Science.gov

Sample records for wave function impact

  1. Photon wave function

    E-print Network

    Iwo Bialynicki-Birula

    2005-08-26

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, the photon wave function exists as long as it can be precisely defined and made useful.

  2. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  3. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  4. Random wave functions and percolation

    E-print Network

    E. Bogomolny; C. Schmit

    2007-08-31

    Recently it was conjectured that nodal domains of random wave functions are adequately described by critical percolation theory. In this paper we strengthen this conjecture in two respects. First, we show that, though wave function correlations decay slowly, a careful use of Harris' criterion confirms that these correlations are unessential and nodal domains of random wave functions belong to the same universality class as non critical percolation. Second, we argue that level domains of random wave functions are described by the non-critical percolation model.

  5. Wave function as geometric entity

    E-print Network

    B. I. Lev

    2011-02-10

    A new approach to the geometrization of the electron theory is proposed. The particle wave function is represented by a geometric entity, i.e., Clifford number, with the translation rules possessing the structure of Dirac equation for any manifold. A solution of this equation is obtained in terms of geometric treatment. Interference of electrons whose wave functions are represented by geometric entities is considered. New experiments concerning the geometric nature of electrons are proposed.

  6. Meson wave function from holographic approaches

    E-print Network

    Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt; Tanja Branz; Thomas Gutsche; Valery E. Lyubovitskij

    2010-02-08

    We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches

  7. Trigonimetric Trial Wave Function for the Hydrogen Atom Trial wave function: r ,( ) 3

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    Trigonimetric Trial Wave Function for the Hydrogen Atom Trial wave function: r ,( ) 3 3 3 sech energy operatory: V 1 r -= a. Demonstrate the wave function is normalized. 0 r r ,( )2 4 r 2 d. Calculate the percent error. .5- E ( )- .5- 100 3.84= e. Compare optimized trial wave function

  8. FastFEM: Breaking Wave Impact on Ships Wave breaking and wave impact on maritime structures are difficult to model

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    FastFEM: Breaking Wave Impact on Ships Wave breaking and wave impact on maritime structures on fast ships. Faster ships have become more important in recent years. These include pilot ships, supply ships to oil rigs, repair vessels for offshore wind farms, rescue vessels, and coast guard vessels

  9. PRESSURE IMPULSES CAUSED BY WAVE IMPACT

    E-print Network

    Cox, Simon

    PRESSURE IMPULSES CAUSED BY WAVE IMPACT A thesis submitted to the School of Mathematics's prior, written consent. #12; Abstract Coastal sea defences fail when the impact pressures due by solving a boundary value problem for the Pressure Impulse, the integral of pressure over the short time

  10. Unstable particle's wave-function renormalization prescription

    E-print Network

    Yong Zhou

    2005-12-17

    We strictly define two set Wave-function Renormalization Constants (WRC) under the LSZ reduction formula for unstable particles at the first time. Then by introducing antiparticle's WRC and the CPT conservation law we obtain a new wave-function renormalization condition which can be used to totally determine the two set WRC. We calculate two physical processes to manifest the consistence of the present wave-function renormalization prescription with the gauge theory in standard model. We also prove that the conventional wave-function renormalization prescription which discards the imaginary part of unstable particle's WRC leads to physical amplitude gauge dependent.

  11. Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally sheared flow. Quarterly Journal;AcceptedArticle Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

  12. Stochastic Quantum Trajectories without a Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Jeroen C. Vink

    2015-03-16

    After summarizing three versions of trajectory-based quantum mechanics, it is argued that only the original formulation due to Bohm, which uses the Schr\\"odinger wave function to guide the particles, can be readily extended to particles with spin. To extend the two wave function-free formulations, it is argued that necessarily particle trajectories not only determine location, but also spin. Since spin values are discrete, it is natural to revert to a variation of Bohm's pilot wave formulation due originally to Bell. It is shown that within this formulation with stochastic quantum trajectories, a wave function free formulation can be obtained.

  13. Wave function derivation of the JIMWLK equation

    E-print Network

    Alexey V. Popov

    2008-12-16

    Using the stationary lightcone perturbation theory, we propose the complete and careful derivation the JIMWLK equation. We show that the rigorous treatment requires the knowledge of a boosted wave function with second order accuracy. Previous wave function approaches are incomplete and implicitly used the time ordered perturbation theory, which requires a usage of an external target field.

  14. On the Deutron Relativistic Wave Function

    E-print Network

    L. Abesalashvili; L. Akhobadze; V. Garsevanishvili; T. Jalagania; Yu. Tevzadze

    2011-02-23

    Light front form of the relativization of the deuteron wave function is considered. Parametars of the wave function are extracted comparing theoretical results with experimental data. Experimental data are obtained on the two-metre propane bubble chamber of JINR (Dubna) bombarded by the deutron beam with momentum of 4.2 GeV/c/nucleon

  15. Meson wave function from holographic models

    E-print Network

    Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt; Tanja Branz; Thomas Gutsche; Valery Lyubovitskij

    2009-06-05

    We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.

  16. A Wave-function for Stringy Universes

    E-print Network

    Costas Kounnas; Nicolaos Toumbas; Jan Troost

    2007-07-27

    We define a wave-function for string theory cosmological backgrounds. We give a prescription for computing its norm following an earlier analysis within general relativity. Under Euclidean continuation, the cosmologies we discuss in this paper are described in terms of compact parafermionic worldsheet systems. To define the wave-function we provide a T-fold description of the parafermionic conformal field theory, and of the corresponding string cosmology. In specific examples, we compute the norm of the wave-function and comment on its behavior as a function of moduli.

  17. Solve spheroidal wave functions by SUSY method

    E-print Network

    Guihui Tian; Shuquan Zhong

    2009-12-10

    The perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) is used to study the spheroidal wave functions' eigenvalue problem. Expanding the super-potential in series of the parameter alpha, the first order term of ground eigen-value and the eigen-function are gotten. In the paper, the very excellent results are that all the first two terms approximation on eigenfunctions obtained are in closed form. They give useful information for the involved physical problems in application of spheroidal wave functions.

  18. Stress Wave Source Characterization: Impact, Fracture, and Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory Christofer

    Rapidly varying forces, such as those associated with impact, rapid crack propagation, and fault rupture, are sources of stress waves which propagate through a solid body. This dissertation investigates how properties of a stress wave source can be identified or constrained using measurements recorded at an array of sensor sites located far from the source. This methodology is often called the method of acoustic emission and is useful for structural health monitoring and the noninvasive study of material behavior such as friction and fracture. In this dissertation, laboratory measurements of 1--300 mm wavelength stress waves are obtained by means of piezoelectric sensors which detect high frequency (10 kHz--3MHz) motions of a specimen's surface, picometers to nanometers in amplitude. Then, stress wave source characterization techniques are used to study ball impact, drying shrinkage cracking in concrete, and the micromechanics of stick-slip friction of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and rock/rock interfaces. In order to quantitatively relate recorded signals obtained with an array of sensors to a particular stress wave source, wave propagation effects and sensor distortions must be accounted for. This is achieved by modeling the physics of wave propagation and transduction as linear transfer functions. Wave propagation effects are precisely modeled by an elastodynamic Green's function, sensor distortion is characterized by an instrument response function, and the stress wave source is represented with a force moment tensor. These transfer function models are verified though calibration experiments which employ two different mechanical calibration sources: ball impact and glass capillary fracture. The suitability of the ball impact source model, based on Hertzian contact theory, is experimentally validated for small (˜1 mm) balls impacting massive plates composed of four different materials: aluminum, steel, glass, and PMMA. Using this transfer function approach and the two mechanical calibration sources, four types of piezoelectric sensors were calibrated: three commercially available sensors and the Glaser-type conical piezoelectric sensor, which was developed in the Glaser laboratory. The distorting effects of each sensor are modeled using autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) models, and because vital phase information is robustly incorporated into these models, they are useful for simulating or removing sensor-induced distortions, so that a displacement time history can be retrieved from recorded signals. The Glaser-type sensor was found to be very well modeled as a unidirectional displacement sensor which detects stress wave disturbances down to about 1 picometer in amplitude. Finally, the merits of a fully calibrated experimental system are demonstrated in a study of stress wave sources arising from sliding friction, and the relationship between those sources and earthquakes. A laboratory friction apparatus was built for this work which allows the micro-mechanisms of friction to be studied with stress wave analysis. Using an array of 14 Glaser-type sensors, and precise models of wave propagation effects and the sensor distortions, the physical origins of the stress wave sources are explored. Force-time functions and focal mechanisms are determined for discrete events found amid the "noise" of friction. These localized events are interpreted to be the rupture of micrometer-sized contacts, known as asperities. By comparing stress wave sources from stick-slip experiments on plastic/plastic and rock/rock interfaces, systematic differences were found. The rock interface produces very rapid (<1 microsecond) implosive forces indicative of brittle asperity failure and fault gouge formation, while rupture on the plastic interface releases only shear force and produces a source more similar to earthquakes commonly recorded in the field. The difference between the mechanisms is attributed to the vast differences in the hardness and melting temperatures of the two materials, which affect the distribution of asp

  19. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    E-print Network

    Shan Gao

    2011-08-04

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distribution of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, and it is formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not continuous but discontinuous and random. This result suggests a new interpretation of the wave function, according to which the wave function is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations. It is shown that the suggested interpretation of the wave function disfavors the de Broglie-Bohm theory and the many-worlds interpretation but favors the dynamical collapse theories, and the random discontinuous motion of particles may provide an appropriate random source to collapse the wave function.

  20. Spatial wave functions of photon and electron

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlov, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The quantum mechanical model of the photon and electron is considered. The photon is conceived of as a particle moving with the speed of light which is accompanied by the wave function of the photon spreading out with an infinite speed. The wave function of the electron is introduced in terms of virtual photons tied to the electron. A description of electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions is given through the wave functions of electrons. The approach provides an explanation of the results of recent experiments measuring the speed of propagation of the bound magnetic field.

  1. Sculpturing the Electron Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Shiloh, Roy; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-01

    Coherent electrons such as those in electron microscopes, exhibit wave phenomena and may be described by the paraxial wave equation. In analogy to light-waves, governed by the same equation, these electrons share many of the fundamental traits and dynamics of photons. Today, spatial manipulation of electron beams is achieved mainly using electrostatic and magnetic fields. Other demonstrations include simple phase-plates and holographic masks based on binary diffraction gratings. Altering the spatial profile of the beam may be proven useful in many fields incorporating phase microscopy, electron holography, and electron-matter interactions. These methods, however, are fundamentally limited due to energy distribution to undesired diffraction orders as well as by their binary construction. Here we present a new method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping of electron beams, by precisely controlling an engineered pattern of thicknesses on a thin-membrane, thereby molding the spatial phase of the electron wav...

  2. Modeling of Wave Impact Using a Pendulum System 

    E-print Network

    Nie, Chunyong

    2011-08-08

    For high speed vessels and offshore structures, wave impact, a main source of environmental loads, causes high local stresses and structural failure. However, the prediction of wave impact loads presents numerous challenges due to the complex nature...

  3. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  4. Localized and Delocalized Wave Functions for Butadiene Frank Rioux

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    Localized and Delocalized Wave Functions for Butadiene Frank Rioux The generation of localized wave functions present a problem for chemists who are accoustomed to localizing the -electrons the delocalized, canonical wave functions by invoking the quantum mechanical superposition principle

  5. On single nucleon wave functions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2011-05-06

    The strong and singular interaction between nucleons, makes the nuclear many body theory very complicated. Still, nuclei exhibit simple and regular features which are simply described by the shell model. Wave functions of individual nucleons may be considered just as model wave functions which bear little resemblance to the real ones. There is, however, experimental evidence for the reality of single nucleon wave functions. There is a simple method of constructing such wave functions for valence nucleons. It is shown that this method can be improved by considering the polarization of the core by the valence nucleon. This gives rise to some rearrangement energy which affects the single valence nucleon energy within the nucleus.

  6. The Maxwell wave function of the photon

    E-print Network

    M. G. Raymer; Brian J. Smith

    2006-04-24

    James Clerk Maxwell unknowingly discovered a correct relativistic, quantum theory for the light quantum, forty-three years before Einstein postulated the photon's existence. In this theory, the usual Maxwell field is the quantum wave function for a single photon. When the non-operator Maxwell field of a single photon is second quantized, the standard Dirac theory of quantum optics is obtained. Recently, quantum-state tomography has been applied to experimentally determine photon wave functions.

  7. Time symmetry in wave function collapse models

    E-print Network

    Daniel Bedingham

    2015-02-25

    A framework for wave function collapse models that is symmetric under time reversal is presented. Within this framework there are equivalent pictures of collapsing wave functions evolving in both time directions. The backwards-in-time Born rule can be broken by an initial condition on the Universe resulting in asymmetric behaviour. Similarly the forwards-in-time Born rule can in principle be broken by a final condition on the Universe.

  8. The geometry of electron wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, Yurii A

    2013-02-28

    To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  9. Impact damage detection in composite panels using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Bibi Intan Suraya; Khalili, Pouyan; Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced panels offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g, good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, fiber breakage or delaminations can be induced which reduce the functionality of the structure. Efficient structural health monitoring of such plate-like components can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure and covering critical areas. However, the guided wave propagation in such anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials needs to be understood from theory and verified experimentally to achieve sufficient coverage of the structure. Using noncontact laser interferometer measurements the guided wave propagation in carbon fiber reinforced panels was investigated experimentally. Good agreement with calculations using a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model was achieved. Impact damage was induced in the composite panels and the guided wave scattering at the damage measured and quantified. Good agreement with predictions was found and barely visible impact damage in composite panels detected.

  10. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic alternative to the orthodox interpretation, and it also implies that the de Broglie-Bohm theory and many-worlds interpretation are wrong and the dynamical collapse theories are in the right direction by admitting wavefunction collapse.

  11. Third-order Coulomb corrections to the S-wave Green function, energy levels and wave functions at the origin

    E-print Network

    M. Beneke; Y. Kiyo; K. Schuller

    2007-05-30

    We obtain analytic expressions for the third-order corrections due to the strong interaction Coulomb potential to the S-wave Green function, energy levels and wave functions at the origin for arbitrary principal quantum number n. Together with the known non-Coulomb correction this results in the complete spectrum of S-states up to order alpha_s^5. The numerical impact of these corrections on the Upsilon spectrum and the top quark pair production cross section near threshold is estimated.

  12. von Neumann-Landau equation for wave functions, wave-particle duality and collapses of wave functions

    E-print Network

    Zeqian Chen

    2007-09-29

    It is shown that von Neumann-Landau equation for wave functions can present a mathematical formalism of motion of quantum mechanics. The wave functions of von Neumann-Landau equation for a single particle are `bipartite', in which the associated Schr\\"{o}dinger's wave functions correspond to those `bipartite' wave functions of product forms. This formalism establishes a mathematical expression of wave-particle duality and that von Neumann's entropy is a quantitative measure of complementarity between wave-like and particle-like behaviors. Furthermore, this extension of Schr\\"{o}dinger's form suggests that collapses of Schr\\"{o}dinger's wave functions can be regarded as the simultaneous transition of the particle from many levels to one.

  13. Weak Measurement and (Bohmian) Conditional Wave Functions

    E-print Network

    Travis Norsen; Ward Struyve

    2013-10-07

    It was recently pointed out (and demonstrated experimentally) by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be "directly measured" using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a (perhaps entangled) multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called "conditional wave function" of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics (uniquely) makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system's density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian "conditional density matrix" as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior -- and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions -- are suggested and discussed.

  14. The evolution of oscillator wave functions

    E-print Network

    Mark Andrews

    2015-09-20

    We consider some of the methods that can be used to reveal the general features of how wave functions evolve with time in the harmonic oscillator. We first review the periodicity properties over each multiple of a quarter of the classical period of oscillation. Then we show that any wave function can be simply transformed so that its centroid, defined by the expectation values of position and momentum, remains at rest at the center of the oscillator. This implies that we need only consider the evolution of this restricted class of wave functions; the evolution of all others can be reduced to these. The evolution of the spread in position $\\Delta_x$ and momentum $\\Delta_p$ throws light on energy and uncertainty and on squeezed and coherent states. Finally we show that any wave function can be transformed so that $\\Delta_x$ and $\\Delta_p$ do not change with time and that the evolution of all wave functions can easily be found from the evolution of those at rest at the origin with unchanging $\\Delta_x$ and $\\Delta_p$.

  15. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friar, J. L.; Tomusiak, E. L.; Gibson, B. F.; Payne, G. L.

    1981-08-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schrödinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3He Coulomb energy. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Three-body problem, classification of states.

  16. Investigating wave data from the FAST satellite by reconstructing the wave distribution function

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Investigating wave data from the FAST satellite by reconstructing the wave distribution function G cross spectra and autospectra computed from the data, we reconstruct the wave distribution function (WDF function, wave propagation 1. Introduction [2] Waves with frequencies at or slightly above the local proton

  17. Distributed Phase Acquisition in a Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Robert Englman; Asher Yahalom

    2011-01-22

    A separable $x-y$ model is solved for a specialized vector potential (no magnetic and weak electric fields) penetrating slowly\\textbf{,} adiabatically into and across a rectangular box to which an electron is confined. The time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation has adiabatic solutions, in which gradual phase acquisitions occur for {\\it parts} of the electronic wave function. For a closed trajectory of the source, the initial and after-return wave functions are shown to be simultaneously co-degenerate solutions of the Hamiltonian, which situation repeats itself for further cyclic motion of the source.

  18. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. On the Role of Shock Wave Reflections in Impact Cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoglio, O.

    2015-07-01

    When the downward impact shockwave meets a rock discontinuity, an upward reflected pressure wave is created. When travelling through the crater fill deposits, this wave projects upwards the shattered rocks which so may contribute to the rim creation.

  20. The wave function of a gravitating shell

    E-print Network

    V. I. Dokuchaev; S. V. Chernov

    2010-10-01

    We have calculated a discrete spectrum and found an exact analytical solution in the form of Meixner polynomials for the wave function of a thin gravitating shell in the Reissner-Nordstrom geometry. We show that there is no extreme state in the quantum spectrum of the gravitating shell, as in the case of extreme black hole.

  1. Multifractal wave functions of simple quantum maps

    E-print Network

    John Martin; Ignacio Garcia-Mata; Olivier Giraud; Bertrand Georgeot

    2010-07-08

    We study numerically multifractal properties of two models of one-dimensional quantum maps, a map with pseudointegrable dynamics and intermediate spectral statistics, and a map with an Anderson-like transition recently implemented with cold atoms. Using extensive numerical simulations, we compute the multifractal exponents of quantum wave functions and study their properties, with the help of two different numerical methods used for classical multifractal systems (box-counting method and wavelet method). We compare the results of the two methods over a wide range of values. We show that the wave functions of the Anderson map display a multifractal behavior similar to eigenfunctions of the three-dimensional Anderson transition but of a weaker type. Wave functions of the intermediate map share some common properties with eigenfunctions at the Anderson transition (two sets of multifractal exponents, with similar asymptotic behavior), but other properties are markedly different (large linear regime for multifractal exponents even for strong multifractality, different distributions of moments of wave functions, absence of symmetry of the exponents). Our results thus indicate that the intermediate map presents original properties, different from certain characteristics of the Anderson transition derived from the nonlinear sigma model. We also discuss the importance of finite-size effects.

  2. The nucleon wave function at the origin

    E-print Network

    Michael Gruber

    2011-04-05

    We calculate the next-to-leading order perturbative corrections to the SVZ sum rules for the coupling f_N, the nucleon leading twist wave function at the origin. The results are compared to the established Ioffe sum rules and also to lattice QCD simulations.

  3. Impact Seismology: A Search for Primary Pressure Waves Following Impacts A and H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Galdemard, P.; Lagage, P.; Pantin, E.; Sauvage, M.; Lognonné, P.; Gautier, D.; Billebaud, F.; Livengood, T.; Käufl, H. U.

    1996-06-01

    This paper reports part of the seismic observations performed after the impacts of Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments A and H with the mid-IR camera TIMMI at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Hodograms have been computed to search for the seismic signature of the primary waves crossing the planet within 2 hr following each impact. The hodogram analysis has been unable to detect any seismic signal. In order to put a limit on the kinetic energy of the fragments, the synthetic thermal signature of the primary wave has been calculated as a function of the incident energy, according to theoretical simulations, and taking into account observational conditions such as the point spread function. The non-detection implies that the kinetic energy of impacts A and H was less than 2 × 1021J, within the frame of the theoretical simulation of Lognonnéet al.(Lognonné, Ph., B. Mosser, and F. Dahlen 1994.Icarus110, 180-195.). The error bar is as large as one order of magnitude, according to other simulations. The seismic wave should have contributed to a non-negligible part of the heating of the region surrounding the impacts, but it is not yet possible to measure its contribution.

  4. Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    Chapter 2 Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles In classical Hamiltonian mechanics corresponds to x 1 # x # x 2 . 9 #12; 10 CHAPTER 2. WAVE FUNCTIONS A quantum particle at a single instant of time is described by a wave function #(r), a complex function of position r. Again in the interests

  5. Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    Chapter 2 Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles In classical Hamiltonian mechanics to x1 x x2. 9 #12;10 CHAPTER 2. WAVE FUNCTIONS A quantum particle at a single instant of time is described by a wave function (r), a complex function of position r. Again in the interests of simplicity we

  6. Continuous Observations and the Wave Function Collapse

    E-print Network

    A. Marchewka; Z. Schuss

    2011-03-13

    We propose to modify the collapse axiom of quantum measurement theory by replacing the instantaneous with a continuous collapse of the wave function in finite time $\\tau$. We apply it to coordinate measurement of a free quantum particle that is initially confined to a domain $D\\subset\\rR^d$ and is observed continuously by illuminating $\\rR^d-D$. The continuous collapse axiom (CCA) defines the post-measurement wave function (PMWF)in $D$ after a negative measurement as the solution of Schr\\"odinger's equation at time $\\tau$ with instantaneously collapsed initial condition and homogeneous Dirichlet condition on the boundary of $D$. The CCA applies to all cases that exhibit the Zeno effect. It rids quantum mechanics of the unphysical artifacts caused by instantaneous collapse and introduces no new artifacts.

  7. Exact Wave Functions for Generalized Harmonic Oscillators

    E-print Network

    Nathan Lanfear; Raquel M. Lopez; Sergei K. Suslov

    2011-07-20

    We transform the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the most general variable quadratic Hamiltonians into a standard autonomous form. As a result, the time-evolution of exact wave functions of generalized harmonic oscillators is determined in terms of solutions of certain Ermakov and Riccati-type systems. In addition, we show that the classical Arnold transformation is naturally connected with Ehrenfest's theorem for generalized harmonic oscillators.

  8. STUDY OF BLAST WAVE IMPACT ON CONCRETE AJIT GEEVARGHESE JOHN

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    to buildings that often collapse before evacuation is possible. These blast waves subject the buildings wave created in a shock tube and a reasonably realistic simulation of blast loading on structures canSTUDY OF BLAST WAVE IMPACT ON CONCRETE by AJIT GEEVARGHESE JOHN Presented to the Faculty

  9. GENERALIZED HERGLOTZ WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MODELLING WIRELESS NEARFIELD MULTIPATHSCATTERING ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Abhayapala, Thushara D.

    GENERALIZED HERGLOTZ WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MODELLING WIRELESS NEARFIELD MULTIPATHSCATTERING. This model gen- eralizes the Herglotz Wave Function, which is an important tool in the study of inverse. Herglotz wave functions primarily find use in inverse scattering problems where it is natural to find

  10. Primordial gravitational waves and the collapse of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Gabriel; Kraiselburd, Lucila; Landau, Susana J.

    2015-10-01

    The self-induced collapse hypothesis was introduced by D. Sudarsky and collaborators to explain the origin of cosmic structure from a perfect isotropic and homogeneous universe during the inflationary regime. In this paper, we calculate the power spectrum for the tensor modes, within the semiclassical gravity approximation, with the additional hypothesis of a generic self-induced collapse of the inflaton's wave function; we also compute an estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Based on this calculation, we show that the considered proposal exhibits a strong suppression of the tensor modes amplitude; nevertheless, the corresponding amplitude is still consistent with the joint BICEP/KECK and Planck Collaboration's limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  11. Direct impacts of waves on tropical cold point tropopause temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Alexander, M. Joan

    2015-03-01

    Cold point tropopause temperature is a key regulator of cirrus clouds and stratospheric water vapor, which have significant impacts on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Using tropical radiosonde observations, we show that waves in the tropical tropopause layer lower cold point temperature by 1.6 K on average relative to the seasonal mean. Furthermore, wave activity in the tropical tropopause layer has not been constant over the last 2.5 decades, altering the magnitude of the wave impacts on cold point temperature at a decadal scale. The change in the direct wave impact is partially (~20-30%) responsible for the sudden decrease in cold point temperature and stratospheric water vapor at the end of 2000, which has not been fully explained by changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. We further show that these wave impacts are not well represented in reanalysis data.

  12. Covariance constraints for light front wave functions

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Light front wave functions (LFWFs) are often utilized to model parton distributions and form factors where their transverse and longitudinal momenta are tied to each other in some manner that is often guided by convenience. On the other hand, the cross talk of transverse and longitudinal momenta is governed by Poincar\\'e symmetry and thus popular LFWF models are often not usable to model more intricate quantities such as generalized parton distributions. In this contribution a closer look to this issue is given and it is shown how to overcome the issue for two--body LFWFs.

  13. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  14. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  15. Variational wave functions for homogenous Bose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sueto, Andras; Szepfalusy, Peter

    2008-02-15

    We study variational wave functions of the product form, factorizing according to the wave vectors k, for the ground state of a system of bosons interacting via positive pair interactions with a positive Fourier transform. Our trial functions are members of different orthonormal bases in Fock space. Each basis contains a quasiparticle vacuum state and states with an arbitrary finite number of quasiparticles. One of the bases is that of Valatin and Butler (VB), introduced fifty years ago and parametrized by an infinite set of variables determining Bogoliubov's canonical transformation for each k. In another case, inspired by Nozieres and Saint James the canonical transformation for k=0 is replaced by a shift in the creation/annihilation operators. For the VB basis we prove that the lowest energy is obtained in a state with {approx}{radical}(volume) quasiparticles in the zero mode. The number of k=0 physical particles is of the order of the volume and its fluctuation is anomalously large, resulting in an excess energy. The same fluctuation is normal in the second type of optimized bases, the minimum energy is smaller and is attained in a vacuum state. Associated quasiparticle theories and questions about the gap in their spectrum are also discussed.

  16. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  17. Breaking wave impact on a slender horizontal cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.; Isaacson, M.; Chan, E.S.

    1994-12-31

    The present paper describes the results of an experimental study of impact forces due to plunging wave action on a horizontal circular cylinder located near the still water level. The vertical and horizontal components of the impact force on the cylinder due to a single plunging wave have been measured for 3 elevations of the cylinder, and 6 locations of wave breaking relative to the horizontal location of the cylinder. A video record of the impact process has been used to estimate the kinematics of the wave and plunging jet prior to impact. The force measurements have been corrected for the dynamic response of the cylinder, and analyzed to obtain slamming coefficients and rise times. It is observed that the cylinder elevation and its horizontal location have a significant effect on the peak impact force. The magnitude of the impact force due to a breaking wave is 4 to 20 times greater than that due to a regular non-breaking wave of similar height and period. In addition to the fluid velocity, the curvature of the water surface has a noticeable effect on the peak impact force.

  18. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  19. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  20. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-06-15

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  1. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould waves: Frequency, functional form, and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, D. H. E.; Ashourvan, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability of nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling waves and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L /rp?1 . In this regime, TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitude, and nonlinear theories that include a small number of harmonics, such as three-wave parametric resonance theory, also fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. It is found that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of three-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. It is found that traveling waves are linearly stable for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to three-wave theory.

  2. POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS ON WAVE FUNCTION LOCALIZATION DUE TO COMPTON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Danilov, Viatcheslav V; Gorlov, Timofey V; Liu, Yun; Shishlo, Andrei P; Nagaitsev,

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of a particle s wave function in the process of radiation or light scattering is a longstanding problem. Its solution will give a clue on processes that form, for example, wave functions of electrons constantly emitting synchrotron radiation quanta in storage rings. On a more global scale, it may shed light on wave function collapse due to the process of measurement. In this paper we consider various experimental options using Fermilab electron beams and a possible electron beam from the SNS linac and lasers to detect electron wave function change due to Compton scattering.

  3. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  4. Correlational entropy and complexity of wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. A.; Zelevinsky, V.; Sokolov, V.

    1997-04-01

    The eigenfunctions |?> of a realistic quantum system are complicated superpositions of simple basis configurations k>, |?>=sum_kC^?k |k>. The complexity of wave functions, as one of generic signatures of quantum chaos, was analyzed in (V.Zelevinsky, B.A.Brown, N.Frazier and M.Horoi, Phys. Rep. 276), 85 (1996) with the aid of basis-dependent informational entropy of an eigenstate, S^?=-sum_k(C^?_k)^2ln(C^?_k)^2. Here we suggest an invariant correlational entropy as a complementary feature of the process of mixing and stochastization. We find the evolution of |?> as a function of a relevant physical parameter ? and construct the density matrix ?^?_kk' by averaging the product C^?_k(?)C^?*_k'(?) over the interval of ?. The correlational entropy is S^?_c=-Tr(?^?ln?^?). We show the sensitivity of S^?c to level crossings in the given interval of ?. The behavior of S^?c in the nuclear shell model is studied. The analytical solution for S_c^? of an oscillator in a random electric field coincides with the entropy of the equilibrium Planck distribution.

  5. Holographic Wave Functions, Meromorphization and Counting Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-05-10

    We study the large-Q{sup 2} behavior of the meson form factor F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) constructed using the holographic light-front wave functions proposed recently by Brodsky and de Teramond. We show that this model can be also obtained within the Migdal's regularization approach (''meromorphization''), if one applies it to 3-point function for scalar currents made of scalar quarks. We found that the asymptotic 1/Q{sup 2} behavior of F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) is generated by soft Feynman mechanism rather than by short distance dynamics, which causes very late onset of the 1/Q{sup 2} asymptotic behavior. It becomes visible only for unaccessible momenta Q{sup 2} {approx}> 10, GeV{sup 2}. Using meromorphization for spin-1/2 quarks, we demonstrated that resulting form factor F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) has 1/Q{sup 4} asymptotic behavior. Now, owing to the late onset of this asymptotic pattern, F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) imitates the 1/Q{sup 2} behavior in the few GeV{sup 2} region.

  6. Completeness of the Coulomb scattering wave functions

    E-print Network

    A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; M. Akin

    2006-02-01

    Completeness of the eigenfunctions of a self-adjoint Hamiltonian, which is the basic ingredient of quantum mechanics, plays an important role in nuclear reaction and nuclear structure theory. However, until now, there was no a formal proof of the completeness of the eigenfunctions of the two-body Hamiltonian with the Coulomb interaction. Here we present the first formal proof of the completeness of the two-body Coulomb scattering wave functions for repulsive unscreened Coulomb potential. To prove the completeness we use the Newton's method [R. Newton, J. Math Phys., 1, 319 (1960)]. The proof allows us to claim that the eigenfunctions of the two-body Hamiltonian with the potential given by the sum of the repulsive Coulomb plus short-range (nuclear) potentials also form a complete set. It also allows one to extend the Berggren's approach of modification of the complete set of the eigenfunctions by including the resonances for charged particles. We also demonstrate that the resonant Gamow functions with the Coulomb tail can be regularized using Zel'dovich's regularization method.

  7. Guided ultrasonic waves for impact damage detection in composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, B. I. S.; Khalili, P.; Fromme, P.

    2014-03-01

    Carbon fiber laminate composites, consisting of layers of polymer matrix reinforced with high strength carbon fibers, are increasingly employed for aerospace structures. They offer advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, fiber and matrix breakage or delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient structural health monitoring of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure. Impact damage was induced in the composite panels using standard drop weight procedures. The guided wave scattering at the impact damage was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer, quantified, and compared to baseline measurements on undamaged composite panels. Significant scattering of the first anti-symmetrical (A0) guided wave mode was observed, allowing for the detection of barely visible impact damage. The guided wave scattering was modeled using full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulations, and the influence of the different damage mechanisms investigated. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found. The sensitivity of guided waves for the detection of barely visible impact damage in composite panels has been verified.

  8. Six Impossible Things: Fractional Charge From Laughlin's Wave Function

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2010-12-23

    The Laughlin's wave function is found to be the zero-energy ground state of a {delta}-function Hamiltonian. The finite negative value of the ground state energy which is 91 per cent of Wigner value, can be obtained only when Coulomb correlations are introduced. The Laughlin's wave function is of short range and it overlaps with that of the exact wave functions of small (number of electrons 2 or 5) systems. (i) It is impossible to obtain fractional charge from Laughlin's wave function. (ii) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's wave function gives the ground state of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. (iii) It is impossible to have particle-hole symmetry in the Laughlin's wave function. (iv) It is impossible to derive the value of m in the Laughlin's wave function. The value of m in {psi}{sub m} can not be proved to be 3 or 5. (v) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's state is incompressible because the compressible states are also likely. (vi) It is impossible for the Laughlin's wave function to have spin. This effort is directed to explain the experimental data of quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs.

  9. Photon wave functions, wave-packet quantization of light, and coherence theory

    E-print Network

    Brian J. Smith; M. G. Raymer

    2007-12-09

    The monochromatic Dirac and polychromatic Titulaer-Glauber quantized field theories (QFTs) of electromagnetism are derived from a photon-energy wave function in much the same way that one derives QFT for electrons, that is, by quantization of a single-particle wave function. The photon wave function and its equation of motion are established from the Einstein energy-momentum-mass relation, assuming a local energy density. This yields a theory of photon wave mechanics (PWM). The proper Lorentz-invariant single-photon scalar product is found to be non-local in coordinate space, and is shown to correspond to orthogonalization of the Titulaer-Glauber wave-packet modes. The wave functions of PWM and mode functions of QFT are shown to be equivalent, evolving via identical equations of motion, and completely describe photonic states. We generalize PWM to two or more photons, and show how to switch between the PWM and QFT viewpoints. The second-order coherence tensors of classical coherence theory and the two-photon wave functions are shown to propagate equivalently. We give examples of beam-like states, which can be used as photon wave functions in PWM, or modes in QFT. We propose a practical mode converter based on spectral filtering to convert between wave packets and their corresponding biorthogonal dual wave packets.

  10. Exclusive processes of charmonium production and charmonium wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Braguta, V. V. Likhoded, A. K. Luchinsky, A. V.

    2012-01-15

    Results obtained by studying the properties of the leading-twist wave functions for the S- and P-wave states of charmonia are presented. Wave-function models that can be used to calculate various processes involving the production of these mesons were constructed on the basis of these investigations. Calculations for some exclusive processes of charmonium production were performed within the models in question.

  11. Exponentially Accurate Semiclassical Tunneling Wave Functions in One Dimension

    E-print Network

    Vasile Gradinaru; George A. Hagedorn; Alain Joye

    2010-03-17

    We study the time behavior of wave functions involved in tunneling through a smooth potential barrier in one dimension in the semiclassical limit. We determine the leading order component of the wave function that tunnels. It is exponentially small in $1/\\hbar$. For a wide variety of incoming wave packets, the leading order tunneling component is Gaussian for sufficiently small $\\hbar$. We prove this for both the large time asymptotics and for moderately large values of the time variable.

  12. Gravity-related wave function collapse: Is superfluid He exceptional?

    E-print Network

    Lajos Diósi

    2013-02-21

    The gravity-related model of spontaneous wave function collapse, a longtime hypothesis, damps the massive Schr\\"odinger Cat states in quantum theory. We extend the hypothesis and assume that spontaneous wave function collapses are responsible for the emergence of Newton interaction. Superfluid helium would then show significant and testable gravitational anomalies.

