Properties of Materials in the Submillimeter Wave Region study was initiated to instrument a system and to make measurements of the complex index of refraction in the wavelength region between 0.1 to 1.0 millimeters. While refractive index data is available for a number of solids and liquids there still exists a need for an additional systematic study of dielectric properties to add to the existing data, to consider the accuracy of the existing data, and to extend measurements in this wavelength region for other selected mateials. The materials chosen for consideration would be those with useful thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics. The data is necessary for development of optical components which, for example, include beamsplitters, attenuators, lenses, grids, all useful for development of instrumentation in this relatively unexploited portion of the spectrum.

Lally, J.; Meister, R.

1983-01-01

349

Preliminary Measurements of the Attenuation Properties of Polycrystalline Water Ice and CO2 Clathrate Hydrates at the Tidal Frequencies of Europa and Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will report measurements of the attenuation properties of polycrystalline water ice and CO2 clathrate hydrates samples obtained in the frequency range 3x10-6 to 10-2 Hz, which encompasses the tidal frequencies of Europa and Enceladus. Previous attenuation measurements obtained on a variety of planetary materials have demonstrated that the mechanisms driving attenuation in the frequency range 10-4 to 1 Hz

M. Choukroun; J. C. Castillo; J. B. Young; R. Mielke

2009-01-01

350

Measurement of periodic surface heating using surface acoustic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique is described to measure periodic heating at and near the surface of a material. The technique involves the phase perturbation of a surface acoustic wave propagating through the heated region. Temperature fluctuations can be measured at modulation frequencies of several hertz to hundreds of kilohertz with high sensitivity. A theory is given which predicts the acoustic phase

R. G. Stearns; B. T. Khuri-Yakub; G. S. Kino

1983-01-01

351

Measurements of a saturated range in ocean wave spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavestaff measurements made in the Gulf of Mexico and Waverider measurements from the Baltimore Canyon area have been used to study the form of ocean wave spectra at high frequencies. The observations are statistically consistent with the idea that the tail of the spectrum is in equilibrium with the local wind. Analysis showed that the spectral range between the mean

George Z. Forristall

1981-01-01

352

Slow-Wave Acoustic Isolation For Measurement Of Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propagation of interfering signals delayed. Experiments demonstrated utility of slow-wave isolation between transmitting and receiving transducers in acoustic measurements of sound speed and/or flow velocity in ducts. Specifically, finding pertains to acoustic measurements of speeds of flow of low-molecular-weight gases at pressures low enough to be contained in thin-walled metal conduits.

Lynnworth, Lawrence C.; Aurilio, Marco

1993-01-01

353

Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.

Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

2002-01-01

354

Wave Packet under Continuous Measurement via Bohmian Mechanics  

E-print Network

A new quantum mechanical description of the dynamics of wave packet under continuous measurement is formulated via Bohmian mechanics. The solution to this equation is found through a wave packet approach which establishes a direct correlation between a classical variable with a quantum variable describing the dynamics of the center of mass and the width of the wave packet. The approach presented in this paper gives a comparatively clearer picture than approaches using restrited path integrals and master equation approaches. This work shows how the extremely irregular character of classical chaos can be reconciled with the smooth and wavelike nature of phenomena on the atomic scale. It is demonstrated that a wave packet under continuous quantum measurement displays both chaotic and non-chaotic features. The Lyapunov characteristic exponents for the trajectories of classical particle and the quantum wave packet center of mass are calculated and their chaoticities are demonstrated to be about the same. Nonetheless, the width of the wave packet exhibits a non-chaotic behavior and allows for the possibility to beat the standard quantum limit by means of transient, contractive states.

Antonio B. Nassar

2010-01-25

355

Attenuation length measurements of a liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attenuation length measurement device was constructed using an oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested in a variety of ways. The test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of a gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10±0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.

Gao, Long; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Ding, Ya-Yun; Zhou, Li; Wen, Liang-Jian; Xie, Yu-Guang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Xi-Lei; Fang, Jian; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Lü, Qi-Wen; Sun, Li-Jun; Ge, Yong-Shuai; Liu, Ying-Biao; Niu, Shun-Li; Hu, Tao; Cao, Jun; Lü, Jun-Guang

