Science.gov

Sample records for wave function impact

  1. Impact of permeability on seismoelectric transfer function of P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzhauer, J.; Bordes, C.; Oppermann, F.; Brito, D.; Yaramanci, U.

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in the understanding of seismoelectrics have shown its potential relevance for porous media characterization with particular focus on permeability estimations. According to promising theoretical and numerical studies, permeability should influence the seismoelectric transfer function at higher frequencies. The dynamic seismoelectric transfer function E(ω)/ ü(ω), where E relates to the coseismic electric field induced by the seismic particle acceleration ü, is expected to increase with increasing permeabilities when crossing the Biot transition frequency. Still, only few experiments have been developed on that matter so far. To address the transfer function dependence on permeability, we adapted a column experiment to comply with steady-state permeability estimations. These observations were run in-situ, during the fluid-balancing phase prior to seismoelectric measurements. The 50 cm-long column had previously been carefully filled with perfectly rounded glass beads. The use of sorted glass beads is expected to achieve similar porosities reproducible throughout the experiment, opposed to varying permeabilities depending on the introduced particle size. The acoustic source delivered compressional waves with an optimal effect limited to the [1-3] kHz frequency range. These limitations are due to strong seismic attenuation in uncompacted porous media on one side, and to the dilemma of observing propagation in downsized laboratory setup on the other. First results validated the experimental protocol in terms of porosity/permeability independence: for particle size varying between 100 μm and 500 μm, permeability varied by a factor 20, with a maximum by 5.10-11 m2, while porosity remained by 39 ± 2 % during the whole experiment. Further investigations are being led regarding the normalised transfer function, corrected for both the fluid conductivity and the seismic energy. For that purpose, we compare the dependence of our measured transfer

  2. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  3. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  4. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  5. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion. PMID:26509428

  6. Many-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the past few years, we developed many-body variational wave functions that allow one to treat pairing and particle-hole two-body interactions on an equal footing. The complexity of these wave functions depends on the number of levels included in the valence space, but does not depend on the number of nucleons in the system. By using residual interaction strengths (e.g. the quadrupole interaction strength or pairing interaction strength) as generator coordinates, one gets many different wave functions, each having a different expectation value for the relevant interaction mode. These wave functions are particularly useful when one is dealing with a situation in which the mean-field approximation is inadequate. Because the same basis states are used in the construction of the many-body wave functions, it is possible to calculate overlaps and interaction matrix elements for the many-body wave functions (which are not in general orthogonal) easily. The valence space can contain a large number of single-particle basis states, when there are constants of motion that can be used to break the levels up into groups. We added a cranking term to the many-body Hamiltonian and modified the projection procedure to get states of good signature before variation. In our present implementation, each group is limited to eight pairs of single-particle levels. We are working on ways of increasing the number of levels that can be included in each group. We are also working on including particle-particle residual interaction modes, in addition to pairing, in our Hamiltonian.

  7. Meson wave function from holographic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2010-08-04

    We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

  8. The destructive impact of the rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamin, Roman

    2013-04-01

    In our talk rogue waves at the ocean will be considered. By means of numerical modeling dangerous impact of rogue waves on the ships and oil rigs is calculated. Cases when these waves can bring in accident are considered. Using statistics of emergence of waves (see [1]-[2]), it is possible to estimate risks in each case. These results can be used for safety of the ships and oil rigs from rogue waves. References [1] V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko, R.V. Shamin. How probability for freak wave formation can be found // THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL - SPECIAL TOPICS Volume 185, Number 1, 113-124, DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2010-01242-y [2] V.E. Zakharov, R.V. Shamin. Statistics of rogue waves in computer experiments // JETP Letters, 2012, V. 96, Issue 1, pp 66-69.

  9. Meson wave function from holographic models

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2009-09-01

    We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.