  13. Detecting wave function collapse without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Charles Wesley; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-08-01

    We are concerned with the problem of detecting with high probability whether a wave function has collapsed or not, in the following framework: A quantum system with a d-dimensional Hilbert space is initially in state ?; with probability 0 < p < 1, the state collapses relative to the orthonormal basis b1, …, bd. That is, the final state ?' is random, it is ? with probability 1 - p and bk (up to a phase) with p times Born's probability || ? 2 . Now an experiment on the system in state ?' is desired that provides information about whether or not a collapse has occurred. Elsewhere [C. W. Cowan and R. Tumulka, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 195303 (2014)], we identify and discuss the optimal experiment in case that ? is either known or random with a known probability distribution. Here, we present results about the case that no a priori information about ? is available, while we regard p and b1, …, bd as known. For certain values of p, we show that the set of ?s for which any experiment E is more reliable than blind guessing is at most half the unit sphere; thus, in this regime, any experiment is of questionable use, if any at all. Remarkably, however, there are other values of p and experiments E such that the set of ?s for which E is more reliable than blind guessing has measure greater than half the sphere, though with a conjectured maximum of 64% of the sphere.

  14. Plausible Suggestion for a Deterministic Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Petra Schulz

    2006-09-26

    A deterministic axial vector model for photons is presented which is suitable also for particles. During a rotation around an axis the deterministic wave function a has the following form a = ws r exp(+-i wb t). ws is either the axial or scalar spin rotation frequency (the latter is proportional to the mass), r radius of the orbit (also amplitude of a vibration arising later from the interaction by fusing of two oppositely circling photons), wb orbital angular frequency (proportional to the velocity) and t time. "+" before the imaginary i means a right-handed and "-" a left-handed rotation. An interaction happens if particles (including the photons) meet themselves through collision and melt together. ----- Es wird ein deterministisches Drehvektor-Modell fuer Photonen vorgestellt, das auch fuer Teilchen geeignet ist. Bei einer Kreisbewegung um eine Achse hat die deterministische Wellenfunktion a die folgende Form a = ws r exp(+-i wb t). Dabei bedeuten ws entweder die axiale oder die skalare Spin-Kreisfrequenz (letztere ist proportional der Masse), r Radius der Kreisbahn (auch Amplitude einer sich spaeter durch Wechselwirkung ergebenden Schwingung aus zwei entgegengesetzt kreisenden verschmolzenen Photonen), wb Kreisbahn-Frequenz (ein Mass fuer die Bahngeschwindigkeit) und t Zeit. Das "+" vor dem imaginaeren i bedeutet eine rechtshaendige und das "-" eine linkshaendige Rotation. Eine Wechselwirkung tritt ein, wenn sich Teilchen einschliesslich der Photonen durch Stossprozesse begegnen und dabei verschmelzen.

  15. Electron wave-functions in a magnetic field

    E-print Network

    D. K. Sunko

    2013-04-04

    The problem of a single electron in a magnetic field is revisited from first principles. It is shown that the standard quantization, used by Landau, is inconsistent for this problem, whence Landau's wave functions spontaneously break the gauge symmetry of translations in the plane. Because of this Landau's (and Fock's) wave functions have a spurious second quantum number. The one-body wave function of the physical orbit, with only one quantum number, is derived, and expressed as a superposition of Landau's wave functions. Conversely, it is shown that Landau's wave functions are a limiting case of physical solutions of a different problem, where two quantum numbers naturally appear. When the translation gauge symmetry is respected, the degeneracy related to the choice of orbit center does not appear in the one-body problem.

  16. Best Slater approximation of a fermionic wave function

    E-print Network

    Alex D. Gottlieb; Norbert J. Mauser; J. M. Zhang

    2015-10-26

    We study the best Slater approximation of an $N$-fermion wave function analytically. That is, we seek the Slater determinant (constructed out of $N$ orthonormal single-particle orbitals) wave function having largest overlap with a given $N$-fermion wave function. Some simple lemmas have been established and their usefulness is demonstrated on some structured states, such as the GHZ state. In the simplest nontrivial case of three fermions in six orbitals, which the celebrated Borland-Dennis discovery is about, the best Slater approximation wave function is proven to be built out of the natural orbitals in an interesting way. We also show that the Hadamard inequality is useful for finding the best Slater approximation of some special target wave functions.

  17. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  18. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  19. Wave-particle duality and `bipartite' wave functions for a single particle

    E-print Network

    Zeqian Chen

    2006-09-12

    It is shown that `bipartite' wave functions can present a mathematical formalism of quantum theory for a single particle, in which the associated Schr\\"{o}dinger's wave functions correspond to those `bipartite' wave functions of product forms. This extension of Schr\\"{o}dinger's form establishes a mathematical expression of wave-particle duality and that von Neumann's entropy is a quantitative measure of complementarity between wave-like and particle-like behaviors. In particular, this formalism suggests that collapses of Schr\\"{o}dinger's wave functions can be regarded as the simultaneous transition of the particle from many levels to one. Our results shed considerable light on the basis of quantum mechanics, including quantum measurement.

  20. Waves in Periodic Dissipative Laminate Metamaterial Generated by Plate Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2015-06-01

    Waves generated by plate impact loading of Al/W laminates with different size of cell were investigated numerically depending on the impactor/cell mass ratio. The materials model took into account viscoplastic behavior of materials. It was observed that this mass ratio has a direct impact on the structure of stress pulses traveling through the composite. At the small impactor/cell mass ratio travelling waves closely resembling solitary waves were quickly formed near the impacted surface. They propagate as quasistationary weakly attenuating localized pulses. The properties of these pulses were satisfactory described based on a theoretical model using dispersive and nonlinear parameters of the materials similar to solitary solutions for the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). The temperature at given pressure at the maximum is dramatically different then the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure reflecting a different paths of loading. Increase of impactor/cell mass ratio results in the train of solitary like pulses which number increased with the increase of the impactor/cell mass ratio. At large impactor/cell mass ratio oscillatory stationary shock waves were formed. The leading front of these stationary shock waves was closely described by a solitary like pulse observed at small impactor/cell mass ratio. One of the authors (PFN) was supported by UCMexus Fellowship

  1. The small $K ?$ component in the $K^*$ wave functions

    E-print Network

    C. W. Xiao; F. Aceti; M. Bayar

    2012-10-26

    We use a recently developed formalism which generalizes the Weinberg's compositeness condition to partial waves higher than s-wave in order to determine the probability of having a $K \\pi$ component in the $K^*$ wave function. A fit is made to the $K \\pi$ phase shifts in p-wave, from where the coupling of $K^*$ to $K \\pi$ and the $K \\pi$ loop function are determined. These ingredients allow us to determine that the $K^*$ is a genuine state, different to a $K \\pi$ component, in a proportion of about 80%.

  2. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  3. Deep inelastic scattering and light-cone wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V.M.; Johnson, M.B.

    1996-09-01

    In the framework of light-cone QCD rules, we study the valence quark distribution function {ital q}({ital x}{sub B}) of a pion for moderate {ital x}{sub B}. The sum rule with the leading twist-2 wave function gives {ital q}({ital x}{sub B}) = {phi}{sub {pi}}({ital x}{sub B}). Twist-4 wave functions give about 30% for {ital x}{sub B} {approx}0.5. It is shown that QCD sum rule predictions, with the asymptotic pion wave function, are in good agreement with experimental data. We found that a two-hump profile for the twist-2 wave function leads to a valence quark distribution function that contradicts experimental data.

  4. Impact-induced tensile waves in a kind of phase-transforming materials

    E-print Network

    Shou-Jun Huang

    2010-07-23

    This paper concerns the global propagation of impact-induced tensile waves in a kind of phase-transforming materials. It is well-known that the governing system of partial differential equations is hyperbolic-elliptic and the initial-boundary value problem is not well-posed at all levels of loading. By making use of fully nonlinear stress-strain curve to model this material, Dai and Kong succeeded in constructing a physical solution of the above initial-boundary value problem. For the impact of intermediate range, they assumed that $\\beta<3\\alpha$ in the stress-response function for simplicity. In this paper, we revisit the impact problem and consider the propagation of impact-induced tensile waves for all values of the parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. The physical solutions for all levels of loading are obtained completely.

  5. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cie?likiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podra?ka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gda?sk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both total and local force transducers which measured the response of the structure to the impact force. Also, the free surface elevations, the water particle velocity and the water particle acceleration were recorded during the WaveSlam experiment. Both the total and the local force data have been analysed using the Frequency Response Function method, which has been already applied to the estimation of the wave slamming forces. The results of this classical approach were compared to the calculated slamming forces based on Goda and Wienke and Oumeraci theories. Slamming wave forces and slamming coefficients calculated using both models appeared to be very much larger than those obtained from the analysed recorded data, therefore there is a need for further research. Details of this research and modelling results will be presented in the final poster.

  6. Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Tucker, Don H; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.

  7. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  8. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  9. Real Tunneling Solutions and the Hartle-Hawking Wave Function

    E-print Network

    S. Carlip

    1993-01-08

    A real tunneling solution is an instanton for the Hartle-Hawking path integral with vanishing extrinsic curvature (vanishing ``momentum'') at the boundary. Since the final momentum is fixed, its conjugate cannot be specified freely; consequently, such an instanton will contribute to the wave function at only one or a few isolated spatial geometries. I show that these geometries are the extrema of the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the semiclassical approximation, and provide some evidence that with a suitable choice of time parameter, these extrema are the maxima of the wave function at a fixed time.

  10. Dark energy from quantum wave function collapse of dark matter

    E-print Network

    A. S. Majumdar; D. Home; S. Sinha

    2009-09-03

    Dynamical wave function collapse models entail the continuous liberation of a specified rate of energy arising from the interaction of a fluctuating scalar field with the matter wave function. We consider the wave function collapse process for the constituents of dark matter in our universe. Beginning from a particular early era of the universe chosen from physical considerations, the rate of the associated energy liberation is integrated to yield the requisite magnitude of dark energy around the era of galaxy formation. Further, the equation of state for the liberated energy approaches $w \\to -1$ asymptotically, providing a mechanism to generate the present acceleration of the universe.

  11. Pole wave-function renormalization prescription for unstable particles

    E-print Network

    Yong Zhou

    2007-04-23

    We base a new wave-function renormalization prescription on the pole mass renormalization prescription, in which the Wave-function Renormalization Constant (WRC) is extracted by expanding the particle's propagator around its pole, rather than its physical mass point as convention. We find the difference between the new and the conventional WRC is gauge-parameter dependent for unstable particles beyond one-loop level, which will lead to some physical results gauge dependent under the conventional wave-function renormalization prescription beyond one-loop level.

  12. Investigation of the recurrence relations for the spheroidal wave functions

    E-print Network

    Guihui Tian; Shuquan Zhong

    2009-12-10

    The perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) is used to study the spheroidal wave functions' recurrence relations, which are revealed by the shape-invariance property of the super-potential. The super-potential is expanded by the parameter alpha and could be gotten by approximation method. Up to the first order, it has the shape-invariance property and the excited spheroidal wave functions are gotten. Also, all the first term eigenfunctions obtained are in closed form. They are advantageous to investigating for involved physical problems of spheroidal wave function.

  13. Impact of plunging breaking waves on a partially submerged cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of a deep-water plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged cube is studied experimentally in a tank that is 14.8 m long and 1.2 m wide with a water depth of 0.91 m. The breakers are created from dispersively focused wave packets generated by a programmable wave maker. The water surface profile in the vertical center plane of the cube is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with movie frame rates ranging from 300 to 4,500 Hz. The pressure distribution on the front face of the cube is measured with 24 fast-response sensors simultaneously with the wave profile measurements. The cube is positioned vertically at three heights relative to the mean water level and horizontally at a distance from the wave maker where a strong vertical water jet is formed. The portion of the water surface between the contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest is fitted with a circular arc and the radius and vertical position of the fitted circle is tracked during the impact. The vertical acceleration of the contact point reaches more than 50 times the acceleration of gravity and the pressure distribution just below the free surface shows a localized high-pressure region with a very high vertical pressure gradient. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under grant N000141110095.

  14. Covariant Wave Function Reduction and Coherent Decays of Kaon Pair

    E-print Network

    Bernd A. Berg

    1998-09-12

    The recently developed relativistically covariant formulation of wave function reduction is illustrated for Lipkin's proposal to study CP violation in the coherent decay of kaon pairs. Covariant results are obtained in agreement with an amplitude approach proposed in the literature.

  15. Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich

    2014-06-15

    Multi-time wave functions such as ?(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ?(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.

  16. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, R

    2015-06-01

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme. PMID:26049477

  17. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on pacemaker function.

    PubMed

    Langberg, J; Abber, J; Thuroff, J W; Griffin, J C

    1987-09-01

    Twenty-two pacemaker pulse generators were exposed to shock waves of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter to assess the effects of the extremely high pressure transients on pacemaker function. The pulse generator and distal aspect of the lead were positioned 5 cm from the focal point of the lithotripter and 10 cm from each other. Pulse generator function was analyzed during shock wave delivery synchronized with pulse generator output, during shock waves at a rate faster than the escape rate, and after exposure to lithotripsy. During shock waves delivered synchronously with pulse generator output, only one of 22 pulse generators malfunctioned by intermittently reverting to the magnet rate. When subjected to shock waves at a rate greater than the escape rate, 50% of the pulse generators were inhibited by electromechanical interference from the lithotripter. Both bipolar and unipolar devices were affected. However, analysis after exposure to shock waves showed that none of the pacemakers was damaged or spuriously reprogrammed. In conclusion, cardiac pacemakers do not appear to be damaged or reprogrammed by exposure to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The likelihood of false inhibition appears to be very low if shock waves are delivered synchronously with the QRS. PMID:2444938

  18. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  19. Uniform WKB approximation of Coulomb wave functions for arbitrary partial wave

    E-print Network

    N. Michel

    2008-12-12

    Coulomb wave functions are difficult to compute numerically for extremely low energies, even with direct numerical integration. Hence, it is more convenient to use asymptotic formulas in this region. It is the object of this paper to derive analytical asymptotic formulas valid for arbitrary energies and partial waves. Moreover, it is possible to extend these formulas for complex values of parameters.

  20. Optimal Execution with Nonlinear Impact Functions

    E-print Network

    Almgren, Robert F.

    Optimal Execution with Nonlinear Impact Functions and Trading-Enhanced Risk Robert F. Almgren uncertainty of the realized price is increased by demanding rapid execution; we show that optimal trajectories Robert Almgren: Nonlinear Optimal Execution 2 1 Introduction In the execution of large portfolio

  1. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions In q-Fourier Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lazhar Dhaouadi

    2008-04-09

    The prolate spheroidal wave functions, which are a special case of the spheroidal wave functions, possess a very surprising and unique property [6]. They are an orthogonal basis of both $L^2(-1,1)$ and the Paley-Wiener space of bandlimited functions. They also satisfy a discrete orthogonality relation. No other system of classical orthogonal functions is known to possess this strange property. We prove that there are new systems possessing this property in $q$-Fourier analysis. As application we give a new sampling formula with $q^n$ as sampling points, where 0 < q < 1.

  2. Novel and simple description for a smooth transition from $?$-cluster wave functions to $jj$-coupling shell model wave functions

    E-print Network

    Tadahiro Suhara; Naoyuki Itagaki; József Cseh; Marek P?oszajczak

    2013-05-21

    We propose an improved version of Antisymmetrized Quasi-Cluster Model (AQCM) to describe a smooth transition from the $\\alpha$-cluster wave function to the $jj$-coupling shell model wave function and apply it to the ground state of $^{12}$C. The cluster-shell transition in $^{12}$C is characterized in AQCM by only two parameters: $R$ representing the distance between $\\alpha$ clusters and the center of mass, and $\\Lambda$ describing the break of $\\alpha$ clusters. The optimal AQCM wave function for the ground state of $^{12}$C is an intermediate state between the three-$\\alpha$ cluster state and the shell model state with the $p_{3/2}$ subshell closure configuration. The result is consistent with that of the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD), and the optimal AQCM wave function quantitatively agrees with the AMD one, although the number of degrees of freedom in AQCM is significantly fewer.

  3. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  4. Heat wave impacts on mortality in Shanghai, 1998 and 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Song, Guixiang; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Kalkstein, Adam J.; Tang, Xu

    2007-01-01

    A variety of research has linked extreme heat to heightened levels of daily mortality and, not surprisingly, heat waves both in 1998 and in 2003 all led to elevated mortality in Shanghai, China. While the heat waves in the two years were similar in meteorological character, elevated mortality was much more pronounced during the 1998 event, but it remains unclear why the human response was so varied. In order to explain the differences in human mortality between the two years’ heat waves, and to better understand how heat impacts human health, we examine a wide range of meteorological, pollution, and social variables in Shanghai during the summers (15 June to 15 September) of 1998 and 2003. Thus, the goal of this study is to determine what was responsible for the varying human health response during the two heat events. A multivariate analysis is used to investigate the relationships between mortality and heat wave intensity, duration, and timing within the summer season, along with levels of air pollution. It was found that for heat waves in both summers, mortality was strongly associated with the duration of the heat wave. In addition, while slightly higher than average, the air pollution levels for the two heat waves were similar and cannot fully explain the observed differences in human mortality. Finally, since the meteorological conditions and pollution levels for the two heat waves were alike, we conclude that improvements in living conditions in Shanghai, such as increased use of air conditioning, larger living areas, and increased urban green space, along with higher levels of heat awareness and the implementation of a heat warning system, were responsible for the lower levels of human mortality in 2003 compared to 1998.

  5. Joint Resummation for TMD Wave Function of Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-02-01

    QCD corrections to transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave function develop the mixed double logarithm ln x ln(? P2/k_T^2), when the gluon emission is collinear to the energetic pion. The fist scheme-independent kT factorization formula for ?*? ? ? transition form factor is achieved by resumming all the enhanced logarithms for both pion wave function and short-distance coefficient function. High-order QCD corrections and transfer momentum ? {Q2} dependence of pion form factor are found to be distinct from those predicted by the conventional resummation approach.

  6. The Waves Caused by the Impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. H.; Bao, G.

    2003-11-01

    During the period 18-24 July 1994, over20 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter. Images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope bring to light the dynamic responses of Jupiter's atmosphere to the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The import points are the observed circular rings surrounding five of the impact sites and spreading outward at a constant velocity of 450 m/s. The circularity of the rings suggested that they are waves. Because the wave speed appears to be constant for impacts of varying sizes, it is inferred that the propagation velocity is independent of the explosion energy, which implies linear waves. We review the three types of impact-induced waves . We provide a review on three candidate wave types of the impact-induced waves used by current theories, i.e. inertia-gravity waves, acoustic waves and seismic waves, with emphasis on the former two types.

  7. Delta function excitation of waves in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidmar, R. J.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation of the earth's ionosphere by delta function current sheets is considered, and the temporal and spatial evolution of wave packets is analyzed for a two-component collisional F2 layer. Approximations of an inverse Fourier-Laplace transform via saddle point methods provide plots of typical wave packets. These illustrate cold plasma wave theory and may be used as a diagnostic tool since it is possible to relate specific features, e.g., the frequency of a modulation envelope, to plasma parameters such as the electron cyclotron frequency. It is also possible to deduce the propagation path length and orientation of a remote radio beacon.

  8. Impact loads and wave kinematics on a fixed truncated circular cylinder due to nonlinear waves in a 2-D tank 

    E-print Network

    Zou, Jun

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a result of measurements and analyses of the wave kinematics and impact loads on a scaled ISSC-TLP column fixed in a 2-D wave tank. The objective is to find out the mechanics of impact loads varied with kinematics in both space...

  9. A generalized direct inversion in the iterative subspace approach for generalized valence bond wave functions

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    a greatly improved method for converging generalized valence bond (GVB) self-consistent wave functions-shell HF, or a single pair GVB wave function. Here we extend this method to general wave functions GVB wave functions with up to ten pairs) and comparing with other standard methods. 1. INTRODUCTION

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo: Direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions and their energies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James B.

    ARTICLES Quantum Monte Carlo: Direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions for calculating the difference between a true wave function and an analytic trial wave function 0 . The method Monte Carlo QMC method for the direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions.1­3 We report

  11. Nobel Lecture: Electronic structure of matter--wave functions and density functionals*

    E-print Network

    Wu, Zhigang

    Nobel Lecture: Electronic structure of matter--wave functions and density functionals* W. Kohn-physical-chemical considerations 1257 III. Density-Functional Theory--Background 1258 IV. The Hohenberg-Kohn Formulation of Density- Functional Theory 1259 A. The density n(r) as the basic variable 1259 B. The Hohenberg-Kohn variational

  12. Correlated continuum wave functions for three particles with Coulomb interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gasaneo, G.; Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R.; Miraglia, J.E.; Macri, P.

    1997-04-01

    We present an approximate solution of the Schr{umlt o}dinger equation for the three-body Coulomb problem. We write the Hamiltonian in parabolic curvilinear coordinates and study the possible separation of the wave equation as a system of coupled partial differential equations. When two of the particles are heavier than the others, we write an approximate wave equation that incorporates some terms of the Hamiltonian that before had been considered as a perturbation. Its solution can be expressed in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function of two variables. We show that the proposed wave function includes a correlation between the motion of the light particle relative to the heavy particles and verifies the correct asymptotic behavior when all particles are far from each other. Finally, we discuss the possible uses of this function in the calculation of transition matrices and differential cross sections in ionizing collisions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Propagation of Dirac Wave Functions in Accelerated Frames of Reference

    E-print Network

    Yi-Cheng Huang; Wei-Tou Ni

    2004-07-30

    The first-order gravity effects of Dirac wave functions are found from the inertial effects in the accelerated frames of reference. Derivations and discussions about Lense-Thirring effect and the gyrogravitational ratio for intrinsic spin are presented. We use coordinate transformations among reference frames to study and understand the Lense-Thirring effect of a scalar particle. For a Dirac particle, the wave-function transformation operator from an inertial frame to a moving accelerated frame is obtained. From this, the Dirac wave function is solved and its change of polarization gives the gyrogravitational ratio 1 for the first-order gravitational effects. The eikonal approach to this problem is presented in the end for ready extension to investigations involving curvature terms.

  14. Quantum Corral Wave-function Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alfredo; Reboredo, Fernando; Balseiro, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    We present a theoretical method for the design and optimization of quantum corrals[1] with specific electronic properties. Taking advantage that spins are subject to a RKKY interaction that is directly controlled by the scattering of the quantum corral, we design corral structures that reproduce spin Hamiltonians with coupling constants determined a priori[2]. We solve exactly the bi-dimensional scattering problem for each corral configuration within the s-wave approximation[3] and subsequently the geometry of the quantum corral is optimized by means of simulated annealing[4] and genetic algorithms[5]. We demonstrate the possibility of automatic design of structures with complicated target electronic properties[6]. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California at the LLNL under contract no W-7405-Eng-48. [1] M. F. Crommie, C. P. Lutz and D. M. Eigler, Nature 403, 512 (2000) [2] D. P. DiVincenzo et al., Nature 408, 339 (2000) [3] G. A. Fiete and E. J. Heller, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 933 (2003) [4] M. R. A. T. N. Metropolis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 1087 (1953) [5] E. Aarts and J. K. Lenstra, eds. Local search in combinatorial problems (Princeton University Press, 1997) [6] A. A. Correa, F. Reboredo and C. Balseiro, Phys. Rev. B (in press).

  15. Diving-wave migration using Airy functions

    SciTech Connect

    Albertin, U.K.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described for imaging seismic reflection data selected from a data volume, comprising: preprocessing said selected seismic reflection data by application of normal moveout, dip moveout and a time-domain-to-frequency-domain transformation; determining the velocity field characteristic of said data volume; forming a velocity model for said data volume by fitting a velocity function to said velocity field, said function being characterized by a linear gradient in sloth; from the velocity model, calculating parameters for defining an Airy operator; separating normal seismic data from evanescent seismic data and saving said evanescant data in a random access memory; iterating downwardly, migrating said normal seismic data with the aid of said Airy operator; extracting said evanescent data from memory and iterating upwardly, migrating said evanescent seismic data with the aid of said Airy operator; summing the results of the downward and upward iterations; and inversely Fourier-transforming the summation.

  16. SLE description of the nodal lines of random wave functions

    E-print Network

    E. Bogomolny; R. Dubertrand; C. Schmit

    2006-09-07

    The nodal lines of random wave functions are investigated. We demonstrate numerically that they are well approximated by the so-called SLE_6 curves which describe the continuum limit of the percolation cluster boundaries. This result gives an additional support to the recent conjecture that the nodal domains of random (and chaotic) wave functions in the semi classical limit are adequately described by the critical percolation theory. It is also shown that using the dipolar variant of SLE reduces significantly finite size effects.

  17. On Spontaneous Wave Function Collapse and Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Roderich Tumulka

    2005-12-15

    One way of obtaining a version of quantum mechanics without observers, and thus of solving the paradoxes of quantum mechanics, is to modify the Schroedinger evolution by implementing spontaneous collapses of the wave function. An explicit model of this kind was proposed in 1986 by Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber (GRW), involving a nonlinear, stochastic evolution of the wave function. We point out how, by focussing on the essential mathematical structure of the GRW model and a clear ontology, it can be generalized to (regularized) quantum field theories in a simple and natural way.

  18. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  19. Canonical Transformation of a Classical Wave to Generate a Complex Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robert L. W.

    2001-04-01

    Canonical transformation (CT) of a classical field, such as the real wave function of an elastic wave, has not been well explored. A modification of the usual form of Hamiltonian density is possible such that it will lend itself readily to CT. The procedure is as follows: (1) Write down the integral with the usual H.density as the integrand - i.e. the action. (2) Integrate by part the potential energy part of H, density.(3) Fourier transform ( or more general expansion) the wave function. (4) Square-complete the integrand of (2), making use of the orthogality of Fourier terms. Then the new integrand is the equivalent of the old as an H. density. It will have the correct properties that are expected of the probability density function ( Provided it is normalied) It can be shown that the canonical variables obtained from the CT is more proper and correct than the usual psy function appearing in the first order wave equation in quantum mechanics. The difference between the two methods becomes manifest when one deals with a nonconservative system. It therefore justifies Schroedinger's insistence on the use of a real wave function.

  20. Pointwise Green function bounds and stability of combustion waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyng, Gregory; Raoofi, Mohammadreza; Texier, Benjamin; Zumbrun, Kevin

    Generalizing similar results for viscous shock and relaxation waves, we establish sharp pointwise Green function bounds and linearized and nonlinear stability for traveling wave solutions of an abstract viscous combustion model including both Majda's model and the full reacting compressible Navier-Stokes equations with artificial viscosity with general multi-species reaction and reaction-dependent equation of state, under the necessary conditions of strong spectral stability, i.e., stable point spectrum of the linearized operator about the wave, transversality of the profile as a connection in the traveling-wave ODE, and hyperbolic stability of the associated Chapman-Jouguet (square-wave) approximation. Notably, our results apply to combustion waves of any type: weak or strong, detonations or deflagrations, reducing the study of stability to verification of a readily numerically checkable Evans function condition. Together with spectral results of Lyng and Zumbrun, this gives immediately stability of small-amplitude strong detonations in the small heat-release (i.e., fluid-dynamical) limit, simplifying and greatly extending previous results obtained by energy methods by Liu-Ying and Tesei-Tan for Majda's model and the reactive Navier-Stokes equations, respectively.

  1. Calculation of the nucleon structure function from the nucleon wave function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussar, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator wave functions have played an historically important role in our understanding of the structure of the nucleon, most notably by providing insight into the mass spectra of the low-lying states. High energy scattering experiments are known to give us a picture of the nucleon wave function at high-momentum transfer and in a frame in which the nucleon is traveling fast. A simple model that crosses the twin bridges of momentum scale and Lorentz frame that separate the pictures of the nucleon wave function provided by the deep inelastic scattering data and by the oscillator model is presented.

  2. Impact of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Drob, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The NRL first-principles ionosphere model SAMI3 is used to study the ionospheric effects associated with tsunami-driven gravity waves. It is shown that gravity-wave induced variations in the neutral wind lead to plasma velocity variations both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the electric field induced by the neutral wind perturbations can map to the conjugate hemisphere. Thus, electron density variations can be generated in both hemispheres which impact the total electron content (TEC) and 6300A airglow emission. It is found that the TEC exhibits variations +/- 0.15 TECU and the 6300A airglow emission variation is up to +/- 2.5% relative to the unperturbed background airglow. These results are consistent with observational data. Research supported by NRL Base Funds and ONR BRC program.

  3. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long-term altimeter measurements in relation with boat traffic data base demonstrate that boat-generated waves are the key hydrodynamic parameter controlling short term tidal flat evolution. Concerning hydrodynamics, two main types of boat-generated waves can be distinguished: one corresponds to barges, the other to sea vessels. The critical parameter controlling wave characteristics, bottom shear stress and thus sedimentary impacts is the distance between seabed and keel. Thus, considering their larger seabed-keel distance, barges do not significantly affect the sedimentary cover of the intertidal area. On the contrary, sea-vessels can induce rapid changes of the tidal flat texture (i.e. bed flattening, mud drapes...) and morphology: erosion and sedimentation rates in a range of 0.5 to 6 cm.min-1 have been measured. Such energetic events occur generally during the squat generated wave run-up and can affect the seabed in water depths up to 1.5 m. In the freshwater part of the Seine estuary annual sediment inputs are mostly controlled by river flow (during river flood) while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term sediment dynamics (i.e. bedload, resuspension) on sea-vessels waves.

  4. Surface acoustic wave depth profiling of a functionally graded material

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, Jozefien; Leclaire, Philippe; Xu Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Martinez, Loic; Sola, Antonella; Siligardi, Cristina; Cannillo, Valeria; Van der Donck, Tom; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    The potential and limitations of Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to characterize the elastic depth profile of heterogeneous functional gradient materials are investigated by comparing simulations of the surface acoustic wave dispersion curves of different profile-spectrum pairs. This inverse problem is shown to be quite ill posed. The method is then applied to extract information on the depth structure of a glass-ceramic (alumina) functionally graded material from experimental data. The surface acoustic wave analysis suggests the presence of a uniform coating region consisting of a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass, with a sharp transition between the coating and the substrate. This is confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  5. Wave Function of the Roper from Lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    Dale S. Roberts; Waseem Kamleh; Derek B. Leinweber

    2013-07-26

    We apply the eigenvectors from a variational analysis in lattice QCD to successfully extract the wave function of the Roper state, and a higher mass P_11 state of the nucleon. We use the 2+1 flavour 32^3x64 PACS-CS configurations at a near physical pion mass of 156 MeV. We find that both states exhibit a structure consistent with a constituent quark model. The Roper d-quark wave function contains a single node consistent with a 2S state, and the third state wave function contains two, consistent with a 3S state. A detailed comparison with constituent quark model wave functions is carried out, obtained from a Coulomb plus ramp potential. These results validate the approach of accessing these states by constructing a variational basis composed of different levels of fermion source and sink smearing. Furthermore, significant finite volume effects are apparent for these excited states which mix with multi-particle states, driving their masses away from physical values and enabling the extraction of resonance parameters from lattice QCD simulations.

  6. Reality of the wave function and quantum entanglement

    E-print Network

    Mani Bhaumik

    2014-11-14

    The intrinsic fluctuations of the underlying, immutable quantum fields that fill all space and time can support the element of reality of a wave function in quantum mechanics. The mysterious non-locality of quantum entanglement may also be understood in terms of these inherent quantum fluctuations, ever-present at the most fundamental level of the universe.

  7. Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function Rafael D. Sorkin

    E-print Network

    Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick

    version 19 Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function Rafael D. Sorkin Perimeter Institute, 31, more in the tradition of "quantum logic", would accommodate the contradictions by dualizing to a space of "co-events" and effectively identifying reality with an element of this dual space. Reading

  8. Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function # Rafael D. Sorkin

    E-print Network

    Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick

    version 19 Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function # Rafael D. Sorkin Perimeter Institute, 31, more in the tradition of ``quantum logic'', would accommodate the contradictions by dualizing# to a space of ``co­events'' and e#ectively identifying reality with an element of this dual space. Reading

  9. On the ground state wave function of matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Yin, Xi

    2015-11-01

    We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU( N ) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.

  10. Wave function statistics and multifractality in disordered systems

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    interference · disorder · Coulomb interaction between electrons - switched off in this talk Non-localization correction to resistivity G | i Ai|2 = |Ai|2 + i=j A i Aj generically A i Aj 0 but: time-reversed paths: Ai = drdr 2 D(r, r ) #12;Wave function statistics Fyodorov, ADM 92; . . . Review: ADM, Phys. Rep. 2000

  11. The sign of the overlap of HFB wave functions

    E-print Network

    Luis M. Robledo

    2009-01-21

    The problem of how to compute accurately and efficiently the sign of the overlap between two general HFB wave functions is addressed. The results obtained can easily be extrapolated to the evaluation of the sign of the trace of a density operator exponential of one body operators.

  12. On the Ground State Wave Function of Matrix Theory

    E-print Network

    Ying-Hsuan Lin; Xi Yin

    2015-08-28

    We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU(N) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.

  13. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    E-print Network

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.

  14. Topological wave functions and heat equations

    E-print Network

    Murat Gunaydin; Andrew Neitzke; Boris Pioline

    2008-01-10

    It is generally known that the holomorphic anomaly equations in topological string theory reflect the quantum mechanical nature of the topological string partition function. We present two new results which make this assertion more precise: (i) we give a new, purely holomorphic version of the holomorphic anomaly equations, clarifying their relation to the heat equation satisfied by the Jacobi theta series; (ii) in cases where the moduli space is a Hermitian symmetric tube domain $G/K$, we show that the general solution of the anomaly equations is a matrix element $\\IP{\\Psi | g | \\Omega}$ of the Schr\\"odinger-Weil representation of a Heisenberg extension of $G$, between an arbitrary state $\\bra{\\Psi}$ and a particular vacuum state $\\ket{\\Omega}$. Based on these results, we speculate on the existence of a one-parameter generalization of the usual topological amplitude, which in symmetric cases transforms in the smallest unitary representation of the duality group $G'$ in three dimensions, and on its relations to hypermultiplet couplings, nonabelian Donaldson-Thomas theory and black hole degeneracies.

  15. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  16. Refined applications of the collapse of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodolsky, L.

    2015-05-01

    In a two-part system, the collapse of the wave function of one part can put the other part in a state which would be difficult or impossible to achieve otherwise, in particular, one sensitive to small effects in the "collapse" interaction. We present some applications to the very symmetric and experimentally accessible situations of the decays ? (1020 )?KoKo , ? (3770 )?DoDo, or ? (4 s )?BoBo , involving the internal state of the two-state Ko, Do, or Bo mesons. The collapse of the wave function occasioned by a decay of one member of the pair (away side) fixes the state vector of that side's two-state system. Bose-Einstein statistics then determines the state of the recoiling meson (near side), whose evolution can then be followed further. In particular, the statistics requirement dictates that the "away side" and "near side" internal wave functions must be orthogonal at the time of the collapse. Thus a C P violation in the away side decay implies a complementary C P impurity on the near side, which can be detected in the further evolution. The C P violation so manifested is necessarily direct C P violation, since neither the mass matrix nor time evolution was involved in the collapse. A parametrization of the direct C P violation is given, and various manifestations are presented. Certain rates or combination of rates are identified which are nonzero only if there is direct C P violation. The very explicit and detailed use made of the collapse of the wave function makes the procedure interesting with respect to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. We note an experimental consistency test for our treatment of the collapse of the wave function, which can be carried out by a certain measurement of partial decay rates.

  17. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdiss?4w?N (k)?(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness ?2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its conformity with theoretical predictions, previous simulations [2,6,9], experimental parameterizations of wave spectra [1,4] and to specify tunable parameters of terms (2,3). These simulations showed realistic spatio-temporal scales of wave evolution and spectral shaping close to conventional parameterizations [e.g. 4]. An additional important feature of the numerical solutions is a saturation of frequency-dependent wave steepness ?w in short-frequency range. The work was supported by the Russian government contract No.11.934.31.0035, Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 11-05-01114-a and ONR grant N00014-10-1-0991. References [1] S. I. Badulin, A. V. Babanin, D. Resio, and V. Zakharov. Weakly turbulent laws of wind-wave growth. J. Fluid Mech., 591:339-378, 2007. [2] S. I. Badulin, A. N. Pushkarev, D. Resio, and V. E. Zakharov. Self-similarity of wind-driven seas. Nonl. Proc. Geophys., 12:891-946, 2005. [3] S. I. Badulin and V. E. Zakharov. New dissipation function for weakly turbulent wind-driven seas. ArXiv e-prints, (1212.0963), December 2012. [4] M. A. Donelan, J. Hamilton, and W. H. Hui. Directional spectra of wind-generated waves. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 315:509-562, 1985. [5] M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson-jr. Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C5):4971-5029, 1987. [6] E. Gagnaire-Renou, M. Benoit, and S. I. Badulin. On weakly turbulent scaling of wind sea in simulations of fetch-limited growth. J. Fluid Mech., 669:178-213, 2011. [7] R. L. Snyder, F. W. Dobson, J. A. Elliot, and R. B. Long. Array measurements of atmospheric pressure fluctuations above surface gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech., 102:1-59, 1981. [8] D. J. Webb. Non-linear transfers between sea waves. Deep Sea Res., 25:279-298, 1978. [9] V. E. Zakharov, D. Resio, and A. N. Pushkarev. New wind input term consistent with experimental, theoretical and numerical considerations. ArXiv e-prints, (1212.1069), December 2012.

