Science.gov

Sample records for wave function impact

  1. Impact of permeability on seismoelectric transfer function of P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzhauer, J.; Bordes, C.; Oppermann, F.; Brito, D.; Yaramanci, U.

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in the understanding of seismoelectrics have shown its potential relevance for porous media characterization with particular focus on permeability estimations. According to promising theoretical and numerical studies, permeability should influence the seismoelectric transfer function at higher frequencies. The dynamic seismoelectric transfer function E(ω)/ ü(ω), where E relates to the coseismic electric field induced by the seismic particle acceleration ü, is expected to increase with increasing permeabilities when crossing the Biot transition frequency. Still, only few experiments have been developed on that matter so far. To address the transfer function dependence on permeability, we adapted a column experiment to comply with steady-state permeability estimations. These observations were run in-situ, during the fluid-balancing phase prior to seismoelectric measurements. The 50 cm-long column had previously been carefully filled with perfectly rounded glass beads. The use of sorted glass beads is expected to achieve similar porosities reproducible throughout the experiment, opposed to varying permeabilities depending on the introduced particle size. The acoustic source delivered compressional waves with an optimal effect limited to the [1-3] kHz frequency range. These limitations are due to strong seismic attenuation in uncompacted porous media on one side, and to the dilemma of observing propagation in downsized laboratory setup on the other. First results validated the experimental protocol in terms of porosity/permeability independence: for particle size varying between 100 μm and 500 μm, permeability varied by a factor 20, with a maximum by 5.10-11 m2, while porosity remained by 39 ± 2 % during the whole experiment. Further investigations are being led regarding the normalised transfer function, corrected for both the fluid conductivity and the seismic energy. For that purpose, we compare the dependence of our measured transfer

  2. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  3. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  4. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  5. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion. PMID:26509428

  6. Many-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the past few years, we developed many-body variational wave functions that allow one to treat pairing and particle-hole two-body interactions on an equal footing. The complexity of these wave functions depends on the number of levels included in the valence space, but does not depend on the number of nucleons in the system. By using residual interaction strengths (e.g. the quadrupole interaction strength or pairing interaction strength) as generator coordinates, one gets many different wave functions, each having a different expectation value for the relevant interaction mode. These wave functions are particularly useful when one is dealing with a situation in which the mean-field approximation is inadequate. Because the same basis states are used in the construction of the many-body wave functions, it is possible to calculate overlaps and interaction matrix elements for the many-body wave functions (which are not in general orthogonal) easily. The valence space can contain a large number of single-particle basis states, when there are constants of motion that can be used to break the levels up into groups. We added a cranking term to the many-body Hamiltonian and modified the projection procedure to get states of good signature before variation. In our present implementation, each group is limited to eight pairs of single-particle levels. We are working on ways of increasing the number of levels that can be included in each group. We are also working on including particle-particle residual interaction modes, in addition to pairing, in our Hamiltonian.

  7. Meson wave function from holographic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2010-08-04

    We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

  8. The destructive impact of the rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamin, Roman

    2013-04-01

    In our talk rogue waves at the ocean will be considered. By means of numerical modeling dangerous impact of rogue waves on the ships and oil rigs is calculated. Cases when these waves can bring in accident are considered. Using statistics of emergence of waves (see [1]-[2]), it is possible to estimate risks in each case. These results can be used for safety of the ships and oil rigs from rogue waves. References [1] V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko, R.V. Shamin. How probability for freak wave formation can be found // THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL - SPECIAL TOPICS Volume 185, Number 1, 113-124, DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2010-01242-y [2] V.E. Zakharov, R.V. Shamin. Statistics of rogue waves in computer experiments // JETP Letters, 2012, V. 96, Issue 1, pp 66-69.

  9. Meson wave function from holographic models

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2009-09-01

    We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.

  10. Impact produced stress waves in composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.; Johnson, J.; Addessio, F.; Hixson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Nonhomogenized Dynamic Method of Cells (NHDMOC) is used to study the propagation of stress waves through laminates. The accuracy of the theory is tested by applying it to a plate-impact experiment and checking its ability to resolve a propagation shock wave front. The theory is then compared to Lagrangian hydrodynamic calculations, where it is found that the NHDMOC consistently requires less fine spatial and temporal grids, and less artificial viscosity to control numerical noise. The theory is then used to treat the impact of an epoxy-graphite bilaminate. When the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy are accounted for, the theory agrees well with the experiment.

  11. Reality and measurement of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.

    1994-07-01

    Using a simple version of the model for the quantum measurement of a two-level system, the contention of Aharonov, Anandan, and Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 47, 4616 (1993)] that one must in certain circumstances give the wave function an ontological as well as an epistemological significance is examined. I decide that their argument that the wave function of a system can be measured on a single system fails to establish the key point and that what they demonstrate is the ontological significance of certain operators in the theory, with the wave function playing its usual epistemological role.

  12. Spatial wave functions of photon and electron

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlov, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The quantum mechanical model of the photon and electron is considered. The photon is conceived of as a particle moving with the speed of light which is accompanied by the wave function of the photon spreading out with an infinite speed. The wave function of the electron is introduced in terms of virtual photons tied to the electron. A description of electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions is given through the wave functions of electrons. The approach provides an explanation of the results of recent experiments measuring the speed of propagation of the bound magnetic field.

  13. Extreme Wave Impact on a Flexible Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Aliza; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are combined to characterize the flow-structure interaction of a breaking wave impacting a flexible vertically mounted plate. DIC is used with the beam bending equation to determine the stresses on the plate and PIV is used to describe the flow of the wave. In this experiment, a simulated dam break in which water is rapidly released from a reservoir generates the wave, which impinges on a cantilevered stainless steel plate downstream. Pressure sensors mounted on the plate are used to gather further information about the forces acting on it. A series of waves of different heights and breaking locations are tested, controlled by the volume of water in the tank and the volume of water in the dam break reservoir. The deflection of the plate varies depending on the point of breaking and the height of the wave. These results shed light on the effect of breaking wave impacts on offshore structures and ship hulls.

  14. Waves in fragmented geomaterials with impact attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation of waves in geomaterials, such as seismic waves is usually attributed to energy dissipation due to the presence of viscous fluid and/or viscous cement between the constituents. In fragmented geomaterials such as blocky rock mass there is another possible source of energy dissipation - impacting between the fragments. This can be characterised by the coefficient of restitution, which is the ratio between the rotational velocities after and before the impact. In particular, this manifests itself in the process of mutual rotations of the fragments/blocks, whereby in the process of oscillation different ends of the contacting faces of the fragments are impacting. During the rotational oscillations the energy dissipation is concentrated in the neutral position that is the one in which the relative rotation between two fragments is zero. We show that in a simple system of two fragments this dissipation is equivalent, in a long run, to the presence of viscous damper between the fragments (the Voigt model of visco-elasticity). Generalisation of this concept to the material consisting of many fragments leads to a Voigt model of wave propagation where the attenuation coefficient is proportional to the logarithm of restitution coefficient. The waves in such a medium show slight dispersion caused by damping and strong dependence of the attenuation on the wave frequency.

  15. The geometry of electron wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, Yurii A

    2013-02-28

    To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  16. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  17. Stress Wave Source Characterization: Impact, Fracture, and Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory Christofer

    Rapidly varying forces, such as those associated with impact, rapid crack propagation, and fault rupture, are sources of stress waves which propagate through a solid body. This dissertation investigates how properties of a stress wave source can be identified or constrained using measurements recorded at an array of sensor sites located far from the source. This methodology is often called the method of acoustic emission and is useful for structural health monitoring and the noninvasive study of material behavior such as friction and fracture. In this dissertation, laboratory measurements of 1--300 mm wavelength stress waves are obtained by means of piezoelectric sensors which detect high frequency (10 kHz--3MHz) motions of a specimen's surface, picometers to nanometers in amplitude. Then, stress wave source characterization techniques are used to study ball impact, drying shrinkage cracking in concrete, and the micromechanics of stick-slip friction of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and rock/rock interfaces. In order to quantitatively relate recorded signals obtained with an array of sensors to a particular stress wave source, wave propagation effects and sensor distortions must be accounted for. This is achieved by modeling the physics of wave propagation and transduction as linear transfer functions. Wave propagation effects are precisely modeled by an elastodynamic Green's function, sensor distortion is characterized by an instrument response function, and the stress wave source is represented with a force moment tensor. These transfer function models are verified though calibration experiments which employ two different mechanical calibration sources: ball impact and glass capillary fracture. The suitability of the ball impact source model, based on Hertzian contact theory, is experimentally validated for small (˜1 mm) balls impacting massive plates composed of four different materials: aluminum, steel, glass, and PMMA. Using this transfer function approach

  18. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic

  19. Meaning of the nuclear wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, John D.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: The intense current experimental interest in studying the structure of the deuteron and using it to enable accurate studies of neutron structure motivate us to examine the four-dimensional space-time nature of the nuclear wave function and the various approximations used to reduce it to an object that depends only on three spatial variables. Purpose: The aim is to determine if the ability to understand and analyze measured experimental cross sections is compromised by making the reduction from four to three dimensions. Method: Simple, exactly calculable, covariant models of a bound-state wave-state wave function (a scalar boson made of two constituent-scalar bosons) with parameters chosen to represent a deuteron are used to investigate the accuracy of using different approximations to the nuclear wave function to compute the quasielastic scattering cross section. Four different versions of the wave function are defined (light-front-spectator, light-front, light-front with scaling, and nonrelativistic) and used to compute the cross sections as a function of how far off the mass shell (how virtual) is the struck constituent. Results: We show that making an exact calculation of the quasielastic scattering cross section involves using the light-front-spectator wave function. All of the other approaches fail to reproduce the model exact calculation if the value of Bjorken x differs from unity. The model is extended to consider an essential effect of spin to show that constituent nucleons cannot be treated as being on their mass shell even when taking the matrix element of a "good" current. Conclusions: Developing realistic light-front-spectator wave functions to meet the needs of current and planned experiments is a worthwhile activity.

  20. The evolution of oscillator wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Mark

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how wave functions evolve with time in the harmonic oscillator. We first review the periodicity properties over each multiple of a quarter of the classical oscillation period. Then we show that any wave function can be simply transformed so that its centroid, defined by the expectation values of position and momentum, remains at rest at the center of the oscillator. This implies that we need only consider the evolution of this restricted class of wave functions; the evolution of all others can be reduced to these. The evolution of the spread in position Δx and momentum Δp throws light on energy and uncertainty and on squeezed and coherent states. Finally, we show that any wave function can be transformed so that Δx and Δp do not change with time and that the evolution of all wave functions can easily be found from the evolution of those at rest at the origin with unchanging Δx and Δp.

  1. Plasmon wave function of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveiro, I.; Plaza Ortega, J. M.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2015-08-01

    We find the low-frequency optical response of highly doped individual and arrayed graphene nanoribbons to be accurately described in terms of plasmon wave functions (PWFs). More precisely, we focus on the lowest-order transverse dipolar mode, for which we define the wave function as the induced charge density associated with the plasmon. We show that a single universal wave function is capable of describing the normal-incidence interaction of paired, co-planar, and stacked arrays of ribbons down to small inter-ribbon distances. Our work provides both intuitive insight into graphene plasmon interactions and a practical way of accurately describing complex graphene geometries based on the PWFs of the individual components.

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  3. Nonlinear wave function expansions : a progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.; Minkoff, M.; Brozell, S. R.; Chemistry

    2007-12-01

    Some recent progress is reported for a novel nonlinear expansion form for electronic wave functions. This expansion form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the Graphical Unitary Group Approach and the wave function is expanded in a basis of product functions, allowing application to closed and open shell systems and to ground and excited electronic states. Each product basis function is itself a multiconfigurational expansion that depends on a relatively small number of nonlinear parameters called arc factors. Efficient recursive procedures for the computation of reduced one- and two-particle density matrices, overlap matrix elements, and Hamiltonian matrix elements result in a very efficient computational procedure that is applicable to very large configuration state function (CSF) expansions. A new energy-based optimization approach is presented based on product function splitting and variational recombination. Convergence of both valence correlation energy and dynamical correlation energy with respect to the product function basis dimension is examined. A wave function analysis approach suitable for very large CSF expansions is presented based on Shavitt graph node density and arc density. Some new closed-form expressions for various Shavitt Graph and Auxiliary Pair Graph statistics are presented.

  4. Multifractal wave functions of simple quantum maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John; García-Mata, Ignacio; Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand

    2010-10-01

    We study numerically multifractal properties of two models of one-dimensional quantum maps: a map with pseudointegrable dynamics and intermediate spectral statistics and a map with an Anderson-like transition recently implemented with cold atoms. Using extensive numerical simulations, we compute the multifractal exponents of quantum wave functions and study their properties, with the help of two different numerical methods used for classical multifractal systems (box-counting and wavelet methods). We compare the results of the two methods over a wide range of values. We show that the wave functions of the Anderson map display a multifractal behavior similar to eigenfunctions of the three-dimensional Anderson transition but of a weaker type. Wave functions of the intermediate map share some common properties with eigenfunctions at the Anderson transition (two sets of multifractal exponents, with similar asymptotic behavior), but other properties are markedly different (large linear regime for multifractal exponents even for strong multifractality, different distributions of moments of wave functions, and absence of symmetry of the exponents). Our results thus indicate that the intermediate map presents original properties, different from certain characteristics of the Anderson transition derived from the nonlinear sigma model. We also discuss the importance of finite-size effects.