  10. Impact produced stress waves in composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.; Johnson, J.; Addessio, F.; Hixson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Nonhomogenized Dynamic Method of Cells (NHDMOC) is used to study the propagation of stress waves through laminates. The accuracy of the theory is tested by applying it to a plate-impact experiment and checking its ability to resolve a propagation shock wave front. The theory is then compared to Lagrangian hydrodynamic calculations, where it is found that the NHDMOC consistently requires less fine spatial and temporal grids, and less artificial viscosity to control numerical noise. The theory is then used to treat the impact of an epoxy-graphite bilaminate. When the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy are accounted for, the theory agrees well with the experiment.

  11. Spatial wave functions of photon and electron

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlov, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The quantum mechanical model of the photon and electron is considered. The photon is conceived of as a particle moving with the speed of light which is accompanied by the wave function of the photon spreading out with an infinite speed. The wave function of the electron is introduced in terms of virtual photons tied to the electron. A description of electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions is given through the wave functions of electrons. The approach provides an explanation of the results of recent experiments measuring the speed of propagation of the bound magnetic field.

  12. Reality and measurement of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.

    1994-07-01

    Using a simple version of the model for the quantum measurement of a two-level system, the contention of Aharonov, Anandan, and Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 47, 4616 (1993)] that one must in certain circumstances give the wave function an ontological as well as an epistemological significance is examined. I decide that their argument that the wave function of a system can be measured on a single system fails to establish the key point and that what they demonstrate is the ontological significance of certain operators in the theory, with the wave function playing its usual epistemological role.

  13. Extreme Wave Impact on a Flexible Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Aliza; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are combined to characterize the flow-structure interaction of a breaking wave impacting a flexible vertically mounted plate. DIC is used with the beam bending equation to determine the stresses on the plate and PIV is used to describe the flow of the wave. In this experiment, a simulated dam break in which water is rapidly released from a reservoir generates the wave, which impinges on a cantilevered stainless steel plate downstream. Pressure sensors mounted on the plate are used to gather further information about the forces acting on it. A series of waves of different heights and breaking locations are tested, controlled by the volume of water in the tank and the volume of water in the dam break reservoir. The deflection of the plate varies depending on the point of breaking and the height of the wave. These results shed light on the effect of breaking wave impacts on offshore structures and ship hulls.

  14. Waves in fragmented geomaterials with impact attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation of waves in geomaterials, such as seismic waves is usually attributed to energy dissipation due to the presence of viscous fluid and/or viscous cement between the constituents. In fragmented geomaterials such as blocky rock mass there is another possible source of energy dissipation - impacting between the fragments. This can be characterised by the coefficient of restitution, which is the ratio between the rotational velocities after and before the impact. In particular, this manifests itself in the process of mutual rotations of the fragments/blocks, whereby in the process of oscillation different ends of the contacting faces of the fragments are impacting. During the rotational oscillations the energy dissipation is concentrated in the neutral position that is the one in which the relative rotation between two fragments is zero. We show that in a simple system of two fragments this dissipation is equivalent, in a long run, to the presence of viscous damper between the fragments (the Voigt model of visco-elasticity). Generalisation of this concept to the material consisting of many fragments leads to a Voigt model of wave propagation where the attenuation coefficient is proportional to the logarithm of restitution coefficient. The waves in such a medium show slight dispersion caused by damping and strong dependence of the attenuation on the wave frequency.