2013-07-01

356

Laboratory Measurements of the Sound Generated by Breaking Waves.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breaking waves dissipate energy, transfer momentum from the wind to surface currents and breaking enhances the transfer of gas and mass across the air-sea interface. Breaking waves are believed to be the dominant source of sea surface sound at frequencies greater than 500 Hz and the presence of breaking waves on the ocean surface has been shown to enhance the scattering of microwave radiation. Previous studies have shown that breaking waves can be detected by measuring the microwave backscatter and acoustic radiation from breaking waves. However, these techniques have not yet proven effective for studying the dynamics of breaking. The primary motivation for the research presented in this thesis was to determine whether measurements of the sound generated by breaking waves could be used to quantitatively study the dynamics of the breaking process. Laboratory measurements of the microwave backscatter and acoustic radiation from two-dimensional breaking waves are described in Chapter 2. The major findings of this Chapter are: (1) the mean square acoustic pressure and backscattered microwave power correlate with the wave slope and dissipation for waves of moderate slope, (2) the mean square acoustic pressure and backscattered microwave power correlate strongly with each other, and (3) the amount of acoustic energy radiated by an individual breaking event scaled with the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by breaking. The observed correlations with the mean square acoustic pressure are only relevant for frequencies greater than 2200 Hz because lower frequencies were below the first acoustic cut-off frequency of the wave channel. In Chapter 4 a model of the sound produced by breaking waves is presented which uses the sound radiated by a single bubble oscillating at its linear resonant frequency and the bubble size distribution to estimate the sound spectrum. The model generates a damped sinusoidal pulse for every bubble formed, as calculated from the bubble size distribution. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668, Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened with permission of school.).

Loewen, Mark Richard

1992-01-01

357

Short distance attenuation measurements at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz using low antenna heights for microcells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-distance, low-antenna-height signal attenuation measurements are presented in connection with their use in the design of future microcell cellular radio networks. Measurements presented are based on the propagation along busy city streets in a direction radial to a fixed antenna site. Antenna heights between 5 m and 20 m were chosen for the fixed site, while 1.5 m was chosen

PHILIP HARLEY

1989-01-01

358

Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

2006-01-01

359

Global ocean wave measurements from ENVISAT ASAR data using a parametric inversion scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional ocean wave spectra are measured from ENVISAT ASAR wave mode cross spectra on a global scale. The measurement is performed using a parametric retrieval scheme, which makes use of prior information taken from numerical wave models. The Partition Rescale and Shift algorithm (PARSA) is based on a partitioning technique, which splits an a prior wave spectrum into its wave

Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth; Danielle Hoja; Susanne Lehner

2003-01-01

360

Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (?pe > ?ce). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ?ce. As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ? - k?v? = ?ce. The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

Thuecks, D. J.; Skiff, F.; Kletzing, C. A.

2012-08-01

361

Nanosecond freezing of water under multiple shock wave compression: continuum modeling and wave profile measurements.  

PubMed

Using real time optical transmission and imaging measurements in multiple shock wave compression experiments, water was shown to solidify on nanosecond time scales [D. H. Dolan and Y. M. Gupta, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9050 (2004)]. Continuum modeling and wave profile measurements, presented here, provide a complementary approach to examine the freezing of shocked water. The water model consisted of thermodynamically consistent descriptions of liquid and solid (ice VII) water, relationships for phase coexistence, and a time-dependent transition description to simulate freezing dynamics. Continuum calculations using the water model demonstrate that, unlike single shock compression, multiple shock compression results in pressure-temperature conditions where the ice VIII phase is thermodynamically favored over the liquid phase. Wave profile measurements, using laser interferometry, were obtained with quartz and sapphire windows at a peak pressure of 5 GPa. For water confined between sapphire windows, numerical simulations corresponding to a purely liquid response are in excellent agreement with the measured wave profile. For water confined between quartz windows (to provide a nucleating surface), wave profile measurements demonstrate a pure liquid response for an incubation time of approximately 100 ns followed by a time-dependent transformation. Analysis of the wave profiles after the onset of transformation suggests that water changes from a metastable liquid to a denser phase, consistent with the formation of a high-pressure ice phase. Continuum analyses and simulations underscore the need for multiple time scales to model the freezing transition. Findings from the present continuum work are extremely consistent with optical results reported previously. These studies constitute the first comprehensive investigation reported for freezing of a liquid at very short time scales. PMID:16122330

Dolan, D H; Johnson, J N; Gupta, Y M

2005-08-01

362

Measurements of attenuation coefficient for evaluating the hardness of a cataract lens by a high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 ± 0.02 to 0.520 ± 0.06 dB mm-1 MHz-1 corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 ± 0.4 to 96 ± 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.

Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S.; Shung, K. Kirk

2009-10-01

363

Gaussian weighting of ocular wave-front measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of ocular wave-front error gives insight into the optical performance of the eye and possibly a means for assessing visual performance. The visual system responds not only to the quality of the optical image formed on the retina but also to the processing that occurs in the retina and the brain. To develop a metric of visual performance

Jim Schwiegerling

2004-01-01

364

Measuring corrosion thinning by thermal-wave imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an IR thermal wave imaging technique for making corrosion thinning determinations on aging aircraft skins. The technique uses pulsed surface heating and fast, synchronous IR imaging of subsurface structure, such as skin corrosion and disbonded doublers or tear straps. Sensitivity to corrosion thinning of less than two percent is demonstrated. Practical implementation of a simplified numerical measurement algorithm

Lawrence D. Favro; Xiaoyan Han; Tasdiq Ahmed; Pao K. Kuo; Robert L. Thomas

1996-01-01

365

Measurement of viscosity of highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids by means of ultrasonic guided waves.  