  5. Constructibility of the Universal Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on a constructive treatment of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a possible role of constructivist philosophy in resolving the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, particularly, the controversy over the meaning of the wave function of the universe. As it is demonstrated in the paper, unless the number of the universe's degrees of freedom is fundamentally upper bounded (owing to some unknown physical laws) or hypercomputation is physically realizable, the universal wave function is a non-constructive entity in the sense of constructive recursive mathematics. This means that even if such a function might exist, basic mathematical operations on it would be undefinable and subsequently the only content one would be able to deduce from this function would be pure symbolical.

  6. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eremenko, V; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I J; Elster, Charlotte; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, Goran; Escher, J.E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space is presented. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter eta, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p -> q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10(-1) to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions. Program Summary Program title: libcwfn Catalogue identifier: AEUQ_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEUQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 864503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7178021 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, Fortran 77, Python, make (GNU Make dialect), GNU Bash shell interpreter (available as /bin/bash). Computer: Apple Powermac (Intel Xeon), ASUS K53U (AMD E-350 (Dual Core)), DELL Precision T3500 (Intel Xeon), NERSC Carver (Intel Nehalem Quad Core). Operating system: Linux, Windows (using Cygwin). RAM: less than 512 Mbytes Classification: 17.8, 17.13, 17.16. Nature of problem: The calculation of partial wave Coulomb functions with integer land all other arguments real. Solution method: Computing the value of the function using explicit formulae and algorithms. Running time: Less than 10(-3) s. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  7. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I J; Elster, Charlotte; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, Goran; Escher, J.E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space is presented. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter eta, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p -> q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10(-1) to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions. Program Summary Program title: libcwfn Catalogue identifier: AEUQ_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEUQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 864503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7178021 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, Fortran 77, Python, make (GNU Make dialect), GNU Bash shell interpreter (available as /bin/bash). Computer: Apple Powermac (Intel Xeon), ASUS K53U (AMD E-350 (Dual Core)), DELL Precision T3500 (Intel Xeon), NERSC Carver (Intel Nehalem Quad Core). Operating system: Linux, Windows (using Cygwin). RAM: less than 512 Mbytes Classification: 17.8, 17.13, 17.16. Nature of problem: The calculation of partial wave Coulomb functions with integer land all other arguments real. Solution method: Computing the value of the function using explicit formulae and algorithms. Running time: Less than 10(-3) s. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  10. Covariance Constraints for Light Front Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.

    2016-06-01

    Light front wave functions (LFWFs) are often utilized to model parton distributions and form factors where their transverse and longitudinal momenta are tied to each other in some manner that is often guided by convenience. On the other hand, the cross talk of transverse and longitudinal momenta is governed by Poincaré symmetry and thus popular LFWF models are often not usable to model more intricate quantities such as generalized parton distributions. In this contribution a closer look to this issue is given and it is shown how to overcome the issue for two-body LFWFs.

  11. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  12. Variational wave functions for homogenous Bose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sueto, Andras; Szepfalusy, Peter

    2008-02-15

    We study variational wave functions of the product form, factorizing according to the wave vectors k, for the ground state of a system of bosons interacting via positive pair interactions with a positive Fourier transform. Our trial functions are members of different orthonormal bases in Fock space. Each basis contains a quasiparticle vacuum state and states with an arbitrary finite number of quasiparticles. One of the bases is that of Valatin and Butler (VB), introduced fifty years ago and parametrized by an infinite set of variables determining Bogoliubov's canonical transformation for each k. In another case, inspired by Nozieres and Saint James the canonical transformation for k=0 is replaced by a shift in the creation/annihilation operators. For the VB basis we prove that the lowest energy is obtained in a state with {approx}{radical}(volume) quasiparticles in the zero mode. The number of k=0 physical particles is of the order of the volume and its fluctuation is anomalously large, resulting in an excess energy. The same fluctuation is normal in the second type of optimized bases, the minimum energy is smaller and is attained in a vacuum state. Associated quasiparticle theories and questions about the gap in their spectrum are also discussed.

  13. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  14. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-06-15

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  15. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  16. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  17. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  18. Holographic Wave Functions, Meromorphization and Counting Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-05-10

    We study the large-Q{sup 2} behavior of the meson form factor F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) constructed using the holographic light-front wave functions proposed recently by Brodsky and de Teramond. We show that this model can be also obtained within the Migdal's regularization approach (''meromorphization''), if one applies it to 3-point function for scalar currents made of scalar quarks. We found that the asymptotic 1/Q{sup 2} behavior of F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) is generated by soft Feynman mechanism rather than by short distance dynamics, which causes very late onset of the 1/Q{sup 2} asymptotic behavior. It becomes visible only for unaccessible momenta Q{sup 2} {approx}> 10, GeV{sup 2}. Using meromorphization for spin-1/2 quarks, we demonstrated that resulting form factor F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) has 1/Q{sup 4} asymptotic behavior. Now, owing to the late onset of this asymptotic pattern, F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) imitates the 1/Q{sup 2} behavior in the few GeV{sup 2} region.

  19. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  20. Impact induced solitary wave propagation through a woodpile structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, R.; Waychal, A.; Agarwal, S.; Yadav, P.; Uddin, Ahsan; Sahoo, N.; Shelke, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate solitary wave propagation through a one-dimensional woodpile structure excited by low and high velocity impact. Woodpile structures are a sub-class of granular metamaterial, which supports propagation of nonlinear waves. Hertz contact law governs the behavior of the solitary wave propagation through the granular media. Towards an experimental study, a woodpile structure was fabricated by orthogonally stacking cylindrical rods. A shock tube facility has been developed to launch an impactor on the woodpile structure at a velocity of 30 m s-1. Embedded granular chain sensors were fabricated to study the behavior of the solitary wave. The impact induced stress wave is studied to investigate solitary wave parameters, i.e. contact force, contact time, and solitary wave velocity. With the aid of the experimental setup, numerical simulations, and a theoretical solution based on the long wavelength approximation, formation of the solitary wave in the woodpile structure is validated to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The nondispersive and compact supported solitary waves traveling at sonic wave velocity offer unique properties that could be leveraged for application in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.

  1. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  2. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  3. Bohmian mechanics without wave function ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Albert

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I critically assess different interpretations of Bohmian mechanics that are not committed to an ontology based on the wave function being an actual physical object that inhabits configuration space. More specifically, my aim is to explore the connection between the denial of configuration space realism and another interpretive debate that is specific to Bohmian mechanics: the quantum potential versus guidance approaches. Whereas defenders of the quantum potential approach to the theory claim that Bohmian mechanics is better formulated as quasi-Newtonian, via the postulation of forces proportional to acceleration; advocates of the guidance approach defend the notion that the theory is essentially first-order and incorporates some concepts akin to those of Aristotelian physics. Here I analyze whether the desideratum of an interpretation of Bohmian mechanics that is both explanatorily adequate and not committed to configuration space realism favors one of these two approaches to the theory over the other. Contrary to some recent claims in the literature, I argue that the quasi-Newtonian approach based on the idea of a quantum potential does not come out the winner.

  4. Imaging the wave functions of adsorbed molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F. Stefan; Ramsey, Michael G.; Puschnig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The basis for a quantum-mechanical description of matter is electron wave functions. For atoms and molecules, their spatial distributions and phases are known as orbitals. Although orbitals are very powerful concepts, experimentally only the electron densities and -energy levels are directly observable. Regardless whether orbitals are observed in real space with scanning probe experiments, or in reciprocal space by photoemission, the phase information of the orbital is lost. Here, we show that the experimental momentum maps of angle-resolved photoemission from molecular orbitals can be transformed to real-space orbitals via an iterative procedure which also retrieves the lost phase information. This is demonstrated with images obtained of a number of orbitals of the molecules pentacene (C22H14) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (C24H8O6), adsorbed on silver, which are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. The procedure requires no a priori knowledge of the orbitals and is shown to be simple and robust. PMID:24344291

  5. Impacts of ULF wave power on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Doherty, P.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of the ULF wave power, which is excited by long-lived high solar wind speed streams, in the magnetosphere has been well understood. For example, it has been reported that ULF pulsations may be the likely acceleration mechanism for generating storm-time MeV "killer" electrons in the magnetosphere. However, the impact of this energetic ULF wave power onto the ionosphere is not yet explored very well. In this paper we unequivocally demonstrated that during intense Pc5 ULF wave activity period, distinct pulsations with the same periodicity were found in the TEC data observed by GPS receivers located at different latitudes. The GPS-TEC has been used as a powerful tool to study the propagation pattern of transient ionospheric disturbances generated by seismic or internal gravity waves. Since then the small-scale variations (undulation) of GPS TEC has been associated with either gravity wave or TIDs. However, these small scale undulations of TECs turned out to be sensitive enough to the intense global ULF waves as well. The wavelet analysis of GPS TEC small scale undulations shows a peak value at the frequency of 2-10mHz which is a typical frequency range of Pc5 ULF wave. The typical internal gravity wave frequency is less than 1.6 or 2 mHz, therefore the TEC waves are likely due to ULF waves. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using a chain of ground-based magnetometer data, depicting the ULF wave penetration from high latitude to low latitude region. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the ionosphere and cause small scale undulation on the ionospheric density structures.

  6. Light Front Wave Function for Hadrons with Arbitrary Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a phenomenological light-front wave function for hadrons with arbitrary twist dimension (mesons, baryons and multiquark states), which gives the correct scaling behavior of structure functions and form factors. Some examples of his uses are presented.

  7. Light Front Wave Function for Hadrons with Arbitrary Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a phenomenological light-front wave function for hadrons with arbitrary twist dimension (mesons, baryons and multiquark states), which gives the correct scaling behavior of structure functions and form factors. Some examples of his uses are presented.

  8. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  9. Wind-wave source functions in opposing seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the center of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition.

  10. Modular matrices from universal wave-function overlaps in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jia-Wei; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-03-01

    We implement the universal wave-function overlap (UWFO) method to extract modular S and T matrices for topological orders in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions (GPWFs). The modular S and T matrices generate a projective representation of S L (2 ,Z ) on the degenerate-ground-state Hilbert space on a torus and may fully characterize the 2+1D topological orders, i.e., the quasiparticle statistics and chiral central charge (up to E8 bosonic quantum Hall states). We use the variational Monte Carlo method to computed the S and T matrices of the chiral spin liquid (CSL) constructed by the GPWF on the square lattice, and we confirm that the CSL carries the same topological order as the ν =1/2 bosonic Laughlin state. We find that the nonuniversal exponents in the UWFO can be small, and direct numerical computation can be applied on relatively large systems. The UWFO may be a powerful method to calculate the topological order in GPWFs.

  11. Joint inversion of body wave receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chu, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave dispersion has been used to image lithospheric structure jointly with receiver function, or Rayleigh wave ellipticity (Julia et al., 2000; Lin et al., 2012). Because surface wave dispersion is the total propagation effect of the travel path, the joint inversion relies on dense seismic arrays or high seismicity to obtain local velocity structure. However, both receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity are single station measurements with localized sensitivities and could be combined for joint inversion naturally. In this study we explored the feasibility of the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function. We performed sensitivity tests with forward modeling, and found that the receiver function is sensitive to sharp velocity interfaces but shows weak sensitivity to long wavelength structure, almost complementary to Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Therefore, joint inversion with two single-station measurements provides tighter constraints on the velocity structure beneath the seismic station. A joint inversion algorithm based on the Fast Simulated Annealing method is developed to invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function for the lithospheric structure. Application of the algorithm to the Indian Craton and the Williston Basin in the United States demonstrates its effectiveness in reducing the non-uniqueness of the inversion. However, the joint inversion is not sensitive to average crustal velocity, suggesting the need to combine surface wave dispersion, receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity to more accurately resolve the velocity structure. ReferenceJuliá, J., C. Ammon, R. Herrmann, and A. Correig, 2000. Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations, Geophys. J. Int., 143(1), 99-112. Lin F.C., Schmandt B. and Tsai V.C., 2012. Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity using USArray: constraining velocity and density structure in the upper

  12. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  13. Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.

  14. Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation

  15. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  16. Traveling waves and impact-parameter correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, S.; Salam, G. P.; Soyez, G.

    2008-09-01

    It is usually assumed that the high-energy evolution of partons in QCD remains local in coordinate space. In particular, fixed impact-parameter scattering is thought to be in the universality class of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion processes as if the evolutions at different points in the transverse plane became uncorrelated through rapidity evolution. We check this assumption by numerically comparing a toy model with QCD-like impact-parameter dependence to its exact counterpart with uniform evolution in impact-parameter space. We find quantitative differences, but which seem to amount to a mere rescaling of the strong coupling constant. Since the rescaling factor does not show any strong {alpha}{sub s} dependence, we conclude that locality is well verified, up to subleading terms at small {alpha}{sub s}.

  17. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  18. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  19. Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Tucker, Don H; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.

  20. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  1. How beaming of gravitational waves compares to the beaming of electromagnetic waves: impacts to gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew L.; Wickramasinghe, Thulsi

    2016-05-01

    We focus on understanding the beaming of gravitational radiation from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) by approximating GRBs as linearly accelerated point masses. For accelerated point masses, it is known that gravitational radiation is beamed isotropicly at high speeds, and beamed along the polar axis at low speeds. Aside from this knowledge, there has been very little work done on beaming of gravitational radiation from GRBs, and the impact beaming could have on gravitational wave (GW) detection. We determine the following: (1) the observation angle at which the most power is emitted as a function of speed, (2) the maximum ratio of power radiated away as a function of speed, and (3) the angular distribution of power ratios at relativistic and non-relativistic speeds. Additionally the dependence of the beaming of GW radiation on speed is essentially the opposite of the beaming of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from GRBs. So we investigate why this is the case by calculating the angular EM radiation distribution from a linear electric quadrupole, and compare this distribution to the angular gravitational radiation distribution from a GRB.