  18. Separation of a Slater determinant wave function with a neck structure into spatially localized subsystems

    E-print Network

    Yasutaka Taniguchi; Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo

    2012-06-11

    A method to separate a Slater determinant wave function with a two-center neck structure into spatially localized subsystems is proposed, and its potential applications are presented. An orthonormal set of spatially localized single-particle wave functions is obtained by diagonalizing the coordinate operator for the major axis of a necked system. Using the localized single-particle wave functions, the wave function of each subsystem is defined. Therefore, defined subsystem wave functions are used to obtain density distributions, mass centers, and energies of subsystems. The present method is applied to separations of Margenau--Brink cluster wave functions of $\\alpha + \\alpha$, $^{16}$O + $^{16}$O, and $\\alpha + ^{16}$O into their subsystems, and also to separations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics wave functions of $^{10}$Be into $\\alpha$ + $^6$He subsystems. The method is simple and applicable to the separation of general Slater determinant wave functions that have neck structures into subsystem wave functions.

  19. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  20. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  1. Joint resummation for pion wave function and pion transition form factor

    E-print Network

    Hsiang-nan Li; Yue-Long Shen; Yu-Ming Wang

    2013-10-27

    We construct an evolution equation for the pion wave function in the $k_T$ factorization theorem, whose solution sums the mixed logarithm $\\ln x\\ln k_T$ to all orders, with $x$ ($k_T$) being a parton momentum fraction (transverse momentum). This joint resummation induces strong suppression of the pion wave function in the small $x$ and large $b$ regions, $b$ being the impact parameter conjugate to $k_T$, and improves the applicability of perturbative QCD to hard exclusive processes. The above effect is similar to those from the conventional threshold resummation for the double logarithm $\\ln^2 x$ and the conventional $k_T$ resummation for $\\ln^2 k_T$. Combining the evolution equation for the hard kernel, we are able to organize all large logarithms in the $\\gamma^{\\ast} \\pi^{0} \\to \\gamma$ scattering, and to establish a scheme-independent $k_T$ factorization formula. It will be shown that the significance of next-to-leading-order contributions and saturation behaviors of this process at high energy differ from those under the conventional resummations. It implies that QCD logarithmic corrections to a process must be handled appropriately, before its data are used to extract a hadron wave function. Our predictions for the involved pion transition form factor, derived under the joint resummation and the input of a non-asymptotic pion wave function with the second Gegenbauer moment $a_2=0.05$, match reasonably well the CLEO, BaBar, and Belle data.

  2. Response functions of free mass gravitational wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Gursel, Linsay, Spero, Saulson, Whitcomb and Weiss (1984) on the response of a free-mass interferometric antenna is extended. Starting from first principles, the earlier work derived the response of a 2-arm gravitational wave antenna to plane polarized gravitational waves. Equivalent formulas (generalized slightly to allow for arbitrary elliptical polarization) are obtained by a simple differencing of the '3-pulse' Doppler response functions of two 1-arm antennas. A '4-pulse' response function is found, with quite complicated angular dependences for arbitrary incident polarization. The differencing method can as readily be used to write exact response functions ('3n+1 pulse') for antennas having multiple passes or more arms.

  3. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  4. Impact! Chandra Images a Young Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    Two images made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, one in October 1999, the other in January 2000, show for the first time the full impact of the actual blast wave from Supernova 1987A (SN1987A). The observations are the first time that X-rays from a shock wave have been imaged at such an early stage of a supernova explosion. Recent observations of SN 1987A with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed gradually brightening hot spots from a ring of matter ejected by the star thousands of years before it exploded. Chandra's X-ray images show the cause for this brightening ring. A shock wave is smashing into portions of the ring at a speed of 10 million miles per hour (4,500 kilometers per second). The gas behind the shock wave has a temperature of about ten million degrees Celsius, and is visible only with an X-ray telescope. "With Hubble we heard the whistle from the oncoming train," said David Burrows of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, the leader of the team of scientists involved in analyzing the Chandra data on SN 1987A. "Now, with Chandra, we can see the train." The X-ray observations appear to confirm the general outlines of a model developed by team member Richard McCray of the University of Colorado, Boulder, and others, which holds that a shock wave has been moving out ahead of the debris expelled by the explosion. As this shock wave collides with material outside the ring, it heats it to millions of degrees. "We are witnessing the birth of a supernova remnant for the first time," McCray said. The Chandra images clearly show the previously unseen, shock-heated matter just inside the optical ring. Comparison with observations made with Chandra in October and January, and with Hubble in February 2000, show that the X-ray emission peaks close to the newly discovered optical hot spots, and indicate that the wave is beginning to hit the ring. In the next few years, the shock wave will light up still more material in the ring, and an inward moving, or reverse, shock wave will heat the material ejected in the explosion itself. "The supernova is digging up its own past," said McCray. The observations were made on October 6, 1999, using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and the High Energy Transmission Grating, and again on January 17, 2000, using ACIS. Other members of the team were Eli Michael of the University of Colorado; Dr. Una Hwang, Dr. Steven Holt and Dr. Rob Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD; Professor Roger Chevalier of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville; and Professors Gordon Garmire and John Nousek of Pennsylvania State University. The results will be published in an upcoming issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University. The High Energy Transmission Grating was built by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. More About SN 1987A Images to illustrate this release and more information on Chandra's progress can be found on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/sn1987a/index.html AND http://chandra.nasa.gov More About SN 1987A

  5. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions Kevin A. Mitchell and Robert G. Littlejohn

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Kevin A.

    Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions Kevin A. Mitchell and Robert G and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function k l , which is a function and where k l , the ``internal wave func- tion,'' is a function of three internal or shape coordinates

  6. Acoustic Kappa-Density Fluctuation Waves in Suprathermal Kappa Function Fluids

    E-print Network

    Michael R. Collier; Aaron Roberts; Adolfo Vinas

    2007-10-20

    We describe a new wave mode similar to the acoustic wave in which both density and velocity fluctuate. Unlike the acoustic wave in which the underlying distribution is Maxwellian, this new wave mode occurs when the underlying distribution is a suprathermal kappa function and involves fluctuations in the power law index, kappa. This wave mode always propagates faster than the acoustic wave with an equivalent effective temperature and becomes the acoustic wave in the Maxwellian limit as kappa goes to infinity.

  7. Phases of Augmented Hadronic Light-Front Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Pasquini, Barbara; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng; /LBNL, NSD /RIKEN BNL

    2010-02-15

    It is an important question whether the final/initial state gluonic interactions which lead to naive-time-reversal-odd single-spin asymmetries and diffraction at leading twist can be associated in a definite way with the light-front wave function hadronic eigensolutions of QCD. We use light-front time-ordered perturbation theory to obtain augmented light-front wave functions which contain an imaginary phase which depends on the choice of advanced or retarded boundary condition for the gauge potential in light-cone gauge. We apply this formalism to the wave functions of the valence Fock states of nucleons and pions, and show how this illuminates the factorization properties of naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent observables which arise from rescattering. In particular, one calculates the identical leading-twist Sivers function from the overlap of augmented light-front wavefunctions that one obtains from explicit calculations of the single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-polarized nucleon scattering where the required phases come from the final-state rescattering of the struck quark with the nucleon spectators.

  8. Phases of Augmented Hadronic Light-Front Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng; Brodsky, S.J.; Pasquini, B.; Xiao, B.-W.

    2010-01-05

    It is an important question whether the final/initial state gluonic interactions which lead to naive-time-reversal-odd single-spin asymmetries and diffraction at leading twist can be associated in a definite way with the light-front wave function hadronic eigensolutions of QCD. We use light-front time-ordered perturbation theory to obtain augmented light-front wave functions which contain an imaginary phase which depends on the choice of advanced or retarded boundary condition for the gauge potential in light-cone gauge. We apply this formalism to the wave functions of the valence Fock states of nucleons and pions, and show how this illuminates the factorization properties of naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent observables which arise from rescattering. In particular, one calculates the identical leading-twist Sivers function from the overlap of augmented light-front wavefunctions that one obtains from explicit calculations of the single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-polarized nucleon scattering where the required phases come from the final-state rescattering of the struck quark with the nucleon spectators.

  9. Deducing spectroscopic factors from wave-function asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Capel, P.; Danielewicz, P.; Nunes, F. M.

    2010-11-15

    In a coupled-channel model, we explore the effects of coupling between configurations on the radial behavior of the wave function and, in particular, on the spectroscopic factor (SF) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). We evaluate the extraction of a SF from the ratio of the ANC of the coupled-channel model to that of a single-particle approximation of the wave function. We perform this study within a core+n collective model, which includes two states of the core that connect by a rotational coupling. To get additional insights, we also use a simplified model that takes a {delta} function for the coupling potential. Calculations are performed for {sup 11}Be. Fair agreement is obtained between the SF inferred from the single-particle approximation and the one obtained within the coupled-channel models. Significant discrepancies are observed only for large coupling strength and/or large admixture, that is, a small SF. This suggests that reliable SFs can be deduced from the wave-function asymptotics when the structure is dominated by one configuration, that is, for a large SF.

  10. Phases of Augmented Hadronic Light-Front Wave Functions

    E-print Network

    Stanley J. Brodsky; Barbara Pasquini; Bowen Xiao; Feng Yuan

    2010-01-08

    It is an important question whether the final/initial state gluonic interactions which lead to naive-time-reversal-odd single-spin asymmetries and diffraction at leading twist can be associated in a definite way with the light-front wave function hadronic eigensolutions of QCD. We use light-front time-ordered perturbation theory to obtain augmented light-front wave functions which contain an imaginary phase which depends on the choice of advanced or retarded boundary condition for the gauge potential in light-cone gauge. We apply this formalism to the wave functions of the valence Fock states of nucleons and pions, and show how this illuminates the factorization properties of naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent observables which arise from rescattering. In particular, one calculates the identical leading-twist Sivers function from the overlap of augmented light-front wavefunctions that one obtains from explicit calculations of the single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-polarized nucleon scattering where the required phases come from the final-state rescattering of the struck quark with the nucleon spectators.

  11. Deducing spectroscopic factors from wave-function asymptotics

    E-print Network

    P. Capel; P. Danielewicz; F. M. Nunes

    2010-12-08

    In a coupled-channel model, we explore the effects of coupling between configurations on the radial behavior of the wave function and, in particular, on the spectroscopic factor (SF) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). We evaluate the extraction of a SF from the ratio of the ANC of the coupled-channel model to that of a single-particle approximation of the wave function. We perform this study within a core + n collective model, which includes two states of the core that connect by a rotational coupling. To get additional insights, we also use a simplified model that takes a delta function for the coupling potential. Calculations are performed for 11Be. Fair agreement is obtained between the SF inferred from the single-particle approximation and the one obtained within the coupled-channel models. Significant discrepancies are observed only for large coupling strength and/or large admixture, that is, a small SF. This suggests that reliable SFs can be deduced from the wave-function asymptotics when the structure is dominated by one configuration, that is, for a large SF.

  12. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  13. The waves caused by the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dao-han; Bao, Gang

    During the period 18-24 July 1994, over 20 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter. Images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope bring to light the dynamic responses of Jupiter's atmosphere to the impact. Of consequence are the observed circular rings surrounding five of the impact sites and spreading outward at a constant velocity of 450 m/s. The circularity of the rings suggested that they are waves. Because the wave speed appears to be constant for impacts of varying sizes, it is inferred that the propagation velocity is independent of the explosion energy, which implies linear waves. We review the three types of impact-induced waves used in current theories, namely, inertia-gravity waves, acoustic waves and seismic waves, with emphasis on the first two.

  14. Measurement and Shaping of Biphoton Spectral Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, N.; Büse, A.; Helt, L. G.; Juan, M. L.; Piro, N.; Ghosh, J.; Steel, M. J.; Molina-Terriza, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present a simple method to reconstruct the complex spectral wave function of a biphoton, and hence gain complete information about the spectral and temporal properties of a photon pair. The technique, which relies on quantum interference, is applicable to biphoton states produced with a monochromatic pump when a shift of the pump frequency produces a shift in the relative frequencies contributing to the biphoton. We demonstrate an example of such a situation in type-II parametric down conversion allowing arbitrary paraxial spatial pump and detection modes. Moreover, our test cases demonstrate the possibility to shape the spectral wave function. This is achieved by choosing the spatial mode of the pump and of the detection modes, and takes advantage of spatiotemporal correlations.

  15. Electron number probability distributions for correlated wave functions.

    PubMed

    Francisco, E; Martín Pendás, A; Blanco, M A

    2007-03-01

    Efficient formulas for computing the probability of finding exactly an integer number of electrons in an arbitrarily chosen volume are only known for single-determinant wave functions [E. Cances et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 111, 373 (2004)]. In this article, an algebraic method is presented that extends these formulas to the case of multideterminant wave functions and any number of disjoint volumes. The derived expressions are applied to compute the probabilities within the atomic domains derived from the space partitioning based on the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Results for a series of test molecules are presented, paying particular attention to the effects of electron correlation and of some numerical approximations on the computed probabilities. PMID:17362099

  16. Measurement and Shaping of Biphoton Spectral Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Tischler, N; Büse, A; Helt, L G; Juan, M L; Piro, N; Ghosh, J; Steel, M J; Molina-Terriza, G

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present a simple method to reconstruct the complex spectral wave function of a biphoton, and hence gain complete information about the spectral and temporal properties of a photon pair. The technique, which relies on quantum interference, is applicable to biphoton states produced with a monochromatic pump when a shift of the pump frequency produces a shift in the relative frequencies contributing to the biphoton. We demonstrate an example of such a situation in type-II parametric down conversion allowing arbitrary paraxial spatial pump and detection modes. Moreover, our test cases demonstrate the possibility to shape the spectral wave function. This is achieved by choosing the spatial mode of the pump and of the detection modes, and takes advantage of spatiotemporal correlations. PMID:26588380

  17. Coevolution of Quantum Wave Functions and the Friedmann Universe

    E-print Network

    W. Q. Sumner; D. Y. Sumner

    2007-04-20

    Erwin Schrodinger (1939) proved that quantum wave functions coevolve with the curved spacetime of the Friedmann universe. Schrodinger's derivation explains the Hubble redshift of photons in an expanding universe, the energy changes of moving particles, and establishes the coevolution of atoms and other quantum systems with spacetime geometry. The assumption often made that small quantum systems are isolated and that their properties remain constant as the Friedmann universe evolves is incompatible with relativistic quantum mechanics and with general relativity.

  18. Detecting topological order in a ground state wave function.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2006-03-24

    A large class of topological orders can be understood and classified using the string-net condensation picture. These topological orders can be characterized by a set of data (N, di, F(lmn)(ijk), delta(ijk). We describe a way to detect this kind of topological order using only the ground state wave function. The method involves computing a quantity called the "topological entropy" which directly measures the total quantum dimension D= Sum(id2i). PMID:16605803

  19. Detecting Topological Order in a Ground State Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Michael; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2006-03-01

    A large class of topological orders can be understood and classified using the string-net condensation picture. These topological orders can be characterized by a set of data (N,di,Flmnijk,?ijk). We describe a way to detect this kind of topological order using only the ground state wave function. The method involves computing a quantity called the “topological entropy” which directly measures the total quantum dimension D=?idi2.

  20. Interaction between light and matter: A photon wave function approach

    E-print Network

    Pablo L. Saldanha; C. H. Monken

    2011-06-14

    The Bialynicki-Birula-Sipe photon wave function formalism is extended to include the interaction between photons and continuous non-absorptive media. When the second quantization of this formalism is introduced, a new way of describing the quantum interactions between light and matter emerges. As an example of application, the quantum state of the twin photons generated by parametric down conversion is obtained in agreement with previous treatments, but with a more intuitive interpretation.

  1. Wave Function of the Roper from Lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Dale S; Leinweber, Derek B

    2013-01-01

    We apply the eigenvectors from a variational analysis in lattice QCD to successfully extract the wave function of the Roper state, and the next P_11 state of the nucleon, associated with the N*(1710). We use the 2+1 flavour 32^3x64 PACS-CS configurations at a near physical pion mass of 156 MeV. We find that both states exhibit a structure consistent with a constituent quark model. The Roper d-quark wave function contains a single node consistent with a 2S state, and the N*(1710) contains two, consistent with a 3S state. A detailed comparison with constituent quark model wave functions is carried out, obtained from a Coulomb + ramp potential. These results validate the approach of accessing these states by constructing a variational basis composed of different levels of fermion source and sink smearing. Furthermore, significant finite volume effects are apparent for these excited states which mix with multi-particle states, driving their masses away from physical values and enabling the extraction of resonance...

  2. Resummation of rapidity logarithms in $B$ meson wave functions

    E-print Network

    Hsiang-nan Li; Yue-Long Shen; Yu-Ming Wang

    2013-01-03

    We construct an evolution equation for the $B$ meson wave functions in the $k_T$ factorization theorem, whose solutions sum the double logarithms associated with the light-cone singularities, namely, the rapidity logarithms. The derivation is subtler than that of the Sudakov resummation for an energetic light hadron, due to the involvement of the effective heavy-quark field. The renormalization-group evolution in the factorization scale needs to be included in order to derive an ultraviolet-finite and scale-invariant kernel for resumming the rapidity logarithms. It is observed that this kernel is similar to that of the joint resummation for QCD processes in extreme kinematic regions, which combines the threshold and $k_T$ resummations. We show that the resummation effect maintains the normalization of the $B$ meson wave functions, and strengths their convergent behavior at small spectator momentum. The resummation improved $B$ meson wave functions are then employed in the leading-order analysis of the $B\\to\\pi$ transition form factors, which lead to approximately 25% deduction in the large recoil region.

  3. Measurement of the Pion and Photon Light-Cone Wave Functions by Diffractive Dissociation

    E-print Network

    Daniel Ashery

    2005-11-24

    The measurement of the pion light-cone wave function is revisited and results for the Gegenbauer coefficients are presented. Mesurements of the photon electromagnetic and hadronic wave functions are described and results are presented.

  4. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction “representation” the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field—the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement – the uniform electron gas – the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  5. Statistical properties and correlation functions for drift waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.

    1986-01-01

    The dissipative one-field drift wave equation is solved using the pseudospectral method to generate steady-state fluctuations. The fluctuations are analyzed in terms of space-time correlation functions and modal probability distributions. Nearly Gaussian statistics and exponential decay of the two-time correlation functions occur in the presence of electron dissipation, while in the absence of electron dissipation long-lived vortical structures occur. Formulas from renormalized, Markovianized statistical turbulence theory are given in a local approximation to interpret the dissipative turbulence.

  6. Computational aspects of the continuum quaternionic wave functions for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.

    2014-10-15

    Over the past few years considerable attention has been given to the role played by the Hydrogen Continuum Wave Functions (HCWFs) in quantum theory. The HCWFs arise via the method of separation of variables for the time-independent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates. The HCWFs are composed of products of a radial part involving associated Laguerre polynomials multiplied by exponential factors and an angular part that is the spherical harmonics. In the present paper we introduce the continuum wave functions for hydrogen within quaternionic analysis ((R)QHCWFs), a result which is not available in the existing literature. In particular, the underlying functions are of three real variables and take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4}). We prove that the (R)QHCWFs are orthonormal to one another. The representation of these functions in terms of the HCWFs are explicitly given, from which several recurrence formulae for fast computer implementations can be derived. A summary of fundamental properties and further computation of the hydrogen-like atom transforms of the (R)QHCWFs are also discussed. We address all the above and explore some basic facts of the arising quaternionic function theory. As an application, we provide the reader with plot simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. (R)QHCWFs are new in the literature and have some consequences that are now under investigation.

  7. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)-, Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)2-, and Gd(III)(H2O)83+ in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  8. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe A. Amengual a,

    E-print Network

    Romero, Romu

    Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe A. Amengual a, , V. Homar: Climate change Heat waves Human health Physiologically equivalent temperature Regional climate modeling lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine

  9. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  10. Modeling wave impact on salt marsh boundaries Mara Tonelli,1,2

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Modeling wave impact on salt marsh boundaries Mara Tonelli,1,2 Sergio Fagherazzi,2 and Marco Petti1] Windwave attack is the fundamental cause of erosion of salt marsh boundaries. Tidal forcing acts as a proxy. Citation: Tonelli, M., S. Fagherazzi, and M. Petti (2010), Modeling wave impact on salt marsh boundaries, J

  11. Variational Calculation on the Helium Atom Using a Trigonometric Trial Wave Function Frank Rioux

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    Variational Calculation on the Helium Atom Using a Trigonometric Trial Wave Function Frank Rioux Chemistry Department CSB|SJU Trigonometric Trial Wave Function: r ,( ) 3 3 3 sech r( ):= Demonstrate the wave function is normalized. 0 r r ,( )2 4 r 2 d assume 0>, simplify 1 The terms

  12. Monte Carlo comparison of quasielectron wave functions V. Melik-Alaverdian and N. E. Bonesteel

    E-print Network

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E.

    Monte Carlo comparison of quasielectron wave functions V. Melik-Alaverdian and N. E. Bonesteel fractions 1/3, 1/5, and 1/7. For the quasielectron both the trial wave function originally proposed by Laughlin and the composite-fermion wave function proposed by Jain have been used. We find that for long

  13. Monte Carlo Comparison of Quasielectron Wave Functions V. MelikAlaverdian and N. E. Bonesteel

    E-print Network

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E.

    Monte Carlo Comparison of Quasielectron Wave Functions V. Melik­Alaverdian and N. E. Bonesteel=3, 1/5, and 1/7. For the quasielectron both the trial wave function originally proposed by Laughlin and the composite fermion wave function proposed by Jain have been used. We find that for long­range Coulomb

  14. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  15. Variational Calculation on the Helium Atom Using a Hydrogenic Trial Wave Function Frank Rioux

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    Variational Calculation on the Helium Atom Using a Hydrogenic Trial Wave Function Frank Rioux Chemistry Department CSB|SJU Gaussian Trial Wave Function: r ,( ) 3 exp - r( ):= Demonstrate the wave function is normalized. 0 r r ,( )2 4 r 2 d assume 0>, simplify 1 The terms

  16. Accuracy of electronic wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo: The effect of high-order correlations

    E-print Network

    Nightingale, Peter

    Accuracy of electronic wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo: The effect of high-order correlations, Rhode Island 02881 Received 24 February 1997; accepted 19 May 1997 Compact and accurate wave functions can be constructed by quantum Monte Carlo methods. Typically, these wave functions consist of a sum

  17. Hertzian impact: experimental study of the force pulse and resulting stress waves.

    PubMed

    McLaskey, Gregory C; Glaser, Steven D

    2010-09-01

    Ball impact has long been used as a repeatable source of stress waves in solids. The amplitude and frequency content of the waves are a function of the force-time history, or force pulse, that the ball imposes on the massive body. In this study, Glaser-type conical piezoelectric sensors are used to measure vibrations induced by a ball colliding with a massive plate. These measurements are compared with theoretical estimates derived from a marriage of Hertz theory and elastic wave propagation. The match between experiment and theory is so close that it not only facilitates the absolute calibration the sensors but it also allows the limits of Hertz theory to be probed. Glass, ruby and hardened steel balls 0.4 to 2.5 mm in diameter were dropped onto steel, glass, aluminum, and polymethylmethacrylate plates at a wide range of approach velocities, delivering frequencies up to 1.5 MHz into these materials. Effects of surface properties and yielding of the plate material were analyzed via the resulting stress waves and simultaneous measurements of the ball's coefficient of restitution. The sensors are sensitive to surface normal displacements down to about +/-1 pm in the frequency range of 20 kHz to over 1 MHz. PMID:20815445

  18. The Wave Function of Vasiliev's Universe - A Few Slices Thereof

    E-print Network

    Dionysios Anninos; Frederik Denef; Daniel Harlow

    2012-07-23

    We study the partition function of the free Sp(N) conformal field theory recently conjectured to be dual to asymptotically de Sitter higher-spin gravity in four-dimensions. We compute the partition function of this CFT on a round sphere as a function of a finite mass deformation, on a squashed sphere as a function of the squashing parameter, and on an S2xS1 geometry as a function of the relative size of S2 and S1. We find that the partition function is divergent at large negative mass in the first case, and for small $S^1$ in the third case. It is globally peaked at zero squashing in the second case. Through the duality this partition function contains information about the wave function of the universe. We show that the divergence at small S1 occurs also in Einstein gravity if certain complex solutions are included, but the divergence in the mass parameter is new. We suggest an interpretation for this divergence as indicating an instability of de Sitter space in higher spin gravity, consistent with general arguments that de Sitter space cannot be stable in quantum gravity.

  19. Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai

    2007-03-01

    An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. PMID:17107699

  20. Nucleon Excited State Wave Functions from Lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    Dale S. Roberts; Waseem Kamleh; Derek B. Leinweber

    2013-11-26

    We apply the eigenvectors from a variational analysis to successfully extract the wave functions of even-parity excited states of the nucleon, including the Roper. We explore the first four states in the spectrum excited by the standard nucleon interpolating field. We find that the states exhibit a structure qualitatively consistent with a constituent quark model, where the ground, first-, second- and third-excited states have 0, 1, 2, and 3 nodes in the radial wave function of the d-quark about two $u$ quarks at the origin. Moreover the radial amplitude of the probability distribution is similar to that predicted by constituent quark models. We present a detailed examination of the quark-mass dependence of the probability distributions for these states, searching for a nontrivial role for the multi-particle components mixed in the finite-volume QCD eigenstates. Finally we examine the dependence of the d-quark probability distribution on the positions of the two u quarks. The results are fascinating, with the underlying S-wave orbitals governing the distributions even at rather large u-quark separations.

  1. Impact force identification in aerospace panels by an inverse ultrasonic guided wave problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Rhymer, Jennifer; Kim, Hyonny

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with monitoring impacts on aluminum and composite aerospace panels. The specific problems addressed are (1) the identification of the impact forces (force magnitude time history) and (2) the discrimination of "damaging impacts" from "non-damaging impacts." Ultrasonic guided waves generated by the impacts are used as the sensing mechanism. Flexible Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) patches are used as the ultrasonic receivers. The impact force identification method is based on an optimization routine which minimizes the difference between the experimental impact waves and the numerical impact waves calculated by a Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) forced analysis. The differentiation of "damaging impacts" vs. "non-damaging impacts" is based on a frequency analysis of the impact waves. These techniques are demonstrated through an extensive experimental testing program involving the following six specimens: an aluminum panel, a quasi-isotropic CFRP composite panel, a highly anisotropic CFRP composite panel, a stiffened aluminum panel, a stiffened quasi-isotropic CFRP composite panel, and a stiffened anisotropic CFRP composite panel. These panels were subjected to low-velocity hammer impacts and to high-velocity gas-gun impacts by ice projectiles at speeds up to 170 m/sec using UCSD's gas-gun test facility. In all of these experiments, the techniques summarized above gave excellent results for both impact force identification and impact force discrimination.

  2. The Wave Function Behavior of the Open Topological String Partition Function on the Conifold

    E-print Network

    Amir-Kian Kashani-Poor

    2007-04-19

    We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C^3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator.

  3. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  4. Green's function for SH-waves in a cylindrically monoclinic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazumi; Payton, Robert G.

    2002-11-01

    Green's function for SH-waves in a cylindrically monoclinic material is considered for impulsive and time-harmonic sources. Closed form expressions for the Green's function are derived for a few limited values of anisotropic parameters. A very interesting time development of the wave front shape is illustrated and the wave front singularity is discussed for the transient SH-wave. Contours of the displacement amplitude for the time-harmonic wave are also shown.

  5. Crustal structure of the Gamburtsev Mountains, East Antarctica, from S-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocities

    E-print Network

    Crustal structure of the Gamburtsev Mountains, East Antarctica, from S-wave receiver functions der Hilst Keywords: Gamburtsev Mountains Antarctica crustal structure S-wave receiver functions The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM), located in central East Antarctica, are one of the most enigmatic

  6. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.

  7. Birth weight impacts on wave reflections in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Torro, Maria Isabel; Carvajal, Eva; Alvarez, Vicente; Redón, Josep

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess central aortic pressure and wave reflection in children and adolescents at different birth weights. Two hundred nineteen healthy children (126 girls), from 7 to 18 years of age (mean, 11.3 years) and born at term after a normotensive pregnancy, were included. The subjects were divided according to birth weight: <2.5 kg, from 2.5 to 2.999 kg, from 3.0 to 3.5 kg, and >3.5 kg. Pressure waveforms were recorded from the radial artery of the wrist, and the waveform data were then processed by the SphygmoCor radial/aortic transform software module to produce the estimated aortic pressure waveform. Augmentation index, an estimate of the pulse wave reflection, was significantly higher in children with the lowest birth weights compared with the other birth weight groups. In a multiple regression analysis, short stature, low heart rate, female gender, and lower birth weight had independent significant inverse correlations to the augmentation index when adjusted for diastolic blood pressure (R2=0.21). In summary, the results showed a relatively aged phenotype of large-vessel function in the children with the lowest birth weights. These early alterations may be amplified throughout life and may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with low birth weight. PMID:12623973

  8. Modelling storm development and the impact when introducing waves, sea spray and heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2015-04-01

    In high wind speed conditions, sea spray generated due to intensity breaking waves have big influence on the wind stress and heat fluxes. Measurements show that drag coefficient will decrease in high wind speed. Sea spray generation function (SSGF), an important term of wind stress parameterization in high wind speed, usually treated as a function of wind speed/friction velocity. In this study, we introduce a wave state depended SSGG and wave age depended Charnock number into a high wind speed wind stress parameterization (Kudryavtsev et al., 2011; 2012). The proposed wind stress parameterization and sea spray heat fluxes parameterization from Andreas et al., (2014) were applied to an atmosphere-wave coupled model to test on four storm cases. Compared with measurements from the FINO1 platform in the North Sea, the new wind stress parameterization can reduce the forecast errors of wind in high wind speed range, but not in low wind speed. Only sea spray impacted on wind stress, it will intensify the storms (minimum sea level pressure and maximum wind speed) and lower the air temperature (increase the errors). Only the sea spray impacted on the heat fluxes, it can improve the model performance on storm tracks and the air temperature, but not change much in the storm intensity. If both of sea spray impacted on the wind stress and heat fluxes are taken into account, it has the best performance in all the experiment for minimum sea level pressure and maximum wind speed and air temperature. Andreas, E. L., Mahrt, L., and Vickers, D. (2014). An improved bulk air-sea surface flux algorithm, including spray-mediated transfer. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. Kudryavtsev, V. and Makin, V. (2011). Impact of ocean spray on the dynamics of the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Boundary-layer meteorology, 140(3):383-410. Kudryavtsev, V., Makin, V., and S, Z. (2012). On the sea-surface drag and heat/mass transfer at strong winds. Technical report, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.

  9. Realistic Nuclear Wave functions and Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-print Network

    M. Alvioli; C. Ciofi degli Atti; M. Strikman

    2009-12-26

    We discuss the implications of recent experimental evidence of nuclear Short Range Correlations (SRCs) on the modeling of the wave function of complex nuclei. We perform a calculation of potential energy contributions of pp and pn pairs in nuclei, showing that the presence of strong tensor correlations produce a ratio between the twos of about 1/9, which strongly deviates from the combinatorial counting of the number of pairs. We also discuss implications for the production of Monte Carlo configuration for the simulation of nuclear reactions involving complex nuclei.

  10. Detecting Topological Order in a Ground State Wave Function

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Michael; Wen Xiaogang

    2006-03-24

    A large class of topological orders can be understood and classified using the string-net condensation picture. These topological orders can be characterized by a set of data (N,d{sub i},F{sub lmn}{sup ijk},{delta}{sub ijk}). We describe a way to detect this kind of topological order using only the ground state wave function. The method involves computing a quantity called the 'topological entropy' which directly measures the total quantum dimension D=id{sub i}{sup 2}.

  11. Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints.

  12. Is spontaneous wave function collapse testable at all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2015-07-01

    Mainstream literature on spontaneous wave function collapse never reflects on or profits from the formal coincidence and conceptual relationship with standard collapse under time-continuous quantum measurement (monitoring). I propose some easy lessons of standard monitoring theory which would make spontaneous collapse models revise some of their claims. In particular, the objective detection of spontaneous collapse remains impossible as long as the correct identification of what corresponds to the signal in standard monitoring is missing from spontaneous collapse models, the physical detectability of the “signal” is not stated explicitly and, finally, the principles of physical detection are not revealed.

  13. Asymmetry in Directional Spreading Function of Random Waves due to Refraction

    E-print Network

    Haller, Merrick

    Asymmetry in Directional Spreading Function of Random Waves due to Refraction Changhoon Lee1 ; Jae due to wave refraction. The asymmetry created by refraction increases with the offshore peak wave and is shown to better capture changes in the directional distribution that occur in a refracting, random wave

  14. Big bounce as scattering of wave function at big crunch

    E-print Network

    Fumitoshi Amemiya; Tatsuhiko Koike

    2010-08-19

    A gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with dust is studied in terms of the Ashtekar variables. We use the reduced phase space quantization which has following advantages: (i) fundamental variables are all gauge invariant, (ii) there exists a physical time evolution of gauge-invariant quantities, so that the problem of time is absent and (iii) the reduced phase space can be quantized in the same manner as in ordinary quantum mechanics. In the FRW model, the dynamical components of the Ashtekar variables are given by a single quantity $p$ and its conjugate momentum, where $p$ is related to the scale factor $a$ as $a\\propto \\sqrt{|p|}$ and its sign gives the orientation of triads. We solve a scattering problem in terms of ingoing and outgoing energy eigenstates. We show that the incident wave is reflected in rate $1/4$ and transmitted in rate $3/4$ at the classical singularity $p=0$. Analyzing the dynamics of a wave packet, we show that the classical initial singularity is replaced by a big bounce in quantum theory. A possible interpretation of the result is that the wave function of the universe has been in a superposition of states representing right-handed and left-handed systems before the big bounce.

  15. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended. PMID:23525899

  16. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  17. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle. PMID:26442830

  18. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-10-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle.

  19. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle. PMID:26442830

  20. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

  1. Stress wave propagation in a composite beam subjected to transverse impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Jin, Huiqing

    2010-08-01

    Composite materials, particularly fiber reinforced plastic composites, have been extensively utilized in many military and industrial applications. As an important structural component in these applications, the composites are often subjected to external impact loading. It is desirable to understand the mechanical response of the composites under impact loading for performance evaluation in the applications. Even though many material models for the composites have been developed, experimental investigation is still needed to validate and verify the models. It is essential to investigate the intrinsic material response. However, it becomes more applicable to determine the structural response of composites, such as a composite beam. The composites are usually subjected to out-of-plane loading in applications. When a composite beam is subjected to a sudden transverse impact, two different kinds of stress waves, longitudinal and transverse waves, are generated and propagate in the beam. The longitudinal stress wave propagates through the thickness direction; whereas, the propagation of the transverse stress wave is in-plane directions. The longitudinal stress wave speed is usually considered as a material constant determined by the material density and Young's modulus, regardless of the loading rate. By contrast, the transverse wave speed is related to structural parameters. In ballistic mechanics, the transverse wave plays a key role to absorb external impact energy [1]. The faster the transverse wave speed, the more impact energy dissipated. Since the transverse wave speed is not a material constant, it is not possible to be calculated from stress-wave theory. One can place several transducers to track the transverse wave propagation. An alternative but more efficient method is to apply digital image correlation (DIC) to visualize the transverse wave propagation. In this study, we applied three-pointbending (TPB) technique to Kolsky compression bar to facilitate dynamic transverse loading on a glass fiber/epoxy composite beam. The high-speed DIC technique was employed to study the transverse wave propagation.

  2. Excitation of Jovian seismic waves by the Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P.; Mosser, B.; Dahlen, F. A.