PubMed

In order to perform monitoring of the polymerisation process, it is necessary to measure viscosity. However, in the case of non-Newtonian highly viscous fluids, viscosity starts to be dependent on the vibration or rotation frequency of the sensing element. Also, the sensing element must possess a sufficient mechanical strength. Some of these problems may be solved applying ultrasonic measurement methods, however until now most of the known investigations were devoted to measurements of relatively low viscosities (up to a few Pas) of Newtonian liquids. The objective of the presented work is to develop ultrasonic method for measurement of viscosity of high viscous substances during manufacturing process in extreme conditions. For this purpose the method based on application of guided Lamb waves possessing the predominant component of in-plane displacements (the S0 and the SH0 modes) and propagating in an aluminium planar waveguide immersed in a viscous liquid has been investigated. The simulations indicated that in the selected modes mainly in-plane displacements are dominating, therefore the attenuation of those modes propagating in a planar waveguide immersed in a viscous liquid is mainly caused by viscosity of the liquid. The simulation results were confirmed by experiments. All measurements were performed in the viscosity standard Cannon N2700000. Measurements with the S0 wave mode were performed at the frequency of 500kHz. The SH0 wave mode was exited and used for measurements at the frequency of 580kHz. It was demonstrated that by selecting the particular mode of guided waves (S0 or SH0), the operation frequency and dimensions of the aluminium waveguide it is possible to get the necessary viscosity measurement range and sensitivity. The experiments also revealed that the measured dynamic viscosity is strongly frequency dependent and as a characteristic feature of non-Newtonian liquids is much lower than indicated by the standards. Therefore, in order to get the absolute values of viscosity in this case an additional calibration procedure is required. Feasibility to measure variations of high dynamic viscosities in the range of (20-25,000) Pas was theoretically and experimentally proved. The proposed solution differently from the known methods in principle is more mechanically robust and better fitted for measurements in extreme conditions. PMID:24491274

Kazys, Rymantas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Raisutis, Renaldas

2014-04-01

366

Dielectric measurements and radar attenuation estimation of ice/basalt sand mixtures as martian Polar Caps analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the materials underlying the superficial deposits of Mars can be inferred, applying an inversion algorithm, from the data acquired by the orbiting HF radars MARSIS and SHARAD. This approach requires the knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of the shallow deposits and an accurate evaluation of the signal attenuation. The present work is focused on the determination of the dielectric parameters of several geo-materials. We performed the measurements of the complex permittivity, in a wide range of temperature (150-250 K) and frequency (20 Hz-1 MHz), on pure water ice, dry basalt sand and ice/basalt mixtures with different sand volume fractions. The data are presented in terms of attenuation as a function of basalt volume fraction, frequency and temperature, and discussed in terms of extrapolation to MARSIS and SHARAD frequency bands. The results show that, besides the expected dependence of the attenuation from temperature, the presence of the solid inclusions in the ice strongly affects the behaviour of the attenuation versus frequency.

Mattei, E.; Lauro, S. E.; Vannaroni, G.; Cosciotti, B.; Bella, F.; Pettinelli, E.

2014-02-01

367

Measurement of smoke concentration using degenerate four-wave mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) was successfully used to monitor a wide range of smoke concentrations (0.1-10 mg m?3) in sample cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first measurement of smoke by DFWM. The DFWM method is very sensitive, measuring down to ?0.1 ppb soot volume fraction. To verify the visible laser DFWM system, NO2 concentrations from 2 to

T C Cole; W A Cole; R W Pitz

2002-01-01

368

A self-zeroing capacitance probe for water wave measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wave probe developed at the Air-Sea Interaction Research Facility was designed to measure the surface elevation fluctuations of water waves. Design criteria included being linear in response, self-zeroing to the mean water level, having multiple operating ranges so that the instrument's maximum output could be matched to the maximum surface elevation over varying conditions, and be as noise-free as possible. The purpose of this publication is to provide a detailed description of the design and construction of this probe.

Long, Steven R.

1992-01-01

369

Microwave link dual-wavelength measurements of path-average attenuation for the estimation of drop size distributions and rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave attenuation measurements at 25 and 38 GHz made on a 2.3-km microwave link are employed to estimate drop size distributions (DSD), rainfall rate, and rainfall accumulation. A theoretical model for the propagation of microwaves in a link system sets forth the basis for the development of a dual-wavelength analytical technique to invert two parameters of a path-average gamma DSD.

Rafael F. Rincon; Roger H. Lang

2002-01-01

370

Huygens/ASI plasma wave analyzer capabilities for aerosol measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) are described. These include measurement of atmospheric electrical conductivity by the plasma wave analyzer. How measurement of the atmospheric conductivity can lead to an estimate or the total surface area of the aerosols as a function of altitude is outlined. It is concluded that since the ASI is designed to measure the electrical conductivity as well as the pressure and temperature as a function of altitude, its results should provide a useful check on other instruments that are designed to measure the abundance of aerosols in a limited range of sizes.