  2. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  3. The Pion Renormalized Light-Cone Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawiński, Arkadiusz P.

    2016-06-01

    An approximate light-cone wave function for the pion effective quark-antiquark Fock sector corresponding to a small value of the renormalization group parameter is presented. The approximate wave function is motivated by the LF-holography and the quadratic confinement potential in the front form of Hamiltonian dynamics, which is in harmony with the linear confining potential in the instant form. The pion radius, decay constant and form-factor are also presented.

  4. Structure of the number-projected BCS wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Pittel, S.; Esebbag, C.

    2016-03-01

    We study the structure of the number-projected BCS (PBCS) wave function in the particle-hole basis, displaying its similarities with coupled clusters theory (CCT). The analysis of PBCS together with several modifications suggested by the CCT wave function is carried out for the exactly solvable Richardson model involving a pure pairing Hamiltonian acting in a space of equally spaced, doubly degenerate levels. We point out the limitations of PBCS to describe the nonsuperconducting regime and suggest possible avenues for improvement.

  5. Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich

    2014-06-15

    Multi-time wave functions such as ϕ(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ψ(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.

  6. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    total and local force transducers which measured the response of the structure to the impact force. Also, the free surface elevations, the water particle velocity and the water particle acceleration were recorded during the WaveSlam experiment. Both the total and the local force data have been analysed using the Frequency Response Function method, which has been already applied to the estimation of the wave slamming forces. The results of this classical approach were compared to the calculated slamming forces based on Goda and Wienke and Oumeraci theories. Slamming wave forces and slamming coefficients calculated using both models appeared to be very much larger than those obtained from the analysed recorded data, therefore there is a need for further research. Details of this research and modelling results will be presented in the final poster.

  7. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  8. Improved variational wave functions for few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Arriaga, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We continued to work on improvements to our variational wave functions for use in Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei. These trial functions include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two-body correlations and three-body correlations for the three-nucleon potential. In the last two years we studied a variety of extra three-body correlations. Our search for possible forms was guided by comparisons made with 34-channel Faddeev wave functions provided by the Los Alamos-Iowa group. The new trial functions reduce the discrepancy with exact Faddeev calculations in {sup 3}H and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations in {sup 4}He by about 40%. This work is now being written up for publication. We hope to use similar comparisons with GFMC calculations in the six-body nuclei to find further improvements for the light p-shell nuclei, where the variational wave functions are not as good.

  9. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  10. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  11. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  12. Pfaffian wave functions and topology of fermion nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitas, Lubos

    2007-03-01

    Pfaffian is defined as a signed sum of all pair partitions of even number of elements and it can be viewed as a nontrivial generalization of determinant. Pfaffian enables to define the simplest possible antisymmetric wave function based on pair spinorbital(s) and therefore represents a pairing generalization of the Slater determinant of one-particle orbitals. Pfaffians actually accomodate several types of pairing wave functions, for example, one special case is the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer wave function. Using this platform we propose pfaffian wave functions with simultaneous pairings both in singlet and triplet channels and we benchmark their performance in fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo. We implement Gaussian elimination-like algorithm which enables to calculate pfaffians with efficiency similar to calculation of determinants. For a testing set of first row atoms and molecules we show that single pfaffians provide correlation energies systematically at the level of about 95%. Linear combinations of small number of pfaffians recover another fraction of the missing correlation energy comparable to significantly larger determinantal expansions. In addition, we show that pfaffians possess an important property of fermionic wave functions, namely, the minimal number of two nodal domains defined by fermion nodes. This is related to the proof that under rather general conditions closed-shell ground state wave functions of fermionic systems in d>1 have two nodal domains for arbitrary system size. The explicit proofs cover a number of paradigmatic models such as fermions on a sphere surface, in a periodic box, atomic states, etc, and we discuss the implications of this on efficient construction of wave functions and on several types of many-body effects. Supported by NSF and done in collaboration with M. Bajdich, L.K. Wagner, G. Drobny, and K.E Schmidt.Refs: L. Mitas, PRL 96, 240402 (2006); L. Mitas, cond-mat/0605550; M. Bajdich et al, PRL 96, 130201 (2006); cond

  13. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  14. Rossby wave Green's functions in an azimuthal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Duba, C. T.; Hu, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\\psi$ depends on $r$, $\\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case, which has a different but equivalent form to the Green's function obtained in the present paper. We emphasize the role of the wave eikonal solution, which plays an important role in the form of the solution. The corresponding Green's function for a rotating wind with azimuthal wind velocity ${\\bf u}=\\Omega r{\\bf e}_\\phi$ ($\\Omega=$const.) is also obtained by Fourier methods, in which the advective rotation operator in position space is transformed to a rotation operator in ${\\bf k}$ transform space. The finite Rossby deformation radius is included in the analysis. The physical characteristics of the Green's functions are delineated and applications are discussed. In the limit as $\\Omega\\to 0$, the rotating wind Green's function reduces to the Rossby wave Green function with no wind.

  15. Joint Resummation for TMD Wave Function of Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-02-01

    QCD corrections to transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave function develop the mixed double logarithm ln x ln(ζ P2/k_T^2), when the gluon emission is collinear to the energetic pion. The fist scheme-independent kT factorization formula for γ*π → γ transition form factor is achieved by resumming all the enhanced logarithms for both pion wave function and short-distance coefficient function. High-order QCD corrections and transfer momentum √ {Q2} dependence of pion form factor are found to be distinct from those predicted by the conventional resummation approach.

  16. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

  17. Inside looking out: Probing JIMWLK wave functions with BFKL calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the relation between the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) and Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK/KLWMIJ) Hamiltonians. We show that the eigenvalues of the BFKL Hamiltonians are also exact eigenvalues of the KLWMIJ (and JIMWLK) Hamiltonian, albeit corresponding to possibly non-normalizable eigenfunctions. The question whether a given eigenfunction of BFKL corresponds to a normalizable eigenfunction of KLWMIJ is rather complicated, except in some obvious cases, and requires independent investigation. As an example to illustrate this relation we concentrate on the color octet exchange in the framework of KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. We show that it corresponds to the reggeized gluon exchange of BFKL, and find first correction to the BFKL wave function, which has the meaning of the impact factor for shadowing correction to the Reggeized gluon. We also show that the bootstrap condition in the KLWMIJ framework is satisfied automatically and does not carry any additional information to that contained in the second quantized structure of the KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. This is an example of how the bootstrap condition inherent in the t-channel unitarity arises in the s-channel picture.

  18. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  19. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  20. Two-dimensional Coulomb scattering of a quantum particle: Wave functions and Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupyshev, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    We solve the problem of the propagation of a charged quantum particle in a two-dimensional plane embedded in the three-dimensional coordinate space. We consider scattering of this particle by a stable Coulomb center situated in the same plane. We study the wave function of this particle, its Green's function, and all radial components of these functions. We derive uniform majorant bounds on absolute values of these functions and find the wave function representation in terms of regular radial Coulomb functions and the scattering amplitude representation via partial phases. We obtain integral representations of the Greens's function and all its radial components.

  1. Simulations of Wave Propagation in the Jovian Atmosphere after SL9 Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Jarrad W.; Palotai, C.; Korycansky, D.; Harrington, J.

    2013-10-01

    Our previous numerical investigations into Jovian impacts, including the Shoemaker Levy- 9 (SL9) event (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642; Palotai et al. 2011 ApJ 731. 3), the 2009 bolide (Pond et al. 2012 ApJ 745. 113), and the ephemeral flashes caused by smaller impactors in 2010 and 2012 (Hueso et al. 2013; Submitted to A&A), have covered only up to approximately 3 to 30 seconds after impact. Here, we present further SL9 impacts extending to minutes after collision with Jupiter’s atmosphere, with a focus on the propagation of shock waves generated as a result of the impact events. Using a similar yet more efficient remapping method than previously presented (Pond et al. 2012; DPS 2012), we move our simulation results onto a larger computational grid, conserving quantities with minimal error. The Jovian atmosphere is extended as needed to accommodate the evolution of the features of the impact event. We restart the simulation, allowing the impact event to continue to progress to greater spatial extents and for longer times, but at lower resolutions. This remap-restart process can be implemented multiple times to achieve the spatial and temporal scales needed to investigate the observable effects of waves generated by the deposition of energy and momentum into the Jovian atmosphere by an SL9-like impactor. As before, we use the three-dimensional, parallel hydrodynamics code ZEUS-MP 2 (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188) to conduct our simulations. Wave characteristics are tracked throughout these simulations. Of particular interest are the wave speeds and wave positions in the atmosphere as a function of time. These properties are compared to the characteristics of the HST rings to see if shock wave behavior within one hour of impact is consistent with waves observed at one hour post-impact and beyond (Hammel et al. 1995 Science 267. 1288). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1109729 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program Grant

  2. Hydrodynamic waves and correlation functions in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1997-11-01

    A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations. It is shown that in the presence of weakly damped, long-wavelength dust-acoustic waves, the dust autocorrelation function is of the Debye{endash}H{umlt u}ckel form and the characteristic shielding distance is the dust Debye length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Oblique propagation, wave particle interaction and particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmane, Adnane; Hamza, A. M.; Meziane, Karim

    Recent results from the Cluster mission have stimulated theoretical investigations and simulations to explain ion distribution functions observed in the quasi-perp bow shock. High-time resolution observations have revealed distributions of gyrating ions that are gyrophase-bunched. When not produced at the shock, such distributions are believed to be resulting from interactions between field-aligned beams and low frequency beamdriven waves . The Conventional models used to account for such distributions assume that the waves are purely transverse, and that they propagate parallel to the ambient magnetic eld. However observations indicate that these waves are propagating obliquely with respect to the ambient magnetic eld [Meziane et al., 2001]. A theoretical investigation of the non-relativistic wave-particle interaction in a background magnetic eld with the electromagnetic wave propagating obliquely has been addressed previously, resulting in a dynamical system describing the wave interaction with a single ion in the absence of dissipation mechanisms. [Hamza et al., 2005] This dynamical system has been numerically integrated to construct the ion distribution functions by seeding the particles with di erent initial conditions. We compute the particle orbits and simulate the time evolution of the distribution functions based on Liouville's theorem of phase space density conservation. It will be shown that the trapping which is due to the oblique propagation of the wave, gives an explanation for gyrophase-bunching and unstable distributions in velocity space which could trigger instabilities such as firehose and mirror. Therefore this exercise provide insights on the particle dynamics and onset of waves away from the shock. Meziane, K., C. Mazelle, R.P. Lin, D. LeQueau, D.E. Larson, G.K. Parks, R.P. Lepping (2001), Three dimensional observations of gyrating ions distributions far upstream from the Earth's bow shock and their association with low-frequency waves, J

  4. Source Time Function of P-wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the site effect of time function of the Taiwan area will be invested. The recorded response function of a single earthquake will be calculated by Complex Demodulation. The path effect of each event-station pair will be estimated by using the forward method with a 3-D attenuation structure. After removing the path effect, the source frequency function of each single event will be obtained by averaging the whole station gotten. Using this source time function to calculate the path effect of the all stations, the theoretic received time frequency function can be obtained. The difference between this theoretic function and the recorded function is the site effect function of the single station. The characterics of the site effect in Taiwan area will be analyzed. Recalculate the path effect and remove the site effect of each station to get the new source time function of P-wave acceleration.

  5. Dark energy and normalization of the cosmological wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peng; Huang, Yue; Li, Miao; Li, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Dark energy is investigated from the perspective of quantum cosmology. It is found that, together with an appropriate normal ordering factor q, only when there is dark energy can the cosmological wave function be normalized. This interesting observation may require further attention.

  6. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  7. Vector Meson Form Factors and Wave Functions from Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannes Grigoryan; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-10-10

    Based on the holographic dual model of QCD, we study 2- and 3-point functions of vector currents and derive form factors as well as wave functions for the vector mesons. As a result, generalized vector-meson dominance representation for form factors is obtained with a very specific VMD pattern. The calculated electric radius of the rho-meson is shown to be in a good agreement with predictions from lattice QCD.

  8. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the 8B nucleus.

  9. Refined applications of the collapse of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodolsky, L.

    2015-05-01

    In a two-part system, the collapse of the wave function of one part can put the other part in a state which would be difficult or impossible to achieve otherwise, in particular, one sensitive to small effects in the "collapse" interaction. We present some applications to the very symmetric and experimentally accessible situations of the decays ϕ (1020 )→KoKo , ψ (3770 )→DoDo, or ϒ (4 s )→BoBo , involving the internal state of the two-state Ko, Do, or Bo mesons. The collapse of the wave function occasioned by a decay of one member of the pair (away side) fixes the state vector of that side's two-state system. Bose-Einstein statistics then determines the state of the recoiling meson (near side), whose evolution can then be followed further. In particular, the statistics requirement dictates that the "away side" and "near side" internal wave functions must be orthogonal at the time of the collapse. Thus a C P violation in the away side decay implies a complementary C P impurity on the near side, which can be detected in the further evolution. The C P violation so manifested is necessarily direct C P violation, since neither the mass matrix nor time evolution was involved in the collapse. A parametrization of the direct C P violation is given, and various manifestations are presented. Certain rates or combination of rates are identified which are nonzero only if there is direct C P violation. The very explicit and detailed use made of the collapse of the wave function makes the procedure interesting with respect to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. We note an experimental consistency test for our treatment of the collapse of the wave function, which can be carried out by a certain measurement of partial decay rates.

  10. How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faletič, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.