  15. The geometry of electron wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, Yurii A

    2013-02-28

    To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  16. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  17. Stress Wave Source Characterization: Impact, Fracture, and Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory Christofer

    Rapidly varying forces, such as those associated with impact, rapid crack propagation, and fault rupture, are sources of stress waves which propagate through a solid body. This dissertation investigates how properties of a stress wave source can be identified or constrained using measurements recorded at an array of sensor sites located far from the source. This methodology is often called the method of acoustic emission and is useful for structural health monitoring and the noninvasive study of material behavior such as friction and fracture. In this dissertation, laboratory measurements of 1--300 mm wavelength stress waves are obtained by means of piezoelectric sensors which detect high frequency (10 kHz--3MHz) motions of a specimen's surface, picometers to nanometers in amplitude. Then, stress wave source characterization techniques are used to study ball impact, drying shrinkage cracking in concrete, and the micromechanics of stick-slip friction of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and rock/rock interfaces. In order to quantitatively relate recorded signals obtained with an array of sensors to a particular stress wave source, wave propagation effects and sensor distortions must be accounted for. This is achieved by modeling the physics of wave propagation and transduction as linear transfer functions. Wave propagation effects are precisely modeled by an elastodynamic Green's function, sensor distortion is characterized by an instrument response function, and the stress wave source is represented with a force moment tensor. These transfer function models are verified though calibration experiments which employ two different mechanical calibration sources: ball impact and glass capillary fracture. The suitability of the ball impact source model, based on Hertzian contact theory, is experimentally validated for small (˜1 mm) balls impacting massive plates composed of four different materials: aluminum, steel, glass, and PMMA. Using this transfer function approach

  18. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic

  19. Meaning of the nuclear wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, John D.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: The intense current experimental interest in studying the structure of the deuteron and using it to enable accurate studies of neutron structure motivate us to examine the four-dimensional space-time nature of the nuclear wave function and the various approximations used to reduce it to an object that depends only on three spatial variables. Purpose: The aim is to determine if the ability to understand and analyze measured experimental cross sections is compromised by making the reduction from four to three dimensions. Method: Simple, exactly calculable, covariant models of a bound-state wave-state wave function (a scalar boson made of two constituent-scalar bosons) with parameters chosen to represent a deuteron are used to investigate the accuracy of using different approximations to the nuclear wave function to compute the quasielastic scattering cross section. Four different versions of the wave function are defined (light-front-spectator, light-front, light-front with scaling, and nonrelativistic) and used to compute the cross sections as a function of how far off the mass shell (how virtual) is the struck constituent. Results: We show that making an exact calculation of the quasielastic scattering cross section involves using the light-front-spectator wave function. All of the other approaches fail to reproduce the model exact calculation if the value of Bjorken x differs from unity. The model is extended to consider an essential effect of spin to show that constituent nucleons cannot be treated as being on their mass shell even when taking the matrix element of a "good" current. Conclusions: Developing realistic light-front-spectator wave functions to meet the needs of current and planned experiments is a worthwhile activity.

  20. The evolution of oscillator wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Mark

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how wave functions evolve with time in the harmonic oscillator. We first review the periodicity properties over each multiple of a quarter of the classical oscillation period. Then we show that any wave function can be simply transformed so that its centroid, defined by the expectation values of position and momentum, remains at rest at the center of the oscillator. This implies that we need only consider the evolution of this restricted class of wave functions; the evolution of all others can be reduced to these. The evolution of the spread in position Δx and momentum Δp throws light on energy and uncertainty and on squeezed and coherent states. Finally, we show that any wave function can be transformed so that Δx and Δp do not change with time and that the evolution of all wave functions can easily be found from the evolution of those at rest at the origin with unchanging Δx and Δp.

  1. Plasmon wave function of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveiro, I.; Plaza Ortega, J. M.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2015-08-01

    We find the low-frequency optical response of highly doped individual and arrayed graphene nanoribbons to be accurately described in terms of plasmon wave functions (PWFs). More precisely, we focus on the lowest-order transverse dipolar mode, for which we define the wave function as the induced charge density associated with the plasmon. We show that a single universal wave function is capable of describing the normal-incidence interaction of paired, co-planar, and stacked arrays of ribbons down to small inter-ribbon distances. Our work provides both intuitive insight into graphene plasmon interactions and a practical way of accurately describing complex graphene geometries based on the PWFs of the individual components.