Borucki, William J.; Fulchignoni, Marcello

1992-01-01

371

High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves  

E-print Network

This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.

Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

2012-01-01

372

Optimization of satellite altimeter and wave height measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two techniques for simultaneously estimating altitude, ocean wave height, and signal-to-noise ratio from the GEOS-C satellite altimeter data are described. One technique was based on maximum likelihood estimation, MLE, and the other on minimum mean square error estimation, MMSE. Performance was determined by comparing the variance and bias of each technique with the variance and bias of the smoothed output from the Geos altimeter tracker. Ocean wave height tracking performance for the MLE and MMSE algorithms was measured by comparing the variance and bias of the wave height estimates with that of the expression for the return waveform obtained by a fit to the average output of the 16 waveform sampling gates.

Dooley, R. P.; Brooks, L. W.

1979-01-01

373

Extraordinary views of ordinary galaxies: Multiwavelength measures of star formation and attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaningful comparison of models of galaxy evolution to observations is critically dependent on the accurate treatment of dust attenuation. To investigate dust absorption and emission in galaxies we have assembled a sample of ~1000 galaxies from the ultrviolet (UV) through the Infrared (IR) by the GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer observatories. The ratio of IR to UV emission (IRX) is

Benjamin D. Johnson

2008-01-01

374

Quantitative Orientation Measurements in Thin Lipid Films by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

, namely polarized transmission spectroscopy (Rothschild and Clark, 1979; Chollet and Messier, 1982; Vogel (Golden et al., 1981; Buf- feteau et al., 1991; Blaudez et al., 1993), and polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy (Harrick, 1967; Fringeli and Gu¨nthard, 1981; Kimura et al., 1986; Ahn

Pezolet, Michel

375

Evaluating LNAPL contamination using GPR signal attenuation analysis and dielectric property measurements: practical implications for hydrological studies.  

PubMed

Groundwater and sub-surface contamination by Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is one of the industrial world's most pressing environmental issues and a thorough understanding of the hydrological, physical and bio-chemical properties of the sub-surface is key to determining the spatial and temporal development of any particular contamination event. Non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, Ground-Penetrating Radar, etc.) have proved to be successful sub-surface investigation and characterisation tools with Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) being particularly popular. Recent studies have shown that the spatial/temporal variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information on the electrical properties of the sub-surface materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical and hydrological nature of the pore fluids and associated contaminants. Unfortunately, a high percentage of current LNAPL-related GPR studies focus on contaminant mapping only, with little emphasis being placed on characterising the hydrological properties (e.g., determining contaminant saturation index, etc.). By comparing laboratory-based, dielectric measurements of LNAPL contaminated materials with the GPR signal attenuation observed in both contaminated and 'clean' areas of an LNAPL contaminated site, new insights have been gained into the nature of contaminant distribution/saturation and the likely signal attenuation mechanisms. The results show that, despite some practical limitations of the analysis technique, meaningful hydrological interpretations can be obtained on the contaminant properties, saturation index and bio-degradation processes. A generalised attenuation/saturation model has been developed that describes the physical and attenuation enhancement characteristics of the contaminated areas and reveals that the most significant attenuation is related to smeared zone surrounding the seasonally changing water table interface. It is envisaged that the model will provide a basis for the interpretation of GPR data from analogous LNAPL contaminated sites and provide investigators with an appreciation of the merits and limitations of GPR-based, attenuation analysis techniques for hydrological applications. PMID:17601633

Cassidy, Nigel J

2007-10-30

376

Pressure measurements of a three wave journal air bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to validate theoretical predictions of a wave journal bearing concept, a bench test rig was assembled at NASA Lewis Research Center to measure the steady-state performance of a journal air bearing. The tester can run up to 30,000 RPM and the spindle has a run out of less than 1 micron. A three wave journal bearing (50 mm diameter and 58 mm length) has been machined at NASA Lewis. The pressures at 16 ports along the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length were measured and compared to the theoretical prediction. The bearing ran at speeds up to 15,000 RPM and certain loads. Good agreement was found between the measured and calculated pressures.

Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

1994-01-01

377

Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 512527 Analysis methods for multi-component wave measurements  

E-print Network

Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 512­527 Analysis methods for multi-component wave of electromagnetic waves based on the multi-component measurements of the DEMETER spacecraft. Using the fact that the wave magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave vector, the wave normal direction can be estimated

Santolik, Ondrej

378

Human Pulse Wave Measurement by MEMS Electret Condenser Microphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micro Electret Condenser Microphone (ECM) fabricated by Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology was employed as a novel apparatus for human pulse wave measurement. Since ECM frequency response characteristic, i.e. sensitivity, logically maintains a constant level at lower than the resonance frequency (stiffness control), the slightest pressure difference at around 1.0Hz generated by human pulse wave is expected to detect by MEMS-ECM. As a result of the verification of frequency response of MEMS-ECM, it was found that -20dB/dec of reduction in the sensitivity around 1.0Hz was engendered by a high input-impedance amplifier, i.e. the field effect transistor (FET), mounted near MEMS chip for amplifying tiny ECM signal. Therefore, MEMS-ECM is assumed to be equivalent with a differentiation circuit at around human pulse frequency. Introducing compensation circuit, human pulse wave was successfully obtained. In addition, the radial and ulnar artery tracing, and pulse wave velocity measurement at forearm were demonstrated; as illustrating a possible application of this micro device.