  11. Local properties of three-body atomic wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.; Varga, K.

    2000-06-01

    The local properties and accuracy of the positronium negative-ion (Ps{sup -}) ground-state wave functions obtained by the stochastic variational method (SVM) and by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method (CFHHM) are studied and compared. Though the energy, calculated by both methods, agrees to up to ten digits, the amplitudes of the values of the operator D=H{psi}/E{psi}-1, characterizing local deviation of the wave function from its true value, in all of the coordinate space in the SVM are consistently larger (by up to five orders of magnitude) than in the CFHHM, despite the fact that the SVM observables except <{delta}(r{sub k})> converge to significantly more digits than the CFHHM observables for their respective selected bases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Edge states for the Kalmeyer-Laughlin wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwerth, Benedikt; Sierra, Germán; Tu, Hong-Hao; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Nielsen, Anne E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We study lattice wave functions obtained from the SU(2)1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory. Following Moore and Read's construction, the Kalmeyer-Laughlin fractional quantum Hall state is defined as a correlation function of primary fields. By an additional insertion of Kac-Moody currents, we associate a wave function with each state of the conformal field theory. These wave functions span the complete Hilbert space of the lattice system. On the cylinder, we study global properties of the lattice states analytically and correlation functions numerically using a Metropolis Monte Carlo method. By comparing short-range bulk correlations, numerical evidence is provided that the states with one current operator represent edge states in the thermodynamic limit. We show that the edge states with one Kac-Moody current of lowest order have a good overlap with low-energy excited states of a local Hamiltonian, for which the Kalmeyer-Laughlin state approximates the ground state. For some states, exact parent Hamiltonians are derived on the cylinder. These Hamiltonians are SU(2) invariant and nonlocal with up to four-body interactions.

  13. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  14. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  15. Resonating valence bond wave functions and classical interacting dimer models.

    PubMed

    Damle, Kedar; Dhar, Deepak; Ramola, Kabir

    2012-06-15

    We relate properties of nearest-neighbor resonating valence-bond (NNRVB) wave functions for SU(g) spin systems on two-dimensional bipartite lattices to those of fully packed interacting classical dimer models on the same lattice. The interaction energy can be expressed as a sum of n-body potentials V(n), which are recursively determined from the NNRVB wave function on finite subgraphs of the original lattice. The magnitude of the n-body interaction V(n) (n>1) is of order O(g(-(n-1))) for small g(-1). The leading term is a two-body nearest-neighbor interaction V2(g) favoring two parallel dimers on elementary plaquettes. For SU(2) spins, using our calculated value of V2(g=2), we find that the long-distance behavior of the bond-energy correlation function is dominated by an oscillatory term that decays as 1/|r|α with α≈1.22. This result is in remarkable quantitative agreement with earlier direct numerical studies of the corresponding wave function, which give α≈1.20. PMID:23004328

  16. Estimating Moho depth utilizing S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, S.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.

    2014-12-01

    H-k stacking method [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000] is a widely used grid search technique for estimating the Moho depth (H) and Vp/Vs (k) beneath a given station. The H-k surface reaches a maximum when the optimum H and k values are used, which is assumed to be the average crustal structure beneath the seismic station. In general, the method is employed in conjunction with P-wave receiver functions. Here, we investigate the usability of H-k stacking method with S-to-P (Sp) conversions and S-wave reverberations within the crust, employing an extended multi-taper deconvolution. We apply the method to southern California, using data recorded between 1990-2011. We compare results with those of prior studies that used P-to-S (Ps) conversions [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000; Yan and Clayton, 2007], applying a smoothing length of 0.5 degrees to reflect lateral Sp sensitivity. P-waves have better potential to resolve lateral variations in Moho depth owing to the higher frequency content and the geometry of Ps ray path. Our results from Sp conversions are in broad agreement with those from Ps, affirming that S-wave receiver functions can be used in conjunction with the H-k stacking method. Consistent with the P-wave receiver function results, crust is thinner beneath the central Transverse Range (30 km) with respect to eastern Transverse Range (33 km) and Peninsular Region (35 km). Our Moho depth observations (35 km) are more compatible with those of Yan and Clayton [2007] (~35 km) than Zhu and Kanamori [2000] (~30 km) beneath Sierra Nevada, most probably due to a larger data set this study and Yan and Clayton [2007] use. Also, results from this study are deeper than those from Ps for the Salton Trough (30-35 km vs. 25 km). In this case, broad receiver function waveform characteristics suggest a more gradual impedance change across the Moho discontinuity and/or a multi-layered crust. We suggest that a combination of P- and S-wave receiver functions can yield more robust crustal thickness

  17. Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.

  18. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    SciTech Connect

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  19. Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-03-01

    Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.

  20. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-01

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  1. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  2. Hydrodynamic Waves and Correlation Functions in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Wang, Xiaogang

    1997-11-01

    A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations [L. P. Kadanoff and P. C. Martin, Ann. Phys. 24, 419 (1963)]. It is shown that in the presence of the slow dust-acoustic waves, the dust auto-correlation function is of the Debye-Hekel form and the shielding distance is the dust Debye length. In the short-wavelength regime, an integral equation is derived from kinetic theory and solved numerically to yield particle correlation functions that display ``liquid-like'' behavior and have been observed experimentally [R. A.. Quinn, C. Cui, J. Goree, J. B. Pieper, H. Thomas and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 53, R2049 (1996)].

  3. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  4. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-04-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  5. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-07-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  6. Transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2012-05-15

    The transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} semiconductor structures with a finite concentration of donors N in the n layer has been theoretically analyzed. It is assumed that the high velocity u of impact ionization waves is ensured owing to the avalanche multiplication of the uniform background of electrons and holes whose concentration {sigma}{sub b} ahead of the front is high enough for the continuum approximation to be applicable. The problem of the calculation of the growth rate s of a small harmonic perturbation with wavenumber k is reduced to the eigenvalue problem for a specific homogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind containing the sum of double and triple integrals of an unknown eigenfunction. This problem has been solved by the method of successive approximations. It has been shown that the function s(k) for small k values increases monotonically in agreement with the analytical theory reported in Thermal Engineering 58 (13), 1119 (2011), reaches a maximum s{sub M} at k = k{sub M}, then decreases, and becomes negative at k > k{sub 01}. This behavior of the function s(k) for short-wavelength perturbations is due to a decrease in the distortion of the field owing to a finite thickness of the space charge region of the front and 'smearing' of perturbation of concentrations owing to the transverse transport of charge carriers. The similarity laws for perturbations with k Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To k{sub M} have been established: at fixed {sigma}{sub b} values and the maximum field strength on the front E{sub 0M}, the growth rate s depends only on the ratio k/N and the boundary wavenumber k{sub 01} {proportional_to} N. The parameters s{sub M}, k{sub M}, and k{sub 01}, which determine the perturbation growth dynamics and the upper boundary of the instability region for impact ionization waves, have been presented as functions of E{sub 0M}. These dependences indicate that the model of a plane

  7. Computational aspects of the continuum quaternionic wave functions for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.

    2014-10-15

    Over the past few years considerable attention has been given to the role played by the Hydrogen Continuum Wave Functions (HCWFs) in quantum theory. The HCWFs arise via the method of separation of variables for the time-independent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates. The HCWFs are composed of products of a radial part involving associated Laguerre polynomials multiplied by exponential factors and an angular part that is the spherical harmonics. In the present paper we introduce the continuum wave functions for hydrogen within quaternionic analysis ((R)QHCWFs), a result which is not available in the existing literature. In particular, the underlying functions are of three real variables and take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4}). We prove that the (R)QHCWFs are orthonormal to one another. The representation of these functions in terms of the HCWFs are explicitly given, from which several recurrence formulae for fast computer implementations can be derived. A summary of fundamental properties and further computation of the hydrogen-like atom transforms of the (R)QHCWFs are also discussed. We address all the above and explore some basic facts of the arising quaternionic function theory. As an application, we provide the reader with plot simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. (R)QHCWFs are new in the literature and have some consequences that are now under investigation.

  8. Wave impact on walls with/without parapets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Jannette; Tremblay, Olivier; Xharde, Regis

    2015-11-01

    This work is concerned with coastline protection. The usage of vertical walls is examined for various wave trains. The effect of parapets is further studied to minimize overtopping. The results presented are based on large scale flume experiments (Quebec) with a geometric scaling of 1:4. The beach has a slope 1:10. The beach material is highly absorbing and contains a mix of sand-gravel-cobble. Steel plates are mounted locally at the beach top to eliminate effect from local scour. The critical cases found relates to the plunging breakers breaking directly impacting the wall. Entrapped air-pocket(s) under the breaking wave contribute to the run-up energy through compressibility effects and bubble burst physics even from relatively small air-pockets. Highly localized wall pressures greater than 1 MPa and 10 m run-up are easily developed even with moderate amplitude waves at the inlet. The max. peak pressure on the wall identified caused either by water or entrained air pressure is typically greater than 1 MPa occurring in the order of 0.1 ms. The pressure distributions contain either single, double or triple peaks occurring typically above/at mean flume water depth and at around the local water depth in front of the wall. Furthermore, it was identified that the cases with maximum pressure on the wall does not necessarily give the maximum jet velocity (equivalent to vertical force considered in design of parapets). This work is supported by Le ministere des Transports du Quebec, and Le ministere de la Securite publique du Quebec, Canada.

  9. Spin-orbit interaction with nonlinear wave functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozell, S. R.; Shepard, R.; Zhang, Z.; Stanford Univ.

    2007-12-01

    The computation of the spin-orbit interaction is discussed for electronic wave functions expressed in the new nonlinear expansion form. This form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the graphical unitary group approach (GUGA). The nodes of a Shavitt graph in GUGA are connected by arcs, and a Configuration State Function (CSF) is represented as a walk along arcs from the vacuum node to a head node. The wave function is a linear combination of product functions each of which is a linear combination of all CSFs, wherein each CSF coefficient is a product of nonlinear arc factors. When the spin-orbit interaction is included the Shavitt graph is a union of single-headed Shavitt graphs each with the same total number of electrons and orbitals. Thus spin-orbit Shavitt graphs are multiheaded. For full-CI multiheaded Shavitt graphs, analytic expressions are presented for the number of walks, the number of nodes, the number of arcs, and the number of node pairs in the associated auxiliary pair graph.

  10. Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao

    This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.

  11. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  12. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous

  13. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle. PMID:26442830

  14. The impact of crustal density variations on seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct.We propose to develop a seismic tomography technique that directly inverts for density, using complete seismograms rather than arrival times of certain waves only. The first task in this challenge is to systematically study the imprints of density on synthetic seismograms.To compute the full seismic wavefield in a 3D heterogeneous medium without making significant approximations, we usenumerical wave propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the 1D Earth model PREM (with 40 km crust thickness) as a background. Onto this (in the uppermost 40 km) we superimpose 3D randomly generated velocity and density heterogeneities of various magnitudes and correlation lenghts. We use different random realizations of heterogeneity distribution.We compare the synthetic seismograms for 3D velocity and density structure with 3D velocity structure and with the 1D background, calculating relative amplitude differences and timeshifts as functions of time and frequency.Our analyses indicate that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both traveltimes and amplitudes. This suggests (1) that crustal tomography can be significantly biased when density heterogeneities are not properly accounted for, and (2) that the solution of the seismic inverse problem for density may become feasible.

  15. Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints.

  16. Standard quantum mechanics featuring probabilities instead of wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. I. Manko, O. V.

    2006-06-15

    A new formulation of quantum mechanics (probability representation) is discussed. In this representation, a quantum state is described by a standard positive definite probability distribution (tomogram) rather than by a wave function. An unambiguous relation (analog of Radon transformation) between the density operator and a tomogram is constructed both for continuous coordinates and for spin variables. A novel feature of a state, tomographic entropy, is considered, and its connection with von Neumann entropy is discussed. A one-to-one map of quantum observables (Hermitian operators) on positive probability distributions is found.

  17. Is spontaneous wave function collapse testable at all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2015-07-01

    Mainstream literature on spontaneous wave function collapse never reflects on or profits from the formal coincidence and conceptual relationship with standard collapse under time-continuous quantum measurement (monitoring). I propose some easy lessons of standard monitoring theory which would make spontaneous collapse models revise some of their claims. In particular, the objective detection of spontaneous collapse remains impossible as long as the correct identification of what corresponds to the signal in standard monitoring is missing from spontaneous collapse models, the physical detectability of the “signal” is not stated explicitly and, finally, the principles of physical detection are not revealed.

  18. Average wave function method for gas-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Dacol, Dalcio K.; Rabitz, Herschel

    1986-02-01

    The average wave function method (AWM) is applied to scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. For an ordered lattice an explicit relation is derived for the Bragg peaks along with a numerical illustration. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian-like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configurations is illustrated. Enhanced uniform backscattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface.

  19. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  20. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)-, Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)2-, and Gd(III)(H2O)83+ in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  1. Horizon wave-function and the quantum cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture by means of the horizon wave-function (HWF) formalism. We consider a charged massive particle whose quantum mechanical state is represented by a spherically symmetric Gaussian wave-function, and restrict our attention to the superextremal case (with charge-to-mass ratio α > 1), which is the prototype of a naked singularity in the classical theory. We find that one can still obtain a normalisable HWF for α2 < 2, and this configuration has a non-vanishing probability of being a black hole, thus extending the classically allowed region for a charged black hole. However, the HWF is not normalisable for α2 > 2, and the uncertainty in the location of the horizon blows up at α2 = 2, signalling that such an object is no more well-defined. This perhaps implies that a quantum Cosmic Censorship might be conjectured by stating that no black holes with charge-to-mass ratio greater than a critical value (of the order of √{ 2}) can exist.