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  3. Nonlinear wave function expansions : a progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.; Minkoff, M.; Brozell, S. R.; Chemistry

    2007-12-01

    Some recent progress is reported for a novel nonlinear expansion form for electronic wave functions. This expansion form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the Graphical Unitary Group Approach and the wave function is expanded in a basis of product functions, allowing application to closed and open shell systems and to ground and excited electronic states. Each product basis function is itself a multiconfigurational expansion that depends on a relatively small number of nonlinear parameters called arc factors. Efficient recursive procedures for the computation of reduced one- and two-particle density matrices, overlap matrix elements, and Hamiltonian matrix elements result in a very efficient computational procedure that is applicable to very large configuration state function (CSF) expansions. A new energy-based optimization approach is presented based on product function splitting and variational recombination. Convergence of both valence correlation energy and dynamical correlation energy with respect to the product function basis dimension is examined. A wave function analysis approach suitable for very large CSF expansions is presented based on Shavitt graph node density and arc density. Some new closed-form expressions for various Shavitt Graph and Auxiliary Pair Graph statistics are presented.

  4. Multifractal wave functions of simple quantum maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John; García-Mata, Ignacio; Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand

    2010-10-01

    We study numerically multifractal properties of two models of one-dimensional quantum maps: a map with pseudointegrable dynamics and intermediate spectral statistics and a map with an Anderson-like transition recently implemented with cold atoms. Using extensive numerical simulations, we compute the multifractal exponents of quantum wave functions and study their properties, with the help of two different numerical methods used for classical multifractal systems (box-counting and wavelet methods). We compare the results of the two methods over a wide range of values. We show that the wave functions of the Anderson map display a multifractal behavior similar to eigenfunctions of the three-dimensional Anderson transition but of a weaker type. Wave functions of the intermediate map share some common properties with eigenfunctions at the Anderson transition (two sets of multifractal exponents, with similar asymptotic behavior), but other properties are markedly different (large linear regime for multifractal exponents even for strong multifractality, different distributions of moments of wave functions, and absence of symmetry of the exponents). Our results thus indicate that the intermediate map presents original properties, different from certain characteristics of the Anderson transition derived from the nonlinear sigma model. We also discuss the importance of finite-size effects.

  5. Constructibility of the Universal Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on a constructive treatment of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a possible role of constructivist philosophy in resolving the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, particularly, the controversy over the meaning of the wave function of the universe. As it is demonstrated in the paper, unless the number of the universe's degrees of freedom is fundamentally upper bounded (owing to some unknown physical laws) or hypercomputation is physically realizable, the universal wave function is a non-constructive entity in the sense of constructive recursive mathematics. This means that even if such a function might exist, basic mathematical operations on it would be undefinable and subsequently the only content one would be able to deduce from this function would be pure symbolical.

  6. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I J; Elster, Charlotte; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, Goran; Escher, J.E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space is presented. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter eta, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p -> q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10(-1) to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions. Program Summary Program title: libcwfn Catalogue identifier: AEUQ_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEUQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 864503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7178021 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, Fortran 77, Python, make (GNU Make dialect), GNU Bash shell interpreter (available as /bin/bash). Computer: Apple Powermac (Intel Xeon), ASUS K53U (AMD E-350 (Dual Core)), DELL Precision T3500 (Intel Xeon), NERSC Carver (Intel Nehalem Quad Core). Operating system: Linux, Windows (using Cygwin). RAM: less than 512 Mbytes Classification: 17.8, 17.13, 17.16. Nature of problem: The calculation of partial wave Coulomb functions with integer land all other arguments real. Solution method: Computing the value of the function using explicit formulae and algorithms. Running time: Less than 10(-3) s. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eremenko, V; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I J; Elster, Charlotte; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, Goran; Escher, J.E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space is presented. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter eta, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p -> q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10(-1) to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions. Program Summary Program title: libcwfn Catalogue identifier: AEUQ_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEUQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 864503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7178021 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, Fortran 77, Python, make (GNU Make dialect), GNU Bash shell interpreter (available as /bin/bash). Computer: Apple Powermac (Intel Xeon), ASUS K53U (AMD E-350 (Dual Core)), DELL Precision T3500 (Intel Xeon), NERSC Carver (Intel Nehalem Quad Core). Operating system: Linux, Windows (using Cygwin). RAM: less than 512 Mbytes Classification: 17.8, 17.13, 17.16. Nature of problem: The calculation of partial wave Coulomb functions with integer land all other arguments real. Solution method: Computing the value of the function using explicit formulae and algorithms. Running time: Less than 10(-3) s. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  8. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  10. Covariance Constraints for Light Front Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.