Nomura, Shusaku; Hanasaka, Yasushi; Ishiguro, Tadashi; Ogawa, Hiroshi

379

Acoustic measurements of a liquefied cohesive sediment bed under waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the response of a cohesive sediment deposit under the action of water waves is studied with the help of laboratory experiments and an analytical model. Under the same regular wave condition three different bed responses were observed depending on the degree of consolidation of the deposit: no bed motion, bed motion of the upper layer after the action of the first waves, and massive bed motion after several waves. The kinematic of the upper 3 cm of the deposit were measured with an ultrasound acoustic profiler, while the pore-water pressure inside the bed was simultaneously measured using several pore pressure sensors. A poro-elastic model was developed to interpret the experimental observations. The model showed that the amplitude of the shear stress increased down into the bed. Then it is possible that the lower layers of the deposit experience plastic deformations, while the upper layers present just elastic deformations. Since plastic deformations in the lower layers are necessary for pore pressure build-up, the analytical model was used to interpret the experimental results and to state that liquefaction of a self consolidated cohesive sediment bed would only occur if the bed yield stress falls within the range defined by the amplitude of the shear stress inside the bed.

Mosquera, R.; Groposo, V.; Pedocchi, F.

2014-04-01

380

Rapid miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for blast wave measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions. Since the pathophysiology of TBI associated with a blast wave is not clearly defined, it is crucial to have a sensing system to accurately quantify the blast wave dynamics. This paper presents an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle that is capable of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. The blast event in the experiment was generated by a starter pistol blank firing at close range, which produced a more realistic wave profile compared to using compressed air driven shock tubes. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first study to utilize fiber optic pressure sensors to measure the ballistics shock wave of a pistol firing. The results illustrated that the fiber optic pressure sensor has a rise time of 200 ns which demonstrated that the sensor has ability to capture the dynamic pressure transient during a blast event. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the sensor was determined to be 4.11 MHz, which agrees well with the specific designed value.

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

2013-02-01

381

Path-Integrated Attenuation from Airborne X-Band Radar and Passive Radiometer Measurements: Implication for Rainfall Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study compares path-integrated attenuation (PIA), in precipitation over the ocean, derived from a single-frequency X-band radar, using the surface reference technique (SRT), with that deduced from a radiometer also operating at X band. The data were collected during TRMM field campaigns. The PIA derived from radar using the SRT does not involve any assumptions regarding the precipitation but it assumes that the cross-section of the surface is stable, that is, it is not significantly altered by factors such as surface roughness. The PIA deduced from the radiometer, however, involves assumptions regarding the temperature and emissivity of the surface and absorption and scattering by the intervening precipitation, which in turn depend upon the size, concentration and composition of the precipitation particles. The comparison of the PIA from the two instruments serves not only as a check between the radar and the radiometer but also may yield insights into the structure of the intervening precipitation. Such study can provide valuable information for TRMM in which both radar and radiometers are used for rain measurements. The radiometer PIA was first deduced from the brightness temperature using a simple one-layer radiative transfer model assuming no scattering, an isothermal atmosphere. The initial results show a general agreement between the PIAs deduced from the two instruments. Largo disagreement was found at high values of PIAs that may have been caused saturation of the X-band brightness temperature or by uncertainties in wind roughening of the sea surface that affects the SRT. Further results including the effects of scattering and a non-isothermal atmosphere will be shown at the conference.

Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerry; Weinman, Jim; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

382

Four-wave mixing wavelength conversion efficiency in semiconductor traveling-wave amplifiers measured to 65 nm of wavelength shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of broadband optical wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in semiconductor traveling-wave amplifiers is measured for wavelength shifts up to 65 nm using a tandem amplifier geometry. A quantity we call the relative conversion efficiency function, which determines the strength of the four-wave mixing nonlinearity, was extracted from the data. Using this quantity, gain requirements for lossless four-wave mixing

Jianhui Zhou; K. J. Vahala; M. A. Newkirk; B. I. Miller

1994-01-01

383

Ocean Waves Measurement and Analysis, Fifth International Symposium WAVES 2005, 3rd-7th, July, 2005. Madrid, Spain Paper number: 197  

E-print Network

Ocean Waves Measurement and Analysis, Fifth International Symposium WAVES 2005, 3rd-7th, July, 2005. Madrid, Spain Paper number: 197 #12;Ocean Waves Measurement and Analysis, Fifth International Symposium WAVES 2005, 3rd-7th, July, 2005. Madrid, Spain #12;Ocean Waves Measurement and Analysis, Fifth

Grilli, Stéphan T.