    1994-08-01

    The kinetic energy released by the collision of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter is expected to be between 1020 J and 1023 J. This energy will excite seismic waves, which will propagate within Jupiter. These seismic waves are computed by summing normal modes of degree l up to 1400 and frequency nu up to 10 mHz. The excitation amplitudes are obtained using a model of the blast wave induced by the explosion of the comet. Keeping in mind the possible detection of the waves with an IR camera, we examine the thermal signature of the global modes and transient waves excited by the impact. We show that the excitation of surface waves and normal modes will produce a directly observable signal for strong impacts only. An impact with an energy greater than 2.8 x 1021 J will produce a 10-mHz frequency P wave with associated peak-to-peak temperature fluctuations greater than 0.01 K at the antipode. Surface waves with frequencies less than 3 mHz will give rise to fluctuations everywhere in excess of 0.01 K for impacts greater than 9 x 1022 J. Lower energy impacts will not be directly detectable, the signal-to-noise ratio on a single pixel of the camera being too low. Stacking methods might enable the detection of P waves generated by impacts with energies as low as 7.25 x 1020 J at Delta = 90 deg and of surface waves generated by impacts as low as 1.4 x 1021 J. High-frequency monitoring of the temperature in the jovian troposphere during at least 2 hr after each impact, and low-frequency monitoring during the remaining observation time may provide unique information on the inner structure of Jupiter, including the core and the discontinuity due to the possible plasma phase transition of hydrogen.

  3. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  4. Ghost wave-function renormalization in Asymptotically Safe Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Kai Groh; Frank Saueressig

    2010-01-28

    Motivated by Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario, we investigate the gravitational renormalization group flow in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation supplemented by the wave-function renormalization of the ghost fields. The latter induces non-trivial corrections to the beta-functions for Newton's constant and the cosmological constant. The resulting ghost-improved phase diagram is investigated in detail. In particular, we find a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point in agreement with the asymptotic safety conjecture, which also survives in the presence of extra dimensions. In four dimensions the ghost anomalous dimension at the fixed point is $\\eta_c^* = -1.8$, supporting space-time being effectively two-dimensional at short distances.

  5. [Approach to recognition of ECG P waves based on approximating functions].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Li, L; Ling, J

    1998-06-01

    A new method of recognizing ECG P waves based on approximating function is presented in this paper. The result of experiment demonstrates that the method based on the second order approximating functions to recognize P waves in useful and easy to do. The rate of correctness for recognizing P waves is higher than 99% according to MIT/BIH ECG Datebase. PMID:12548896

  6. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat wave and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80 %.

  7. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat waves and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80%.

  8. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore »conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  9. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  10. Measuring electron wave functions in nanostructures via photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Enrique; Mugarza, Aitor; Garcia de Abajo, Javier; Kuntze, Jens; Himpsel, Franz

    2004-03-01

    Vicinal noble metal surfaces with regular arrays of straight steps and flat terraces can be used as model lateral superlattices to understand their basic electronic properties by means of photoemission. Here we focus on samples that display surface electron confinement within high index oriented terraces, i.e., lateral quantum well states. The photoemission intensity displays angular dependence in the direction perpendicular to the steps as expected for infinite, one-dimensional quantum wells [1]. In a first approach, such intensity represents the square modulus of the quantum well wave function in reciprocal space. Furthermore, the corresponding electron wave function in real space can be recovered applying an iterative formalism used in x-ray diffraction and called oversampling [2]. The method has been tested in Au(111) vicinal surfaces with regular arrays of monatomic steps, and further applied to faceted Cu(111) surfaces that also display lateral quantum wells. [1] A. Mugarza., A. Mascaraque, V. Pérez-Dieste, V. Repain, S. Rousset, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. E. Ortega, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 107601 (2001). [2] A. Mugarza, J. E. Ortega , F. J. Himpsel, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 67, 081404 (2003).