  2. Quasirelativistic quasilocal finite wave-function collapse model

    SciTech Connect

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-03-01

    A Markovian wave-function collapse model is presented where the collapse-inducing operator, constructed from quantum fields, is a manifestly covariant generalization of the mass-density operator utilized in the nonrelativistic continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. However, the model is not Lorentz invariant because two such operators do not commute at spacelike separation, i.e., the time-ordering operation in one Lorentz frame, the 'preferred' frame, is not the time-ordering operation in another frame. However, the characteristic spacelike distance over which the commutator decays is the particle's Compton wavelength so, since the commutator rapidly gets quite small, the model is 'almost' relativistic. This quasirelativistic CSL (QRCSL) model is completely finite: unlike previous, relativistic, models, it has no (infinite) energy production from the vacuum state. QRCSL calculations are given of the collapse rate for a single free particle in a superposition of spatially separated packets, and of the energy production rate for any number of free particles: these reduce to the CSL rates if the particle's Compton wavelength is small compared to the model's distance parameter. One motivation for QRCSL is the realization that previous relativistic models entail excitation of nuclear states which exceeds that of experiment, whereas QRCSL does not; an example is given involving quadrupole excitation of the {sup 74}Ge nucleus.

  3. Wave functions for fractional Chern insulators in disk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ai-Lei; Luo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2015-12-01

    Recently, fractional Chern insulators (FCIs), also called fractional quantum anomalous Hall (FQAH) states, have been theoretically established in lattice systems with topological flat bands. These systems exhibit similar fractionalization phenomena to the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems. Using the mapping relationship between the FQH states and the FCI/FQAH states, we construct the many-body wave functions of the fermionic FCI/FQAH states in disk geometry with the aid of the generalized Pauli principle (GPP) and Jack polynomials. Compared with the ground state by the exact diagonalization method, the wave-function overlap is higher than 0.97, even when the Hilbert space dimension is as large as 3 × 106. We also use the GPP and the Jack polynomials to construct edge excitations for the fermionic FCI/FQAH states. The quasi-degeneracy sequences of fermionic FCI/FQAH systems reproduce the prediction of the chiral Luttinger liquid theory, complementing the exact diagonalization results with larger lattice sizes and more particles.

  4. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.

  5. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  6. Elimination of the impact of vessels on ocean wave height inversion with X-band wave monitoring radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Xiongbin; Ma, Ketao; Tian, Yun; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-09-01

    Directional wave spectra and integrated wave parameters can be derived from X-band radar sea surface images. A vessel on the sea surface has a significant influence on wave parameter inversions that can be seen as intensive backscatter speckles in X-band wave monitoring radar sea surface images. A novel algorithm to eliminate the interference of vessels in ocean wave height inversions from X-band wave monitoring radar is proposed. This algorithm is based on the characteristics of the interference. The principal components (PCs) of a sea surface image sequence are extracted using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The standard deviation of the PCs is then used to identify vessel interference within the image sequence. To mitigate the interference, a suppression method based on a frequency domain geometric model is applied. The algorithm framework has been applied to OSMAR-X, a wave monitoring system developed by Wuhan University, based on nautical X-band radar. Several sea surface images captured on vessels by OSMAR-X are processed using the method proposed in this paper. Inversion schemes are validated by comparisons with data from in situ wave buoys. The root-mean-square error between the significant wave heights (SWH) retrieved from original interference radar images and those measured by the buoy is reduced by 0.25 m. The determinations of surface gravity wave parameters, in particular SWH, confirm the applicability of the proposed method.

  7. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  8. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended. PMID:23525899

  9. Magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function information from wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Robert F.; ViñAs, Adolfo F.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph; Purser, Carola M.; Adrian, Mark L.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2013-08-01

    The electron-velocity-distribution function was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode waves that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution function used in the plasma-wave dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution, and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.

  10. Magnetospheric Electron-Velocity-Distribution Function Information from Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.; Vinas, A. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Purser, C. M.; Adrian, M. L.; Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The electron-velocity-distribution function was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode waves that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution function used in the plasma-wave dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in-situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.

  11. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  12. Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using

  13. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  14. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat waves and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80%.

  15. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat wave and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80 %.

  16. Semiclassical-wave-function perspective on high-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M.; Lopata, Kenneth; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a semiclassical-wave-function (SCWF) model for strong-field physics and attosecond science. When applied to high-harmonic generation (HHG), this formalism allows one to show that the natural time-domain separation of the contribution of ionization, propagation, and recollisions to the HHG process leads to a frequency-domain factorization of the harmonic yield into these same contributions, for any choice of atomic or molecular potential. We first derive the factorization from the natural expression of the dipole signal in the temporal domain by using a reference system, as in the quantitative rescattering (QRS) formalism [J. Phys. B 43, 122001 (2010), 10.1088/0953-4075/43/12/122001]. Alternatively, we show how the trajectory component of the SCWF can be used to express the factorization, which also allows one to attribute individual contributions to the spectrum to the underlying trajectories.

  17. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call ‘connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory–inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation–inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness. PMID:26792267

  18. Source function and plane waves: Toward complete bader analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantardini, Christian; Ceresoli, Davide; Benassi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The source function (SF) is a topological descriptor that was introduced and developed by C. Gatti and R.W. Bader in 1998. The SF describes the contribution of each atom to the total electron density at a given point. To date, this descriptor has only been calculable from electron densities generated by all-electron (AE) methods for the investigation of single molecules or periodic systems. This study broadens the accessibility of the SF, offering its calculation from electron densities generated by plane wave (PW) methods. The new algorithm has been implemented in the open source code, CRITIC2. Our novel approach has been validated on a series of test systems, comparing the results obtained at PW level with those previously obtained through AE methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364862

  19. Longitudinal Variations of Low-Latitude Gravity Waves and Their Impacts on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lower atmospheric forcing has important roles in the ionospheric variability. However, influences of lower atmospheric gravity waves on the ionospheric variability are still not clear due to the simplified gravity wave parameterizations and the limited knowledge of gravity wave distributions. In this study, we aim to study the longitudinal variations of gravity waves and their impacts of longitudinal variations of low-latitude gravity waves on the ionospheric variability. Our SABER results show that longitudinal variations of gravity waves at the lower boundary of TIME-GCM are the largest in June-August and January-February. We have implemented these low-latitude gravity wave variations from SABER instrument into TIME-GCM model. TIME-GCM simulation results of ionospheric responses to longitudinal variations of gravity waves and physical mechanisms will be discussed.

  20. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  1. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore » conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  2. SH Wave Number Green's Function for a Layered, Elastic Half-Space. Part I: Theory and Dynamic Canyon Response by the Discrete Wave Number Boundary Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Doriam; Gómez, Juan David; Jaramillo, Juan Diego

    2014-09-01

    We present a closed-form frequency-wave number ( ω - k) Green's function for a layered, elastic half-space under SH wave propagation. It is shown that for every ( ω - k) pair, the fundamental solution exhibits two distinctive features: (1) the original layered system can be reduced to a system composed by the uppermost superficial layer over an equivalent half-space; (2) the fundamental solution can be partitioned into three different fundamental solutions, each one carrying out a different physical interpretation, i.e., an equivalent half-space, source image impact, and dispersive wave effect, respectively. Such an interpretation allows the proper use of analytical and numerical integration schemes, and ensures the correct assessment of Cauchy principal value integrals. Our method is based upon a stiffness-matrix scheme, and as a first approach we assume that observation points and the impulsive SH line-source are spatially located within the uppermost superficial layer. We use a discrete wave number boundary element strategy to test the benefits of our fundamental solution. We benchmark our results against reported solutions for an infinitely long circular canyon subjected to oblique incident SH waves within a homogeneous half-space. Our results show an almost exact agreement with previous studies. We further shed light on the impact of horizontal strata by examining the dynamic response of the circular canyon to oblique incident SH waves under different layered half-space configurations and incident angles. Our results show that modifications in the layering structure manifest by larger peak ground responses, and stronger spatial variability due to interactions of the canyon geometry with trapped Love waves in combination with impedance contrast effects.