384

Measurement and Modeling of Wave-induced Sediment Resuspension in Nearshore Water  

E-print Network

the heights and periods of surface waves. Measurements of bottom current velocity and suspended sediment and bed consolidation. Surface wave parameters derived from subsurface pressure measurements at 6 sites the significant wave height (Fig. 2a) it does a poorer job of determining the peak energy wave period (Fig. 2b

385

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES  

E-print Network

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES � PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES With the recent advancement of spatial measurements of ocean waves, we are clearly facing new challenges regarding world of truly spatial ocean waves. INTRODUCTION Since the first successful development of a wave gauge

386

Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).

Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

2012-03-01

387

Stratospheric and tropospheric wave measurements near the Andes mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results and interpretation of temperature, pressure and wind velocity measurements, performed with an instrumented balloon, are presented. The balloon, an open-type stratospheric one was launched from Mendoza (Argentina), near the Andes mountains. The data analysis suggests the presence of a large amplitude quasi-inertial gravity wave, with intrinsic period close to 0.5 days, and vertical wavelength of around 1.7 km

Alejandro de la Torre; Hector Téitelbaum; François Vial

1996-01-01

388

Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

2011-04-01

389

Attenuation Distance of Low Frequency Waves Upstream of the Pre-Dawn Bow Shock: GEOTAIL snd ISEE-3 Comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock using both GEOTAIL and ISEE-3 magnetometer data.

Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B.

1994-01-01

390

The upper mantle structure of the central Rio Grande rift region from teleseismic P and S wave travel time delays and attenuation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

Slack, P. D.; Davis, P. M.; Baldridge, W. S.; Olsen, K. H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

1996-01-01

391

Measurements of Nonlinear Harmonic Waves at Cracked Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear harmonic waves generated at cracked interfaces are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A compact tension specimen is fabricated and the amplitude of transmitted wave is analyzed as a function of position along the fatigued crack surface. In order to measure as many nonlinear harmonic components as possible a broadband Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) transducers are employed together with a calibration technique for making absolute amplitude measurements with fluid-coupled receiving transducers. Cracked interfaces are shown to generate high acoustic nonlinearities which are manifested as harmonics in the power spectrum of the received signal. The first subharmonic (f/2) and the second harmonic (2f) waves are found to be dominant nonlinear components for an incident toneburst signal of frequency f. To explain the observed nonlinear behavior a partially closed crack is modeled by planar half interfaces that can account for crack parameters such as crack opening displacement and crack surface conditions. The simulation results show reasonable agreements with the experimental results.

Jeong, Hyunjo; Barnard, Dan

2011-06-01

392

Simultaneous Measurements of Harmonic Waves at Fatigue-Cracked Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear harmonic waves generated at cracked interfaces are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A compact tension specimen is fabricated and the amplitude of the transmitted wave is analyzed as a function of position along the fatigued crack surface. In order to measure as many nonlinear harmonic components as possible, broadband lithium niobate (LiNbO3) transducers are employed together with a calibration technique for making absolute amplitude measurements with fluid-coupled receiving transducers. Cracked interfaces are shown to generate high acoustic nonlinearities, which are manifested as harmonics in the power spectrum of the received signal. The first subharmonic f/2 and the second harmonic 2f waves are found to be dominant nonlinear components for an incident toneburst signal of frequency f. To explain the observed nonlinear behavior, a partially closed crack is modeled by planar half interfaces that can account for crack parameters, such as crack opening displacement and crack surface conditions. The simulation results show reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

Hyunjo, Jeong; Dan, Barnard

2011-08-01

393

Body wave attenuation heralds surfacing magma at Mount Etna (Italy): the 2001-2003 and 2007 - 2008 case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During magma emplacement in the shallow crust, transient variations of physical properties underneath active volcanoes are expected and in a few cases observed. The predictability of such changes strongly depends on how fast this process is, compared to our ability to handle geophysical data and consistently resolve transient anomalies in the physical properties of the medium. The velocity of the magma upwelling depends on the local conditions of the volcanic conduit and rheology of the magma. Mt Etna is a perfect natural laboratory to investigate such issues, due to the almost continuous magmatic activity and the high quality of seismologic and geodetic data. Our experience with the most recent eruptive activity at Etna volcano (1989, 1991-1993, 1999, 2001, 2002-2003, 2004, 2006-2007, 2008-2009) has indicated that most of these eruptions were preceded by changes in several geophysical parameters, the most evident being: i) increase of seismicity; ii) deformation and iii) stress field variations. Changes in seismic attenuation properties in the region of magma intrusion can be also detected, and the 3D tomography by using a set of earthquakes recorded just before an eruption provides an image of such changes. Thus, to recognize if any change in the attenuation parameters, QP and/or QS, was produced by intrusive processes at Mt Etna, we analyzed the seismicity occurred in two different periods (2001-2003 and 2007-2008) during which three eruptive episodes occurred. Here we show that seismic attenuation of local earthquakes strongly increases due to the emplacement of magma within the crust, forecasting eruptions.