  11. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction <span class="hlt">waves</span> and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (?-? model) that was previously only used for porous materials and the ANEOS for water-saturated quartzite (all pore space is filled with water) to describe the behavior of partially water-saturated material during shock compression. Localized amplification of shock pressures results from pore collapse and can reach as much as four times the average shock pressure in the porous sample. This may explain the often observed localized high shock pressure phases next to more or less unshocked grains in impactites and meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu-Cheng Li</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, <span class="hlt">waves</span> of long period, <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction, and wind on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.4070v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.4070v1"><span id="translatedtitle">On the hydrogen <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in Momentum-space, Clifford algebra and the Generating <span class="hlt">function</span> of Gegenbauer polynomial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mehdi Hage-Hassan</p> <p>2008-07-25</p> <p>Using the quadratic transformation and the generating <span class="hlt">function</span> method we Perform the Fourier transformation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of coordinates of hydrogen atom and we find the analytic expression of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in momentum space. We derive the matrix elements between the basis to 4-dimensions and integral representation of the generating <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Gegenbauer polynomials. We find a relationship between a class of Clifford algebra and the generating <span class="hlt">functions</span> of these polynomials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.4607v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.4607v3"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of composite hadron states and relationship to couplings of scattering amplitudes for general partial <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>F. Aceti; E. Oset</p> <p>2012-05-29</p> <p>In this paper we present the connection between scattering amplitudes in momentum space and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in coordinate space, generalizing previous work done for s-<span class="hlt">waves</span> to any partial <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The relationship to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the residues of the scattering amplitudes at the pole of bound states or resonances is investigated in detail. A sum rule obtained for the couplings provides a generalization to coupled channels, any partial <span class="hlt">wave</span> and bound or resonance states, of Weinberg's compositeness condition, which was only valid for weakly bound states in one channel and s-<span class="hlt">wave</span>. An example, requiring only experimental data, is shown for the $\\rho$ meson indicating that it is not a composite particle of $\\pi \\pi$ but something else.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://lpm2c.grenoble.cnrs.fr/IMCODE/colloque-correlations.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://lpm2c.grenoble.cnrs.fr/IMCODE/colloque-correlations.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">CORRELATION OF SEISMIC <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE GREEN <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span> Monday, april 4 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>van Tiggelen, Bart</p> <p></p> <p>SEMINAR « CORRELATION OF SEISMIC <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE GREEN <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span> » Monday, april 4 universitaire Saint Martin d'Hères The correlation of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> has been successfully used for retrieving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778043','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778043"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocity and Cognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Older Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>. In this study, pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span> was measured by six tests of executive <span class="hlt">function</span>, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.5039B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.5039B"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> information from <span class="hlt">wave</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Robert F.; ViñAs, Adolfo F.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph; Purser, Carola M.; Adrian, Mark L.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with ? ? 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> used in the plasma-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution, and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed ? and with decreasing ? for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1367N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1367N"><span id="translatedtitle">ASTROD-GW and its Gravitational-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Response <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ni, Wei-Tou</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>ASTROD-GW is an optimization of ASTROD to focus on the goal of detection of GWs. The mission orbits of the 3 spacecraft forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4 and L5. The 3 spacecraft range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. With 52 times longer in arm length compared to that of LISA, the strain detection sensitivity is 52 times better toward larger wavelength. The scientific aim is focused for gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> detection at low frequency. The science goals include detection of GWs from MBHs, and Extreme-Mass-Ratio Black Hole Inspirals (EMRI), and using these observations to find the evolution of the equation of state of dark energy and to explore the co-evolution of massive black holes with galaxies. In this paper we give an overview of orbit design, time delay interferometry, payload selection and mission requirements for ASTROD-GW, and calculate its gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> response <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.2185R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.2185R"><span id="translatedtitle">SH <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Number Green's <span class="hlt">Function</span> for a Layered, Elastic Half-Space. Part I: Theory and Dynamic Canyon Response by the Discrete <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Number Boundary Element Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Restrepo, Doriam; Gómez, Juan David; Jaramillo, Juan Diego</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We present a closed-form frequency-<span class="hlt">wave</span> number ( ? - k) Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for a layered, elastic half-space under SH <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. It is shown that for every ( ? - k) pair, the fundamental solution exhibits two distinctive features: (1) the original layered system can be reduced to a system composed by the uppermost superficial layer over an equivalent half-space; (2) the fundamental solution can be partitioned into three different fundamental solutions, each one carrying out a different physical interpretation, i.e., an equivalent half-space, source image <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and dispersive <span class="hlt">wave</span> effect, respectively. Such an interpretation allows the proper use of analytical and numerical integration schemes, and ensures the correct assessment of Cauchy principal value integrals. Our method is based upon a stiffness-matrix scheme, and as a first approach we assume that observation points and the impulsive SH line-source are spatially located within the uppermost superficial layer. We use a discrete <span class="hlt">wave</span> number boundary element strategy to test the benefits of our fundamental solution. We benchmark our results against reported solutions for an infinitely long circular canyon subjected to oblique incident SH <span class="hlt">waves</span> within a homogeneous half-space. Our results show an almost exact agreement with previous studies. We further shed light on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of horizontal strata by examining the dynamic response of the circular canyon to oblique incident SH <span class="hlt">waves</span> under different layered half-space configurations and incident angles. Our results show that modifications in the layering structure manifest by larger peak ground responses, and stronger spatial variability due to interactions of the canyon geometry with trapped Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in combination with impedance contrast effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JHEP...07..087G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JHEP...07..087G"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the 4D-5D lift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Peng; Pioline, Boris</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We revisit the holomorphic anomaly equations satisfied by the topological string amplitude from the perspective of the 4D-5D lift, in the context of ``magic'' Script N = 2 supergravity theories. In particular, we interpret the Gopakumar-Vafa relation between 5D black hole degeneracies and the topological string amplitude as the result of a canonical transformation from 4D to 5D charges. Moreover we use the known Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 5D black holes to constrain the asymptotic behavior of the topological <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at finite topological coupling but large Kähler classes. In the process, some subtleties in the relation between 5D black hole degeneracies and the topological string amplitude are uncovered, but not resolved. Finally we extend these considerations to the putative one-parameter generalization of the topological string amplitude, and identify the canonical transformation as a Weyl reflection inside the 3D duality group.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.5330v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.5330v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Color spin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of heavy tetraquark states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Woosung Park; Su Houng Lee</p> <p>2013-11-21</p> <p>Using the variational method, we calculate the mass of the J^P=1^+ (ud)bar(bb) tetraquark containing two identical heavy antiquarks in a nonrelativistic potential model with color confinement and spin hyperfine interaction. In particular, we extend a previous investigation of the model by Brink and Stancu by investigating the effect of including the color anti-sextet component of the diquark configuration as well as using several more Gaussian parametrization for the L=0 part of the spatial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We find that for the heavy tetraquark, the 6bar{6} component among the color singlet bases is negligible and that the previously used specific Gaussian spatial configuration is good enough in obtaining the ground state energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91f3420K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91f3420K"><span id="translatedtitle">Orientation dynamics of asymmetric rotors using random phase <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kallush, Shimshon; Fleischer, Sharly</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Intense terahertz-frequency pulses induce coherent rotational dynamics and orientation of polar molecular ensembles. Exact numerical methods for rotational dynamics at room temperature are computationally not feasible for the vast majority of molecular rotors: the asymmetric top molecules at ambient temperatures. We exemplify the use of random phase <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (RPWFs) by calculating the terahertz-induced rotational dynamics of sulfur dioxide at ambient temperatures and high-field strengths and show that the RPWF method gains efficiency with the increase in temperature and in the terahertz-field strengths. The present method provides wide-ranging computational access to rotational dynamical responses of molecules at experimental conditions that are far beyond the reach of exact numerical methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544647"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing dissociative molecular dications by mapping vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Puettner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Kaindl, G.; Arion, T.; Lischke, T.; Mucke, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>We present high-resolution photoelectron-Auger-electron coincidence spectra of methane (CH{sub 4}). Since the vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectrum is resolved, the Auger spectra corresponding to different vibrational levels can be separated. The seven final states of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} are either dissociative or metastable, but in any case are populated in a repulsive part of their potential-energy curve via the Auger decay. The Auger line shapes can therefore be obtained by mapping the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the core-hole state into energy space. We have implemented this connection in the data analysis. By simultaneously fitting the different Auger spectra, detailed information on the energies of the dicationic states and their repulsive potential-energy curves is derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.07462v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.07462v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Orientation Dynamics of Asymmetric Rotors Using Random Phase <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shimshon Kallush; Sharly Fleischer</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Intense terahertz-frequency pulses induce coherent rotational dynamics and orientation of polar molecular ensembles. Exact numerical methods for rotational dynamics are computationally not feasible for the vast majority of molecular rotors - the asymmetric top molecules at ambient temperatures. We exemplify the use of Random Phase <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (RPWF) by calculating the terahertz-induced rotational dynamics of sulfur dioxide (SO2) at ambient temperatures and high field strengths and show that the RPWF method gains efficiency with the increase in temperature and in the THz-field strengths. The presented method provides wide-ranging computational access to rotational dynamical responses of molecules at experimental conditions which are far beyond the reach of exact numerical methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86x5305Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86x5305Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact matrix product states for quantum Hall <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaletel, Michael P.; Mong, Roger S. K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We show that the model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> used to describe the fractional quantum Hall effect have exact representations as matrix product states (MPS). These MPS can be implemented numerically in the orbital basis of both finite and infinite cylinders, which provides an efficient way of calculating arbitrary observables. We extend this approach to the charged excitations and numerically compute their Berry phases. Finally, we present an algorithm for numerically computing the real-space entanglement spectrum starting from an arbitrary orbital basis MPS, which allows us to study the scaling properties of the real-space entanglement spectra on infinite cylinders. The real-space entanglement spectrum obeys a scaling form dictated by the edge conformal field theory, allowing us to accurately extract the two entanglement velocities of the Moore-Read state. In contrast, the orbital space spectrum is observed to scale according to a complex set of power laws that rule out a similar collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005595"><span id="translatedtitle">Dominant partition method. [based on a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.2894v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.2894v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting glueball <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at zero and finite temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mushtaq Loan</p> <p>2008-03-20</p> <p>We study the sizes and thermal properties of glueballs in a three dimensional compact Abelian gauge model on improved lattice. We predict the radii of $\\sim 0.60$ and $\\sim 1.12$ in the units of string tension, or $\\sim 0.28$ and $\\sim 0.52$ fm, for the scalar and tensor glueballs, respectively. We perform a well controlled extrapolation of the radii to the continuum limit and observe that our results agree with the predicted values. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we extract the pole-mass of the lowest scalar and tensor glueballs from the temporal correlators at finite temperature. We see a clear evidence of the deconfined phase, and the transition appears to be similar to that of the two-dimensional XY model as expected from universality arguments. Our results show no significant changes in the glueball <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and masses in the deconfined phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/0603016v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/0603016v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Glueball <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mushtaq Loan; Yi Ying</p> <p>2006-06-26</p> <p>Standard Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge model on improved lattices to measure the wavefunction and size of the scalar and the tensor glueballs. Our results show the radii of ~ 0.60 and ~ 1.12 in the units of string tension, or ~0.28 and ~0.52 fm, for the scalar and tensor glueballs, respectively. At finite temperature we see clear evidence of the deconfined phase, and the transition appears to be similar to that of the two-dimensional XY model as expected from universality arguments. Preliminary results show no significant changes in the glueball <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the masses in the deconfined phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/~li/www/2006pfhl.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/~li/www/2006pfhl.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> that <span class="hlt">impacted</span> two tropical cyclones in 2004 Melinda S. Peng,1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Li, Tim</p> <p></p> <p>On African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> that <span class="hlt">impacted</span> two tropical cyclones in 2004 Melinda S. Peng,1 Bing Fu,2 cyclones. Danielle and Earl (2004) formed approximately at the same time in the Atlantic. A three to eight of the African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> related to the two cyclones. The time-filtered 850 mb vorticity shows that African</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~dennis/LinFu&Hartmann_2012.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~dennis/LinFu&Hartmann_2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Tropical SST on Stratospheric Planetary <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in the Southern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hartmann, Dennis</p> <p></p> <p>anomalies in their positive polarities, respectively, which each are related to enhanced stratospheric al. 2009; Oman et al. 2010) by affecting the polar vortex and BDC. Stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wavesImpact</span> of Tropical SST on Stratospheric Planetary <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in the Southern Hemisphere PU LIN, QIANG FU</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061866&hterms=detonator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddetonator','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061866&hterms=detonator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddetonator"><span id="translatedtitle">A technique for generating shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in cylindrical shells under radial <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blum, A.; Mortimer, R. W.; Rose, J. L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Experimental techniques are developed to study and measure the shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity in an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to a radial <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The radial <span class="hlt">impact</span> is obtained by exploding an electrical detonator inserted in plastic plugs mounted on the end of the shell. Strain gages, mounted on the outside surface of the shell at various axial locations, are used to obtain oscilloscope traces from which the shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity can be calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0911.3691v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0911.3691v3"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relation Between Equal-Time and Light-Front <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gerald A. Miller; Brian C. Tiburzi</p> <p>2009-11-25</p> <p>The relation between equal-time and light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the non-relativistic limit. The only presently known way to obtain light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from rest-frame, instant-form <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is to boost the latter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this fact, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/704318/files/0312383.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/704318/files/0312383.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Restraint of Breit-wigner Formula on Fermion <span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> Renormalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y; Zhou, Yong; L\\"u, Cai-Dian</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the restraint of Breit-Wigner formula on fermion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization. We found in general the schemes of fermion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization aren't compatible with Breit-Wigner formula. But we argue that the whole thing is more complex and maybe the restraint of Breit-Wigner formula on fermion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization is very weak and this worry is unnecessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1011.4798v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1011.4798v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Variational Approach to Yang--Mills Theory with non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functionals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Davide R. Campagnari; Hugo Reinhardt</p> <p>2010-11-22</p> <p>A general method for treating non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functionals</span> in quantum field theory is presented and applied to the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge in order to include a three-gluon kernel in the exponential of the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span>. The three-gluon vertex is calculated using the propagators found in the variational approach with a Gaussian trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> as input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6085','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6085"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of fMRI Environment on Cognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sim, Tony</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Functional</span> magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an increasingly important tool in psychological research, but its reliability is somewhat undermined by concerns about the fMRI environment’s <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cognition. The unusual ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mathematik.uni-marburg.de/~loogen/paper/BertholdLoogenHLPP05.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.mathematik.uni-marburg.de/~loogen/paper/BertholdLoogenHLPP05.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF DYNAMIC CHANNELS ON <span class="hlt">FUNCTIONAL</span> TOPOLOGY SKELETONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Loogen, Rita</p> <p></p> <p>THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF DYNAMIC CHANNELS ON <span class="hlt">FUNCTIONAL</span> TOPOLOGY SKELETONS J. BERTHOLD AND R. LOOGEN topologies. This paper analyses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dynamic channels on Eden's topology skeletons, i.e. skeletons which define process topologies such as rings, toroids, or hypercubes. We compare topology skeletons</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912"><span id="translatedtitle">The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.1515v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.1515v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping donor electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> deformations at sub-Bohr orbit resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Seung H. Park; Rajib Rahman; Gerhard Klimeck; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg</p> <p>2009-08-25</p> <p>Quantum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> engineering of dopant-based Si nano-structures reveals new physics in the solid-state, and is expected to play a vital role in future nanoelectronics. Central to any fundamental understanding or application is the ability to accurately characterize the deformation of the electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in these atom-based structures through electromagnetic field control. We present a method for mapping the subtle changes that occur in the electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the measurement of the hyperfine tensor probed by 29Si impurities. Our results show that detecting the donor electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> deformation is possible with resolution at the sub-Bohr radius level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.1840v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.1840v1"><span id="translatedtitle">About Essence of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> on Atomic Level and in Superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>A. V. Nikulov</p> <p>2008-03-12</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> was proposed for description of quantum phenomena on the atomic level. But now it is well known that quantum phenomena are observed not only on atomic level and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is used for description of macroscopic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity. The essence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on level elementary particles was and is the subject of heated argument among founders of quantum mechanics and other physicists. This essence seems more clear in superconductor. But impossibility of probabilistic interpretation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in this case results to obvious contradiction of quantum principles with some fundamental principles of physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0512275v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0512275v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Third order Bose-Einstein correlations by means of Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Minoru Biyajima; Takuya Mizoguchi; Naomichi Suzuki</p> <p>2006-03-22</p> <p>In previous works, in order to include correction by the Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC), the two-body Coulomb scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been utilized in the formulation of three-body BEC. However, the three-body Coulomb scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, which satisfies approximately the three-body Coulomb scattering Schrodinger equation, cannot be written by the product of the two-body scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Therefore, we reformulate the three-body BEC, and reanalyze the data. A set of reasonable parameters is obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rses.anu.edu.au/~nick/teachdoc/papers/Nagaya_etal_RF_BSSA08.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://rses.anu.edu.au/~nick/teachdoc/papers/Nagaya_etal_RF_BSSA08.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Seismic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Layered Anisotropic Media: Application to the Estimate of Seismic Anisotropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rawlinson, Nick</p> <p></p> <p>Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Seismic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Layered Anisotropic Media: Application to the Estimate investigate the effect of seismic anisotropy on P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver func- tions, calculating synthetic seismograms that seismic anisotropy resides some- where on a propagation path of shear <span class="hlt">wave</span>, but it has the inherent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91b3412L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91b3412L"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagating two-particle reduced density matrices without <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lackner, Fabian; B?ezinová, Iva; Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Burgdörfer, Joachim</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Describing time-dependent many-body systems where correlation effects play an important role remains a major theoretical challenge. In this paper we develop a time-dependent many-body theory that is based on the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM). We present a closed equation of motion for the 2-RDM by developing a reconstruction <span class="hlt">functional</span> for the three-particle reduced density matrix (3-RDM) that preserves norm, energy, and spin symmetries during time propagation. We show that approximately enforcing N -representability during time evolution is essential for achieving stable solutions. As a prototypical test case which features long-range Coulomb interactions we employ the one-dimensional model for lithium hydride (LiH) in strong infrared laser fields. We probe both one-particle observables such as the time-dependent dipole moment and two-particle observables such as the pair density and mean electron-electron interaction energy. Our results are in very good agreement with numerically exact solutions for the N -electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> obtained from the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638"><span id="translatedtitle">Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> from <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">function</span> at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964239"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded soft middle layer on Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in layered piezoelectric systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Numerical examples for <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric layered system using Love <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:25964239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.01920v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.01920v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantization causes <span class="hlt">waves</span>:Smooth finitely computable <span class="hlt">functions</span> are affine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vladimir Anashin</p> <p>2015-02-06</p> <p>Given an automaton (a letter-to-letter transducer, a dynamical 1-Lipschitz system on the space $\\mathbb Z_p$ of $p$-adic integers) $\\mathfrak A$ whose input and output alphabets are $\\mathbb F_p=\\{0,1,\\ldots,p-1\\}$, one visualizes word transformations performed by $\\mathfrak A$ by a point set $\\mathbf P(\\mathfrak A)$ in real plane $\\mathbb R^2$. For a finite-state automaton $\\mathfrak A$, it is shown that once some points of $\\mathbf P(\\mathfrak A)$ constitute a smooth (of a class $C^2$) curve in $\\mathbb R^2$, the curve is a segment of a straight line with a rational slope; and there are only finitely many straight lines whose segments are in $\\mathbf{P}(\\mathfrak A)$. Moreover, when identifying $\\mathbf P(\\mathfrak A)$ with a subset of a 2-dimensional torus $\\mathbb T^2\\subset\\mathbb R^3$ (under a natural mapping of the real unit square $[0,1]^2$ onto $\\mathbb T^2$) the smooth curves from $\\mathbf P(\\mathfrak A)$ constitute a collection of torus windings. In cylindrical coordinates either of the windings can be ascribed to a complex-valued <span class="hlt">function</span> $\\psi(x)=e^{i(Ax-2\\pi B(t))}$ $(x\\in\\mathbb R)$ for suitable rational $A,B(t)$. Since $\\psi(x)$ is a standard expression for a matter <span class="hlt">wave</span> in quantum theory (where $B(t)=tB(t_0)$), and since transducers can be regarded as a mathematical formalization for causal discrete systems, the paper might serve as a mathematical reasoning why <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena are inherent in quantum systems: This is because of causality principle and the discreteness of matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Icar..121..341W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Icar..121..341W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Search for Seismic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the SL/9 R Fragment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Charles M.; Marley, Mark S.; Hunten, Donald M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Wells, William K.; Dayal, Aditya; Hoffmann, William F.; Sykes, Mark V.; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Jupiter was observed in the aftermath of its <span class="hlt">impact</span> with fragment R of Comet Shoemaker-Levy/9 to search for seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> excited by the collision. Observations were made in the 7.8 ?m methane emission band with the MIRAC2 camera at the IRTF in an attempt to detect the local perturbation to the equilibrium stratospheric temperature profile induced by the <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Detection of a jovian seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> would provide the tightest constraint to date on interior models of Jupiter. Seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> were detected in neither direct images of the planet nor in a composite time-distance diagram which utilizes all of the available imagery. This non-detection allows us to place an upper limit on the energy of the fragment R <span class="hlt">impact</span> of 1 × 1028erg, assuming a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitation efficiency of 15%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S"><span id="translatedtitle">Hormonal profile <span class="hlt">impact</span> on female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> in young women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.6336v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.6336v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with S, D, and P-state components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Franz Gross; G. Ramalho; M. T. Pena</p> <p>2012-01-30</p> <p>Expressions for the nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> includes contributions from S, P and D-<span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with S, D, and P-state components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, G. Ramalho, M. T. Pena</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Expressions for the nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> includes contributions from S, P and D-<span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0612014v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0612014v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical Form of the Deuteron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Calculated within the Dispersion Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>A. F. Krutov; V. M. Muzafarov; V. E. Troitsky</p> <p>2006-12-07</p> <p>We present a convenient analytical parametrization of the deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> calculated within dispersion approach as a discrete superposition of Yukawa-type <span class="hlt">functions</span>, in both configuration and momentum spaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224217"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical model for longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in light-front holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S.; Hiller, John R.</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>We construct a Schrödinger-like equation for the longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a meson in the valence qq{sup -bar} sector, based on the ’t Hooft model for large-N two-dimensional QCD, and combine this with the usual transverse equation from light-front holographic QCD, to obtain a model for mesons with massive quarks. The computed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are compared with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz of Brodsky and de Téramond and used to compute decay constants and parton distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> used to solve the longitudinal equation may be useful for more general calculations of meson states in QCD. -- Highlights: •Provide relativistic quark model based on light-front holographic QCD. •Incorporate dependence on quark mass. •Consistent with the Brodsky–de Téramond quark-<span class="hlt">wave-function</span> ansatz. •Compute meson decay constants and parton distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. •Illustrate use of basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> that could be convenient for more general numerical calculations in light-front QCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0707.1369v4','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0707.1369v4"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Locally Suppressed <span class="hlt">Wave</span> sources on helioseismic travel times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>S. M. Hanasoge; S. Couvidat; S. P. Rajaguru; A. C. Birch</p> <p>2008-03-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave</span> travel-time shifts in the vicinity of sunspots are typically interpreted as arising predominantly from magnetic fields, flows, and local changes in sound speed. We show here that the suppression of granulation related <span class="hlt">wave</span> sources in a sunspot can also contribute significantly to these travel-time shifts, and in some cases, an asymmetry between in and outgoing <span class="hlt">wave</span> travel times. The tight connection between the physical interpretation of travel times and source-distribution homogeneity is confirmed. Statistically significant travel-time shifts are recovered upon numerically simulating <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the presence of a localized decrease in source strength. We also demonstrate that these time shifts are relatively sensitive to the modal damping rates; thus we are only able to place bounds on the magnitude of this effect. We see a systematic reduction of 10-15 seconds in $p$-mode mean travel times at short distances ($\\sim 6.2$ Mm) that could be misinterpreted as arising from a shallow (thickness of 1.5 Mm) increase ($\\sim$ 4%) in the sound speed. At larger travel distances ($\\sim 24$ Mm) a 6-13 s difference between the ingoing and outgoing <span class="hlt">wave</span> travel times is observed; this could mistakenly be interpreted as being caused by flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)(-), Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)(2-), and Gd(III)(H2O)8(3+) in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude. PMID:25612706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyC..518....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyC..518....1H"><span id="translatedtitle">Excitation spectra and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of quasiparticle bound states in bilayer Rashba superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higashi, Yoichi; Nagai, Yuki; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kato, Masaru; Yanase, Youichi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We study the excitation spectra and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density <span class="hlt">wave</span> state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0811.4310v4','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0811.4310v4"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical and Experimental Evidences of Material Phase Causality. Dynamics-Statistical Interpretation of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>I. G. Koprinkov</p> <p>2010-04-19</p> <p>The internal phase dynamics of a quantum system is revealed in details. Theoretical and experimental evidences of existence of a causal relation of the phase of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with the dynamics of the quantum system are presented sistematically for the first time. A new, dynamics-statistical interpretation of the quantum mechanics is introduced. A particle-<span class="hlt">wave</span> duality picture incorporated in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through its phase and amplitude is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lightning strikes on hospital <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature. PMID:20066646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fuw.edu.pl/~krp/papers/lit_wave.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fuw.edu.pl/~krp/papers/lit_wave.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Version 2.0 Ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and energy of the lithium atom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pachucki, Krzysztof</p> <p></p> <p>Version 2.0 Ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and energy of the lithium atom Mariusz Puchalski Abstract Highly accurate nonrelativistic ground­state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and energy of the lithium atom# 6 corrections has been obtained for few low lying states of helium only [2, 3], not for lithium nor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0808.1137v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0808.1137v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawson Method for Obtaining <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and $g$ Factors of Ar Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>L. Zamick; S. Yeager; Y. Y. Sharon</p> <p>2008-08-13</p> <p>Lawson has shown that one can obtain sensible <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> even in the weak deformation limit of the Nilsson model as long as one projects out states of good total angular momentum. We apply this method to obtain <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and magnetic $g$ factors of excited states of select even-even Ar isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0804.3427v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0804.3427v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress Tensor for Quantized Random Field and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Collapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Philip Pearle</p> <p>2008-08-13</p> <p>The continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of dynamical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse is an experimentally testable alternative to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In it, collapse occurs because particles interact with a classical random field. However, particles gain energy from this field, i.e., particle energy is not conserved. Recently, it has been shown how to construct a theory dubbed "completely quantized collapse" (CQC) which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In CQC, a quantized random field is introduced, and CSL's classical random field becomes its eigenvalue. In CQC, energy is conserved, which allows one to understand that energy is conserved in CSL, as the particle's energy gain is compensated by the random field's energy loss. Since the random field has energy, it should have gravitational consequences. For that, one needs to know the random field's energy density. In this paper, it is shown how to construct a symmetric, conserved, energy-momentum-stress-density tensor associated with the quantized random field, even though this field obeys no dynamical equation and has no Lagrangian. Then, three examples are given involving the random field's energy density. One considers interacting particles, the second treats a "cosmological" particle creation model, the third involves the gravity of the random field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3647171','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3647171"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum anti-Zeno effect without <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ai, Qing; Xu, Dazhi; Yi, Su; Kofman, A. G.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, Franco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We study the measurement-induced enhancement of the spontaneous decay for a two-level subsystem, where measurements are treated as couplings between the excited state and an auxiliary state rather than the von Neumann's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduction. The photon radiated in a fast decay of the atom, from the auxiliary state to the excited state, triggers a quasi-measurement, as opposed to a projection measurement. Our use of the term “quasi-measurement” refers to a “coupling-based measurement”. Such frequent quasi-measurements result in an exponential decay of the survival probability of atomic initial state with a photon emission following each quasi-measurement. Our calculations show that the effective decay rate is of the same form as the one based on projection measurements. The survival probability of the atomic initial state obtained by tracing over all the photon states is equivalent to that of the atomic initial state with a photon emission following each quasi-measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97g2104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97g2104M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> spread in Si inversion layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Majumdar, Amlan</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We have experimentally determined the extent of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> spread TQM in Si inversion layers on (100)-oriented surface in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) using the back gate bias sensitivity of front gate threshold voltage of planar fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs. We show that the sum of TQM for large positive and negative F is an electrically determined value of the SOI thickness TSI. We find that the electric field dependence of TQM for electrons and holes is given by TQM˜F-0.4 and F-0.6, respectively, at high electric fields with TQM being larger for holes at a given F. Larger TQM for holes can be explained by the fact that holes have a smaller effective mass along the confinement direction than electrons in (100) Si. The field dependences of TQM are, however, not consistent with the results of variational calculations that assume single-subband occupancy and predict TQM˜F-1/3. The discrepancy likely indicates that the effects of multiple-subband occupation are significant at room temperature, especially for holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Phase Transitions on P <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D Weidner; L Li</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019980','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019980"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Phase Transitions on P <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weidner, D.; Li, L</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of a spring heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of short-term high temperature events on forest <span class="hlt">functioning</span> remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> can have severe <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests. PMID:24038752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated and volcanogenic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Impulse-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land <span class="hlt">impact</span> might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have <span class="hlt">wave</span>-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all ocean depths. Typical <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">wave</span> height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0605075v4','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0605075v4"><span id="translatedtitle">On Transverse-Momentum Dependent Light-Cone <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Light Mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>J. P. Ma; Q. Wang</p> <p>2006-09-04</p> <p>Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD) light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a light meson are important ingredients in the TMD QCD factorization of exclusive processes. This factorization allows one conveniently resum Sudakov logarithms appearing in collinear factorization. The TMD light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are not simply related to the standard light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in collinear factorization by integrating them over the transverse momentum. We explore relations between TMD light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and those in the collinear factorization. Two factorized relations can be found. One is helpful for constructing models for TMD light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and the other can be used for resummation. These relations will be useful to establish a link between two types of factorization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0611021v4','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0611021v4"><span id="translatedtitle">The study of leading twist light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of ?_c meson</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>V. V. Braguta; A. K. Likhoded; A. V. Luchinsky</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>This paper is devoted to the study of leading twist light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of $\\eta_c$ meson. The moments of this <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> have been calculated within three approaches: potential models, nonrelativistic QCD and QCD sum rules. Using the results obtained within these approaches the model for the light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of leading twist has been proposed. Being scale dependent light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> has very interesting properties at scales $\\mu> m_c$: improvement of the accuracy of the model, appearance of relativistic tail and violation of nonrelativistic QCD velocity scaling rules. The last two properties are the properties of real leading twist light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of $\\eta_c$ meson.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90c5416T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90c5416T"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory simulation of electron <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet scattering with nanoflakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsubonoya, Keisuke; Hu, Chunping; Watanabe, Kazuyuki</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Low-energy electron scattering with nanoflakes is investigated using a time-dependent density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (TDDFT) simulation in real time and real space. By representing the incident electron as a finite-sized <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet, we obtain diffraction patterns that show not only the regular features of conventional low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) for periodic structures but also special features resulting from the local atomic inhomogeneity. We have also found a signature of ? plasmon excitation upon electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a graphene flake. The present study shows the remarkable potential of TDDFT for simulating the electron scattering process, which is important for clarifying the local and periodic atomic geometries as well as the electronic excitations in nanostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4921H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4921H"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> from thunderstorms: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the general circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinrich, Philippe; Costantino, Lorenzo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Small scale atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span>, usually referred as internal Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> (GW), represent an efficient transport mechanism of energy and momentum through the atmosphere. They propagate upward from their sources in the lower atmosphere to the middle and upper atmosphere. Depending on the horizontal wind shear, they can dissipate at different altitudes and force the atmospheric circulation of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The deposition of momentum associated with the dissipation, or <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking, exerts acceleration to the mean flow, which can significantly alter the thermal and dynamical structure of the atmosphere. In the framework of the ARISE project, the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) has been used to generate and propagate GW forced by convection and orography, without any GW parameterization. Results from model simulations are compared with in-situ observations of potential energy vertical profiles in the stratosphere, measured by a LIDAR located at the "Observatoire de Haute Provence" (OHP) in Southern France. Such comparisons allow, to a certain extent, to validate numerical results and quantify some of those <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters (e.g., GW drag force, intrinsic frequency, breaking level altitude, etc..) that are fundamental for a deeper understanding of GW role in atmospheric dynamics, but that are not easily measurable by ground- or space-based systems (limited to specific region or certain latitude band).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354759"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in elastic solids caused by cavitation microjet <span class="hlt">impact</span>. II: Application in extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> lithotripsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhong, P; Chuong, C J; Preminger, G M</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>To better understand the mechanism of stone fragmentation during extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> lithotripsy (ESWL), the model developed in Part I [P. Zhong and C.J. Chuong, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 19-28 (1993)] is applied to study cavitation microjet impingement and its resultant shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in renal calculi. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> pressure at the stone boundary and stress, strain at the propagating shock fronts in the stone were calculated for typical ESWL loading conditions. At the anterior surface of the stone, the jet induced compressive stress can vary from 0.82 approximately 4 times that of the water hammer pressure depending on the contact angles; whereas the jet-induced shear stress can achieve its maximum, with a magnitude of 30% approximately 54% of the water hammer pressure, near the detachment of the longitudinal (or P) <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the solid. Comparison of model predictions with material failure strengths of renal calculi suggests that jet <span class="hlt">impact</span> can lead to stone surface erosion by combined compressive and shear loadings at the jet <span class="hlt">impacting</span> surface, and spalling failure by tensile forces at the distal surface of the stone. Comparing responses from four different stone types suggests that cystine is the most difficult stone to fragment in ESWL, as observed from clinical experience. PMID:8354759</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weightlessness on muscle <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent <span class="hlt">function</span> of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.institut.math.jussieu.fr/~texier/lrtz.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.institut.math.jussieu.fr/~texier/lrtz.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">POINTWISE GREEN <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span> BOUNDS AND STABILITY OF COMBUSTION <span class="hlt">WAVES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Texier, Benjamin - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7</p> <p></p> <p>or strong detonation, weak of strong deflagration. The results described in this paper, Theorems D 1-<span class="hlt">wave</span>) approximation. Notably, our results apply to combustion <span class="hlt">waves</span> of any type: weak or strong, detonations or defla-amplitude strong detonations in the small heat-release (i.e., fluid-dynamical) limit, simplifying and greatly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14592793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14592793"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">function</span> of 'brain <span class="hlt">waves</span>': a cybernetic model of electroencephalography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>ben-Aaron, M</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Electroencephalograms recorded from sleeping subjects are reinterpreted, from first principles, to explain the relationship between the observed <span class="hlt">wave</span>-forms and cerebral processes. The manifestations of narcolepsy, namely, sleep paralysis, hypnopompic hallucinations and cataplexy are consistent with a hypothesis that the disorder is the result of entrainment of cerebral <span class="hlt">waves</span>, causing almost instantaneous descent into a REM sleep state. PMID:14592793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21B3839E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21B3839E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim); to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and generate the source <span class="hlt">wave</span> for the large-scale shallow water <span class="hlt">wave</span> program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three <span class="hlt">impact</span> areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact <span class="hlt">impact</span> location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for <span class="hlt">impact</span> points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of complex blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the human head: a computational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single planar blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce <span class="hlt">wave</span> entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330?kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235?kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at the temporal and parietal lobes when compared with results from the single frontal blast case. By analyzing the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> flow surrounding the head and correlating them with the consequential evolution of ICP and skull stress, the paper provides insights into the interaction mechanics between the concomitant blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> and the biological head model. PMID:25132676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.0778v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.0778v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Franz Gross; Alfred Stadler</p> <p>2010-07-05</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S_0 and 3S_1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with chi^2/N{data} approx 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through granular materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Eri; Arakawa, Masahiko</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> are supposed to cause movements of regolith particles, resulting in modifications of asteroidal surfaces. The imparted seismic energy is thus a key parameter to determining the scale and magnitude of this seismic shaking process. It is important to study the propagation velocity, attenuation rate, and vibration period of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> to estimate the seismic energy. Hence, we conducted <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments at Kobe University using a 200-?m glass beads target to simulate a regolith layer, and measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> using three accelerometers set on the target surface at differences ranging from 3.2 to 12.7 cm. The target was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with three kinds of projectiles at ˜100 m s-1 using a one-stage gas gun. The propagation velocity of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the beads target was 108.9 m s-1, and the maximum acceleration, gmax, in the unit of m s-2, measured by each accelerometer showed good correlation with the distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point normalized by the crater radius, x/R, irrespective of projectile type. They also were fitted by one power-law equation, gmax = 102.19 (x/R)-2.21. The half period of the first peak of the measured seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> was ˜0.72 ms, and this duration was almost consistent with the penetration time of each projectile into the target. According to these measurements, we estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seismic efficiency factor, that is, the ratio of seismic energy to kinetic energy of the projectile, to be almost constant, 5.7 × 10-4 inside the crater rim, while it exponentially decreased with distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point outside the crater rim. At a distance quadruple of the crater radius, the efficiency factors were 4.4 × 10-5 for polycarbonate projectile and 9.5 × 10-5 for alumina and stainless steel projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>M?drek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water <span class="hlt">wave</span> action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, and the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period . These parameters reflect <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span> level, having a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and when the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, and particularly <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy manifested in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, has a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the type and grain size of material occurring on the shore of the fjord. The mean period is mainly responsible for sorting out the sediment, and the size of gravels is associated with significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Project of National Science Centre no. DEC-2013/09/B/ST10/04141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational <span class="hlt">waves</span> is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> of ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original <span class="hlt">wave</span> elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, a phenomenon also observed in wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> tank experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPM...tmp...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPM...tmp...32P"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the SPH method to solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on an offshore platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the interaction between large <span class="hlt">waves</span> and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are <span class="hlt">impact</span> due to dam break, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced <span class="hlt">waves</span>, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tropospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> variability on stratospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.</p> <p>2002-06-25</p> <p>The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking have been refined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0707.4376v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0707.4376v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of Coupled Oscillators in Semiquantum Chaos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gang Wu; Jinming Dong</p> <p>2007-07-30</p> <p>Using the method of adiabatic invariants and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we have successfully got the excited-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a pair of coupled oscillators in the so-called \\textit{semiquantum chaos}. Some interesting characteristics in the \\textit{Fourier spectra} of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and its \\textit{Correlation <span class="hlt">Functions</span>} in the regular and chaos states have been found, which offers a new way to distinguish the regular and chaotic states in quantum system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0607073v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0607073v2"><span id="translatedtitle">A description of the target <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> encoded in the source terms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kenji Fukushima</p> <p>2006-07-12</p> <p>We argue that the gauge invariant source terms in the formalism of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) should properly describe the target <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> if the microscopic structure is concerned in the regime where the parton distribution is not quite dense. The quantum property of color charge density is incorporated in the quantum weight <span class="hlt">function</span> defined with the source terms. We sketch that the logarithmic source terms encompass a meaningful picture of the microscopic structure of the target <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents in <span class="hlt">wave</span> power potential modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. The obtained results prove that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the sea surface currents is quite significant in <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through quartz sand simulating asteroid regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Rie; Tsujido, Sayaka; Takano, Shota; Hasegawa, Sunao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Introduction: Recent spacecraft surveys clarified that asteroid surfaces were covered with regolith made of boulders and pebbles such as that found on the asteroid Itokawa. It was also found that surface morphologies of asteroids formed on the regolith layer were modified. For example, the high-resolution images of the asteroid Eros revealed the evidence of the downslope movement of the regolith layer, then it could cause the degradation and the erasure of small <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. One possible process to explain these observations is the regolith layer collapse caused by seismic vibration after projectile <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be an important physical process affecting the morphology change of regolith layer on asteroid surfaces. Therefore, it is significant for us to know the relationship between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span>. So in this study, we carried out <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments in order to observe the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the target far from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater.Experimental method: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> cratering experiments were conducted by using a single stage vertical gas gun set at Kobe Univ and a two-stage vertical gas gun set at ISAS. We used quartz sands with the particle diameter of 500?m, and the bulk density of 1.48g/cm3. The projectile was a ball made of polycarbonate with the diameter of 4.75mm and aluminum, titan, zirconia, stainless steel, cupper, tungsten carbide projectile with the diameter of 2mm. These projectiles were launched at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity from 0.2 to 7km/s. The target was set in a vacuum chamber evacuated below 10 Pa. We measured the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> by using a piezoelectric uniaxial accelerometer.Result: The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was measured to show a large single peak and found to attenuate with the propagation distance. The maximum acceleration of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was recognized to have a good relationship with the normalized distance x/R, where x is the propagation distance and R is the crater radius, irrespective of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities: gmax = 160(x/R)-2.98.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser <span class="hlt">wave</span>: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and stochastic trajectory approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argonov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light <span class="hlt">wave</span> delocalizes very fast due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the <span class="hlt">wave</span> while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation inside a granular column <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, E.; Blachman, M.; Britan, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A simple experimental technique, based on pressure transducers, capable of measuring the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates along the solid phase of a granular column after being hit head-on by a plane shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> is presented. The technique is based on installing couples of gauges at different cross-sections along the granular column in such a way that one transducer measures the overall pressure acting on it while the other measures only the pressure exerted on it by the gaseous phase of the granular column. By means of the presented experimental technique the time histories of the stresses normal to the shock tube walls and data on the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> attenuation as it propagates downstream towards the shock tube end wall were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.07853v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.07853v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shuo Cao; Jing Tang; Yunan Gao; Yue Sun; Kangsheng Qiu; Yanhui Zhao; Min He; Jin-An Shi; Lin Gu; David A. Williams; Weidong Sheng; Kuijuan Jin; Xiulai Xu</p> <p>2015-01-29</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322904','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322904"><span id="translatedtitle">On Dissipation <span class="hlt">Function</span> of Ocean <span class="hlt">Waves</span> due to Whitecapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zakharov, V. E.; Korotkevich, A. O.; Prokofiev, A. O.</p> <p>2009-09-09</p> <p>The Hasselmann kinetic equation provides a statistical description of <span class="hlt">waves</span> ensemble. Several catastrophic events are beyond statistical model. In the case of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the surface of the deep fluid may be the most frequent and important events of such kind are whitecapping and <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking. It was shown earlier that such effects leads to additional dissipation in the energy contaning region around <span class="hlt">waves</span> spectral peak, which can be simulated by means of empiric dissipative term in kinetic equation. In order to find dependence of this term with respect to nonlinearity in the system (steepness of the surface) we preformed two numerical experiments: weakly nonlinear one in the framework of 3D hydrodynamics and fully nonlinear one for 2D hydrodynamic. In spite of significantly different models and initial conditions, both these experiments yielded close results. Obtained data can be used to define analytical formula for dependence of the dissipative term of dissipation coefficient with respect to mean steepness of the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M"><span id="translatedtitle">Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Spectroscopic Instruments: Multi-<span class="hlt">functional</span> Atmospheric Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mehdi, I.; Gulkis, S.; Allen, M. A.; Schlecht, E.; Chattopadhyay, G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectroscopic instruments provide unique capability in terms of providing quantitative measurements of trace gas compositions in planetary atmospheres. Such instruments also provide temporal and wind velocity mapping capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-28</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity vF depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H; Cohen, Aron J; Cole, Jacqueline M</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared. PMID:26001454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005LMaPh..74..311O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005LMaPh..74..311O"><span id="translatedtitle">Hartle Hawking <span class="hlt">Wave-Function</span> for Flux Compactifications: the Entropic Principle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun; Verlinde, Erik</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We argue that the topological string partition <span class="hlt">function</span>, which has been known to correspond to a <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>, can be interpreted as an exact “<span class="hlt">wave-function</span> of the universe” in the mini-superspace sector of physical superstring theory. This realizes the idea of Hartle and Hawking in the context of string theory, including all loop quantum corrections. The mini-superspace approximation is justified as an exact description of BPS quantities. Moreover this proposal leads to a conceptual explanation of the recent observation that the black hole entropy is the square of the topological string <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>. This <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> can be interpreted in the context of flux compactification of all spatial dimensions as providing a physical probability distribution on the moduli space of string compactification. Euclidean time is realized holographically in this setup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.2944v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.2944v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Excited States in Lattice Gauge Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>H. Kroger; A. Hosseinizadeh; J. F. Laprise; J. Kroger</p> <p>2009-02-17</p> <p>We suggest a new method to compute the spectrum and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of excited states. We construct a stochastic basis of Bargmann link states, drawn from a physical probability density distribution and compute transition amplitudes between stochastic basis states. From such transition matrix we extract <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the energy spectrum. We apply this method to $U(1)_{2+1}$ lattice gauge theory. As a test we compute the energy spectrum, <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and thermodynamical <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the electric Hamiltonian and compare it with analytical results. We find excellent agreement. We observe scaling of energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the variable of time. We also present first results on a small lattice for the full Hamiltonian including the magnetic term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.07777.