  3. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction <span class="hlt">waves</span> and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu-Cheng Li</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, <span class="hlt">waves</span> of long period, <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction, and wind on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4253536','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4253536"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Connectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Damaraju, Eswar; Phlypo, Ronald; Plis, Sergey; Allen, Elena; Ma, Sai; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity and argue that not correcting for autocorrelation in fMRI time-series results in “spurious” correlation coefficients. In this paper, first we assess the effect of autocorrelation on Pearson correlation coefficient through theoretical approximation and simulation. Then we present this effect on real fMRI data. To our knowledge this is the first work comprehensively investigating the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity estimates. Our results show that although FC values are altered, even following correction for autocorrelation, results of hypothesis testing on FC values remain very similar to those before correction. In real data we show this is true for main effects and also for group difference testing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. We further discuss model order selection in the context of autoregressive processes, effects of frequency filtering and propose a preprocessing pipeline for connectivity studies. PMID:25072392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns and their characteristics of Havelock form green <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yong; Dong, Wen-cai; Xiao, Wen-bin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A new mathematical integral representation including five integrals about the far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape <span class="hlt">function</span> of Havelock form translating-pulsating source is obtained by performing variable substitution. Constant-phase curves and propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns are investigated by applying stationary phase analysis method to the new representation. Some findings are summarized as follows: (1) when 0< τ <0.25 (where τ is the Strouhal number), three types of stationary phase curves corresponding to three propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, inner V and outer V <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, are found in the integral representation. (2) When τ>0.25, besides three types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as a ring-faning <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern and an inner V <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a new one called parallel <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern is also found which not only exists in the integrals about the ring-fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> and fan <span class="hlt">wave</span>, but also in the integrals whose interval is [0, γ] In addition, Characteristics about these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> such as mathematical expressions, existence conditions, propagation directions and <span class="hlt">wave</span> lengths are obtained, and cancellation relationships between these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> are stated, which certificates the fact that there are no parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> existing in the far field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N"><span id="translatedtitle">Bohmian Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (and the status of the quantum state)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norsen, Travis</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span> theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are called “Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> description constructed from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umezawa, Naoto; Tsuneyuki, Shinji</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We suggest a new approach to the nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory. In our method, the nonlocal correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> is derived from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using the transcorrelated similarity transformation [1,2]. Our formalism is rigorous in principle if the v-representable density is assumed. In practice, Jastrow-Slater-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is adopted and the correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> consists of many-body interactions originated from the Jastrow factor. Instead of struggling with these higher order interactions, we retain only 2-body interactions multiplying an adjusting parameter so that it can reproduce the exact correlation energy for the homogeneous electron gas. Therefore, the computational cost is comparable to the exact exchange method. Moreover, parameters in the Jastrow factor are determined by the two conditions: the cusp conditions and the random-phase approximation without empirical fitting. We found that our correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> gives fairly good results for small atoms and ions (He, Li^+, Be^2+, Li, and Be). [1]S. F. Boys and N. C. Handy, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 309, 209; 310, 43; 310, 63; 311, 309. [2] N. Umezawa and S. Tsuneyuki, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10015 (2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1343..209C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1343..209C"><span id="translatedtitle">Variational Approach to Yang-Mills Theory with non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functionals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A general method for treating non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functionals</span> in quantum field theory is presented and applied to the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge in order to include a three-gluon kernel in the exponential of the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span>. The three-gluon vertex is calculated using the propagators found in the variational approach with a Gaussian trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> as input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638"><span id="translatedtitle">Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> from <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">function</span> at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28j5602T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28j5602T"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the orbital selective Mott transition with variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tocchio, Luca F.; Arrigoni, Federico; Sorella, Sandro; Becca, Federico</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the two-band Hubbard model with different hopping amplitudes t 1 and t 2 for the two orbitals on the two-dimensional square lattice by using non-magnetic variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, similarly to what has been considered in the limit of infinite dimensions by dynamical mean-field theory. We work out the phase diagram at half filling (i.e. two electrons per site) as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of R={{t}2}/{{t}1} and the on-site Coulomb repulsion U, for two values of the Hund’s coupling J  =  0 and J/U  =  0.1. Our results are in good agreement with previous dynamical mean-field theory calculations, demonstrating that the non-magnetic phase diagram is only slightly modified from infinite to two spatial dimensions. Three phases are present: a metallic one, for small values of U, where both orbitals are itinerant; a Mott insulator, for large values of U, where both orbitals are localized because of the Coulomb repulsion; and the so-called orbital-selective Mott insulator (OSMI), for small values of R and intermediate Us, where one orbital is localized while the other one is still itinerant. The effect of the Hund’s coupling is two-fold: on one side, it favors the full Mott phase over the OSMI; on the other side, it stabilizes the OSMI at larger values of R.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p>The many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R"><span id="translatedtitle">Photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> similar to the matter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912"><span id="translatedtitle">The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376788"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> and stability analysis of Viking particle and low-frequency <span class="hlt">wave</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.G. )</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>In this paper the authors present an investigation of low-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span> observed on auroral field lines below the acceleration region by the Swedish satellite Viking. The measured frequency spectra are peaked at half the local proton gyrofrequency, and the <span class="hlt">waves</span> are observed in close connection with precipitating electrons. In order to obtain information about the distribution of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy in <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector space, they reconstruct the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> (WDF) from observed spectral densities. They use a new scheme that allows them to reconstruct simultaneously the WDF over a broad frequency band. The method also makes it possible to take into account available particle observations as well as Doppler shifts caused by the relative motion between the plasma and the satellite. The distribution of energy in <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector space suggested by the reconstructed WDF is found to be consistent with what is expected from a plasma instability driven by the observed precipitating electrons. Furthermore, by using UV images obtained on Viking, they demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation directions indicated by the reconstructed WDFs are consistent with a simple model of the presumed <span class="hlt">wave</span> source in the electron precipitation region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979846"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with guaranteed precision: the first-order Møller-Plesset <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the ground state of helium atom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bischoff, Florian A; Harrison, Robert J; Valeev, Edward F</p> <p>2012-09-14</p> <p>We present an approach to compute accurate correlation energies for atoms and molecules using an adaptive discontinuous spectral-element multiresolution representation for the two-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Because of the exponential storage complexity of the spectral-element representation with the number of dimensions, a brute-force computation of two-electron (six-dimensional) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with high precision was not practical. To overcome the key storage bottlenecks we utilized (1) a low-rank tensor approximation (specifically, the singular value decomposition) to compress the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and (2) explicitly correlated R12-type terms in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to regularize the Coulomb electron-electron singularities of the Hamiltonian. All operations necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation were expressed so that the reconstruction of the full-rank form of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is never necessary. Numerical performance of the method was highlighted by computing the first-order Møller-Plesset <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a helium atom. The computed second-order Møller-Plesset energy is precise to ~2 microhartrees, which is at the precision limit of the existing general atomic-orbital-based approaches. Our approach does not assume special geometric symmetries, hence application to molecules is straightforward. PMID:22979846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> on estimating Stokes drift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, A.; Fox-Kemper, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Stokes drift, and its leading-order approximation, for a random sea depend upon the interaction of different <span class="hlt">wave</span> groups and the process of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Here Stokes drift direction and magnitude from prescribed spectra, local observational buoy data, and global model WAVEWATCH III output are used to analyze approximations of Stokes drift for directional random seas in deep water. To facilitate analysis, a new approximation is defined to incorporate the systematic effects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Stokes drift is typically overestimated by ignoring these effects or by ignoring directional differences in swell and wind seas. These two errors are differentiated and found to be largely uncorrelated. These errors depend strongly on depth, with deeper Stokes drift favoring narrow-banded swell and shallower Stokes drift favoring wind seas. Results are consistent among the data examined. Mean Stokes drift magnitude reductions from <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">wave</span> effects alone are 14-20% and 7-23% respectively, giving a combined reduction of 20-40% versus unidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span>, depending on <span class="hlt">wave</span> age and depth. Approximations that do not include these reductions however, will on average overestimate Stokes drift by 16-26%, 26-43%, and 45-71% respectively. In addition to magnitude, the direction of Stokes drift is also affected and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> generate a directional veer with depth: the 30/60/90% confidence intervals are bounded (approximately) by ± 0.12/0.28/0.84 radians (± 7/16/48 deg) at the surface, with smaller intervals at depth. Complementary depth-integrated approximations are also investigated and directional effects are similar with depth-dependent subsurface results. Furthermore, an optimized directional spread correction for the surface is nearly identical for global simulations and a buoy located at Ocean Weather Station P (50°N 145°W), and does not require directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectrum data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145f4107H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145f4107H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact density <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> embedding schemes based on orbital localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Exact schemes for the embedding of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density <span class="hlt">functional</span> is employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.504a2020D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.504a2020D"><span id="translatedtitle">Newton force from <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse: speculation and test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diósi, Lajos</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with S, D, and P-state components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, G. Ramalho, M. T. Pena</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Expressions for the nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> includes contributions from S, P and D-<span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G"><span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond photoemission dynamics encoded in real-valued continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaillac, Romain; Vacher, Morgane; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of photoemission is fully encoded in the continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> selected by the transitions. Using numerical simulations on simple benchmark models, we show how scattering phase shifts and photoemission delays can be retrieved from this unambiguously defined class of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In contrast with standard scattering <span class="hlt">waves</span> inherited from collision theory, they are real-valued for one-photon transitions and provide a clear-cut interpretation of the delays recently discussed in the framework of attosecond science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219335"><span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wintgen, D. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-6900 Heidelberg, ); Honig, A. )</p> <p>1989-10-02</p> <p>We study the irregular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a highly excited hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field. The scarring of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> by periodic orbits is quantitatively investigated. The shape of unperturbed scars is in good agreement with recent semiclassical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Phase Transitions on P <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D Weidner; L Li</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are presented. PMID:26854874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5153M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5153M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractal dimensions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a theoretical framework for understanding the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7166P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7166P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of density heterogeneities on seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Płonka, Agnieszka; Fichtner, Andreas</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Using 3D numerical simulations of seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in heterogeneous media, we systematically compare the imprints of heterogeneities of different type (and particularly density heterogeneities) on synthetic seismograms. Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion in the mantle. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be true. We propose to develop a seismic tomography technique that directly inverts for density, using complete seismograms rather than arrival times of certain <span class="hlt">waves</span> only. The first task in this challenge is to systematically study the imprints of density on synthetic seismograms. In this context, our study aims to compare the significance of density heterogeneities relative to velocity heterogeneities, and to design a numerical experiment with a source-receiver configuration particularly sensitive to density. To compute the full seismic wavefield in a 3D heterogeneous medium without making significant approximations, we use numerical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the 1D Earth model ak135 as a background. Onto this we superimpose 3D Gaussian-shaped perturbations of different type (P, SV, SH velocities and density) for depths in the range from 10 km to 70 km. The choice of depth in which the 3D heterogeneities were placed (10 km - 70 km) was dictated by the surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> sensitivity to density. For each depth we perform 4 <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation simulations corresponding to 4 different types of heterogeneities, and calculate surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> sensitivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser <span class="hlt">wave</span>: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and stochastic trajectory approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argonov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light <span class="hlt">wave</span> delocalizes very fast due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the <span class="hlt">wave</span> while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M"><span id="translatedtitle">Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Spectroscopic Instruments: Multi-<span class="hlt">functional</span> Atmospheric Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mehdi, I.; Gulkis, S.; Allen, M. A.; Schlecht, E.; Chattopadhyay, G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectroscopic instruments provide unique capability in terms of providing quantitative measurements of trace gas compositions in planetary atmospheres. Such instruments also provide temporal and wind velocity mapping capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2360B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2360B"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding complex teleseismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the Sierra Nevada through vertical-component P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernardino, M. J.; Jones, C. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Past seismic studies attempting to image the lithosphere underneath the Sierra Nevada and to constrain the geometry of the upper mantle Isabella anomaly, a high <span class="hlt">wave</span>-speed body underneath the western foothills of the range, have observed complex behavior in teleseismic and regional waveforms recorded at stations within the range. Notably, a 1993 teleseismic mini-array recorded multipath P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> arrivals, topographic reflections, and scattered energy ~25 km west of the Sierran crest. These effects suggest <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through strongly heterogeneous lithosphere complicated by near-surface phenomena. Multipathing and other complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation are indicative of strong variations in wavespeed, which in turn reflect structural complexity important in understanding the genesis of the Isabella anomaly. However, determining the extent of such propagative behavior in and underneath the Sierra Nevada has not been studied. We investigate the behavior of teleseismic P-<span class="hlt">waves</span> using vertical-component receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> in an effort to better understand the extent of complex waveforms as a first tool in better constraining the geographic region(s) where sufficiently complex lithospheric structure exists. We expect that the presence of sufficiently high velocity gradients should result in P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> multipath arrivals from events that skirt the perimeter of the Isabella anomaly from certain backazimuths. We deconvolve regionally beamed vertical P-waveforms from individual vertical component P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>. This effectively recovers variability in the P waveforms that is normally lost in typical single-station radial- and transverse-component receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analyses. Vertical P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> beams are constructed using dbxcor, a waveform correlation algorithm developed by G. Pavlis. Seismic data for the northern and central Sierra Nevada are from the 2005-2007 Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (SNEP) and further supplemented by many permanent and temporary stations including the Earthscope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1058H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1058H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Life's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Soil Production <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, Emma; Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>]. The depth of soil mixing in the soil profiles we collect is shown by the homogenization of 10Be concentrations in grains. Mixing changes the residence time of grains in soil. The length of this residence time is a critical component in the rate of weathering reactions, the mechanism by which material is lost to chemical dissolution and leaching. Additionally, mixing may drive the value of the diffusion coefficient, which determines the flux of sediment out of the soil mantle in the geomorphic soil production <span class="hlt">function</span>. Life actively <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the soil-hillslope system, and quantifying these effects is an essential modification of a fundamental paradigm in the geomorphology of soil-mantled landscapes. [1] Heimsath et al. 1997. Nature 388:358-361 [2] Zou et al., 1995. Forest Ecol. and Management 78:147-157 [3] Pett-Ridge et al., 2009. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73:25-43 [4] Hidy et al. 2010. Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 11 [5] González et al. 2007. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 43:S24-S32</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation inside a granular column <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, E.; Blachman, M.; Britan, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A simple experimental technique, based on pressure transducers, capable of measuring the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates along the solid phase of a granular column after being hit head-on by a plane shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> is presented. The technique is based on installing couples of gauges at different cross-sections along the granular column in such a way that one transducer measures the overall pressure acting on it while the other measures only the pressure exerted on it by the gaseous phase of the granular column. By means of the presented experimental technique the time histories of the stresses normal to the shock tube walls and data on the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> attenuation as it propagates downstream towards the shock tube end wall were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29k6801T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29k6801T"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelastic Stress in a <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Infinite Plate with Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xing-Zhe; Zhou, You-He</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of thermal and thermoelastic behaviors of a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded infinite plate taking into account electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption. To treat with the inhomogeneity of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded <span class="hlt">wave</span>-absorbing (FGWA) materials, the plate is approximated by subdividing it into thin homogeneous layers to solve the governing equations together with proper boundary and connecting conditions. The results illustrate that the FGWA plate is a broadband type absorber with electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption. By choosing proper material gradation character and the thickness of the FGWA plate, it is possible to obtain a good performance of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption and thermoelastic stress characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvC..82c4004G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvC..82c4004G"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with χ2/Ndata≃1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical methods for the calculation of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ipatov, E. B.; Lukin, D. S.; Palkin, E. A.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The paper investigates the properties of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are used for the asymptotic description of the structure of <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields near various types of focusings. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> are realized in software packages for the BESM-6 computer using FORTRAN. The canonical equations and basic properties of these <span class="hlt">functions</span> are examined along with the development of numerical algorithms for their computation. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> may be applied in the study of various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> problems, including: (1) radio <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the ionosphere and ionospheric waveguide channels; (2) the fine structure of sound fields in an acoustic duct; and (3) the focusing of laser radiation reflected from a rough surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=142660','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=142660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different extents and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=simulated+AND+rainfall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63284281&CFTOKEN=43614884','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=simulated+AND+rainfall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63284281&CFTOKEN=43614884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadronic Spectra and Light-Front <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de</p> <p>2006-05-26</p> <p>We show how the string amplitude {phi}(z) defined on the fifth dimension in AdS{sub 5} space can be precisely mapped to the light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of hadrons in physical space-time. We find an exact correspondence between the holographic variable z and an <span class="hlt">impact</span> variable {zeta}, which represents the measure of transverse separation of the constituents within the hadrons. In addition, we derive effective four dimensional Schroedinger equations for the bound states of massless quarks and gluons which exactly reproduce the anti-de Sitter conformal field theory results and give a realistic description of the light-quark meson and baryon spectrum as well as the form factors for spacelike Q{sup 2}. Only one parameter which sets the mass scale, {lambda}{sub QCD}, is introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational <span class="hlt">waves</span> is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> of ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original <span class="hlt">wave</span> elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, a phenomenon also observed in wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> tank experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental validation of theoretical methods to estimate the energy radiated by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Rosny, Julien de; Toussaint, Renaud; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Estimating the energy lost in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is an important problem in seismology and in industry. We propose three complementary methods to estimate the elastic energy radiated by bead <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on thin plates and thick blocks from the generated vibration. The first two methods are based on the direct <span class="hlt">wave</span> front and are shown to be equivalent. The third method makes use of the diffuse regime. These methods are tested for laboratory experiments of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and are shown to give the same results, with error bars of 40 percent and 300 percent for <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a smooth plate and on a rough block, respectively. We show that these methods are relevant to establish the energy budget of an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. On plates of glass and PMMA, the radiated elastic energy increases from 2 percent to almost 100 percent of the total energy lost as the bead diameter approaches the plate thickness. The rest of the lost energy is dissipated by viscoelasticity. For beads larger than the plate thickness, plastic deformation occurs and reduces the amount of energy radiated in the form of elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. On a concrete block, the energy dissipation during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> is principally inelastic because only 0.2-2 percent of the energy lost by the bead is transported by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The radiated elastic energy estimated with the presented methods is quantitatively validated by Hertz's model of elastic <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)(-), Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)(2-), and Gd(III)(H2O)8(3+) in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude. PMID:25612706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar Odelius, Michael; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated and volcanogenic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Impulse-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land <span class="hlt">impact</span> might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have <span class="hlt">wave</span>-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all ocean depths. Typical <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">wave</span> height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tropospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> variability on stratospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.</p> <p>2002-06-25</p> <p>The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking have been refined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water <span class="hlt">wave</span> action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, and the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period . These parameters reflect <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span> level, having a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and when the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, and particularly <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy manifested in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, has a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the type and grain size of material</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of a spring heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of short-term high temperature events on forest <span class="hlt">functioning</span> remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> can have severe <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests. PMID:24038752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652641','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652641"><span id="translatedtitle">Has the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality changed in France since the European heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> of summer 2003? A study of the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fouillet, Anne; Rey, Grégoire; Wagner, Vérène; Laaidi, Karine; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Le Tertre, Alain; Frayssinet, Philippe; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Laurent, Françoise; De Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Jougla, Eric; Hémon, Denis</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Context In July 2006, a lasting and severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurred in Western Europe. Since the2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, several preventive measures and an alert system aiming at reducing the risks related to high temperatures have been set up in France by the health authorities and institutions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of those measures, the observed excess mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was compared to the expected excess mortality. Methods A Poisson regression model relating the daily fluctuations in summer temperature and mortality in France from 1975 to 2003 was used to estimate the daily expected number of deaths over the period 2004–2006 as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the observed temperatures. Results During the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> (from 11th to 28th July), about 2065 excess deaths occurred in France. Considering the observed temperatures and with the hypothesis that heat-related mortality had not changed since 2003, 6452 excess deaths were predicted for the period. The observed mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was thus markedly less than the expected mortality (approximately 4400 less deaths). Conclusions The excess mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which was markedly lower than that predicted by the model, may be interpreted as a decrease in the population’s vulnerability to heat, together with, since 2003, increased awareness of the risk related to extreme temperatures, preventive measures and the set-up of the warning system. PMID:18194962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of quasi-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for lithium hydride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asthalter, T.; Weyrich, W.; Harker, A. H.; Kunz, A. B.; Orlando, R.; Pisani, C.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>We compare the Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for crystalline LiH obtained either with a standard Crystalline-Orbital—LCAO procedure or following the Adams-Gilbert-Kunz (AGK) prescription. Total energy, band-structure, reciprocal form factors [ B( r)] are taken as a reference, for checking the quality of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>. The influence of the inclusion of high angular-quantum-number <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the AGK basis set is explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of complex blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the human head: a computational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single planar blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce <span class="hlt">wave</span> entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330 kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235 kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Sketches of a hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hasbrouck, W.P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Generation of shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin; Ma, Yin</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Reflection of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008 were investigated by applying two dimensional Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux and three-dimensional Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes. The planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation can clearly be seen in the longitude-height and latitude-height sections of the Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity flux and EP flux, respectively, when the stratospheric basic state is partially reflective. Primarily, a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet emanating from Baffin Island/coast of Labrador propagated eastward, equatorward and was reflected over Central Eurasia and parts of China, which in turn triggered the advection of cold wind from the northern part of the boreal forest regions and Siberia to the subtropics. The wide region of Central Eurasia and China experienced extreme cold weather during the second ten days of January 2008, whereas the extraordinary persistence of the event might have occurred due to an anomalous blocking high in the Urals-Siberia region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Plasmaspheric Hiss and their Effects on Radiation Belt Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santolik, O.; Ripoll, J. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plasmaspheric hiss is formed by whistler-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> which play an important role in the dynamics the Earth's radiation belts, specifically in connection with the slot region between the inner and outer Van Allen belts. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss is still a subject of discussions and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> are known for their complex propagation properties. They are often far from a single plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation, forming a continuous distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy density with respect to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector direction (<span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>). Analysis of polarization and propagation parameters of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> provides us with inputs for modeling of radiation belt dynamics. We use the data of the <span class="hlt">Waves</span> instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, to analyze simultaneous measurements of all electric and magnetic field components, together with measurements of the plasma density based on the determination of the upper hybrid resonance frequency. Using this unique data set we estimate the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> of plasmaspheric hiss and we model the effects of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the decay rates of radiation belt electrons through quasilinear pitch angle diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..47M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..47M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of rotation on stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathis, S.; Neiner, C.; Tran Minh, N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Context. Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (or their signatures) are detected in stars thanks to helio- and asteroseismology, and they may play an important role in the evolution of stellar angular momentum. Moreover, a previous observational study of the CoRoT target HD 51452 demonstrated the potential strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stellar interiors. Aims: Our goal is to explore and unravel the action of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stars. Methods: The dynamics of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stellar interiors in both radiation and in convection zones is described with a local non-traditional f-plane model. The coupling of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> with convective turbulent flows, which leads to their stochastic excitation, is studied in this framework. Results: First, we find that in the super-inertial regime in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency is twice as high as the rotation frequency (σ > 2Ω), the evanescence of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in convective regions decreases with decreasing <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency. Next, in the sub-inertial regime (σ < 2Ω), gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> become purely propagative inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in convection zones. Simultaneously, turbulence in convective regions is modified by rotation. Indeed, the turbulent energy cascade towards small scales is slowed down, and in the case of rapid rotation, strongly anisotropic turbulent flows are obtained that can be understood as complex non-linear triadic interactions of propagative inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. These different behaviours, due to the action of the Coriolis acceleration, strongly modify the <span class="hlt">wave</span> coupling with turbulent flows. On one hand, turbulence weakly influenced by rotation is coupled with evanescent gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. On the other hand, rapidly rotating turbulence is intrinsically and strongly coupled with sub-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Finally, to study these mechanisms, the traditional approximation cannot be assumed because it does not properly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPM.....3..155P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPM.....3..155P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the SPH method to solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on an offshore platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the interaction between large <span class="hlt">waves</span> and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are <span class="hlt">impact</span> due to dam break, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced <span class="hlt">waves</span>, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcDyn..65.1547Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcDyn..65.1547Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents in <span class="hlt">wave</span> power potential modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. The obtained results prove that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the sea surface currents is quite significant in <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreased <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The paper examines <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on mortality of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared to previous heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH21B3839E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH21B3839E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim); to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and generate the source <span class="hlt">wave</span> for the large-scale shallow water <span class="hlt">wave</span> program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three <span class="hlt">impact</span> areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact <span class="hlt">impact</span> location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for <span class="hlt">impact</span> points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvA..53.2911A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvA..53.2911A"><span id="translatedtitle">Protective measurement of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single squeezed harmonic-oscillator state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, Orly; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A scheme for the "protective measurement" <article>[Phys. Rev. A 47, 4616 (1993)]</article> of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a squeezed harmonic-oscillator state is described. This protective measurement is shown to be equivalent to a measurement of an ensemble of states. The protective measurement, therefore, allows for a definition of the quantum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on a single system. Yet, this equivalency also suggests that both measurement schemes account for the epistemological meaning of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> only. The protective measurement requires a full a priori knowledge of the measured state. The intermediate cases, in which only partial a priori information is given, are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93d3606S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93d3606S"><span id="translatedtitle">Polaronic mass renormalization of impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates: Correlated Gaussian-<span class="hlt">wave-function</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Grusdt, Fabian; Rubtsov, Alexey N.; Demler, Eugene</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We propose a class of variational Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to describe Fröhlich polarons at finite momenta. Our <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> give polaron energies that are in excellent agreement with the existing Monte Carlo results for a broad range of interactions. We calculate the effective mass of polarons and find smooth crossover between weak- and intermediate-coupling strength. Effective masses that we obtain are considerably larger than those predicted by the mean-field method. A prediction based on our variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is a special pattern of correlations between host atoms that can be measured in time-of-flight experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Induced Pressure Under an Internal Solitary <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> at the Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera, Gustavo; Diamesis, Peter; Jenkins, James; Berzi, Diego</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Particular emphasis is placed on the diffusion into the bed of the pressure field driven by the wake and any near-bed instabilities produced under specific conditions. To this end, a spectral nodal Galerkin approach is used for solving the diffusion equation for the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced pressure. At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is examined. The potential for bed failure upon the passage of the ISW trough and implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are both discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span>-radar modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the West Coast experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Short gravity-capillary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>. These short <span class="hlt">waves</span> are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> probe. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by <span class="hlt">waves</span> of typical ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> by the ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612"><span id="translatedtitle">Data synthesis and display programs for <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E1245M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E1245M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of intense inward and outward ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion on the Van Allen belts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Rae, I. Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>During geomagnetic storms, the power in ultra-low frequency (ULF) <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by statistics determined from an entire solar cycle. This is especially true during the main phase and early recovery phase. These periods of enhanced storm-time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power can have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the morphology and structure of the Van Allen belts. Either fast inward or outward radial diffusion can result, depending on the profiles of the electron phase space density and the outer boundary condition at the edge of the belts. Small changes in the time sequence of powerful ULF <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and the time sequence of any magnetopause shadowing or the recovery of plamasheet sources relative to the ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrence, have a remarkable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resulting structure of the belts. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the enhanced ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power is profound, but the response can be very different depending on the available source flux in the plasmasheet. We review these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by examining ultra-relativistic electron dynamics during seemingly different storms during the Van Allen Probe era, including during the Baker et al. third radiation belt, and show the observed behaviour can be largely explained by differences in the time sequence of events described above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H; Cohen, Aron J; Cole, Jacqueline M</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared. PMID:26001454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the O2 1.27-um nightglow distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoshino, Naoya; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro</p> <p></p> <p>O2 -1.27µm nightglow is the indicator of the general circulation at about 95 km in Venus. Recent nightglow observations reported that the nightglow emission showed the temporal variations with a timescale of a few hours and days [e.g.,Gerard et al., 2008]. The temporal variations are thought to be caused by wind fluctuations due to atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating from the lower atmosphere. In recent years, the importance of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the general circulation of the Venusian atmosphere has been recognized. Forbes and Konopliv [2007] suggested the propagation of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> originated in the cloud deck into the upper atmosphere. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the Venusian upper atmosphere has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which includes the altitude region of 80 -about 200 km in order to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the nightglow distribution. Our model considers the chemical processes and calculates the O2 -1.27µm nightglow intensity. The planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (thermal tides, Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and Rosbby <span class="hlt">wave</span>) are imposed at the lower boundary. The amplitudes and phase velocities of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> are assumed from the study by Del Genio and Rossow [1990]. The simulation results show dominance of the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> at about 80 -120 km with a vertical wavelength of about 40 -50 km. The amplitude of the zonal wind fluctuation caused by the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> has a maximum value of about 9 m/s at about 95 km. Our results suggest that the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> would cause the wind variation of the nightglow emission region between the 00:00LT -00:40LT with a period of 4 days. In this presentation, we will show the details of our simulation results considering the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In addition, we will present the initial results of a simulation considering the small-scale gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973022"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on teleost immune <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Makrinos, Daniel L; Bowden, Timothy J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The environment in which teleosts exist can experience considerable change. Short-term changes can occur in relation to tidal movements or adverse weather events. Long-term changes can be caused by anthropogenic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as climate change, which can result in changes to temperature, acidity, salinity and oxygen capacity of aquatic environments. These changes can have important <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the physiology of an animal, including its immune system. This can have consequences on the well-being of the animal and its ability to protect against pathogens. This review will look at recent investigations of these types of environmental change on the immune response in teleosts. PMID:26973022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Propagation Characteristic of One-dimensional Stress <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Armor Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S. Y.; Liu, X.; Cao, D. F.; Mei, H.; Lei, Z. T.; Liu, L. S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The development of <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Materials (FGM) for energy-absorbing applications requires understanding of stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in these structures in order to optimize their resistance to failure. One-dimensional stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading have been investigated. The stress distributions through the thickness and stress status have been analyzed and some comparisons have been done with the materials of sharp interfaces (two-layered material). The results demonstrate that the gradient structure design greatly decreases the severity of the stress concentrations at the interfaces and there are no clear differences in stress distribution in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-28</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity vF depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through quartz sand simulating asteroid regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Rie; Tsujido, Sayaka; Takano, Shota; Hasegawa, Sunao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Introduction: Recent spacecraft surveys clarified that asteroid surfaces were covered with regolith made of boulders and pebbles such as that found on the asteroid Itokawa. It was also found that surface morphologies of asteroids formed on the regolith layer were modified. For example, the high-resolution images of the asteroid Eros revealed the evidence of the downslope movement of the regolith layer, then it could cause the degradation and the erasure of small <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. One possible process to explain these observations is the regolith layer collapse caused by seismic vibration after projectile <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be an important physical process affecting the morphology change of regolith layer on asteroid surfaces. Therefore, it is significant for us to know the relationship between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span>. So in this study, we carried out <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments in order to observe the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the target far from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater.Experimental method: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> cratering experiments were conducted by using a single stage vertical gas gun set at Kobe Univ and a two-stage vertical gas gun set at ISAS. We used quartz sands with the particle diameter of 500μm, and the bulk density of 1.48g/cm3. The projectile was a ball made of polycarbonate with the diameter of 4.75mm and aluminum, titan, zirconia, stainless steel, cupper, tungsten carbide projectile with the diameter of 2mm. These projectiles were launched at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity from 0.2 to 7km/s. The target was set in a vacuum chamber evacuated below 10 Pa. We measured the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> by using a piezoelectric uniaxial accelerometer.Result: The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was measured to show a large single peak and found to attenuate with the propagation distance. The maximum acceleration of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was recognized to have a good relationship with the normalized distance x/R, where x is the propagation distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144r4109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144r4109M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meek, Garrett A.; Levine, Benjamin G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G</p> <p>2016-05-14</p> <p>We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation. PMID:27179473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the parent Hamiltonians for a complete set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: An inverse quantum problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramezanpour, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. On the other hand, a complete set of tree <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the Hamiltonian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> with high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> differently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> day. Important increases in extreme stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the boreal winter stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Dingzhu; Tian, Wenshou; Xie, Fei; Wang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jiankai</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper uses a state-of-the-art general circulation model to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion from 1980 to 2000 and the expected partial ozone recovery from 2000 to 2020 on the propagation of planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in December, January, and February. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a cooler and stronger Antarctic stratosphere, while the stratospheric ozone recovery has the opposite effects. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion on polar stratospheric temperature are not opposite to that of the stratospheric ozone recovery; i.e., the stratospheric ozone depletion causes a weak cooling and the stratospheric ozone recovery causes a statistically significant cooling. The stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a weakening of the Arctic polar vortex, while the stratospheric ozone recovery leads to a strengthening of the Arctic polar vortex. The cooling of the Arctic polar vortex is found to be dynamically induced via modulating the planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity by stratospheric ozone increases. Particularly interesting is that stratospheric ozone changes have opposite effects on the stationary and transient <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refractive index and Eliassen-Palm flux in the NH indicates (1) that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction in the stratosphere cannot fully explain <span class="hlt">wave</span> flux changes in the Arctic stratosphere and (2) that stratospheric ozone changes can cause changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the northern midlatitude troposphere which in turn affect <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. In the SH, the radiative cooling (warming) caused by stratospheric ozone depletion (recovery) produces a larger (smaller) meridional temperature gradient in the midlatitude upper troposphere, accompanied by larger (smaller) zonal wind vertical shear and larger (smaller) vertical gradients of buoyancy frequency. Hence, there are more (fewer) transient <span class="hlt">waves</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Central Asian Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite the extensive use of seismic regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. For example, whether regional Lg <span class="hlt">wave</span> has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda <span class="hlt">waves</span> have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> is contained in the time domain source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> using the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> and those of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of symmetry-protected topological phases from conformal field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, Thomas; Ringel, Zohar</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We propose a method for analyzing two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological (SPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> using a correspondence with conformal field theories (CFTs) and integrable lattice models. This method generalizes the CFT approach for the fractional quantum Hall effect wherein the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> amplitude is written as a many-operator correlator in the CFT. Adopting a bottom-up approach, we start from various known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SPTs with discrete symmetries and show how the CFT description emerges at large scale, thereby revealing a deep connection between group cocycles and critical, sometimes integrable, models. We show that the CFT describing the bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is often also the one describing the entanglement spectrum, but not always. Using a plasma analogy, we also prove the existence of hidden quasi-long-range order for a large class of SPTs. Finally, we show how response to symmetry fluxes is easily described in terms of the CFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, James F; McGough, Robert J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation [Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] models power-law attenuation and dispersion for both viscoelastic and ultrasound <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. The Caputo model can be derived from an underlying fractional constitutive equation and is causal. In this study, an approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is derived for the Caputo equation in three dimensions (3D) for power law exponents greater than one. The Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> consists of a shifted and scaled maximally skewed stable distribution multiplied by a spherical spreading factor 1/(4πR). The approximate one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> are also computed in terms of stable distributions. Finally, this Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is decomposed into a loss component and a diffraction component, revealing that the Caputo <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation may be approximated by a coupled lossless <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation and a fractional diffusion equation. PMID:27586735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion. PMID:27276688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82g5116D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82g5116D"><span id="translatedtitle">Projector augmented-<span class="hlt">wave</span> method: Application to relativistic spin-density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dal Corso, Andrea</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Applying the projector augmented-<span class="hlt">wave</span> (PAW) method to relativistic spin-density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (RSDFT) we derive PAW Dirac-Kohn-Sham equations for four-component spinor pseudo-<span class="hlt">wave-functions</span>. The PAW freedom to add a vanishing operator inside the PAW spheres allows us to transform these PAW Dirac-type equations into PAW Pauli-type equations for two-component spinor pseudo-<span class="hlt">wave-functions</span>. With these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we get the frozen-core energy as well as the charge and magnetization densities of RSDFT, with errors comparable to the largest between 1/c2 and the transferability error of the PAW data sets. Presently, the latter limits the accuracy of the calculations, not the use of the Pauli-type equations. The theory is validated by applications to isolated atoms of Fe, Pt, and Au, and to the band structure of fcc-Pt, fcc-Au, and ferromagnetic bcc-Fe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786547"><span id="translatedtitle">Recasting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> into valence bond structures: A simple projection method to describe excited states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racine, Julien; Hagebaum-Reignier, Denis; Carissan, Yannick; Humbel, Stéphane</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>A method is proposed to obtain coefficients and weights of valence bond (VB) determinants from multi configurational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. This reading of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can apply to ground states as well as excited states. The method is based on projection operators. Both energetic and overlap-based criteria are used to assess the quality of the resulting VB <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The approach gives a simple access to a VB rewriting for low-lying states, and it is applied to the allyl cation, to the allyl radical and to the ethene (notably to the V-state). For these states, large overlap between VB and multi reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are easily obtained. The approach proves to be useful to propose an interpretation of the nature of the V-state of ethene. PMID:26786547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005APS..SHK.C5003O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005APS..SHK.C5003O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity U/F depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a gold rod at an <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-<span class="hlt">impact</span>'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod <span class="hlt">impact</span>, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961"><span id="translatedtitle">sup 4 He- sup 4 He elastic scattering and variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. ); Usmani, Q.N. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We calculate differential cross sections for {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He elastic scattering at 4.32 GeV/{ital c} in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory using correlated variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as given by the two-nucleon Urbana {ital v}{sub 14} potential and the spin-isospin averaged Melfleit-Tjon force {ital V}. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are found to give fairly satisfactory results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532"><span id="translatedtitle">Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M</p> <p>2011-10-21</p> <p>We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The ship motion equation with a cosine <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force describes the slip moments in regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A new kind of <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force was applied by sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the atmospheric climate modes on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate in the North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Asensio, Adrián; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Feng, Xiangbo; Gomis, Damià; Jordà, Gabriel; Josey, Simon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study establishes the relationships between the mean modes of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic and present <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. The modes considered, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic Western Russian pattern (EA/WR) and the Scandinavian pattern (SCAN), are obtained from the NOAA Climate Prediction Centre. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> data sets used consist of buoy records and two high-resolution simulations of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height (SWH), mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (MWP) and mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction (MWD) forced with ERA-40 (1958-2002) and ERA-INTERIM (1989-2008) wind fields. The results show the winter <span class="hlt">impact</span> of each mode on <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters which are discussed regionally. The NAO and EA pattern increase winter SWH up to 1 m per unit index at the Scottish and Spanish coasts, respectively, during their positive phase; while EA pattern causes clockwise changes of winter MWD up to more than 60 degrees per unit index at the Bay of Biscay during its negative phase. EA/WR and SCAN patterns have a weaker <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19.1058N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19.1058N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Energy of <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Steels in Crack Arrester Configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nazari, A.; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Charpy <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded steels produced by electroslag remelting composed of graded ferrite and austenite layers together with bainite or martensite intermediate layer in the form of crack arrester configuration has been investigated. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the notch tip position with respect to bainite or martensite layer significantly affects the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy. The closer the notch tip to the tougher layer, the higher the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the composite due to increment of energy absorbed by plastic deformation zone ahead of the notch and vice versa. Empirical relationships have been determined to correlate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded steels to the morphology of layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Stone Removal on Renal <span class="hlt">Function</span>: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wood, Kyle; Keys, Tristan; Mufarrij, Patrick; Assimos, Dean G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Stone removal can improve renal <span class="hlt">function</span> by eradicating obstruction and, in certain cases, an underlying infection. Stone-removing procedures, however, may negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> integrity. Many things may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the latter, including the procedures used, the methods of assessing <span class="hlt">function</span>, the time when these assessments are made, the occurrence of complications, the baseline condition of the kidney, and patient-related factors. In the majority of cases, little significant <span class="hlt">functional</span> impairment occurs. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of this subject, including the cumulative effects of multiple procedures violating the renal parenchyma and long-term <span class="hlt">functional</span> outcomes. PMID:21935339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F"><span id="translatedtitle">EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in real space from molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (<span class="hlt">functional</span> group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are read in from an aimpac-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R.; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Ground state <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: A Variational Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Mandal, Sudhansu</p> <p></p> <p>The internal structure and topology of the ground states for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are determined by the relative angular momenta between all the possible pairs of electrons. Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is the only known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for which these relative angular momenta are homogeneous (same) for any pair of electrons and depend solely on the filling factor. Without invoking any microscopic theory, considering only the relationship between number of flux quanta and particles in spherical geometry, and allowing the possibility of inhomogeneous (different) relative angular momenta between any two electrons, we develop a general method for determining a closed-form ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for any incompressible FQHE state. Our procedure provides variationally obtained very accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, yet having simpler structure compared to any other known complex microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the FQHE states. This method, thus, has potential in predicting a very accurate ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the puzzling states such as the state at filling fraction 5/2. We acknowledge support from Department of Science and Technology, India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation. PMID:26374017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640602"><span id="translatedtitle">Exactness of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from two-body exponential transformations in many-body quantum theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mazziotti, David A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies have considered the possibility that the exact ground-state wavefunction from any Hamiltonian with two-particle interactions may be generated from a single finite two-body exponential transformation acting on an arbitrary Slater determinant [Piecuch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113001 (2003)]. Using the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff relation, we show that it is difficult for the variational minimum of this trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to satisfy the contracted Schroedinger equation which is a necessary and sufficient condition for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to satisfy the Schroedinger equation. A counterexample is presented through the Lipkin quasispin model with 4-50 fermions. When the number of fermions exceeds four, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from a finite two-body exponential transformation is shown to be inexact. If the trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz is extended to include products of finite two-body exponential transformations acting on an arbitrary Slater-determinant reference, then we show that the ansatz includes the exact ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from any Hamiltonian with only two-particle interactions. Connections between the two-body exponential transformation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and recent research on two-body exponential similarity transformations of the Hamiltonian [S.R. White, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 7472 (2002)] are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304979"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for scattering problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Xiaoming</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The theory of elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering is a fundamental concept in the study of elastic dynamics and <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expansion technique has been widely used in many subjects. To supply the essential tools for solving <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering problems induced by an eccentric source or multi-sources as well as multi-scatters, a whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is presented and its applicability to some simple cases is demonstrated in this study. The transforms of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in cylindrical coordinates can be classified into two basic types: interior transform and exterior transform, and the existing Graf's addition theorem is only suitable for the former. By performing a new replacement between the two coordinates, the exterior transform formula is first deduced. It is then combined with Graf's addition theorem to establish a whole-space transform formula. By using the whole-space transform formula, the scattering solutions by the sources outside and inside a cylindrical cavity are constructed as examples of its application. The effectiveness and advantages of the whole-space transform formula is illustrated by comparison with the approximate model based on a large cycle method. The whole-space transform formula presented herein can be used to perform the transform between two different cylindrical coordinates in the whole space. In addition, its concept and principle are universal and can be further extended to establish the coordinate transform formula of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in other coordinate systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwaves','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwaves"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Acoustic Standing <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Structural Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kolaini, Ali R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing <span class="hlt">wave</span> and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064"><span id="translatedtitle">The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Relation to Rossby <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, a stationary <span class="hlt">wave</span> model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A.; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M.; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R2 below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R(2) below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of assimilating altimeter data on <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusu, Liliana; Guedes Soares, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The present work describes the implementation of a methodology based on the optimal interpolation method for assimilating the altimeter data in a regional <span class="hlt">wave</span> forecasting system. The main objective is to improve the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coastal environment. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modelling system considered is based on WAM, for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, and on SWAN for the coastal transformation and delivers daily forecast products. An analysis scheme was first applied to the hindcast runs, when the observations and the simulations were blended within a time window of one day. The objective is to validate the methodology proposed and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> produced by this scheme on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions. Corrections are applied to the output of the SWAN model, and consequently, the data assimilation scheme is executed independently of the model simulations. As a second step, the data assimilation scheme is applied to operational runs, when the analysis fields are used as a first guess for the next simulations. The procedure considered uses the observations provided by the multi-satellite altimeter data. Both satellite data and in-situ observations are used for the quality assessment. The results show that the assimilation scheme works correctly and all the statistical parameters evaluated have better values in the case of the assimilated significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height scalar field. As expected, by increasing the amount of the data assimilated, the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions is enhanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842991"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> excitation-autoionization of helium in the S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Excitation of the autoionizing states of helium by electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> is shown in calculations in the s-<span class="hlt">wave</span> limit to leave a clear signature in the singly differential cross section for the (e,2e) process. It is suggested that such behavior should be seen generally in (e,2e) experiments on atoms that measure the single differential cross section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of large-scale atmospheric refractive structures on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Conventional techniques used to model optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through the Earth's atmosphere typically as- sume flow fields based on various empirical relationships. Unfortunately, these synthetic refractive index fields do not take into account the influence of transient macroscale and mesoscale (i.e. larger than turbulent microscale) atmospheric phenomena. Nevertheless, a number of atmospheric structures that are characterized by various spatial and temporal scales exist which have the potential to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> refractive index fields, thereby resulting dramatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation characteristics. In this paper, we analyze a subset of spatio-temporal dynamics found to strongly affect optical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through these atmospheric struc- tures. Analysis of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation was performed in the geometrical optics approximation using a standard ray tracing technique. Using a numerical weather prediction (NWP) approach, we simulate multiple realistic atmospheric events (e.g., island wakes, low-level jets, etc.), and estimate the associated refractivity fields prior to performing ray tracing simulations. By coupling NWP model output with ray tracing simulations, we demon- strate the ability to quantitatively assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of coherent atmospheric phenomena on optical ray propagation. Our results show a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatio-temporal characteristics of the refractive index field on optical ray trajectories. Such correlations validate the effectiveness of NWP models as they offer a more comprehensive representation of atmospheric refractivity fields compared to conventional methods based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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