Giampiccolo, E.; De Gori, P.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocina, O.; Patanè, D.

2012-04-01

394

CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term attenuation, cross-polarization, and rain-rate data monitored in Austin, Texas from the circularly polarized 11.7 GHz satellite beacon transmitter aboard the Communications Technology Satellite are analyzed. Data events are significantly more likely during April-September, than during October-March, except for ice deplorization which predominates during the winter months. A time of day dependence of the events is also noted. The 10 dB fade level is exceeded for .03% during the thunderstorm months. Isolation with the same probability is 23 dB.

Vogel, W. J.

1980-01-01

395

Mode recognition of MHD wave fields at incomplete dispersion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recognition formalism is presented for searching for and identifying the modes in a magnetohydrodynamic wave field. The method provides the contributions of the wave energy in the different modes for one propagation direction. Forward and backward running waves are also distinguished. The method developed is also applicable when the frequency and wave number of a wave field are not

K. H. Glassmeier; U. Motschmann; R. von Stein

1995-01-01

396

Advanced sine wave modulation of continuous wave laser system for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption measurements  

E-print Network

A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate online and offline wavelength transmitted and received channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit optimal autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit with zero off mainlobe values to within numerical precision. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not significantly degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

Campbell, Joel F; Nehrir, Amin R

2014-01-01

397

Advanced sine wave modulation of continuous wave laser system for atmospheric CO(2) differential absorption measurements.  

PubMed

In this theoretical study, modulation techniques are developed to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A continuous wave (CW) lidar system using sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) pseudo-noise (PN) codes is described for making simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Amplitude and phase-shift keying (PSK) modulated intensity modulation (IM) carriers, in addition to a hybrid-pulse technique are investigated, which exhibit optimal autocorrelation properties. A method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions, which does not significantly degrade the resolution or introduce sidelobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth. PMID:24663259

Campbell, Joel F; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R

2014-02-10

398

Cloud attenuation at millimeter wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total atmospheric attenuation under conditions of complete and cloud cover was measured at frequencies of 15 and 35 GHz in the Boston area. The attenuations were actually inferred from extinction measurements using the sun as a source. Measurements were made at 29 elevation angles from 1 to 20 deg, and the angular dependence of the attenuation was examined. For most

Edward E. Altshuler; Richard A. Marr

1989-01-01

399

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2002-04-01

400

Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment  

E-print Network

. In order to gain deeper insight into the dynamics and the energy balance of ocean wind waves, i.e., the energy input by the wind, nonlinear wave-wave interaction, and energy dissipation, it is necessary165 Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment Jochen Klinke 1

Jaehne, Bernd

401

Use of bubble image velocimetry for measurement of plunging wave impinging on structure and associated greenwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of velocity fields of a plunging wave impacting on a structure in a two-dimensional wave tank was investigated experimentally. As the wave impinged and overtopped the structure, a large highly aerated region was created in front of the structure and on top of the structure. The broken wave in front of the structure and associated greenwater on top

Yonguk Ryu; Kuang-An Chang; Ho-Joon Lim

2005-01-01

402

Blood pulse wave velocity measured by photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important indicator for vascular stiffness. In this letter, we present electrocardiogram-synchronized photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo noninvasive quantification of the PWV in the peripheral vessels of mice. Interestingly, strong correlation between blood flow speed and ECG were clearly observed in arteries but not in veins. PWV is measured by the pulse travel time and the distance between two spot of a chose vessel, where simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms served as references. Statistical analysis shows a linear correlation between the PWV and the vessel diameter, which agrees with known physiology. Keywords: photoacoustic microscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, bilirubin, scattering medium.

Yeh, Chenghung; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2013-03-01

403

Digital Foucault tester for the measurement of parabolic wave form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Foucault tester for quantitative estimate the wave form of aspheric surfaces is based on the high precision knife position determination and the image data processing methods. In this paper, we report a set of digital Foucault tester for the measurement of parabolic surface. The movement of the knife-edge is controlled by PC, and the shadow patterns are captured by a CCD in real time and then are fed back to the computer. A new kind of data processing method, which has the advantage of simple arithmetic and high precision, is given in the paper. The method offers a reliable base for Digital Foucault tester.

Wang, Xiao-peng; Zhu, Ri-hong; Wang, Lei

2009-07-01

404

Carotid artery pulse wave measured by a laser vibrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early diagnosis of occlusive arterial diseases demands a device which sensitivity is able to resolve small differences between normal and abnormal pressure and flow pulse patterns. The present paper reports the use of a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV) in preliminary test for registration the pressure pulse. The measurements were performed in the right carotid artery of four volunteers to observe presumed typical pressure pulse patterns. LDV was used in single point mode to obtain the pressure waves in two distinct physiological situations: breathing and in apnea.