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.07777.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The realization of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse in the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ishikawa, Shiro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse can be realized in the linguistic interpretation. And furthermore, I propose the justification of the von Neumann-L\\"uders projection postulate. After all, I conclude that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse should not be adopted in the Copenhagen interpretation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the O2 1.27-um nightglow distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoshino, Naoya; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro</p> <p></p> <p>O2 -1.27µm nightglow is the indicator of the general circulation at about 95 km in Venus. Recent nightglow observations reported that the nightglow emission showed the temporal variations with a timescale of a few hours and days [e.g.,Gerard et al., 2008]. The temporal variations are thought to be caused by wind fluctuations due to atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating from the lower atmosphere. In recent years, the importance of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the general circulation of the Venusian atmosphere has been recognized. Forbes and Konopliv [2007] suggested the propagation of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> originated in the cloud deck into the upper atmosphere. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the Venusian upper atmosphere has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which includes the altitude region of 80 -about 200 km in order to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the nightglow distribution. Our model considers the chemical processes and calculates the O2 -1.27µm nightglow intensity. The planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (thermal tides, Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and Rosbby <span class="hlt">wave</span>) are imposed at the lower boundary. The amplitudes and phase velocities of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> are assumed from the study by Del Genio and Rossow [1990]. The simulation results show dominance of the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> at about 80 -120 km with a vertical wavelength of about 40 -50 km. The amplitude of the zonal wind fluctuation caused by the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> has a maximum value of about 9 m/s at about 95 km. Our results suggest that the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> would cause the wind variation of the nightglow emission region between the 00:00LT -00:40LT with a period of 4 days. In this presentation, we will show the details of our simulation results considering the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In addition, we will present the initial results of a simulation considering the small-scale gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.6121v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.6121v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Isgur-Wise <span class="hlt">function</span> within a QCD quark model with Airy's <span class="hlt">function</span> as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of heavy-light mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sabyasachi Roy; N. S. Bordoloi; D. K. Choudhury</p> <p>2012-09-27</p> <p>We report some improved <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for mesons taking linear confinement term in standard QCD potential as parent and Coulombic term as perturbation while applying quantum mechanical perturbation technique in solving Schrodinger equation with such a potential. We find that Airy's infinite series appears in the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> of the mesons. We report our calculations on the Isgur-Wise <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivatives for heavy-light mesons, within this framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.05943.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.05943.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Synchrosqueezing transform to pulse signal analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wu, Hau-tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. Based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape <span class="hlt">function</span> model and SST, we extract features, called the spectral pulse signature, based on the <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression technique, to characterize the hemodynamics from the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals. To demonstrate how the algorithm and the extracted features work, we study the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal recorded by the sphygmomanometer from normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure. The analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. In addition, it shows that different positions of the radial artery contain significant different information, which is compatible with the empirical conclusion of the pulse diagnosis in the traditional Chinese medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064"><span id="translatedtitle">The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Relation to Rossby <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, a stationary <span class="hlt">wave</span> model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kie?czy?ski, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> is discussed. Two Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> based devices. PMID:26482393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> with high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> differently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> day. Important increases in extreme stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the boreal winter stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Dingzhu; Tian, Wenshou; Xie, Fei; Wang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jiankai</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper uses a state-of-the-art general circulation model to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion from 1980 to 2000 and the expected partial ozone recovery from 2000 to 2020 on the propagation of planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in December, January, and February. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a cooler and stronger Antarctic stratosphere, while the stratospheric ozone recovery has the opposite effects. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion on polar stratospheric temperature are not opposite to that of the stratospheric ozone recovery; i.e., the stratospheric ozone depletion causes a weak cooling and the stratospheric ozone recovery causes a statistically significant cooling. The stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a weakening of the Arctic polar vortex, while the stratospheric ozone recovery leads to a strengthening of the Arctic polar vortex. The cooling of the Arctic polar vortex is found to be dynamically induced via modulating the planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity by stratospheric ozone increases. Particularly interesting is that stratospheric ozone changes have opposite effects on the stationary and transient <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refractive index and Eliassen-Palm flux in the NH indicates (1) that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction in the stratosphere cannot fully explain <span class="hlt">wave</span> flux changes in the Arctic stratosphere and (2) that stratospheric ozone changes can cause changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the northern midlatitude troposphere which in turn affect <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. In the SH, the radiative cooling (warming) caused by stratospheric ozone depletion (recovery) produces a larger (smaller) meridional temperature gradient in the midlatitude upper troposphere, accompanied by larger (smaller) zonal wind vertical shear and larger (smaller) vertical gradients of buoyancy frequency. Hence, there are more (fewer) transient <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating into the stratosphere. The dynamical warming (cooling) caused by stratospheric ozone decreases (increases) partly offsets their radiative cooling (warming).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.optics.rochester.edu/~stroud/publications/aronstein971.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.optics.rochester.edu/~stroud/publications/aronstein971.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractional <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> revivals in the infinite square well David L. Aronstein* and C. R. Stroud, Jr.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Stroud, Carlos R.</p> <p></p> <p>Fractional <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> revivals in the infinite square well David L. Aronstein* and C. R. Stroud 1996 We describe the time evolution of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the infinite square well using a fractional revival formalism, and show that at all times the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be described as a superposition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.optics.rochester.edu/users/stroud/publications/aronstein971v2.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.optics.rochester.edu/users/stroud/publications/aronstein971v2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractional <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> revivals in the infinite square well David L. Aronstein* and C. R. Stroud, Jr.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Stroud Jr., Carlos R.</p> <p></p> <p>Fractional <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> revivals in the infinite square well David L. Aronstein* and C. R. Stroud 1996. Corrections made 26 September 1999 by D.L.A. We describe the time evolution of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the infinite square well using a fractional revival formalism and show that at all times the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.technion.ac.il/~nimrodhp/publications/ps/2001/nm_rl_pra2001.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.technion.ac.il/~nimrodhp/publications/ps/2001/nm_rl_pra2001.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a position-dependent mass in a laser field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Moiseyev, Nimrod</p> <p></p> <p>Continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a position-dependent mass in a laser; published 5 October 2001 The continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a position,2 . For one- dimensional motion, the conditions are very simple: the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.technion.ac.il/~nimrodhp/publications/ps/2001/nm_rl_pra2001.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.technion.ac.il/~nimrodhp/publications/ps/2001/nm_rl_pra2001.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a positiondependent mass in a laser field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Moiseyev, Nimrod</p> <p></p> <p>Continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a position­dependent mass in a laser; published 5 October 2001# The continuity conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle with a position, #1,2##. For one­ dimensional motion, the conditions are very simple: the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.fas.harvard.edu/~lucas/143aSection2SOLN.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.fas.harvard.edu/~lucas/143aSection2SOLN.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Physics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I Spring 2015, Harvard <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Probability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>in Chapter 1 of [1]. The dynamics of a quantum "particle" of mass m is governed by a complex-valued <span class="hlt">wave</span>Physics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I Spring 2015, Harvard Section 2: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Probability the particle in between points x and x + dx at time t. The Schr¨odinger equation (and thus quantum mechanics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mines.edu/~rsnieder/Interf_atten07.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.mines.edu/~rsnieder/Interf_atten07.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> of attenuating heterogeneous acoustic media from uncorrelated <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Snieder, Roel</p> <p></p> <p>­8 The extraction of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> using random <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields has been applied to ultrasound,9­12 in seismic of this field of research. Phrases that include passive imaging, correlation of ambient noise, extraction the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field that is excited by random sources and is recorded at two locations. Here the generalization</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1650.1064M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1650.1064M"><span id="translatedtitle">Guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> for the detection and classification of <span class="hlt">impact</span> damage in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murat, Bibi Intan Suraya; Khalili, Pouyan; Fromme, Paul</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Carbon fiber laminate composites, consisting of layers of polymer matrix reinforced with high strength carbon fibers, are widely employed for aircraft structures. For aerospace applications they offer a number of advantages including a good strength to weight ratio. However, <span class="hlt">impact</span> during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, fiber and matrix breakage or delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient nondestructive testing of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating along the structure. The guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in intact composite plates was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer, quantified, and compared to numerical predictions using full three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element (FE) simulations. Good agreement between experiments and predictions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation was found. The guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering at delaminations was simulated using 3D FE models and the influence of the delamination modelling investigated. Limited influence of the material damping and the delamination shape on the scattering patterns was found, but the modelling of the specimen anisotropy was observed to have a significant influence. The effects of the delamination size and depth on the guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering were investigated in a systematic parametric study, in order to help building up information for an accurate interpretation of guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span>-radar modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the West Coast experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Short gravity-capillary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>. These short <span class="hlt">waves</span> are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> probe. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by <span class="hlt">waves</span> of typical ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> by the ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://waas.stanford.edu/research/PDF/Konno06TechnicalNote.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://waas.stanford.edu/research/PDF/Konno06TechnicalNote.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Synchronized Ionosphere Anomaly <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Front <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Multiple Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boneh, Dan</p> <p></p> <p>Analysis of Synchronized Ionosphere Anomaly <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Front <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Multiple Satellites Hiroyuki of undetectable fronts for the ionosphere monitoring method introduced in [1]. INVESTIGATION: Generate satellite]. Search for ionosphere-pierce-point (IPP) pairs and triplets whose geometries have the potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of large-scale atmospheric refractive structures on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Conventional techniques used to model optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through the Earth's atmosphere typically as- sume flow fields based on various empirical relationships. Unfortunately, these synthetic refractive index fields do not take into account the influence of transient macroscale and mesoscale (i.e. larger than turbulent microscale) atmospheric phenomena. Nevertheless, a number of atmospheric structures that are characterized by various spatial and temporal scales exist which have the potential to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> refractive index fields, thereby resulting dramatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation characteristics. In this paper, we analyze a subset of spatio-temporal dynamics found to strongly affect optical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through these atmospheric struc- tures. Analysis of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation was performed in the geometrical optics approximation using a standard ray tracing technique. Using a numerical weather prediction (NWP) approach, we simulate multiple realistic atmospheric events (e.g., island wakes, low-level jets, etc.), and estimate the associated refractivity fields prior to performing ray tracing simulations. By coupling NWP model output with ray tracing simulations, we demon- strate the ability to quantitatively assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of coherent atmospheric phenomena on optical ray propagation. Our results show a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatio-temporal characteristics of the refractive index field on optical ray trajectories. Such correlations validate the effectiveness of NWP models as they offer a more comprehensive representation of atmospheric refractivity fields compared to conventional methods based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~ide/data/research/publication/kao_etal_jcp04.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~ide/data/research/publication/kao_etal_jcp04.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for <span class="hlt">impact</span>-produced shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ide, Kayo</p> <p></p> <p>Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for <span class="hlt">impact</span>-produced shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dynamics Jim Kao a. The present study represents the first attempt of applying the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method of data Kalman filter (EKF) method [5,10,11,18,21,26] was designed to perform data assimilation following</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaninovi?, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement. PMID:23995621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/92722','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/92722"><span id="translatedtitle">U(1) × U(1) symmetry-protected topological order in Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Liu, Zheng-Xin</p> <p></p> <p>Gutzwiller projection is a way to construct many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that could carry topological order or symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order. However, an important issue is to determine whether or not a given ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/385655','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/385655"><span id="translatedtitle">{ital S}-matrix, resonances, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for transport through billiards with leads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albeverio, S.; Haake, F.; Kurasov, P.; Kus, M.; Seba, P.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>For a simple model describing the {ital S}-matrices of open resonators the statistical properties of the resonances are investigated, as well as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> inside the resonator. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FBS....56..829G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FBS....56..829G"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Body Continuum <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> with a Box Boundary Condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garrido, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this work we investigate the connection between discretized three-body continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, in particular via a box boundary condition, and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> computed with the correct asymptotics. The three-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are in both cases obtained by means of the adiabatic expansion method. The information concerning all the possible incoming and outgoing channels, which appears naturally when the continuum is not discretized, seems to be lost when the discretization is implemented. In this work we show that both methods are fully equivalent, and the full information contained in the three-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is actually preserved in the discrete spectrum. Therefore, in those cases when the asymptotic behaviour is not known analytically, i.e., when the Coulomb interaction is involved, the discretization technique can be safely used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=4&id=EJ133505','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=4&id=EJ133505"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in Differential and Total Cross Sections Due to Different Radial <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Three sets of analytical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and total electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=4&id=EJ215015','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=4&id=EJ215015"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> at Discontinuities of the Potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Branson, David</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1006.2657v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1006.2657v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Weak Equivalence Principle and Propagation of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Clovis Jacinto de Matos</p> <p>2010-06-14</p> <p>The propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle is characterised by a group and a phase velocity. The group velocity is associated with the particle's classical velocity, which is always smaller than the speed of light, and the phase velocity is associated with the propagation speed of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> phase and is treated as being unphysical, since its value is always greater than the speed of light. Here we show, using Sciama's Machian formulation of rest mass energy, that this physical interpretation, for the group and the phase velocity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, is only valid if the weak equivalence principle strictly holds for the propagating particle, except for the photon. In case this constraint is released the phase velocity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> could acquire a physical meaning in quantum condensates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1006.2657.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1006.2657.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Weak Equivalence Principle and Propagation of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>de Matos, Clovis Jacinto</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a particle is characterised by a group and a phase velocity. The group velocity is associated with the particle's classical velocity, which is always smaller than the speed of light, and the phase velocity is associated with the propagation speed of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> phase and is treated as being unphysical, since its value is always greater than the speed of light. Here we show, using Sciama's Machian formulation of rest mass energy, that this physical interpretation, for the group and the phase velocity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, is only valid if the weak equivalence principle strictly holds for the propagating particle, except for the photon. In case this constraint is released the phase velocity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> could acquire a physical meaning in quantum condensates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5567v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5567v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Many-body nodal hypersurface and domain averages for correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shuming Hu; Kevin Rasch; Lubos Mitas</p> <p>2013-07-21</p> <p>We outline the basic notions of nodal hypersurface and domain averages for antisymmetric <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We illustrate their properties and analyze the results for a few electron explicitly solvable cases and discuss possible further developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01349v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01349v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-body continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with a box boundary condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>E. Garrido</p> <p>2015-05-06</p> <p>In this work we investigate the connection between discretized three-body continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, in particular via a box boundary condition, and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> computed with the correct asymptotics. The three-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are in both cases obtained by means of the adiabatic expansion method. The information concerning all the possible incoming and outgoing channels, which appears naturally when the continuum is not discretized, seems to be lost when the discretization is implemented. In this work we show that both methods are fully equivalent, and the full information contained in the three-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is actually preserved in the discrete spectrum. Therefore, in those cases when the asymptotic behaviour is not known analytically, i.e., when the Coulomb interaction is involved, the discretization technique can be safely used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5567.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5567.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Many-body nodal hypersurface and domain averages for correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We outline the basic notions of nodal hypersurface and domain averages for antisymmetric <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We illustrate their properties and analyze the results for a few electron explicitly solvable cases and discuss possible further developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0701068v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0701068v1"><span id="translatedtitle">On the thermal boundary condition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mariam Bouhmadi-Lopez; Paulo Vargas Moniz</p> <p>2007-01-12</p> <p>We broaden the domain of application of the recently proposed thermal boundary condition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the Universe, which has been suggested as the basis of a dynamical selection principle on the landscape of string solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.6424v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.6424v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Pion light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, parton distribution and the electromagnetic form factor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas Gutsche; Valery E. Lyubovitskij; Ivan Schmidt; Alfredo Vega</p> <p>2015-08-04</p> <p>We derive the lowest-order $q\\bar q$ valence light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the pion with Lz=0 and |Lz|=1, which reproduces its valence parton distribution and the electromagnetic form factor consistent with data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701100v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701100v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Proposed experiment with Rydberg atoms to test the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>M. Gondran; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; A. Gondran</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Experiment{Fabre_1983} shows that Rydberg atoms do not pass through 1 micronmeter width slits if their principal quantum number is rather large(n > 60). Thus, the particle density measured after the slits is null while the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> calculated after the slits is not. This experiment is in contradiction with the Born interpretation (the square of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is proportional to the probability density for the particle to be found at each point in space). The classical interpretation of this experiment, which removes the contradiction, is to suppose that if the particles do not pass, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does not pass either (classical assumption). An alternative interpretation of this experiment is to suppose that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> passes through the slits, but that the Born interpretation is not valid any more in this case (alternative assumption). The aim of this paper is to present an experiment testing this alternative assumption compared to the classical assumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/69158','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/69158"><span id="translatedtitle">Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hirokazu</p> <p></p> <p>We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate 87Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> whose ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporomandibular joint disorders' <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P; John, M T; Hodges, J S; Schiffman, E L</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders ("TMJ intra-articular status"), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability ("TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span>"). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject's most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure ? DDwR ? DDwoR ? DJD) should be explored. PMID:25572112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612"><span id="translatedtitle">Data synthesis and display programs for <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0607098v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0607098v2"><span id="translatedtitle">How to measure the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> absolute squared of a moving particle by using mirrors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Volker Hannstein; Gerhard C. Hegerfeldt</p> <p>2007-06-19</p> <p>We consider a slow particle with <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> $\\psi_t(\\vec{x})$, moving freely in some direction. A mirror is briefly switched on around a time $T$ and its position is scanned. It is shown that the measured reflection probability then allows the determination of $|\\psi_T(\\vec{x})|^2$. Experimentally available atomic mirrors should make this method applicable to the center-of-mass <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of atoms with velocities in the cm/s range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1003.2542v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1003.2542v1"><span id="translatedtitle">The de Broglie <span class="hlt">Wave</span> as a Localized Excitation of the Action <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gregory Sivashinsky</p> <p>2010-03-12</p> <p>The Hamilton-Jacobi equation of relativistic quantum mechanics is revisited. The equation is shown to permit solutions in the form of breathers (nondispersive oscillating/spinning solitons), displaying simultaneous particle-like and <span class="hlt">wave</span>-like behavior adaptable to the properties of the de Broglie clock. Within this formalism the de Broglie <span class="hlt">wave</span> acquires the meaning of a localized excitation of the classical action <span class="hlt">function</span>. The problem of quantization in terms of the breathing action <span class="hlt">function</span> is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.4405v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.4405v2"><span id="translatedtitle">On the origin of preferred-basis and evolution pattern of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shizhong Mei</p> <p>2014-02-23</p> <p>The standard quantum mechanics assumes Schr\\"odinger equation for regular evolution and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse for measurement. As shown in this paper, only particular collapse equation can continuously transition to Schr\\"odinge equation. The collapse equation also adds some restriction to the preferred-basis. Under the assumptions that the preferred-basis depends on the whole system Hamiltonian but is not affected by the weights of the basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the system <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, a unique set of determination equations of the basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> is derived from the collapse equation. The second order time derivative of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is continuous at the end of the collapse. To make the derivative continuous at the beginning of the collapse, it is proved that the collapse equation has to contain a cyclic <span class="hlt">function</span> with period twice the duration of the collapse, which leads to conditioned alternating Schr\\"odinger evolution and collapse of equal duration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F"><span id="translatedtitle">EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in real space from molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions ?,?,…,? ( ?i=1m?=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in ?, n electrons in ?,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in ?. Each ? may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (<span class="hlt">functional</span> group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single ?. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are read in from an aimpac-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into ? and ? spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: 2.80 GHz Intel Pentium IV CPU Operating system: GNU/Linux RAM: 55 992 KB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 2.7 External routines: Netlib Nature of problem: Let us have an N-electron molecule and define an exhaustive partition of the physical space into m three-dimensional regions. The edf program computes the probabilities P(n,n,…,n)?P({n}) of all possible allocations of n electrons to ?, n electrons to ?,…, and n electrons to ?,{n} being integers. Solution method: Let us assume that the N-electron molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, ?(1,N), is a linear combination of M Slater determinants, ?(1,N)=?rMC?(1,N). Calling S?rs the overlap matrix over the 3D region ? between the (real) molecular spin-orbitals (MSO) in ?(?1r,…?Nr) and the MSOs in ?,(?1s,…,?Ns), edf finds all the P({n})'s by solving the linear system ?{n}{?kmtkn}P({n})=?r,sMCCdet[?kmtS?rs], where t=1 and t,…,t are arbitrary real numbers. Restrictions: The number of {n} sets grows very fast with m and N, so that the dimension of the linear system (1) soon becomes very large. Moreover, the computer time required to obtain the determinants in the second member of Eq. (1) scales quadratically with M. These two facts limit the applicability of the method to relatively small molecules. Unusual features: Most of the real variables are of precision real*16. Running time: 0.030, 2.010, and 0.620 seconds for Test examples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. References: [1] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, Faraday Discuss. 135 (2007) 423-438. [2] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, J. Phys. Chem. A 111 (2007) 1084-1090. [3] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 1087-1092. [4] E. Francisco, A. Martín Pendás, M.A. Blanco, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 094102. [5] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, C. Gatti, Chemistry: A European Journal 113 (2007) 9362-9371.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900055800&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DCNRS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900055800&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DCNRS"><span id="translatedtitle">Coronal proton transport in the presence of Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span> and implications for <span class="hlt">impact</span> line linear polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Dean F.; Chambe, G.; Henoux, J. C.; Tamres, D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The transport of fast (about 1 MeV) protons in the corona is considered when their density and ansiotropy are sufficiently large to excite Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span> scatter the protons and make them almost isotropic. The Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> instability remains in a marginally stable state in which the proton anisotropy is just large enough to excite Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span> to a level which would eliminate any greater anisotropy. The protons propagate diffusively down a coronal loop and have a path length of order 100 times their length in the absence of Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span>. This increases their Coulomb losses, and much higher energy protons (2-20 MeV) are required initially to produce H-alpha <span class="hlt">impact</span> line linear polarization in the chromosphere as compared to the case in the absence of Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span> (about 200 keV) for loop lengths about 10 to the 9th cm. The interpretation of the observed polarization becomes less direct because it depends on more poorly known parameters than in the case of the absence of Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Central Asian Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite the extensive use of seismic regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. For example, whether regional Lg <span class="hlt">wave</span> has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda <span class="hlt">waves</span> have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> is contained in the time domain source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> using the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> and those of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21B2397X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21B2397X"><span id="translatedtitle">Studying Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Using the Empirical Green's <span class="hlt">Function</span> Method: Application to Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Reliably estimated source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R.; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.07853.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.07853.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac <span class="hlt">function</span> and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span>. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive. PMID:24528802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The ship motion equation with a cosine <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force describes the slip moments in regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A new kind of <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force was applied by sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009059"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> drag as the objective <span class="hlt">function</span> in transonic fighter wing optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, P. S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The original computational method for determining <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag in a three dimensional transonic analysis method was replaced by a <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag formula based on the loss in momentum across an isentropic shock. This formula was used as the objective <span class="hlt">function</span> in a numerical optimization procedure to reduce the <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag of a fighter wing at transonic maneuver conditions. The optimization procedure minimized <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag through modifications to the wing section contours defined by a wing profile shape <span class="hlt">function</span>. A significant reduction in <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag was achieved while maintaining a high lift coefficient. Comparisons of the pressure distributions for the initial and optimized wing geometries showed significant reductions in the leading-edge peaks and shock strength across the span.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1203.5613.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1203.5613.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Virgo data characterization and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> searches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballinger, T; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endr?czi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardt, A; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Between 2007 and 2010 Virgo collected data in coincidence with the LIGO and GEO gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> (GW) detectors. These data have been searched for GWs emitted by cataclysmic phenomena in the universe, by non-axisymmetric rotating neutron stars or from a stochastic background in the frequency band of the detectors. The sensitivity of GW searches is limited by noise produced by the detector or its environment. It is therefore crucial to characterize the various noise sources in a GW detector. This paper reviews the Virgo detector noise sources, noise propagation, and conversion mechanisms which were identified in the three first Virgo observing runs. In many cases, these investigations allowed us to mitigate noise sources in the detector, or to selectively flag noise events and discard them from the data. We present examples from the joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo GW searches to show how well noise transients and narrow spectral lines have been identified and excluded from the Virgo data. We also discuss how detector c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.3819v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.3819v2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and decay constants of $B$ and $D$ mesons in the relativistic potential model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mao-Zhi Yang</p> <p>2012-01-30</p> <p>With the decay constants of $D$ and $D_s$ mesons measured in experiment recently, we revisit the study of the bound states of quark and antiquark in $B$ and $D$ mesons in the relativistic potential model. The relativistic bound state <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation is solved numerically. The masses, decay constants and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of $B$ and $D$ mesons are obtained. Both the masses and decay constants obtained here can be consistent with the experimental data. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be used in the study of $B$ and $D$ meson decays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..85a2702G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..85a2702G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab initio treatment of charge transfer in ion-molecule collisions based on one-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gabás, P. M. M.; Errea, L. F.; Méndez, L.; Rabadán, I.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Two simple ab initio methods based on one-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are employed to calculate the single-electron capture and single ionization of H2O and CO molecules by ion <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The anisotropy of the molecular targets is taken into account by using multicenter pseudopotentials to represent the interaction of the active electron with the ionic molecular core. These two methods are applied to the study of three collisional systems: H++H2O, He2++H2O, and C2++CO. Comparison with experiments and other theoretical works is presented when available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathways and <span class="hlt">functions</span> of gut microbiota metabolism <span class="hlt">impacting</span> host physiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Smitha; Alden, Nicholas; Lee, Kyongbum</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The bacterial populations in the human intestine <span class="hlt">impact</span> host physiological <span class="hlt">functions</span> through their metabolic activity. In addition to performing essential catabolic and biotransformation <span class="hlt">functions</span>, the gut microbiota produces bioactive small molecules that mediate interactions with the host and contribute to the neurohumoral axes connecting the intestine with other parts of the body. This review discusses recent progress in characterizing the metabolic products of the gut microbiota and their biological <span class="hlt">functions</span>, focusing on studies that investigate the responsible bacterial pathways and cognate host receptors. Several key areas are highlighted for future development: context-based analysis targeting pathways; integration of analytical approaches; metabolic modeling; and synthetic systems for in vivo manipulation of microbiota <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Prospectively, these developments could further our mechanistic understanding of host-microbiota interactions. PMID:26340103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/"><span id="translatedtitle">A test of a mechanical multi-<span class="hlt">impact</span> shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Worley, David M.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We modified two gasoline-engine-powered earth tampers, commonly used as compressional-(P) <span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic energy sources for shallow reflection studies, for use as shear(S)-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy sources. This new configuration, termed ?Hacker? (horizontal Wacker?), is evaluated as an alternative to the manual sledgehammer typically used in conjunction with a large timber held down by the front wheels of a vehicle. The Hacker maximizes the use of existing equipment by a quick changeover of bolt-on accessories as opposed to the handling of a separate source, and is intended to improve the depth of penetration of S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> data by stacking hundreds of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> over a two to three minute period. Records were made with a variety of configurations involving up to two Hackers simultaneously then compared to a reference record made with a sledgehammer. Preliminary results indicate moderate success by the higher amplitude S-<span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded with the Hacker as compared to the hammer method. False triggers generated by the backswing of the Hacker add unwanted noise and we are currently working to modify the device to eliminate this effect. Correlation noise caused by insufficient randomness of the Hacker <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence is also a significant noise problem that we hope to reduce by improving the coupling of the Hacker to the timber so that the operator has more control over the <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51E3091F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51E3091F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Low-Level Southerly Surges on Mixed Rossby Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> over the Central Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukutomi, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study examines dynamical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of lower-tropospheric southerly wind surges originating in midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) on the development of mixed Rossby gravity (MRG) <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the central Pacific during June-August 1979-2012, through the statistical analysis of the JRA-55 products and NOAA outgoing long <span class="hlt">wave</span> radiation data. The central Pacific MRG <span class="hlt">waves</span> are identified by an extended EOF (EEOF) analysis on 2-8-day filtered daily 850-hPa meridional wind anomalies during June-August 1979-2012. Composite analysis based on the leading EEOF time coefficients is able to capture the development of the MRG <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with a southerly surge originating in the SH extratropics. As a weak clockwise gyre as a part of an off-equatorial easterly wavetrain moves eastward and southeastward from the off-equatorial eastern Pacific into the equatorial central Pacific, the southerly surge penetrates into the equatorial tropics at around 150W. Then, the clockwise gyre develops into a MRG-type gyre over the central Pacific. A transition from an easterly <span class="hlt">wave</span>-type gyre into a MRG-type gyre occurs associated with the southerly surge. The southerly surge forms a cross-equatorial flow on the western flank of the MRG-type gyre. The gyre is amplified when the southerly surge reaches the equatorial tropics. At the same time, convection coupled with the MRG-type gyre is enhanced. The southerly surges are originated in the midlatitude South Pacific, and they are induced by synoptic-scale baroclinic disturbances propagating along the SH midlatitude westerly jet. An eddy vorticity budget analysis indicates that the southerly surge plays an important role in spinning up the MRG-type gyre through transient advection of absolute vorticiy. A case study of a MRG-<span class="hlt">wave</span> event in mid-July 2006 also illustrates development of a MRG <span class="hlt">wave</span> associated with the southerly surge and an easterly <span class="hlt">wave</span>-to-MRG <span class="hlt">wave</span> transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH41B1788L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH41B1788L"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> and ion velocity distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, X.; Lu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Xia, L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Using 1D test particle simulations, the effect of a kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> on the velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> of protons in the collisionless solar wind is investigated. We first use linear Vlasov theory to obtain the property of a kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> numerically (the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagates in the direction almost perpendicular to the background magnetic field). We then numerically simulate how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> will shape the proton velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. It is found that Landau resonance may be able to generate two components in the initially Maxwellian proton velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>: a tenuous beam component along the direction of the background magnetic field and a core component. The streaming speed of the beam relative to the core proton component is about 1.2 -- 1.3 Alfvén speed. However, no perpendicular ion heating is observed from the simulation. Reference: Li, X., Lu, Q.M., Chen, Y., Li, B., Xia, L.D., ApJ, 719, L190, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlated Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the atoms He through Ne</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, K.E. ); Moskowitz, J.W. )</p> <p>1990-09-15</p> <p>We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the atoms He through Ne. Our trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is of the form introduced by Boys and Handy. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the first and second derivatives of an unreweighted variance and apply Newton's method to minimize this variance. We motivate the form of the correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> using the local current conservation arguments of Feynman and Cohen. Using a self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> multiplied by a Boys and Handy correlation <span class="hlt">function</span>, we recover a large fraction of the correlation energy of these atoms. We give the value of all variational parameters necessary to reproduce our <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The method can be extended easily to other atoms and to molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.1804.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.1804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromechanical <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Green's <span class="hlt">Function</span> Estimation from Ambient Electrical Grid Frequency Noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Backhaus, Scott</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Many electrical grid transients can be described by the propagation of electromechanical (EM) <span class="hlt">waves</span> that couple oscillations of power flows over transmission lines and the inertia of synchronous generators. These EM <span class="hlt">waves</span> can take several forms: large-scale standing <span class="hlt">waves</span> forming inter-area modes, localized oscillations of single or multi-machine modes, or traveling <span class="hlt">waves</span> that spread quasi-circularly from major grid disturbances. The propagation speed and damping of these EM <span class="hlt">waves</span> are potentially a powerful tool for assessing grid stability, e.g. small signal or rotor angle stability, however, EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> properties have been mostly extracted from post-event analysis of major grid disturbances. Using a small set of data from the FNET sensor network, we show how the spatially resolved Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation can be extracted from ambient frequency noise without the need for a major disturbance. If applied to an entire interconnection, an EM-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> map will enable a model-independent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Responses to the 1995 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span>: A Call to Action.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Changnon, Stanley A.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Reinke, Beth C.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The short but intense heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in mid-July 1995 caused 830 deaths nationally, with 525 of these deaths in Chicago. Many of the dead were elderly. and the event raised great concern over why it happened. Assessment of causes for the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>-related deaths in Chicago revealed many factors were at fault, including an inadequate local heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> warning system, power failures, questionable death assessments, inadequate ambulance service and hospital facilities, the heat island, an aging population, and the inability of many persons to properly ventilate their residences due to fear of crime or a lack of resources for fans or air conditioning. Heat-related deaths appear to be on the increase in the United States. Heat-related deaths greatly exceed those caused by other life-threatening weather conditions. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and responses to this heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> reveals a need to 1) define the heat island conditions during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> for all major cities is a means to improve forecasts of threatening conditions, 2) develop a nationally uniform means for classifying heat-related deaths, 3) improve warning systems that are designed around local conditions of large cities, and 4) increase research on the meteorological and climatological aspects of heat stress and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://wwwhome.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/~saarloos/Papers/PRB14844.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://wwwhome.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/~saarloos/Papers/PRB14844.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporation of density-matrix <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in Monte Carlo simulations: Application to the frustrated Heisenberg model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>van Saarloos, Wim</p> <p></p> <p>Incorporation of density-matrix <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in Monte Carlo simulations: Application <span class="hlt">function</span> Monte Carlo GFMC simulations using a special representation of the DMRG <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. As a test <span class="hlt">function</span> Monte Carlo GFMC simulations are not directly limited by the size of the system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in South Korea: mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and recurrence probability in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kysely, J.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The study deals with mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the population of South Korea, including the megacity of Seoul (with the population exceeding 10 million for the city and 20 million for the metropolitan area), and estimates recurrence probability of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a changing climate in terms of simulations of daily temperature series with a stochastic model. The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> is found exceptional with respect to both climatological characteristics and the mortality effects: significantly elevated mortality occurred in all population groups, including children up to 14 years of age, and the total death toll exceeded 3000 in the Korean population, which ranks the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> among the worst weather-related disasters in East Asia. The estimate represents net excess mortality as no mortality displacement effect appeared. A comparison with other documented natural disasters shows that the death toll of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was much higher than those of the most disastrous floodings and typhoons over Korean Peninsula in the 20th century. The mortality response was stronger in males than females although males are found to be less vulnerable during average heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A climatological analysis reveals that the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be considered an extremely rare event with a return period in the order of hundreds of years if stationarity of temperature time series is assumed. However, under a more realistic assumption of gradual warming related to climate change, recurrence probability of an event analogous to the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> sharply rises for near-future time horizons. If warming of 0.04°C/year is assumed over 2001-2060, the recurrence interval of a very long spell of days with temperature exceeding a high threshold (as in the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>) is estimated to decrease to around 40 (10) years in the 2021-2030 (2041-2050) decade. This emphasizes the need for setting up an efficient heat-watch-warning system in this area in order to reduce human mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R"><span id="translatedtitle">A spectral Phase-Amplitude method for propagating a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to large distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rawitscher, George</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The phase and amplitude (Ph-A) of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> vary slowly with distance, in contrast to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be highly oscillatory. Hence the Ph-A representation of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> requires far fewer computational mesh points than the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> itself. In 1930 Milne presented an equation for the phase and the amplitude <span class="hlt">functions</span> (which is different from the one developed by Calogero), and in 1962 Seaton and Peach solved these equations iteratively. The objective of the present study is to implement Seaton and Peach's iteration procedure with a spectral Chebyshev expansion method, and at the same time present a non-iterative analytic solution to an approximate version of the iterative equations. The iterations converge rapidly for the case of attractive potentials. Two numerical examples are given: (1) for a potential that decreases with distance as 1 /r3, and (2) a Coulomb potential ? 1 / r. In both cases the whole radial range of [0-2000] requires only between 25 and 100 mesh points and the corresponding accuracy is between 10-3 and 10-6. The 0th iteration (which is the WKB approximation) gives an accuracy of 10-2. This spectral method permits one to calculate a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> out to large distances reliably and economically.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ187590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ187590"><span id="translatedtitle">Completeness of the Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mukunda, N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Gives an explicit and elementary proof that the radial energy eigenfunctions for the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, bound and scattering states included, form a complete set. The proof uses some properties of the confluent hypergeometric <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the Cauchy residue theorem from analytic <span class="hlt">function</span> theory. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in <span class="hlt">functional</span> toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ER?, ER?) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ER?, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems. PMID:25828059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.2941v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.2941v2"><span id="translatedtitle">The modified <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of test particle approaching holographic screen from entropy force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bin Liu; Yun-Chuan Dai; Xian-Ru Hu; Jian-Bo Deng</p> <p>2010-08-26</p> <p>In this note we generalize entropy based on the quantum mechanical probability density distribution. Motivated by J. Munkhammar and the uncertainty of entropy we modified the origin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the test particle. The corrected one acting on the quantum particle is subject to the uncertainty principle. Considering the uncertain relation, the corrected probability of the particle for measurement on holographic screen has been proposed. We also derivate the speed of information transfer described by <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Our quantum approach to entropy stress the information in a physical system is directly associated with its quantum mechanical entropy defined by the equality of the partition <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0607127v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0607127v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Remarks on the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of the Universe in the Dilaton Cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wontae Kim; Edwin J. Son; Myung Seok Yoon</p> <p>2006-07-27</p> <p>Motivated by previous works, we study semi-classical cosmological solutions and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Bose-Parker-Peleg model. We obtain the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the universe satisfying the suitable boundary condition of the redefined fields, which has not been considered in previous works. For some limiting cases, the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is reduced to the Liouville equation with a boundary, and its solution can be described by well-known <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The consistent requirement of the boundary condition is related to the avoidance of the curvature singularity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044686&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044686&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation - Simulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baumeister, K. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation is derived for plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta <span class="hlt">function</span> associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping <span class="hlt">function</span> and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830013626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830013626"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation: Simulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baumeiste, K. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation is derived for plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta <span class="hlt">function</span> associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping <span class="hlt">function</span> and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981520"><span id="translatedtitle">Equality of bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and edge correlations in some topological superconductors: a spacetime derivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shankar, R; Vishwanath, Ashvin</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>For certain systems, the N-particle ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the bulk happen to be exactly equal to the N-point spacetime correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> at the edge, in the infrared limit. We show why this had to be so for a class of topological superconductors, beginning with the p+ip state in D=2+1. Varying the chemical potential as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of Euclidean time between weak and strong pairing states is shown to extract the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Then a Euclidean rotation that exchanges time and space and approximate Lorentz invariance lead to the edge connection. This framework readily generalizes to other dimensions. We illustrate it with a D=3+1 example, superfluid 3He- B, and a p-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superfluid in D=1+1. Our method works only when the particle number is not conserved, as in superconductors. PMID:21981520</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634"><span id="translatedtitle">A planetary ultra hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> mechanics and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> science facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahrens, Thomas J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Using the concept of intercepting orbits from a pair of Space Station serviced free flyers, a class of <span class="hlt">impact</span> and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> experiments pertinent to planetary science can be performed. One proposed free flying vehicle is an impactor dispensor, and the second is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> laboratory. How collision is achieved by utilizing essentially twice orbital velocity is demonstrated. The impactor dispensor contains a series of small flyer plates or other projectiles which are launched into the trajectory of the impactor laboratory at appropriate positions. The impactor laboratory is a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> tank similar to those in terrestrial gun laboratories, except that it contains a supply of targets and instrumentation such as high speed cameras, flash X-ray apparatus, and digital recorders. Shock and isentropic pressures of up to 20 Mbar are achievable with such a system which provides 15 km/sec <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities for precisely oriented projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25311026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25311026"><span id="translatedtitle">[The stimulating <span class="hlt">impact</span> of light on brain cognition <span class="hlt">function</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vandewalle, Gilles</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating <span class="hlt">impact</span> of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating <span class="hlt">impact</span> of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span> and for cognition in general. PMID:25311026</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525....1K"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of dam-break induced shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a vertical wall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kocaman, Selahattin; Ozmen-Cagatay, Hatice</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In the present study, experimental tests and VOF-based CFD simulations concerning <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dam-break induced shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> on a vertical wall at downstream end were investigated. New laboratory experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume with a smooth horizontal wet bed for two different tailwater levels. Image processing was used for flow measurement and time evolutions of water levels were determined effectively by means of synchronous recorded video images of the flow. This study scrutinized formation and travelling of negative <span class="hlt">wave</span> towards upstream direction, which was resulted from the reflection of flood <span class="hlt">wave</span> against downstream end wall. In numerical simulation, two distinct approaches available in FLOW-3D were used: Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) with the k-? turbulence model and the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs). The measured results were then compared with those of numerical simulations and reasonable agreements were achieved. General agreement between laboratory measurements and RANS solution was better than that of SWE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=1086&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231086','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=1086&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231086"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ingersoll, A. P.; Kanamori, H.; Dowling, T. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We study the effect of the Jovian water cloud on internal gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). Vertical structure follows Voyager data to the 1-bar level, a moist adiabat from 1 to 5 bars, and a dry adiabat below the 5-bar level. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> are trapped in the moist layer and propagate horizontally. Their speed is related to the vertical integral of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and varies as the square root of the water abundance (130 m/s for solar composition). The amplitudes are large, e.g., +/- 1 K at a distance of 8000 km for an energy of 10(exp 27) ergs. The circular ripples should be detectable one or two days after the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in thermal infrared and visible images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1670c0031S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1670c0031S"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> in plasma sheet boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrivastava, G.; Shrivastava, J.; Ahirwar, G.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio ? of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (Ti/Te), and kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0610115v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0610115v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Coulomb corrections in quasi-elastic scattering based on the eikonal expansion for electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>J. A. Tjon; S. J. Wallace</p> <p>2006-10-27</p> <p>An eikonal expansion is developed in order to provide systematic corrections to the eikonal approximation through order 1/k^2, where k is the <span class="hlt">wave</span> number. The expansion is applied to <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Klein-Gordon equation and for the Dirac equation with a Coulomb potential. Convergence is rapid at energies above about 250 MeV. Analytical results for the eikonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are obtained for a simple analytical form of the Coulomb potential of a nucleus. They are used to investigate distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> matrix elements for quasi-elastic electron scattering from a nucleus. Focusing factors are shown to arise from the corrections to the eikonal approximation. A precise form of the effective-momentum approximation is developed by use of a momentum shift that depends on the electron's energy loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701"><span id="translatedtitle">AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> RESULTING FROM THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF HIGH VELOCITY MISSILES ON ANIMAL TISSUES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harvey, E. Newton; McMillen, J. Howard</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>The spark shadowgram method of studying shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> is described. It has been used to investigate the properties of such <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a high velocity missile on the surface of water. The method can be adapted for study of behavior of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in tissue by placing the tissue on a water surface or immersing it in water. Spark shadowgrams then reveal <span class="hlt">waves</span> passing from tissue to water or reflected from tissue surfaces. Reflection and transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> from muscle, liver, stomach, and intestinal wall are compared with reflection from non-living surfaces such as gelatin gel, steel, plexiglas, cork, and air. Because of its heterogeneous structure, <span class="hlt">waves</span> transmitted by tissue are dispersed and appear as a series of wavelets. When the accoustical impedance (density x <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity) of a medium is less than that in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> is moving, reflection will occur with inversion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>; i.e., a high pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> will become a low pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This inversion occurs at an air surface and is illustrated by shadowgrams of reflection from stomach wall, from a segment of colon filled with gas, and from air-filled rubber balloons. Bone (human skull and beef ribs) shows good reflection and some transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>. When steel is directly hit by a missile, clearly visible elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> pass from metal to water, but a similar direct hit on bone does not result in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> strong enough to be detected by a spark shadowgram. PMID:19871617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4318A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4318A"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in 206Pb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, more accurate measurements are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82o5138C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82o5138C"><span id="translatedtitle">Local unitary transformation, long-range quantum entanglement, <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> renormalization, and topological order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xie; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Two gapped quantum ground states in the same phase are connected by an adiabatic evolution which gives rise to a local unitary transformation that maps between the states. On the other hand, gapped ground states remain within the same phase under local unitary transformations. Therefore, local unitary transformations define an equivalence relation and the equivalence classes are the universality classes that define the different phases for gapped quantum systems. Since local unitary transformations can remove local entanglement, the above equivalence/universality classes correspond to pattern of long-range entanglement, which is the essence of topological order. The local unitary transformation also allows us to define a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> renormalization scheme, under which a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can flow to a simpler one within the same equivalence/universality class. Using such a setup, we find conditions on the possible fixed-point <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> where the local unitary transformations have finite dimensions. The solutions of the conditions allow us to classify this type of topological orders, which generalize the string-net classification of topological orders. We also describe an algorithm of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> renormalization induced by local unitary transformations. The algorithm allows us to calculate the flow of tensor-product <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are not at the fixed points. This will allow us to calculate topological orders as well as symmetry-breaking orders in a generic tensor-product state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982SPIE..347..160K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982SPIE..347..160K"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination Of The Square <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Response <span class="hlt">Function</span> (SWR) In Computed Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kriz, R. J.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>A method for determining the Square <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Response <span class="hlt">function</span> (SWR) for Computerized Tomographic (CT) systems is described. A 3° segmented acrylic phantom was scanned with water and also air as a second material. The data for each row of pixels was fit to a sine <span class="hlt">wave</span> by an iterative least square program. The amplitude, phase shift, frequency and "D.C." level of the sine <span class="hlt">wave</span> were all allowed to vary. The SWR was determined for various modes of the GE 8800 CT/T scanner. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicriteria analysis to evaluate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converters based on their environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>: an Italian case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, <span class="hlt">waves</span> and offshore wind. Due to the visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present harbour protection, and installed at -10m depth (length=300 m) may produce about 2.7 GWh/y with a total costs of about 12,000,000 €, where only the 50% of the amount are the costs of the SSG device. Obviously the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the two solutions is quite different. Aim of this study is to provide a multicriteria decision support framework to evaluate the best WEC typology and location in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. The general environmental aspects generated by <span class="hlt">wave</span> power projects will be described. Colonisation patterns and biofouling will be discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. In addition, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for fish, fishery and marine mammals will be also considered. We suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> power projects should be evaluated also on the basis of their environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the perspective of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) analysis, as implemented by the European Commission (SEA Directive 2001/42/EC). The early incorporation of the environmental aspects involved in the evaluation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> power projects will give the opportunity for early mitigations or design modifications, most likely making <span class="hlt">wave</span> projects more acceptable in the long run and more suitable for the marine environment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.150e2071C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.150e2071C"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong correlation effects on the d-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Chung-Pin; Lee, T. K.; Ho, Chang-Ming</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electon on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t"-J model with moderate doped holes describing the high Tc cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid tate) spectoscopies. The contast with the dwave case without projection is alo presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T"><span id="translatedtitle">Guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> imaging for detection and evaluation of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara; Seebo, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, guided wavefield interactions with delamination damage in laminated composite panels are investigated. The frequency-wavenumber representations of the guided wavefields show that different wavenumbers are present in the delaminated plate, compared to a pristine case. The wavenumbers are correlated to trapped <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the delamination region. Novel approaches for imaging the composite panels using guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> are discussed and demonstrated for quantitative evaluation of the delamination damage. A filter reconstruction imaging method is shown to provide a rapid technique to locate delamination damage by showing where guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is trapped. A spatial wavenumber-based imaging algorithm is applied to calculate wavenumber values at each spatial location and highlights the delamination damage as regions with larger wavenumber values. The imaging approaches are demonstrated using experimental data from a plate with a simulated delamination (teflon insert) and from a plate containing <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination damage. The methods are also applied to a multiple mode guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> case to demonstrate application to complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.5210v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.5210v1"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> description of the electromagnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Yaakov Friedman</p> <p>2013-04-30</p> <p>For an arbitrary electromagnetic field, we define a prepotential $S$, which is a complex-valued <span class="hlt">function</span> of spacetime. The prepotential is a modification of the two scalar potential <span class="hlt">functions</span> introduced by E. T. Whittaker. The prepotential is Lorentz covariant under a spin half representation. For a moving charge and any observer, we obtain a complex dimensionless scalar. The prepotential is a <span class="hlt">function</span> of this dimensionless scalar. The prepotential $S$ of an arbitrary electromagnetic field is described as an integral over the charges generating the field. The Faraday vector at each point may be derived from $S$ by a convolution of the differential operator with the alpha matrices of Dirac. Some explicit examples will be calculated. We also present the Maxwell equations for the prepotential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Of Coral Structures On <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> have the most important forcing <span class="hlt">function</span> on shallow (< 5 m) reefs as they drive most ecological and biogeochemical processes by exerting direct physical stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of coral structures on <span class="hlt">wave</span> directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as global-scale degradation in coral reef health is causing a lowering of reef carbonate production that might lead to a decrease in reef structure and roughness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels <span class="hlt">waves</span>. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli <span class="hlt">wave</span> (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m). Simultaneous hydrodynamics and bed elevation measurements permit to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the boat generated <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Measurements demonstrate that the sediment transport occurs during the Bernoulli <span class="hlt">wave</span> (few mm up to 8cm). This mechanism induces mainly a long-shore transfer of particles over the interdal area. This study proves that the sediment transport generated by boat <span class="hlt">waves</span> cannot be neglected in the Seine estuary case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure and correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electron quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sako, Tokuei; Ishida, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>The energy spectra and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electrons confined by a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic and anharmonic potentials have been studied by using a full configuration interaction method employing a Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis set. The energy spectra are classified into three regimes of the strength of confinement, namely, large, medium and small. The polyad quantum number defined by a total number of nodes in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is shown to be a key ingredient to interpret the energy spectra for the whole range of the confinement strength. The nodal pattern of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> exhibits normal modes for the harmonic confining potential, indicating collective motions of electrons. These normal modes are shown to undergo a transition to local modes for an anharmonic potential with large anharmonicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.1083.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.1083.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of $SU(3)$ pure gauge glueballs on the lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Liang, Jian; Chiu, Wei-Feng; Gui, Long-Cheng; Gong, Ming; Liu, Zhaofeng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Bethe-Salpeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of $SU(3)$ pure gauge glueballs are revisited in this study. The ground and the first excited states of scalar and tensor glueballs are identified unambiguously by using the variational method on the basis of large operator sets. We calculate their <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the Coulomb gauge and use two lattices with different lattice spacings to check the discretization artifacts. For ground states, the radial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are approximately Gaussian and the size of the tensor is twice as large as that of the scalar. For the first excited states, the radial nodes are clearly observed for both the scalar and the tensor glueballs, such that they can be interpreted as the first radial excitations. These observations may shed light on the theoretical understanding of the inner structure of glueballs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05018v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05018v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex Energy of Harmonic Oscillator under Non-Hermitian transformation of momentum with real <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Biswanath Rath</p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p>For the first time in the literature of Quantum Physics, we present complex energy eigenvalues of non-Hermitian Harmonic Oscillator $H=\\frac{(p+iLx)}^{2}}{2} + W^{2} \\frac{x^{2}}{2}$ with real <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> having positive frequency of vibration $(w)$ under some selective choice of $L$ and $W$ .Interestingly for the same values of $L$ and $W$, if the frequency of vibration $w$ in the real <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is (some how) related as $w=L\\pmW$ or $w=W-L$ then the same oscillator can reflect either pure positive or negative energy eigenvalues.The real energy levels are in conformity with the perturbative calculation. PACS :03.65.Db;11.39.Er. Key words: Positive frequency, real <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, complex energy, real positive energy,negative energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..101C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..101C"><span id="translatedtitle">Two <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and dS/CFT on S1 × S2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conti, Gabriele; Hertog, Thomas</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We evaluate the tunneling and Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on S 1 × S 2 boundaries in Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant. In the large overall volume limit the classical predictions of both <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> include an ensemble of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes. We show that the Hartle-Hawking tree level measure on the classical ensemble converges in the small S 1 limit. A divergence in this regime can be identified in the tunneling state. However we trace this to the contribution of an unphysical branch of saddle points associated with negative mass black holes. Using a representation in which all saddle points have an interior Euclidean anti-de Sitter region we also derive a holographic form of both semiclassical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on S 1 × S 2 boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> DVR to Atomic Systems in Strong Laser Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We present an efficient and accurate grid method for solving the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (TDSE) for atomic systems interacting with short laser pulses. The radial part of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is expanded in a DVR (Discrete Variable Representation) basis constructed from the positive energy Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The time propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is implemented using the well-known Arnoldi method. Compared with the usual finite difference (FD) discretization scheme for the radial coordinate, this method requires fewer grid points and handles naturally the Coulomb singularity at the origin. As examples, the method is shown to give accurate ionization rates for both H and H^- over a wide range of laser parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640047"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and two-electron probability distributions of the Hooke's-law atom and helium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Darragh P.; Gill, Peter M. W.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The Hooke's-law atom (hookium) provides an exactly soluble model for a two-electron atom in which the nuclear-electron Coulombic attraction has been replaced by a harmonic one. Starting from the known exact position-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the ground state of hookium, we present the momentum-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We also look at the intracules, two-electron probability distributions, for hookium in position, momentum, and phase space. These are compared with the Hartree-Fock results and the Coulomb holes (the difference between the exact and Hartree-Fock intracules) in position, momentum, and phase space are examined. We then compare these results with analogous results for the ground state of helium using a simple, explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.5739v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.5739v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpreting scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the presence of energy-dependent interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Scott Pratt</p> <p>2007-11-09</p> <p>In scattering theory, the squared relative <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> $|\\phi({\\bf q},{\\bf r})|^2$ is often interpreted as a weight, due to final-state interactions, describing the probability enhancement for emission with asymptotic relative momentum $q$. An equivalence relation also links the integral of the squared <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> over all coordinate space to the density of states. This relation, which plays an important role in understanding two-particle correlation phenomenology, is altered for the case where the potential is energy dependent, as is assumed in various forms of reaction theory. Here, the modification to the equivalence relation is derived, and it is shown that the squared <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> should be augmented by a additional factor if it is to represent the emission enhancement for final-state interactions. Examples with relativistic vector interactions, e.g., the Coulomb interaction, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling rock-avalanche induced <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">waves</span>: Sensitivity of the model chains to model parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. Usually natural hazards are assessed as single hazardous processes, for the above mentioned reasons, however, development of assessment and reproduction methods of the hazardous process chain for the purpose of hazard map generation have to be brought forward. A combination of physical process models have already been suggested and illustrated by means of lake outburst in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where on April 11th 2010 an ice-avalanche of approx. 300'000m3 triggered an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which overtopped the 22m freeboard of the rock-dam for 5 meters and caused and outburst flood which travelled 23 km to the city of Carhuaz. We here present a study, where we assessed the sensitivity of the model chain from ice-avalanche and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> to single parameters considering rock-/ice-avalanche modeling by RAMMS and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> modeling by IBER. Assumptions on the initial rock-/ice-avalanche volume, calibration of the friction parameters in RAMMS and assumptions on erosion considered in RAMMS were parameters tested regarding their influence on overtopping parameters that are crucial for outburst flood modeling. Further the transformation of the RAMMS-output (flow height and flow velocities on the shoreline of the lake) into an inflow-hydrograph for IBER was also considered a possible source of uncertainties. Overtopping time, volume, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> height as much as mean and maximum discharge were considered decisive parameters for the outburst flood modeling and were therewith assumed dependent values. The resulting 54 runs were evaluated by an ANOVA-analysis for each dependent variable. Results show, that the model chain is able to correctly reproduce the 5m-overtopping <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Further the dependency from the input parameters could be assessed for every dependent variable. It was e.g. shown, that RAMMS-calibration has the strongest influence on all variations, it is more crucial then the uncertainties introduced by assumptions on the initial rock-avalanche volume. The study shows, that from a hazard-assessment point of view, combinations of model chains are acceptable and permissible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143p4106Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143p4106Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles - embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities - working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities. PMID:26520497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~durrand/pdfs/AMS/2015Siler_Durran_JAS.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~durrand/pdfs/AMS/2015Siler_Durran_JAS.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Tropopause on Mountain <span class="hlt">Waves</span> and Orographic Precipitation Using Linear Theory and Numerical Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Frierson, Dargan</p> <p></p> <p>Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Tropopause on Mountain <span class="hlt">Waves</span> and Orographic Precipitation Using Linear 2014) ABSTRACT The partial reflection of mountain <span class="hlt">waves</span> at the tropopause has been studied extensively addressed. Here linear theory and numerical simulations are used to investigate how the tropopause affects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E"><span id="translatedtitle">Shoreline changes and high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Messenzehl, Karoline; Frenzel, Peter; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander; Wennrich, Volker; Kelletat, Dieter</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Supralittoral coarse-clast deposits along the shores of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) as well as increased hurricane frequency during the past decade testify to the major hazard of high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the southern Caribbean. Since deducing certain events from the subaerial coarse-clast record involves major uncertainties and historical reports are restricted to the past 500 years, we use a new set of vibracore and push core data (i) to contribute to a more reliable Holocene history of regional extreme-<span class="hlt">wave</span> events and (ii) to evaluate their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on shoreline evolution. Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses (XRF, XRD, grain size distribution, carbonate, LOI, microfossils) were carried out using nearshore sedimentary archives from the sheltered western (leeward) side of Bonaire and its small neighbour Klein Bonaire. In combination with 14C-AMS age estimates the stratigraphy reflects a long-term coastal evolution controlled by relative sea level rise, longshore sediment transport, and short-term morphodynamic impulses by extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, all three of which may have significantly influenced the development of polyhaline lagoons and the demise of mangrove populations. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events may be categorized into major episodic incidents (c. 3.6 ka [?] BP; 3.2-3.0 ka BP; 2.0-1.8 ka BP; post-1.3 ka [?] BP), which may correspond to tsunamis and periodic events recurring on the order of decades to centuries, which we interpret as severe tropical cyclones. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events seem to control to a certain extent the formation of coastal ridges on Bonaire and, thus, to cause abrupt shifts in the long-term morphodynamic and ecological boundary conditions of the circumlittoral inland bays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9504054R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9504054R"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson using Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rai, Ajay Kumar; Devlani, Nayneshkumar; Kher, Virendrasinh H.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Using the Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> mass spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson are investigated in the framework of phenomenological quark anti-quark potential (coulomb plus power) model consisting of relativistic corrections to the kinetic energy term. The spin-spin, spin-orbit and tensor interactions are employed to obtain the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The decay constants (fP/V) are computed using the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin. The di-gamma and di-leptonic decays of the bb¯ meson are investigated using Van-Rayan Weisskopf formula as well as in the NRQCD formalism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010062168&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010062168&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory for Molecular Dirac-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dyall, Kenneth G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Moller-Plesset perturbation theory is developed to second order for a selection of Kramers restricted Dirac-Hartree-Fock closed and open-shell reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The open-shell <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> considered are limited to those with no more than two electrons in open shells, but include the case of a two-configuration SCF reference. Denominator shifts are included in the style of Davidson's OPT2 method. An implementation which uses unordered integrals with labels is presented, and results are given for a few test cases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0703158v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0703158v3"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of Lorentz Invariant Amplitudes from Rest Frame <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in HQET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Takayuki Matsuki; Kohichi Seo</p> <p>2007-12-08</p> <p>Succeeding in predicting 0^+ and 1^+ states of D and D_s heavy mesons by our semi-relativistic quark potential model, we examine a method how to construct Lorentz-invariant scattering amplitudes and/or decay widths and develop a formulation to calculate Lorentz-boosted ones given the rest frame <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in our model. To show how effective this is, we apply the formulation to calculate the semileptonic weak form factors out of the rest frame <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of heavy mesons and numerically calculate the dynamical 1/m_Q corrections to those for the process B-bar -> D^{(*)}\\ell\</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0702052v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0702052v2"><span id="translatedtitle">On the solutions of the Schrodinger equation with some molecular potentials: <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sameer M. Ikhdair; Ramazan Sever</p> <p>2007-02-12</p> <p>Making an ansatz to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, the exact solutions of the $D$% -dimensional radial Schrodinger equation with some molecular potentials like pseudoharmonic and modified Kratzer potentials are obtained. The restriction on the parameters of the given potential, $\\delta $ and $\\eta $ are also given, where $\\eta $ depends on a linear combination of the angular momentum quantum number $\\ell $ and the spatial dimensions $D$ and $\\delta $ is a parameter in the ansatz to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. On inserting D=3, we find that the bound state eigensolutions recover their standard analytical forms in literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163815"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Diabetes on Cerebral Structure and <span class="hlt">Function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seaquist, Elizabeth R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Diabetes alters cerebral metabolism, structure, and <span class="hlt">function</span>. Both hyperglycemia and therapy-associated hypoglycemia are believed to have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the brain, and this <span class="hlt">impact</span> may depend on the age of the individual, their stage of neurological development, and whether they have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia in children with Type 1 has consistently been associated with a reduction in neurocognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>, but such a finding has not been seen in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia have been linked with dementia in adults with Type 2 diabetes. In both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, recurrent episodes of treatment-associated hypoglycemia impair how well the brain can sense and respond to subsequent episodes of hypoglycemia. In this brief review, we will review how diabetes affects the brain with a focus on investigations done in our own laboratory. We have focused on using high magnetic field imaging and spectroscopy to identify subtle changes in brain structure and metabolism that may contribute to the long-term cerebral complications of diabetes. We have found evidence of microstructural changes in white matter regions, reduced gray matter density, and reduced activation of the thalamus in response to recurrent hypoglycemia in patients with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:26163815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6750M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6750M"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanarella, Luca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The European Commission has presented in September 2006 its Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection consists of a Communication from the Commission to the other European Institutions, a proposal for a framework Directive (a European law), and an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment. The Communication (COM(2006) 231) sets the frame. It defines the relevant soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> for Europe and identifies the major threats. It explains why further action is needed to ensure a high level of soil protection, sets the overall objective of the Strategy and explains what kind of measures must be taken. It establishes a ten-year work program for the European Commission. The proposal for a framework Directive (COM(2006) 232) sets out common principles for protecting soils across the EU. Within this common framework, the EU Member States will be in a position to decide how best to protect soil and how use it in a sustainable way on their own territory. The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) contains an analysis of the economic, social and environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the different options that were considered in the preparatory phase of the strategy and of the measures finally retained by the Commission. Since 2006 a large amount of new evidence has allowed to further document the extensive negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe. Extensive soil erosion, combined with a constant loss of soil organic carbon, have raised attention to the important role soils are playing within the climate change related processes. Other important processes are related to the loss of soil biodiversity, extensive soil sealing by housing and infrastructure, local and diffuse contamination by agricultural and industrial sources, compaction due to unsustainable agricultural practices and salinization by unsustainable irrigation practices. The extended <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment by the European Commission has attempted to quantify in monetary terms the actual economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soil degradation in Europe.The total costs of soil degradation that could be assessed for erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, landslides and contamination on the basis of available data, would be up to €38 billion annually for EU25. These estimates are necessarily wide ranging due to the lack of sufficient quantitative and qualitative data. Future research activities will have to address, in multidisciplinary teams, the social and economic aspects of soil degradation in Europe, in order to come up with more reliable estimates of the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soil degradation. A more reliable and updated system of indicators needs to be developed in order to cover the full cycle of the Driving forces-Pressures-State-<span class="hlt">Impact</span>-Response (DPSIR) framework. Recent developments towards a new soil monitoring system for Europe will be presented as well as some of the recent outputs of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability Density <span class="hlt">Function</span> for <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pao, H</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent <span class="hlt">function</span>. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these <span class="hlt">waves</span> cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> decrease as the distance between the transmitter and receiver increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86k5120B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86k5120B"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of the two nodal domains conjecture for ground state fermionic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bressanini, Dario</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The nodes of many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are mathematical objects important in many different fields of physics. They are at the heart of the quantum Monte Carlo methods but outside this field their properties are neither widely known nor studied. In recent years a conjecture, already proven to be true in several important cases, has been put forward related to the nodes of the fermionic ground state of a many-body system, namely that there is a single nodal hypersurface that divides configuration space into only two connected domains. While this is obviously relevant to the fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo method, its repercussions have ramifications in various fields of physics as diverse as density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory or Feynman and Cohen's backflow <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formulation. To illustrate this we explicitly show that, even if we knew the exact Kohn-Sham exchange correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span>, there are systems for which we would obtain the exact ground state energy and density but a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> quite different from the exact one. This paradox is only apparent since the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem relates the energy directly to the density and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is not guaranteed to be close to the exact one. The aim of this paper is to stimulate the investigation of the properties of the nodes of many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in different fields of physics. Furthermore, we explicitly show that this conjecture is related to the phenomenon of avoided nodal crossing but it is not necessarily caused by electron correlation, as sometimes has been suggested in the literature. We explicitly build a many-body uncorrelated example whose nodal structure shows the same phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41A1157R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41A1157R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of updated green vegetation fraction data on WRF simulations of the 2006 European heat <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Refslund, J.; Dellwik, E.; Hahmann, A. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Boegh, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate change studies suggest an increase in heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrences over Europe in the coming decades. Extreme events with excessive heat and associated drought will <span class="hlt">impact</span> vegetation growth and health and lead to alterations in the partitioning of the surface energy. In this study, the atmospheric conditions during the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> year 2006 over Europe were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To account for the drought effects on the vegetation, new high-resolution green vegetation fraction (GVF) data were developed for the domain using NDVI data from MODIS satellite observations. Many empirical relationships exist to convert NDVI to GVF and both a linear and a quadratic formulation were evaluated. The new GVF product has a spatial resolution of 1 km2 and a temporal resolution of 8 days. To minimize <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from low-quality satellite retrievals in the NDVI series, as well as for comparison with the default GVF climatology in WRF, a new background climatology using 10 recent years of observations was also developed. The annual time series of the new GVF climatology was compared to the default WRF GVF climatology at 18 km2 grid resolution for the most common land use classes in the European domain. The new climatology generally has higher GVF levels throughout the year, in particular an extended autumnal growth season. Comparison of 2006 GVF with the climatology clearly indicates vegetation stresses related to heat and drought. The GVF product based on a quadratic NDVI relationship shows the best agreement with the magnitude and annual range of the default input data, in addition to including updated seasonality for various land use classes. The new GVF products were tested in WRF and found to work well for the spring of 2006 where the difference between the default and new GVF products was small. The WRF 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations were verified by comparison with daily gridded observations of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and daily precipitation. The simulation using the new GVF product with a quadratic relationship to NDVI resulted in a consistent improvement of modeled temperatures during the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> period, where the mean temperature cold bias of the model was reduced by 10% for the whole domain and by 30-50% in areas severely affected by the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>. More improvement was found in the simulation of minimum temperature and less in maximum temperature and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on precipitation was not significant. The results show that model simulations during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and droughts, when vegetation condition deviates from climatology, require updated land surface properties in order to obtain reliably accurate results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3105740','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3105740"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the spatial distribution of Planktothrix rubescens (cyanobacteria) in an alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cuypers, Yannis; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Groleau, Alexis; Tassin, Bruno; Humbert, Jean-François</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The vertical and horizontal distribution of the cyanobacterium, Planktothrix rubescens, was studied in a deep alpine lake (Lac du Bourget) in a 2-year monitoring program with 11 sampling points, and a 24-h survey at one sampling station. This species is known to proliferate in the metalimnic layer of numerous deep mesotrophic lakes in temperate areas, and also to produce hepatotoxins. When looking at the distribution of P. rubescens at the scale of the entire lake, we found large variations (up to 10?m) in the depth of the biomass peak in the water column. These variations were closely correlated to isotherm displacements. We also found significant variations in the distribution of the cyanobacterial biomass in the northern and southern parts of the lake. We used a physical modeling approach to demonstrate that two internal <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes can explain these variations. Internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by wind events, but can still be detected several days after the end of these events. Finally, our 24-h survey at one sampling point demonstrated that the V1H1 sinusoidal motion could evolve into nonlinear fronts. All these findings show that internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the distribution of P. rubescens proliferating in the metalimnic layer of a deep lake, and that this process could influence the growth of this species by a direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on light availability. PMID:21085197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB51A..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB51A..05T"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global warming and pollution: <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on food web structure and ecosystem <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, R. M.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Effects of global species loss on ecosystem <span class="hlt">function</span> have traditionally been extrapolated from studies which investigate the effect of random species loss or addition. Real species loss is highly patterned and clumped according to trophic position, taxonomic relatedness and interconnectedness with the remainder of the food web. Using pond microcosms, I evoked a realistic pattern of species loss using toxins and warming. Species loss was predictably highly patterned. Influences on ecosystem <span class="hlt">functions</span> ranged from simple and linear in the case of algal productivity, through to complex and step-like in the case of bacterial decomposition. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on algal productivity were mediated by effects on the rate of grazing by invertebrates. There is strong evidence from the bacterial decomposition results of an `insurance effect' whereby the presence of multiple stressors has a strong, non-additive effect on <span class="hlt">function</span>. These results clearly show that the traditional ecotoxicological practice of studying effects of single toxins on single species may be highly misleading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T"><span id="translatedtitle">Radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and its correlation with optical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, T.; Maki, K.; Yamori, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the most interesting phenomena of radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A projectile of polycarbonate with 1.1 g weight was accelerated by a rail gun to 3.8 km/sec, and hit two targets which are a 2 mm thick aluminum plate upstream and a 45 mm diameter aluminum column downstream, respectively. The projectile first breaks wires to give a triggering signal to a data recorder, then penetrates the aluminum plate, and finally hit the column, The emitted radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> propagate through the chamber window, and are received by antennas at each frequency band. The receivers in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands consist of a low noise amplifier, a mixer, a local oscillator and an IF amplifier , respectively. The receiver in 1 MHz-band is a simple RF amplifier. The outputs of all receivers are fed to a data recorder which is actually a high-speed digital oscilloscope with a large amount of memory. The radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> were successfully recorded in 22 GHz-band with 500 MHz bandwidth, in 2 GHz-band with 300 MHz bandwidth, and in 1MHz-band. The waveforms in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands coincide well each other, and are composed of two groups of sharp impulses with a separation of about 20 micro seconds. The width of an impulse is less than 2 n sec. which is the resolution limit of the data recorder. We carried out optical observations using an ultra-high speed camera simultaneously through another window of the chamber. The time interval between scenes is 2 micro sec. We can see a faint light of the projectile before the first <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the plate, and then a brilliant gas exploding backward from the plate and forward to the column. After hitting the column target, the brilliant gas flows to the chamber wall and is reflected back to make a mixture with dark gas in the chamber. Excellent correlation between radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission and the observed optical phenomena was obtained in the experiment. It is easily conceived that the radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> consist of quite a wide frequency spectrum because of the spiky waveforms. The emission of the radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> is delayed from the optical events by several micro seconds. The optical phenomena are said to be mostly attributed to Bremstrahlung. The radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena are esteemed to be partially due to Bremstrahlung, but mainly due to other causes such as the heating effects of the targets or energy release from broken lattices of the targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RuPhJ..57.1464D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RuPhJ..57.1464D"><span id="translatedtitle">Fracture of Coarse-Grained and Ultrafine-Grained Titanium Upon Quasi-Static and <span class="hlt">Wave-Impact</span> Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dudarev, E. F.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Bakach, G. P.; Belov, N. N.; Markov, A. B.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Habibullin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.; Maletkina, T. Yu.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Results of experimental investigation of the regularities and mechanisms of fracture of coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained titanium upon <span class="hlt">wave-impact</span> loading, exposure to a nanosecond relativistic high-current electron beam, and quasi-static tension are presented. Results of computer modeling of the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> generated upon exposure to the electron beam and of the spalling fracture of titanium targets with coarsegrained and ultrafine-grained structures are presented. The general regularities and special features of fracture are established for both grained structures under quasi-static and <span class="hlt">wave-impact</span> loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.02967v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.02967v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering cluster <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the lattice using the adiabatic projection method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Alexander Rokash; Michelle Pine; Serdar Elhatisari; Dean Lee; Evgeny Epelbaum; Hermann Krebs</p> <p>2015-12-17</p> <p>The adiabatic projection method is a general framework for studying scattering and reactions on the lattice. It provides a low-energy effective theory for clusters which becomes exact in the limit of large Euclidean projection time. Previous studies have used the adiabatic projection method to extract scattering phase shifts from finite periodic-box energy levels using L\\"uschers method. In this paper we demonstrate that scattering observables can be computed directly from asymptotic cluster <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a variety of examples in one and three spatial dimensions, we extract elastic phase shifts from asymptotic cluster standing <span class="hlt">waves</span> corresponding to spherical wall boundary conditions. We find that this approach of extracting scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the adiabatic Hamiltonian to be less sensitive to small stochastic and systematic errors as compared with using periodic-box energy levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92e4612R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92e4612R"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering cluster <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the lattice using the adiabatic projection method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rokash, Alexander; Pine, Michelle; Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The adiabatic projection method is a general framework for studying scattering and reactions on the lattice. It provides a low-energy effective theory for clusters, which becomes exact in the limit of large Euclidean projection time. Previous studies have used the adiabatic projection method to extract scattering phase shifts from finite periodic-box energy levels using Lüscher's method. In this paper we demonstrate that scattering observables can be computed directly from asymptotic cluster <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a variety of examples in one and three spatial dimensions, we extract elastic phase shifts from asymptotic cluster standing <span class="hlt">waves</span> corresponding to spherical wall boundary conditions. We find that this approach of extracting scattering <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the adiabatic Hamiltonian to be less sensitive to small stochastic and systematic errors as compared with using periodic-box energy levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M"><span id="translatedtitle">An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (<span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge) for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of <span class="hlt">waves</span> and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear <span class="hlt">wave-wave</span> interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time series of surge sea level component and <span class="hlt">waves</span> (significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, period and direction) at coastal locations. Altimeter observations are also considered for a spatial validation of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights. Results obtained from this validation process show a general good agreement with observations for the European region. Finally, the hourly time series of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate along the European coast grid-points are analyzed. Historical changes in the <span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge provide a useful information for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies since coastal flooding, beach erosion, coastal structures and physical damages in ecosystems can be affected by long-term changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and sea levels. Reguero, B. G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F. J. Mínguez, R. Losada, I. J. (2012). A Global Ocean <span class="hlt">Wave</span> (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering, 65, 38-55. Cid, A., Castanedo, S., Abascal, A. J., Menéndez, M., & Medina, R. (2014). A high resolution hindcast of the meteorological sea level component for Southern Europe: the GOS dataset. Climate Dynamics, 1-18.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.2621v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.2621v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Operator Dictionaries and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in AdS/CFT and dS/CFT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Daniel Harlow; Douglas Stanford</p> <p>2011-04-21</p> <p>Dual AdS/CFT correlators can be computed in two ways: differentiate the bulk partition <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to boundary conditions, or extrapolate bulk correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the boundary. These dictionaries were conjectured to be equivalent by Banks, Douglas, Horowitz, and Martinec. We revisit this question at the level of bulk path integrals, showing that agreement in the presence of interactions requires careful treatment of the renormalization of bulk composite operators. By contrast, we emphasize that proposed dS/CFT analogues of the two dictionaries are inequivalent. Next, we show quite generally that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for Euclidean AdS analytically continues to the dS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with Euclidean initial conditions. Most of our arguments consider interacting fields on a fixed background, but in a final section we discuss the inclusion of bulk dynamical gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study of different SPH schemes on simulating violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xing; Ma, Qing-wei; Duan, Wen-yang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulation especially when free surface breaks or <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5719H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5719H"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the ionospheric <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tsunami-driven gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> with SAMI3: Conjugate effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huba, J. D.; Drob, D. P.; Wu, T.-W.; Makela, J. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Naval Research Laboratory first-principles ionosphere model SAMI3 is used to study the ionospheric effects associated with tsunami-driven gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Specifically, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami of 11 March 2011 is modeled. It is shown that gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced variations in the neutral wind lead to plasma velocity variations both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the electric field induced by the neutral wind perturbations can map to the conjugate hemisphere. Thus, electron density variations can be generated in both hemispheres which <span class="hlt">impact</span> the total electron content (TEC) and 6300 Šairglow emission. It is found that the TEC exhibits variations of ? ±0.1 total electron content unit (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) and the 6300 Šairglow emission variation is up to ˜±2.5% relative to the unperturbed background airglow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation Analysis of Edge Cracked Circular Beams under <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akba?, ?eref Do?u?can</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:24972050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.4723v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.4723v3"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> Monte Carlo method for simulating conditional master equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kurt Jacobs</p> <p>2010-01-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> Monte Carlo methods are an important tool for simulating quantum systems, but the standard method cannot be used to simulate decoherence in continuously measured systems. Here we present a new Monte Carlo method for such systems. This was used to perform the simulations of a continuously measured nano-resonator in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 057208 (2009)].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316349"><span id="translatedtitle">Most probable <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single free-moving particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Budiyono, Agung</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We develop the most probable <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a single free quantum particle given its momentum and energy by imposing its quantum probability density to maximize Shannon information entropy. We show that there is a class of solutions in which the quantum probability density is self-trapped with finite-size spatial support, uniformly moving, hence keeping its form unchanged.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.theory.northwestern.edu/schatz/Error7.3b.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.theory.northwestern.edu/schatz/Error7.3b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Variational Calculation on the Helium Atom Using a Gaussian Trial <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Frank Rioux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>, 1- 9 33-( ) 8 2 1 2 + 0.767= E .767( ) 2.301-= Compare the variational calculation to the HartreeFock limit: EHF 2.8617-:= EHF E .767( )- EHF 19.594 %= Compare optimized trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with the Hartree exp 7.978-(+:= 0 1 2 3 4 r 2 r .767,( ) 2 r 2 r( ) 2 r #12;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=133044','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=133044"><span id="translatedtitle">NO EFFECT OF HYDRODYNAMIC SHOCK <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> ON PROTEIN <span class="hlt">FUNCTIONALITY</span> OF BEEF MUSCLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The protein <span class="hlt">functionality</span> of meat proteins after treatment with hydrodynamic shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> was determined. Frankfurters (cooked to 71 deg C) were evaluated for cooking yield, CIE L*a*b*, nitrosylhemochrome, Texture Profile Analysis (hardness, cohesiveness), and stress and strain (torsion testing). Comp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.psfc.mit.edu/people/jwright/Presentations/jcw_poster_sherwood06.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.psfc.mit.edu/people/jwright/Presentations/jcw_poster_sherwood06.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fullwave coupling to a 3D antenna code using Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> formulation of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wright, John C.</p> <p></p> <p>of spectrum indicates more resolution is needed for this case - response peaks near drive term at m = 5. 6 #12Fullwave coupling to a 3D antenna code using Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> formulation of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-particle response Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna) code is a numerical suite aimed at the performance prediction and analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/knishida/preprint/Nishida10_CRG.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/knishida/preprint/Nishida10_CRG.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional sensitivity kernels for cross-correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> of background surface <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nishida, Kiwamu</p> <p></p> <p>al. (2005) performed a cross-correlation analysis of long se- quences of ambient seismic noise Kiwamu Nishida Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract Ambient noise frequency for a cross-correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> (CCF) of background sur- face <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The use of far field</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=5&id=EJ237412','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+function&pg=5&id=EJ237412"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Form of the Hydrogenic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for an Extended, Uniformly Charged Nucleus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ley-Koo, E.; And Others</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Presented are forms of harmonic oscillator attraction and Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which can be explicitly constructed and which lead to numerical results for the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the atomic system. The Schrodinger equation and its solution and specific cases of muonic atoms illustrating numerical calculations are included.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dias.ie/~ajones/publications/123.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.dias.ie/~ajones/publications/123.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion, and magnetotelluric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Jones, Alan G.</p> <p></p> <p>Click Here for Full Article Joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion 2009; accepted 16 December 2009; published 30 April 2010. [1] We present joint inversion to assume for the seismic data. This additional information helps to assess the validity of the joint model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantum+AND+chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ1014570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantum+AND+chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ1014570"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Visualization of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Rotating Molecule: Plot of Spherical Harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Umpei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>At an early stage of learning quantum chemistry, undergraduate students usually encounter the concepts of the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, and then the particle on a sphere. Rotational levels of a diatomic molecule can be well approximated by the energy levels of the particle on a sphere. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the particle in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=radar&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55108749&CFTOKEN=46981278','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=radar&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55108749&CFTOKEN=46981278"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-Domain Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Radar <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125o4311P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125o4311P"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> discrete variable representation to atomic systems in strong laser fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We present an efficient and accurate grid method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atomic system interacting with an intense laser pulse. Instead of the usual finite difference (FD) method, the radial coordinate is discretized using the discrete variable representation (DVR) constructed from Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For an accurate description of the ionization dynamics of atomic systems, the Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> discrete variable representation (CWDVR) method needs three to ten times fewer grid points than the FD method. The resultant grid points of the CWDVR are distributed unevenly so that one has a finer grid near the origin and a coarser one at larger distances. The other important advantage of the CWDVR method is that it treats the Coulomb singularity accurately and gives a good representation of continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The time propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is implemented using the well-known Arnoldi method. As examples, the present method is applied to multiphoton ionization of both the H atom and the H- ion in intense laser fields. The short-time excitation and ionization dynamics of H by an abruptly introduced static electric field is also investigated. For a wide range of field parameters, ionization rates calculated using the present method are in excellent agreement with those from other accurate theoretical calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.crawford.chem.vt.edu/PDF/JChemPhys_107_10626.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.crawford.chem.vt.edu/PDF/JChemPhys_107_10626.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">HartreeFock orbital instability envelopes in highly correlated single-reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Crawford, T. Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>Hartree­Fock orbital instability envelopes in highly correlated single- reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> T September 1997 The effects of Hartree­Fock orbital instabilities on force constant predictions at both of the second derivative of correlated energies on the orbital rotation parameters, anomalous force constant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17059259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17059259"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> discrete variable representation to atomic systems in strong laser fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F</p> <p>2006-10-21</p> <p>We present an efficient and accurate grid method for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for an atomic system interacting with an intense laser pulse. Instead of the usual finite difference (FD) method, the radial coordinate is discretized using the discrete variable representation (DVR) constructed from Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For an accurate description of the ionization dynamics of atomic systems, the Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> discrete variable representation (CWDVR) method needs three to ten times fewer grid points than the FD method. The resultant grid points of the CWDVR are distributed unevenly so that one has a finer grid near the origin and a coarser one at larger distances. The other important advantage of the CWDVR method is that it treats the Coulomb singularity accurately and gives a good representation of continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The time propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is implemented using the well-known Arnoldi method. As examples, the present method is applied to multiphoton ionization of both the H atom and the H(-) ion in intense laser fields. The short-time excitation and ionization dynamics of H by an abruptly introduced static electric field is also investigated. For a wide range of field parameters, ionization rates calculated using the present method are in excellent agreement with those from other accurate theoretical calculations. PMID:17059259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.2069v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.2069v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Foldy-Wouthyusen <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and conditions of transformation between Dirac and Foldy-Wouthuysen representations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>V. P. Neznamov; A. J. Silenko</p> <p>2009-06-11</p> <p>The block-diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is not sufficient for the transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) representation. The conditions enabling the transition from the Dirac representation to the FW one are formulated and proved. The connection between <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the two representations is derived. The results obtained allows calculating expectation values of operators corresponding to main classical quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing thermal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorenz, U.; Saalfrank, P.</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>We compare two methods for creating stochastic temperature <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that can be used for Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) simulations. In the first method, the MCTDH coefficients are chosen randomly, while the other method uses a single Hartree product of random single-particle <span class="hlt">functions</span> (SPFs). We find that using random SPFs dramatically improves convergence for a model system for surface sticking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901524','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901524"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">functional</span> Nanowire Evanescent <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Optical Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sirbuly, Donald J.; Tao, Andrea; Law, Matt; Fan, Rong; Yang,Peidong</p> <p>2006-10-18</p> <p>Controlling the flow of photons through a fluidic media withsubwavelength optics is a major step towards the development of on-chipphotonic sensors. Central to this idea will be designing amulti-<span class="hlt">functional</span> nanomaterial that can efficiently trap, route anddeliver light to various sensing channels, filters and detectors on aphotonic chip. Semiconductor nanowire waveguides offer an exceptionalsolution to the confinement of optical energy in solution and can bedirectly integrated into microfluidic devices. Here we demonstrate anovel optical sensing platform that utilizes the evanescent field of atin dioxide single crystalline waveguide to perform a wide array ofspectroscopic analyses including absorption, fluorescence and surfaceenhanced Raman on sub-picoliter probe volumes. Since the same waveguidecavity can transmit both broadband and monochromatic light it allowsmultiple modes of detection to be carried out on the same analyte. Tomove beyond less chemical specific optical techniques such as absorptionand fluorescence we exploit the amplified electric field around silvernanocubes to enhance the vibronic signatures of molecules present in theevanescent field. With excellent chemical resilience to strong acidicconditions, the waveguides can be completely cleaned from the attachedmetal nanoparticles making the devices fully reusable. These results openup the possibility of engineering self-contained, multiplexed photonicsensors that detect and identify chemical species in complex biologicaland environmental systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury. PMID:8406976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0606045v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0606045v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Submillimeter <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Astronomy Satellite observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 and Deep <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>F. Bensch; G. J. Melnick; D. A. Neufeld; M. Harwit; R. L. Snell; B. M. Patten; V. Tolls</p> <p>2006-06-02</p> <p>On 4 July 2005 at 5:52 UT the Deep <span class="hlt">Impact</span> mission successfully completed its goal to hit the nucleus of 9P/Tempel 1 with an impactor, forming a crater on the nucleus and ejecting material into the coma of the comet. NASA's Submillimeter <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) observed the 1(10)-1(01) ortho-water ground-state rotational transition in comet 9P/Tempel 1 before, during, and after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. No excess emission from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> was detected by SWAS and we derive an upper limit of 1.8e7 kg on the water ice evaporated by the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, the water production rate of the comet showed large natural variations of more than a factor of three during the weeks before and after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Episodes of increased activity with Q(H2O)~1e28 molecule/s alternated with periods with low outgassing (Q(H2O)comet rotates. We calculate that appreciable asymmetries of these features could lead to a spin-down or spin-up of the nucleus at observable rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665"><span id="translatedtitle">The ecology of seamounts: structure, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Malcolm R; Rowden, Ashley A; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I; Rogers, Alex D; O'Hara, Timothy D; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M; Hall-Spencer, Jason M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of benthic communities, human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research. PMID:21141665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a drastic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ? 