Pinotti, Marcos; Paone, Nicola; Santos, Fernando A.; Tomasini, Enrico P.

1998-06-01

405

Noise emission of civil and military aero-engines. Sources of generation and measures for attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that noise reduction on high bypass ratio turbofans for civil airliners is well established. The noise levels achieved meet the internationally agreed regulations (FAR 36). The same holds true for large military transport aircraft. Helicopter noise is caused essentially by the main and tail rotors. Noise reduction on afterburner and dry engines for combat and strike aircraft, which represent the major noise annoyance to the public, is very difficult because: high specific thrust is mandatory for aircraft performance and effectiveness; jet noise with and without afterburning is predominant; and the design of the reheat section and final (variable) nozzle in practice precludes the application of known concepts for jet noise attenuation in dry and reheated operation.

Grieb, H.; Heinig, K.

1986-09-01

406

Measured backscatter and attenuation properties, including polarization effects, of various dispersions at 0.9 micron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical properties of a wide variety of atmospheric dispersions were studied using a 0.9-micron lidar system which included a GaAs laser stack transmitter emitting a horizontally polarized beam of 4 milliradians vertical divergence and 1.5 milliradians horizontal divergence. A principal means for assessing optical properties was the polarization ratio, that is, the backscattered radiation power perpendicular to the transmitter beam divided by the backscattered radiation power parallel to the beam polarization. The ratio of the backscattered fraction to the attenuation coefficient was also determined. Data on the dispersion properties of black carbon smoke, road dust, fog, fair-weather cumulus clouds, snow and rain were obtained; the adverse effects of sunlight-induced background noise on the readings is also discussed.

Kohl, R. H.; Flaherty, M. I.; Partin, R. L.

1977-01-01

407

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools Paramètres affectant l'atténuation, la forme et le retard du coup de bélier—Partie 1: Modèles mathématiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressure waveform predicted by the classical theory of water-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical water- hammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation

ANTON BERGANT; ARRIS S. TIJSSELING; JOHN P. VÍTKOVSKÝ; ANGUS R. SIMPSON; MARTIN F. LAMBERT

408

Measurement of carbon nanotube microstructure relative density by optical attenuation and observation of size-dependent variations.  

PubMed

Engineering the density of carbon nanotube (CNT) forest microstructures is vital to applications such as electrical interconnects, micro-contact probes, and thermal interface materials. For CNT forests on centimeter-scale substrates, weight and volume can be used to calculate density. However, this is not suitable for smaller samples, including individual microstructures, and moreover does not enable mapping of spatial density variations within the forest. We demonstrate that the relative mass density of individual CNT microstructures can be measured by optical attenuation, with spatial resolution equaling the size of the focused spot. For this, a custom optical setup was built to measure the transmission of a focused laser beam through CNT microstructures. The transmittance was correlated with the thickness of the CNT microstructures by Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law to calculate the attenuation coefficient. We reveal that the density of CNT microstructures grown by CVD can depend on their size, and that the overall density of arrays of microstructures is affected significantly by run-to-run process variations. Further, we use the technique to quantify the change in CNT microstructure density due to capillary densification. This is a useful and accessible metrology technique for CNTs in future microfabrication processes, and will enable direct correlation of density to important properties such as stiffness and electrical conductivity. PMID:23748864

Park, Sei Jin; Schmidt, Aaron J; Bedewy, Mostafa; Hart, A John

2013-07-21

409

Measuring neutron-star ellipticity with measurements of the stochastic gravitational-wave background  

E-print Network

Galactic neutron stars are a promising source of gravitational waves in the analysis band of detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. Previous searches for gravitational waves from neutron stars have focused on the detection of individual neutron stars, which are either nearby or highly non-spherical. Here we consider the stochastic gravitational-wave signal arising from the ensemble of Galactic neutron stars. Using a population synthesis model, we estimate the single-sigma sensitivity of current and planned gravitational-wave observatories to average neutron star ellipticity $\\epsilon$ as a function of the number of in-band Galactic neutron stars $N_\\text{tot}$. For the plausible case of $N_\\text{tot}\\approx 53000$, and assuming one year of observation time with colocated initial LIGO detectors, we find it to be $\\sigma_\\epsilon=2.1\\times10^{-7}$, which is comparable to current bounds on some nearby neutron stars. (The current best $95\\%$ upper limits are $\\epsilon\\lesssim7\\times10^{-8}.$) It is unclear if Advanced LIGO can significantly improve on this sensitivity using spatially separated detectors. For the proposed Einstein Telescope, we estimate that $\\sigma\\epsilon=5.6\\times10^{-10}$. Finally, we show that stochastic measurements can be combined with measurements of individual neutron stars in order to estimate the number of in-band Galactic neutron stars. In this way, measurements of stochastic gravitational waves provide a complementary tool for studying Galactic neutron stars.

Dipongkar Talukder; Eric Thrane; Sukanta Bose; Tania Regimbau

2014-04-15

410

New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the techn