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A"><span id="translatedtitle">Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages were vast in both occasions including loss of life. Two poems and other documentary sources supply detailed and credible information on the 1739 flood that hit Portugal from North to South. A heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in June-July 1842 has been selected. There are already instrumental data available for the former (Franzini station), retrieved from medical journals as well as descriptions of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on several regions in the country. The 1842 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> will be compared with more recent heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> like the June 1981 that had very serious <span class="hlt">impact</span> on public health and on the country's economy. We will also analyse the heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> of July 1991 and August 2003. The latter was particularly long-lasting with serious consequences ranging from extensive forest fires to losses in agriculture and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the population health, although the registered mortality was lower than in 1981 probably due to improved alert systems and Public Health Welfare State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3402954','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3402954"><span id="translatedtitle">Arterial Stiffness and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Reflection: Sex Differences and Relationship with Left Ventricular Diastolic <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Increased arterial stiffness and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span>. We investigated in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship between arterial stiffness, <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection and LV diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span>. Arterial stiffness and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using applanation tonometry. Central pulse pressure/stroke volume index (cPP/SVi), total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. LV diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span> was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection were greater in women compared to men, independent of body size and heart rate (all p<0.01), and showed inverse relationships with parameters of diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span> in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, higher cPP/SVi predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women [odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03–2.30] and men (OR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.30–3.39) independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span> in men and women. Women’s higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF. PMID:22753223</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.5482v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.5482v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Probability Distribution for the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of a Quantum System Entangled with Its Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sheldon Goldstein; Joel L. Lebowitz; Christian Mastrodonato; Roderich Tumulka; Nino Zanghi</p> <p>2015-02-10</p> <p>A quantum system (with Hilbert space $\\mathscr{H}_1$) entangled with its environment (with Hilbert space $\\mathscr{H}_2$) is usually not attributed a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> but only a reduced density matrix $\\rho_1$. Nevertheless, there is a precise way of attributing to it a random <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> $\\psi_1$, called its conditional <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, whose probability distribution $\\mu_1$ depends on the entangled <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> $\\psi\\in\\mathscr{H}_1\\otimes\\mathscr{H}_2$ in the Hilbert space of system and environment together. It also depends on a choice of orthonormal basis of $\\mathscr{H}_2$ but in relevant cases, as we show, not very much. We prove several universality (or typicality) results about $\\mu_1$, e.g., that if the environment is sufficiently large then for every orthonormal basis of $\\mathscr{H}_2$, most entangled states $\\psi$ with given reduced density matrix $\\rho_1$ are such that $\\mu_1$ is close to one of the so-called GAP (Gaussian adjusted projected) measures, $GAP(\\rho_1)$. We also show that, for most entangled states $\\psi$ from a microcanonical subspace (spanned by the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with energies in a narrow interval $[E,E+\\delta E]$) and most orthonormal bases of $\\mathscr{H}_2$, $\\mu_1$ is close to $GAP(\\mathrm{tr}_2 \\rho_{mc})$ with $\\rho_{mc}$ the normalized projection to the microcanonical subspace. In particular, if the coupling between the system and the environment is weak, then $\\mu_1$ is close to $GAP(\\rho_\\beta)$ with $\\rho_\\beta$ the canonical density matrix on $\\mathscr{H}_1$ at inverse temperature $\\beta=\\beta(E)$. This provides the mathematical justification of our claim in [J. Statist. Phys. 125:1193 (2006), http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0309021] that $GAP$ measures describe the thermal equilibrium distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TMP...176.1087L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TMP...176.1087L"><span id="translatedtitle">"Electron ping-pong" on a one-dimensional lattice: Multiple reflections of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet and capture of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by an acceptor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Likhachev, V. N.; Astakhova, T. Yu.; Vinogradov, G. A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Considering the problem of multiple reflections of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from the ends of a lattice, we observe an interesting phenomenon: the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> amplitude is concentrated on the impurity center after reflections. The solution obtained by expanding the total <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> a(t) on the impurity center in the partial amplitudes ak(t), whose contributions become essential only after the kth reflection from the lattice end, seems to agree very well with the results of numerical modeling. We solve the problem of the capture of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by an acceptor. The obtained results can be used to explain experimental data on charge transfer in artificial oligonucleotides and polypeptides. We find expressions for the electron capture probability in some limit cases, which can be considered estimates of the quantum output of the charge transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032426','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032426"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of harmonic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McAleavey, Stephen A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5?MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJMPA..21..995H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJMPA..21..995H"><span id="translatedtitle">Closed Bosonic String Partition <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Time Independent Exact pp-<span class="hlt">WAVE</span> Background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatzinikitas, Agapitos; Smyrnakis, Ioannis</p> <p></p> <p>The modular invariance of the one-loop partition <span class="hlt">function</span> of the closed bosonic string in four dimensions in the presence of certain homogeneous exact pp-<span class="hlt">wave</span> backgrounds is studied. In the absence of an axion field, the partition <span class="hlt">function</span> is found to be modular invariant and equal to the free field partition <span class="hlt">function</span>. The partition <span class="hlt">function</span> remains unchanged also in the presence of a fixed axion field. However, in this case, the covariant form of the action suggests summation over all possible twists generated by the axion field. This is shown to modify the partition <span class="hlt">function</span>. In the light-cone gauge, the axion field generates twists only in the worldsheet ?-direction, so the resulting partition <span class="hlt">function</span> is not modular invariant, hence wrong. To obtain the correct partition <span class="hlt">function</span> one needs to sum over twists in the t-direction as well, as suggested by the covariant form of the action away from the light-cone gauge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1008.0089v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1008.0089v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Compact and accurate variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of three-electron atomic systems constructed from semi-exponential radial basis <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Alexei M Frolov</p> <p>2010-09-28</p> <p>The semi-exponential basis set of radial <span class="hlt">functions</span> (A.M. Frolov, Physics Letters A {\\bf 374}, 2361 (2010)) is used for variational computations of bound states in three-electron atomic systems. It appears that semi-exponential basis set has a substantially greater potential for accurate variational computations of bound states in three-electron atomic systems than it was originally anticipated. In particular, the 40-term Larson's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> improved with the use of semi-exponential radial basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> now produces the total energy \\linebreak -7.47805413551 $a.u.$ for the ground $1^2S-$state in the ${}^{\\infty}$Li atom (only one spin <span class="hlt">function</span> $\\chi_1 = \\alpha \\beta \\alpha - \\beta \\alpha \\alpha$ was used in these calculations). This variational energy is very close to the exact ground state energy of the ${}^{\\infty}$Li atom and it substantially lower than the total energy obtained with the original Larson's 40-term <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (-7.477944869 $a.u.$).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geofaculty.uwyo.edu/dueker/PAPERS/dueker%20papers%202008/Hansen%20Dueker%20Laramie%20Pds%20Sdp.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://geofaculty.uwyo.edu/dueker/PAPERS/dueker%20papers%202008/Hansen%20Dueker%20Laramie%20Pds%20Sdp.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">P-and S-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Function</span> Images of Crustal Imbrication beneath the Cheyenne Belt in Southeast Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dueker, Ken</p> <p></p> <p>P- and S-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Function</span> Images of Crustal Imbrication beneath the Cheyenne Belt estimation to constrain the crustal structure across the Archean­Proterozoic Cheyenne belt suture of Proterozoic lower crust across the Chey- enne belt. Both P and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> images delineate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> monitoring in soil using a dynamic fiber sensor based on stimulated brillouin scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370134"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Using recently established empirical calibrations for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass <span class="hlt">function</span> (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ? 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric H? emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ?0.06 to ?0.11 M {sub ?}. Moreover, for objects with masses ? 0.2 M {sub ?}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ?80% to ?33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass <span class="hlt">function</span>, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141m4306W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141m4306W"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum diffusion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> approach to two-dimensional vibronic spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wehner, Johannes; Falge, Mirjam; Strunz, Walter T.; Engel, Volker</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We apply the quantum diffusion wavefunction approach to calculate vibronic two-dimensional (2D) spectra. As an example, we use a system consisting of two electronic states with harmonic oscillator potentials which are coupled to a bath and interact with three time-delayed laser pulses. The first- and second-order perturbative <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which enter into the expression for the third-order polarization are determined for a sufficient number of stochastic runs. The <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet approach, besides being an alternative technique to calculate the spectra, offers an intuitive insight into the dissipation dynamics and its relation to the 2D vibronic spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296805"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum diffusion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> approach to two-dimensional vibronic spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehner, Johannes; Falge, Mirjam; Strunz, Walter T; Engel, Volker</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We apply the quantum diffusion wavefunction approach to calculate vibronic two-dimensional (2D) spectra. As an example, we use a system consisting of two electronic states with harmonic oscillator potentials which are coupled to a bath and interact with three time-delayed laser pulses. The first- and second-order perturbative <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which enter into the expression for the third-order polarization are determined for a sufficient number of stochastic runs. The <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet approach, besides being an alternative technique to calculate the spectra, offers an intuitive insight into the dissipation dynamics and its relation to the 2D vibronic spectra. PMID:25296805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.5298v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.5298v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Horizon <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black hole decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>R. Casadio; F. Scardigli</p> <p>2013-10-20</p> <p>A localised particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. In order to combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> determined by the particle <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective Generalised Uncertainty Principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> associated to a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41A2396K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41A2396K"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Julia, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Julia, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> in heterogeneous 2.5D media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic <span class="hlt">function</span>. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens <span class="hlt">functions</span> is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/math-ph/0608030v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/math-ph/0608030v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Time asymptotics of the Schroedinger <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in time-periodic potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>O. Costin; R. D. Costin; J. L. Lebowitz</p> <p>2006-08-13</p> <p>We study the transition to the continuum of an initially bound quantum particle in $\\RR^d$, $d=1,2,3$, subjected, for $t\\ge 0$, to a time periodic forcing of arbitrary magnitude. The analysis is carried out for compactly supported potentials, satisfying certain auxiliary conditions. It provides complete analytic information on the time Laplace transform of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. From this, comprehensive time asymptotic properties (Borel summable transseries) follow. We obtain in particular a criterion for whether the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> gets fully delocalized (complete ionization). This criterion shows that complete ionization is generic and provides a convenient test for particular cases. When satisfied it implies absence of discrete spectrum and resonances of the associated Floquet operator. As an illustration we show that the parametric harmonic perturbation of a potential chosen to be any nonzero multiple of the characteristic <span class="hlt">function</span> of a measurable compact set has this property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4256626','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4256626"><span id="translatedtitle">Modified renal <span class="hlt">function</span> in pregnancy: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on emtricitabine pharmacokinetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Valade, Elodie; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Dabis, François; Arrivé, Elise; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Benaboud, Sihem; Fauchet, Floris; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saïk; Hirt, Déborah</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aims The aims were to describe emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in a large population of pregnant women during the different trimesters of pregnancy, and to explain FTC pharmacokinetic variability during pregnancy. Methods FTC plasma concentrations were measured in 103 non-pregnant and 83 pregnant women, including women in the different trimesters of pregnancy and on the day of delivery. A total of 457 plasma concentrations were available for analysis. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.3. Results FTC pharmacokinetics was best described by a two compartment model. The effect of creatinine clearance on apparent elimination clearance (CL/F) was significant. CL/F in pregnant women was significantly higher compared with non-pregnant women (geometric mean 24.1 vs 20.5?l h?1, P?<?0.001), reflecting a modified renal <span class="hlt">function</span>. FTC daily exposures (AUC) during pregnancy were lower than AUC in non-pregnant women, regardless of the trimester of pregnancy. FTC AUC geometric means were 8.38?mg l?1?h in the second trimester of pregnancy, 8.16?mg l?1?h in the third trimester of pregnancy, 8.30?mg l?1?h on the day of delivery and 9.77?mg l?1?h in non-pregnant women. FTC concentrations 24?h after administration were lower in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women (0.054 vs. 0.079?mg l?1, P?<?0.001) but still above the inhibitory concentration 50%. Conclusions FTC CL/F was increased by 18% during pregnancy, reflecting a modified renal <span class="hlt">function</span> with 50% increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this modified renal <span class="hlt">function</span> on FTC pharmacokinetics was not sufficiently large to consider dose adjustments during pregnancy. PMID:24995851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/569426/files/ext-2002-058.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/569426/files/ext-2002-058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Quantum Mechanical <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Snyder, D</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712"><span id="translatedtitle">Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AL-Robayi, Enas M.</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering <span class="hlt">function</span>, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881"><span id="translatedtitle">The seismic response of an aquifer to the propagation of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> generated shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>: A possible trigger of the Martian outflow channels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leyva, Ivett A.; Clifford, Stephen M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Aquifer dilation from shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the 8.4 magnitude Alaskan earthquake of 1964 led to water and sediment ejection from the ground up to 400 km away from the earthquake's epicenter. Groundwater disturbances were observed as far away as Perry, Florida (approximately 5500 km), where well water fluctuations with an amplitude of as much as 2.3 m were reported. The martian cratering record provides evidence that the planet has experienced numerous seismic events of a similar, and often much greater, magnitude. Given this fact, and the photogeologic evidence for abundant water in the early crust, the response of a basalt aquifer to the propagation of compressional <span class="hlt">waves</span> (P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>) produced by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the 33-1000 km diameter size range were investigated. The resulting one-dimensional changes in effective stress and pore pressure were calculated - as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of both distance and time - based on the following assumptions: (1) that all of the seismic energy radiated by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is transmitted as a single compressional <span class="hlt">wave</span>; (2) that both the host rock and groundwater are compressible; and (3) that there is no net flow between the water-filled pores.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6786','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6786"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>LaCure, Mari Mae</p> <p>2010-04-29</p> <p><span class="hlt">Waves</span> is the supporting document to the Master of Fine Arts thesis exhibition of the same title. Exhibited March 7-12 2010 in the Art and Design Gallery at the University of Kansas, <span class="hlt">Waves</span> was comprised of a series of mixed media drawings...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.1710v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.1710v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical meaning and a duality of concepts of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, action <span class="hlt">functional</span>, entropy, the Pointing vector, the Einstein tensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>L. I. Petrova</p> <p>2010-01-11</p> <p>Physical meaning and a duality of concepts of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, action <span class="hlt">functional</span>, entropy, the Pointing vector, the Einstein tensor and so on can be disclosed by investigating the state of material systems such as thermodynamic and gas dynamic systems, systems of charged particles, cosmologic systems and others. These concepts play a same role in mathematical physics. They are quantities that specify a state of material systems and also characteristics of physical fields. The duality of these concepts reveals in the fact that they can at once be both <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and state <span class="hlt">functions</span> or potentials. As <span class="hlt">functionals</span> they are defined on nonintegrable manifold (for example, on tangent one), and as a state <span class="hlt">function</span> they are defined on integrable manifold (for example, on cotangent one). The transition from <span class="hlt">functionals</span> to state <span class="hlt">functions</span> dicribes the mechanism of physical structure origination. The properties of these concepts can be studied by the example of entropy and action. The role of these concepts in mathematical physics and field theory will be demonstrated. Such results have been obtained by using skew-symmetric forms. In addition to exterior forms, the skew-symmetric forms, which are obtained from differential equations and, in distinction to exterior forms, are evolutionary ones and are defined on nonintegrable manifolds, were used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.216...43B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.216...43B"><span id="translatedtitle">The formation of shatter cones by shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> interference during <span class="hlt">impacting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a new model for the formation of shatter cones. The model follows earlier suggestions that shatter cones are initiated by heterogeneities in the rock, but does not require the participation of an elastic precursor <span class="hlt">wave</span>: the conical fractures are initiated after the passage of the main plastic compression pulse, not before. Numerical simulations using the hydrocode SALE 2D, enhanced by the Grady-Kipp-Melosh fragmentation model, support the model. The conditions required for the formation of shatter cones are explored numerically and are found to be consistent with the pressure range derived from both explosion experiments and the analysis of shock metamorphic features in <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures. This model permits us to deduce quantitative information about the shape of the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> from the shape and size of the observed shatter cones. Indeed, the occurrence of shatter cones is correlated with the ratio between the width of the compressive pulse and the size of the heterogeneity that initiates the conical fracture. The apical angles of the shatter cones are controlled by the shape of the rarefaction <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of current-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Lin, Huichan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Hurricane Bob moved up the U.S. east coast and crossed over southern New England and the Gulf of Maine [with peak marine winds up to 54 m/s (100 mph)] on 19-20 August 1991, causing significant damage along the coast and shelf. A 3-D fully <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current-coupled finite-volume community ocean model system was developed and applied to simulate and examine the coastal ocean responses to Hurricane Bob. Results from process study-oriented experiments showed that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction on surge elevation varied in space and time, more significant over the shelf than inside the inner bays. While sea level change along the coast was mainly driven by the water flux controlled by barotropic dynamics and the vertically integrated highest water transports were essentially the same for cases with and without water stratification, the hurricane-induced <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction could generate strong vertical current shear in the stratified areas, leading to a strong offshore transport near the bottom and vertical turbulent mixing over the continental shelf. Stratification could also result in a significant difference of water currents around islands where the water is not vertically well mixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..855Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..855Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Floating potential perturbations due to micrometeoroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: Theory and application to S/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaslavsky, A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In situ observation of dust grains from various origins is routinely performed by space missions equipped with radio instruments. These measurements consist in observations of voltage pulses or their spectral signature. It has for long been proposed that one of the mechanisms able to produce these pulses is the collection by the spacecraft of electric charges generated by <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization. Here for the first time, a complete theoretical model of how pulses are generated by charge collection is proposed. In the solar wind at 1 AU, the pulses are shown to be shaped by local plasma and photoelectron parameters. However, the situation can be different in hotter or denser plasma environments. We use the data provided by the STEREO/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span> (S/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span>) radio instrument onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft to validate our model. We find that the observations indeed strongly support the theory. The proposed model is an important step forward, since it makes it possible to reproduce the shape, timescales, and amplitudes of pulses generated by dust <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in various space environments. Such a model can be used to infer the dust detection abilities of radio instruments onboard different spacecraft and can help the design of dust detection optimized radio instruments for future missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........68H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........68H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of mesostructure on <span class="hlt">functional</span> properties of granular diamond composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harding, David Phillip</p> <p></p> <p>Granular diamond composites are particulate reinforced composites, where the particulate phase is a grade of high-hardness polycrystalline diamond, embedded in a tougher, hard-material matrix. Granular diamond composites are hierarchically-structured materials. In addition to the macrostructure and microstructure, granular diamond composites have a mesostructure that encompasses the morphology of the matrix and granules and is characterized by parameters such as component volume fraction, granular sphericity, and matrix uniformity. The mesostructure is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> designed to improve the performance of the composite in petroleum well-drilling applications by increasing the fracture resistance while maintaining the wear resistance. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the mesostructure on the flexural strength, wear resistance, <span class="hlt">impact</span> resistance, and in-field performance was measured. Physical testing showed that volume fraction of the tougher, matrix phase can be increased significantly before the wear resistance of the composite decreases appreciably. But the testing also showed that the method developed to produce the composites resulted in component materials with inferior properties. The flexural strength of a polycrystalline-diamond/tungsten-carbide material system was explored using several modeling techniques, including analytic, two-dimensional numeric, and three-dimensional numeric models. Residual stresses, arising from the change in conditions after the material is formed in a high-temperature, high-pressure sintering process, have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the calculated strength of the composite. Dilatational residual stresses have never been treated in a rigorous manner in the literature and are often neglected completely. In this study, the thermal and dilatational residual stresses were modeled. Stresses from externally applied loads preferentially concentrate in the stiffer diamond phase. Thermal residual stresses strengthen the stiffer and weaker diamond phase through residual compression and weaken the carbide phase through residual tension. The dilatational residual stresses partially counteract the thermal residual stresses. Without thermal residual stresses the composite would have lower strength due to premature failure in the diamond phase. Without dilatational residual stresses the composite would have lower strength due to premature failure in the carbide phase. The strengths predicted by the enhanced models match the measured strengths quite well, despite significant uncertainty in the material properties and process parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.7274v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.7274v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-dipolar Wilson links for transverse-momentum-dependent <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hsiang-nan Li; Yu-Ming Wang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We propose a new definition of a transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with simpler soft subtraction for $k_T$ factorization of hard exclusive processes. The un-subtracted <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> involves two pieces of non-light-like Wilson links oriented in different directions, so that the rapidity singularity appearing in usual $k_T$ factorization is regularized, and the pinched singularity from Wilson-link self-energy corrections is alleviated to a logarithmic one. In particular no soft <span class="hlt">function</span> is needed, when the two pieces of Wilson links are orthogonal to each other. We show explicitly at one-loop level that the simpler definition with the non-dipolar Wilson links exhibits the same infrared behavior as the one with the dipolar Wilson links and complicated soft subtraction. It is pointed out that both definitions reduce to the naive TMD <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as the non-light-like Wilson links approach to the light cone. Their equivalence is then extended to all orders by considering the evolution in the Wilson-link rapidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..013L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..013L"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-dipolar Wilson links for transverse-momentum-dependent <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hsiang-nan; Wang, Yu-Ming</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We propose a new definition of a transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with simpler soft subtraction for k T factorization of hard exclusive processes. The un-subtracted <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> involves two pieces of non-light-like Wilson links oriented in different directions, so that the rapidity singularity appearing in usual k T factorization is regularized, and the pinched singularity from Wilson-link self-energy corrections is alleviated to a logarithmic one. In particular no soft <span class="hlt">function</span> is needed, when the two pieces of Wilson links are orthogonal to each other. We show explicitly at one-loop level that the simpler definition with the non-dipolar Wilson links exhibits the same infrared behavior as the one with the dipolar Wilson links and complicated soft subtraction. It is pointed out that both definitions reduce to the naive TMD <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as the non-light-like Wilson links approach to the light cone. Their equivalence is then extended to all orders by considering the evolution in the Wilson-link rapidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942514"><span id="translatedtitle">The numerical analysis of general SAW and leaky <span class="hlt">wave</span> devices using approximate Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> representations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peach, Robert C</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> or boundary element method (BEM) is the best available technique for rigorous surface acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> (SAW) device analysis. However, its computational cost usually means that it cannot be applied directly to devices with complex, nonperiodic electrode structures. In this paper, approximate forms for the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> are employed. They are based on rigorous representations, they can represent the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> to any required degree of accuracy, and they can be applied to any type of substrate and acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The use of this type of approximation for practical device analysis is considered, and computational procedures are presented that can exploit the special approximate Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> structure. It is shown that highly efficient computational algorithms can be constructed, in which the computational effort increases linearly with the number of electrodes in the device. These methods can be applied to any type of device structure, and they do not require any empirically derived parameters. The practical application of the methods is illustrated by examples of longitudinally coupled resonator filter (LCRF) designs implemented using leaky <span class="hlt">wave</span> cuts of lithium tantalate. Agreement between theory and experiment is excellent, even for devices of this complexity. PMID:19942514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PTEP.2015f3D04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PTEP.2015f3D04S"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a hadronic resonance and its compositeness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sekihara, Takayasu; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We develop a theoretical framework to investigate the two-body composite structure of a resonance as well as a bound state from its <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. For this purpose, we introduce both one-body bare states and two-body scattering states, and define the compositeness as a fraction of the contribution of the two-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to the normalization of the total <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Writing down explicitly the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for a resonance state obtained with a general separable interaction, we formulate the compositeness in terms of the position of the resonance pole, the residue of the scattering amplitude at the pole, and the derivative of the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> of the free two-body scattering system. At the same time, our formulation provides the elementariness expressed with the resonance properties and the two-body effective interaction, and confirms the sum rule showing that the summation of the compositeness and elementariness gives unity. In this formulation, Weinberg's relation for the scattering length and effective range can be derived in the weak binding limit. The extension to the resonance states is performed with the Gamow vector, and a relativistic formulation is also established. As its applications, we study the compositeness of the ? (1405) resonance and the light scalar and vector mesons described with refined amplitudes in coupled-channel models with interactions up to the next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory. We find that ? (1405) and f0(980) are dominated by the bar {K} N and K bar {K} composite states, respectively, while the vector mesons ? (770) and K^{*} (892) are elementary. We also briefly discuss the compositeness of N (1535) and ? (1670) obtained in a leading-order chiral unitary approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Ocgy...48....7P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Ocgy...48....7P"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing and verifying the wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> model with an optimized source <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polnikov, V. G.; Dymov, V. I.; Pasechnik, T. A.; Lavrenov, I. V.; Abuzyarov, Z. K.; Sannasiraj, S. A.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>With the purpose of revealing the actual advantages of the new source <span class="hlt">function</span> that was earlier proposed in [5] for use in numerical wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> models, its testing and verification was carried out by means of modification of the WAM (Cycle-4) model. The verification was performed on the basis of a comparison of the results of <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulation for a given wind field with the buoy observation data obtained in three oceanic regions. In the Barents Sea, this kind of comparison was made for <span class="hlt">wave</span> observations from a single buoy with an interval of 6 hours for a period of 3 years. In two regions of the North Atlantic, the comparison was performed for 3 buoys in both regions for observation periods of 30 days with an interval of 1 hour. Estimations of the simulation accuracy were obtained for a series of wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters, and they were compared with the original and modified WAM model. Advantages of the modified model consisting of the enhancement of the calculation speed by 20-25% and a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the simulation accuracy for the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and the mean period were proved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H"><span id="translatedtitle">Catastrophic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of typhoon <span class="hlt">waves</span> on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Typhoon-generated storm <span class="hlt">waves</span> generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> height,H = 20 m; <span class="hlt">wave</span> period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely <span class="hlt">impacted</span>. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JDE...259.4799K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JDE...259.4799K"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evans-<span class="hlt">function</span> approach to spectral stability of internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stratified fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klaiber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Frequently encountered in nature, internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stratified fluids have been investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Mathematically, these <span class="hlt">waves</span> are exact solutions of the incompressible 2D Euler equations. Contrasting with a rich existence theory and the development of methods for their computation, their stability analysis has hardly received attention at a rigorous mathematical level. This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation of stability of internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a continuously stratified fluid and carries out the following four steps of this approach: (I) to formulate the eigenvalue problem as an infinite-dimensional spatial-dynamical system, (II) to introduce finite-dimensional truncations of the spatial-dynamics description, (III) to demonstrate that each truncation, of any order, permits a well-defined Evans <span class="hlt">function</span>, (IV) to prove absence of small zeros of the Evans <span class="hlt">function</span> in the small-amplitude limit. The latter notably implies the low-frequency spectral stability of small-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> to arbitrarily high truncation order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035829"><span id="translatedtitle">Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>A numerical matrix method relative to the propagation of ultrasonic guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> in <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric heterostructure is given in order to make a comparative study with the respective performances of analytical methods proposed in literature. The preliminary obtained results show a good agreement, however numerical approach has the advantage of conceptual simplicity and flexibility brought about by the stiffness matrix method. The propagation behaviour of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) is investigated in this article. It involves a thin FGPM layer bonded perfectly to an elastic substrate. The inhomogeneous FGPM heterostructure has been stratified along the depth direction, hence each state can be considered as homogeneous and the ordinary differential equation method is applied. The obtained solutions are used to study the effect of an exponential gradient applied to physical properties. Such numerical approach allows applying different gradient variation for mechanical and electrical properties. For this case, the obtained results reveal opposite effects. The dispersive curves and phase velocities of the Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the layered piezoelectric film are obtained for electrical open and short cases on the free surface, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on coupled electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the electrical potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the well known heterostructure PZT-5H/SiO(2), the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation behaviour. PMID:21035829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845..892S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845..892S"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Speed Photographic Study of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Damage in Fused Silica and AlON Using the Edge-On <span class="hlt">Impact</span> (EOI) Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strassburger, E.; Patel, P.; McCauley, J. W.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>An Edge-on <span class="hlt">Impact</span> (EOI) technique, developed at the Ernst-Mach-Institute (EMI), coupled with a Cranz-Schardin high-speed camera, has been successfully utilized to visualize dynamic fracture in many brittle materials. In a typical test, the projectile strikes one edge of a specimen and damage formation and fracture propagation is recorded during the first 20 ?s after <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In the present study, stress <span class="hlt">waves</span> and damage propagation in fused silica and AlON were examined by means of two modified Edge-on <span class="hlt">Impact</span> arrangements. In one arrangement, fracture propagation was observed simultaneously in side and top views of the specimens by means of two Cranz-Schardin cameras. In another arrangement, the photographic technique was modified by placing the specimen between crossed polarizers and using the photo-elastic effect to visualize the stress <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Pairs of <span class="hlt">impact</span> tests at approximately equivalent velocities were carried out in transmitted plane (shadowgraphs) and crossed polarized light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and their effects on US shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.; Dennison, D. S.; Glascoe, L. G.; Antoun, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On February 15, 2013 an undetected ~17-20-m diameter asteroid entered earth's atmosphere and, due to its large entry speed of 18.6 km/s and its shallow entry angle, the asteroid exploded in an airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, generating a bright flash, producing many small fragment meteorites and causing a powerful shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> which released the equivalent of ~440 kt TNT of energy. About 16 hours after the Chelyabinsk asteroid, the elongated ~20m by ~40m (~30 m diameter) NEA 2012 DA14 with an estimated mass of 40 kt neared the earth surface at ~28,100km, ~2.2 earth's diameter. These two consecutive events, which were unrelated and had drastically different orbits, generated considerable attention and awareness from the public, confusion among the local residents, and raised the issue of emergency response and preparedness of local, state and government agencies. LLNL and other government agencies have performed numerical simulations of a postulated asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean and generated data to support an emergency preparedness exercise. We illustrate the exercise through the application of several codes from source (asteroid entry) to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim) to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation and interaction with the shoreline. Using state-of-the-art high performance computing codes we simulate three <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites; one site is located off the eat coat by Maryland's shoreline and two other sites on the west coast: the San Francisco bay and the Los Angeles bay shorelines, respectively. Simulations were conducted not only under deterministic conditions but also under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment of flood hazards zones and structural integrity of infrastructures will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25350154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25350154"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection on soil microbiomes reveals reproducible <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on plant <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Poole, Angela C; Goodrich, Julia K; Ley, Ruth E; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil microorganisms found in the root zone <span class="hlt">impact</span> plant growth and development, but the potential to harness these benefits is hampered by the sheer abundance and diversity of the players influencing desirable plant traits. Here, we report a high level of reproducibility of soil microbiomes in altering plant flowering time and soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> when partnered within and between plant hosts. We used a multi-generation experimental system using Arabidopsis thaliana Col to select for soil microbiomes inducing earlier or later flowering times of their hosts. We then inoculated the selected microbiomes from the tenth generation of plantings into the soils of three additional A. thaliana genotypes (Ler, Be, RLD) and a related crucifer (Brassica rapa). With the exception of Ler, all other plant hosts showed a shift in flowering time corresponding with the inoculation of early- or late-flowering microbiomes. Analysis of the soil microbial community using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing showed distinct microbiota profiles assembling by flowering time treatment. Plant hosts grown with the late-flowering-associated microbiomes showed consequent increases in inflorescence biomass for three A. thaliana genotypes and an increase in total biomass for B. rapa. The increase in biomass was correlated with two- to five-fold enhancement of microbial extracellular enzyme activities associated with nitrogen mineralization in soils. The reproducibility of the flowering phenotype across plant hosts suggests that microbiomes can be selected to modify plant traits and coordinate changes in soil resource pools. PMID:25350154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741450','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741450"><span id="translatedtitle">Concomitant Gastroparesis Negatively <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Children with <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Gallbladder Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chumpitazi, Bruno P.; Malowitz, Stanton M.; Moore, Warren; Gopalakrishna, G.S.; Shulman, Robert J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia occur in children, and if so, to determine if concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with biliary dyskinesia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with biliary dyskinesia (ejection fraction <35% on cholescintigraphy, with no other metabolic, or structural cause) who completed a solid-phase gastric emptying scintigraphy scan within 12 months of the abnormal cholescintigraphy. Children were classified into one of four clinical outcome groups (excellent, good, fair, poor). Results Thirty-five children with a mean follow-up time of 23.1 ± 17.3 (SD) months were included. 20 (57%) children were identified as having concomitant gastroparesis with biliary dyskinesia. Children with concomitant gastroparesis were more likely to have a poor clinical outcome compared to those with biliary dyskinesia alone (P<0.005). In children undergoing cholecystectomy, those with concomitant gastroparesis were more likely to have a fair or poor clinical outcome compared to those with biliary dyskinesia alone (P<0.01). Factors predicting a more favorable clinical outcome were having biliary dyskinesia alone, and not having limitations in activity (e.g. school absences) at time of presentation. Conclusions Concomitant gastroparesis may occur in children with <span class="hlt">functional</span> gallbladder disorders. Concomitant gastroparesis may negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> clinical outcome in children with biliary dyskinesia. PMID:22588599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.04508v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.04508v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields: chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Y. Y. Atas; E. Bogomolny</p> <p>2015-03-16</p> <p>The construction of a statistical model for eigenfunctions of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields is discussed in detail for the chaotic case. When the number of spins is large, each <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> coefficient has the Gaussian distribution with zero mean and the variance calculated from the first two moments of the Hamiltonian. The main part of the paper is devoted to the discussion of different corrections to the asymptotic result. One type of corrections is related with higher order moments of the Hamiltonian and can be taken into account by Gibbs-like formulae. Another corrections are due to symmetry contributions which manifest as different numbers of non-zero real and complex coefficients. Statistical model with these corrections included agrees well with numerical calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> moments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1504.1253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1504.1253K"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of ?- <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in muonic atoms using a genetic algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kardaras, I. S.; Stavrou, V. N.; Tsoulos, I. G.; Kosmas, T. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We present a numerical approach of calculating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of ?-. particles bound in muonic atoms due to an extended nuclear Coulomb potential. A genetic algorithm has been employed to solve numerically the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and subsequently to estimate the binding energies in heavy nuclei like the 208Pb and the 124Sn for these particles. The comparison of the present results with those of previously reported numerical algorithms shows that our ?- binging energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are well matched. One of the main goals of such exact calculations is to systematically study the rates of exclusive ?- capture processes in nuclei as well as those of the exotic ?- ? e± conversions in the presence of nuclei. The latter rates are extremely suppressed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.1676v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.1676v3"><span id="translatedtitle">$U(1)\\times U(1)$ Symmetry Protected Topological Order in Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zheng-Xin Liu; Jia-Wei Mei; Peng Ye; Xiao-Gang Wen</p> <p>2014-12-24</p> <p>Gutzwiller projection is a way to construct many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that could carry topological order or symmetry protected topological (SPT) order. However, an important issue is to determine whether or not a given Gutzwiller-projected <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (GWF) carries a non-trivial SPT order, and which SPT order is carried by the wavefunction. In this paper, we numerically study the SPT order in a spin $S = 1$ GWF on the Kagome lattice. Using the standard Monte Carlo method, we directly confirm that the GWF has (1) gapped bulk with short-range correlations, (2) a trivial topological order via nondegenerate ground state, and zero topological entanglement entropy, (3) a non-trivial $U(1)\\times U(1)$ SPT order via the Hall conductances of the protecting $U(1)\\times U(1)$ symmetry, and (4) symmetry protected gapless boundary. This represents numerical evidence of continuous symmetry protected topological order in two-dimensional bosonic lattice systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.8775v4','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.8775v4"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in 2d causal set quantum gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lisa Glaser; Sumati Surya</p> <p>2015-07-02</p> <p>We define the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for causal set theory (CST) over the discrete analogs of spacelike hypersurfaces. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and numerical integration methods we analyse the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in non- perturbative 2d CST. We find that in the low temperature regime it is dominated by causal sets which have no continuum counterparts but possess physically interesting geometric properties. Not only do they exhibit a rapid spatial expansion with respect to the discrete proper time but also a high degree of spatial homogeneity. The latter is due to the extensive overlap of the causal pasts of the elements in the final discrete hypersurface and corresponds to high graph connectivity. Our results thus suggest new possibilities for the role of quantum gravity in the observable universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic hydrogen and pionium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Vladimir G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Karshenboim, Savely G.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Nonrelativistic second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic and exotic atoms are considered. The corrections are due to the electronic vacuum polarization. Such corrections are of interest due to various effective approaches, which take into account QED and hadronic effects. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin plays a key role in the calculation of the pionium lifetime, various finite nuclear size effects, and the hyperfine splitting. The results are obtained for the 1s and 2s states in pionic and muonic hydrogen and deuterium and in pionium, a bound system of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}. Applications to the hyperfine structure and the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen are also considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvE..58..387C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvE..58..387C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> entropy and dynamical symmetry breaking in the interacting boson model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cejnar, Pavel; Jolie, Jan</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>The degree of chaos in the simplest interacting boson model (IBM-1) is compared with what we call the ``dynamical symmetry content'' of the system. The latter is represented by the information entropy of the eigenfunctions with respect to bases associated with dynamical symmetries of the IBM-1, and expresses thus the localization of actual eigenfunctions in these symmetry bases. The <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> entropy is shown to be a sensitive tool for monitoring the processes of a single dynamical symmetry breaking or transitions between two and more symmetries. For the IBM-1 Hamiltonians studied here, the known features related to chaos, namely, the dependence of chaotic measures on the Hamiltonian parameters (position in the Casten triangle) and on the angular momentum, turn out to be correlated with the behavior of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> entropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.08379v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.08379v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Supercritical electric dipole and migration of electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>E. V. Gorbar; V. P. Gusynin; O. O. Sobol</p> <p>2015-07-24</p> <p>We study the Dirac equation for quasiparticles in gapped graphene with two oppositely charged impurities by using the technique of linear combination of atomic orbitals and variational Galerkin--Kantorovich method. We show that for sufficiently large charges of impurities the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the occupied electron bound state of the highest energy changes its localization from the negatively charged impurity to the positively charged one as the distance between the impurities increases. This migration of the electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of supercritical electric dipole is a generalization of the familiar phenomenon of the atomic collapse of single charged impurity to the case where electron-hole pairs are spontaneously created from vacuum in bound states with charge impurities thus partially screening them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.08379.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.08379.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Supercritical electric dipole and migration of electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gorbar, E V; Sobol, O O</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We study the Dirac equation for quasiparticles in gapped graphene with two oppositely charged impurities by using the technique of linear combination of atomic orbitals and variational Galerkin--Kantorovich method. We show that for sufficiently large charges of impurities the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the occupied electron bound state of the highest energy changes its localization from the negatively charged impurity to the positively charged one as the distance between the impurities increases. This migration of the electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of supercritical electric dipole is a generalization of the familiar phenomenon of the atomic collapse of single charged impurity to the case where electron-hole pairs are spontaneously created from vacuum in bound states with charge impurities thus partially screening them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231068"><span id="translatedtitle">"Artificial atoms" in magnetic fields: <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> shaping and phase-sensitive tunneling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lei, Wen; Notthoff, Christian; Peng, Jie; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas; Bester, Gabriel; Lorke, Axel</p> <p>2010-10-22</p> <p>We demonstrate the possibility to influence the shape of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in semiconductor quantum dots by the application of an external magnetic field B(z). The states of the so-called p shell, which show distinct orientations along the crystal axes for B(z) = 0, can be modified to become more and more circularly symmetric with an increasing field. Their changing probability density can be monitored using magnetotunneling <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> mapping. Calculations of the magnetotunneling signals are in good agreement with the experimental data and explain the different tunneling maps of the p(+) and p? states as a consequence of the different sign of their respective phase factors. PMID:21231068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.4661v7','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.4661v7"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the Q.Q interaction in terms of unitary 9-j coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Larry Zamick; Matthew Harper</p> <p>2015-03-20</p> <p>We obtain <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for 2 protons and 2 neutrons in the g_{9/2} shell expressed as column vectors with amplitudes D(J_{p},J_{n}). When we use a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction (Q.Q) we get, in many cases, a very strong overlap with <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> given by a single set of unitary 9j coefficients --U9j= ((jj)^{2j} (jj^{J_{B}} \\ (jj)^{J_{p}} (jj)^{J_{n}})^{I}. Here J_{B}=9 for even I T =0 states. For both even and odd T=1 states we take JB equal to 8 whilst for odd I, T=0 we take JB to be 7. We compare the Q.Q results with those of a more realistic interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91c4331Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91c4331Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the Q .Q interaction in terms of unitary 9-j coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zamick, Larry; Harper, Matthew</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We obtain <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two protons and two neutrons in the g9 /2 shell expressed as column vectors with amplitudes D (Jp,Jn) . When we use a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction (Q .Q ) we get, in many cases, a very strong overlap with <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> given by a single set of unitary 9-j coefficients—U 9 j =<(jj ) 2 j(jjJB|(jj ) Jp(jj ) Jn) I> . Here JB=9 for even I T =0 states. For both even and odd T =1 states we take JB equal to 8 whilst for odd I ,T =0 we take JB to be 7. We compare the Q .Q results with those of a more realistic interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors. PMID:11461411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0705.2898v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0705.2898v1"><span id="translatedtitle">The robustness of the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and other matters for Yang-Mills theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dimitra Karabali; V. P. Nair</p> <p>2007-05-21</p> <p>In the first part of this paper, we present a set of simple arguments to show that the two-dimensional gauge anomaly and the (2+1)-dimensional Lorentz symmetry determine the leading Gaussian term in the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. This is to highlight the robustness of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its relative insensitivity to the choice of regularizations. We then comment on the correspondence with the explicit calculations done in earlier papers. We also make some comments on the nature of the gauge-invariant configuration space for Euclidean three-dimensional gauge fields (relevant to (3+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840019214&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840019214&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860043880&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860043880&hterms=wave+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694"><span id="translatedtitle">Working With the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized <span class="hlt">function</span> (GF) theory to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing <span class="hlt">functions</span> as continuous linear <span class="hlt">functionals</span>. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3803S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3803S"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wind <span class="hlt">waves</span> and fast ferries wash in the Tallinn Bay, Gulf of Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soomere, T.; Rannat, K.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The area between the Estonian and Finnish capitals, Tallinn and Helsinki, apparently has the heaviest fast ferry traffic among the open sea areas of the Baltic Sea. Nearly 70 crossings of the gulf take place daily during the high season. It is generally believed that ship wash is negligible in the open sea areas where natural <span class="hlt">waves</span> are frequently much higher than the wash. This assumption is indeed true for coasts exposed to high tidal <span class="hlt">waves</span> or open to dominating wind directions. However, the Tallinn Bay has a relatively mild local <span class="hlt">wave</span> regime owing to a specific combination of its shape and the local wind regime. The tidal currents are negligible, and wind <span class="hlt">waves</span> and local currents are responsible for near-bottom velocities in the area in question. These velocities mostly are moderate and only in extreme cases exceed 20 cm/s at the depths of 10-20. Several coastal regions are particularly favourably sheltered from high <span class="hlt">waves</span> and may be vulnerable with respect to the abrupt increase of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity. Comparison of local wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate with direct ship <span class="hlt">wave</span> measurements shows that in the coastal zone of the bay the mean energy of ship <span class="hlt">waves</span> is 7-10% from the bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced energy flux as high as 40% from the bulk energy flux. The annual maximum of significant wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights is frequently <1.5 m whereas <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods do not exceed 5-6 s. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate has significant annual variation, with relatively calm spring and summer season. The periods of the highest components of ship wash generally exceed these of wind <span class="hlt">waves</span> and frequently are as long as 10-15 s. The ship <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights frequently are about 1 m and cause unusually high near-bottom velocities at the depths of 5-20 m. This means that the wake of fast ferries is a new forcing component of vital <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the local ecosystem. It may cause considerable intensification of beach processes and have significant influence on the aquatic wildlife. In particular, this <span class="hlt">wave</span> component apparently dominates during the relatively calm high navigation season (April-September) when the biological productivity is at its seasonal maximum. In addition to the direct effect upon fish and benthic plants it may cause considerable intensification of beach processes. The reduced water transparency, besides the effects of direct mechanical disturbances, may have a suppressing feedback to the bottom vegetation. Another potential mechanical effect of ship <span class="hlt">waves</span> is the enhancement of vertical mixing along the ship lane that may intensify the eutrophication effects due to the transport of nutrients into the euphotic layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0201043v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0201043v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastic e-d Scattering Data and the Deuteron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>R. Schiavilla; V. R. Pandharipande</p> <p>2002-01-17</p> <p>What range of momentum components in the deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are available e d elastic scattering data sensitive to ? This question is addressed within the context of a model calculation of the deuteron form factors, based on realistic interactions and currents. It is shown that the data on the $A(q)$, $B(q)$, and $T_{20}(q)$ observables at $q \\leq 6$ fm$^{-1}$ essentially probe momentum components up to $\\simeq 4 m_\\pi$.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.0100.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.0100.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of a System with a Monofractal Energy Spectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Tashima, Masayuki</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We show the appearance of multifractal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on a one-dimensional quasiperiodic system that has a monofractal energy spectrum. Using the Mantica technique, we construct the model as an inverse problem from the energy spectrum of a pure Cantor set. A relation between the critical state and the information dimension is proved and it is applied to the finite-size multifractal analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.0100v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.0100v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of a System with a Monofractal Energy Spectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Masayuki Tashima; Shuichi Tasaki</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We show the appearance of multifractal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on a one-dimensional quasiperiodic system that has a monofractal energy spectrum. Using the Mantica technique, we construct the model as an inverse problem from the energy spectrum of a pure Cantor set. A relation between the critical state and the information dimension is proved and it is applied to the finite-size multifractal analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9303135v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9303135v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of the Universe in Topological and in Einstein 2-form Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Akika Nakamichi</p> <p>1993-03-24</p> <p>We clarify the relation between 2-form Einstein gravity and its topological version. The physical space of the topological version is contained in that of the Einstein gravity. Moreover a new vector field is introduced into 2-form Einstein gravity to restore the large symmetry of its topological version. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the universe is obtained for each model. (Talk given at the Workshop on General Relativity and Gravitation held at Waseda University, January 18-20, 1993.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415"><span id="translatedtitle">Short range structure of hadron and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at high x</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoyer, P.; Brodsky, S.J.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>We discuss the short-range structure of hadronic and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> expected in QCD. In addition to the extrinsic'' contributions associated with radiation from single partons, there is an intrinsic'' hardness of the high-mass fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> due to the spatial overlap of two or more partons. We argue that intrinsically-hard partons, having large mass and/or large transverse momentum, will dominate in the region of large Feynman x{sub F}. Their rescattering in nuclear targets is expected to be larger than for extrinsically-hard partons, leading to a suppressed production cross section for hadrons scattering on heavy nuclei. Experimental evidence for this exists for open chars. J/{psi}, and {gamma} production at large x{sub F}. The effects of intrinsic hardness may be particularly striking in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, where the overlap of partons belonging to different nucleons can give rise to cumulative (x > 1) phenomena. The data on backward cumulative particle production from nuclei supports the existence of an intrinsically-hard component in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Partons at large x{sub F} may also be associated with the enhanced subthreshold production of particles observed in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We discuss the evidence for anomalies in the large angle pp {yields} pp cross section near the charm threshold. Arguments are presented that chromium states may bind to nuclei through the QCD Van der Waals force. This would lead to a striking signal in charm production near threshold. 49 refs., 7 figs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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