    2016-06-01

    Light front wave functions (LFWFs) are often utilized to model parton distributions and form factors where their transverse and longitudinal momenta are tied to each other in some manner that is often guided by convenience. On the other hand, the cross talk of transverse and longitudinal momenta is governed by Poincaré symmetry and thus popular LFWF models are often not usable to model more intricate quantities such as generalized parton distributions. In this contribution a closer look to this issue is given and it is shown how to overcome the issue for two-body LFWFs.

  11. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  12. Variational wave functions for homogenous Bose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sueto, Andras; Szepfalusy, Peter

    2008-02-15

    We study variational wave functions of the product form, factorizing according to the wave vectors k, for the ground state of a system of bosons interacting via positive pair interactions with a positive Fourier transform. Our trial functions are members of different orthonormal bases in Fock space. Each basis contains a quasiparticle vacuum state and states with an arbitrary finite number of quasiparticles. One of the bases is that of Valatin and Butler (VB), introduced fifty years ago and parametrized by an infinite set of variables determining Bogoliubov's canonical transformation for each k. In another case, inspired by Nozieres and Saint James the canonical transformation for k=0 is replaced by a shift in the creation/annihilation operators. For the VB basis we prove that the lowest energy is obtained in a state with {approx}{radical}(volume) quasiparticles in the zero mode. The number of k=0 physical particles is of the order of the volume and its fluctuation is anomalously large, resulting in an excess energy. The same fluctuation is normal in the second type of optimized bases, the minimum energy is smaller and is attained in a vacuum state. Associated quasiparticle theories and questions about the gap in their spectrum are also discussed.

  13. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  14. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-06-15

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  15. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  16. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  17. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  18. Holographic Wave Functions, Meromorphization and Counting Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-05-10

    We study the large-Q{sup 2} behavior of the meson form factor F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) constructed using the holographic light-front wave functions proposed recently by Brodsky and de Teramond. We show that this model can be also obtained within the Migdal's regularization approach (''meromorphization''), if one applies it to 3-point function for scalar currents made of scalar quarks. We found that the asymptotic 1/Q{sup 2} behavior of F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) is generated by soft Feynman mechanism rather than by short distance dynamics, which causes very late onset of the 1/Q{sup 2} asymptotic behavior. It becomes visible only for unaccessible momenta Q{sup 2} {approx}> 10, GeV{sup 2}. Using meromorphization for spin-1/2 quarks, we demonstrated that resulting form factor F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) has 1/Q{sup 4} asymptotic behavior. Now, owing to the late onset of this asymptotic pattern, F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) imitates the 1/Q{sup 2} behavior in the few GeV{sup 2} region.

  19. Impact induced solitary wave propagation through a woodpile structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, R.; Waychal, A.; Agarwal, S.; Yadav, P.; Uddin, Ahsan; Sahoo, N.; Shelke, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate solitary wave propagation through a one-dimensional woodpile structure excited by low and high velocity impact. Woodpile structures are a sub-class of granular metamaterial, which supports propagation of nonlinear waves. Hertz contact law governs the behavior of the solitary wave propagation through the granular media. Towards an experimental study, a woodpile structure was fabricated by orthogonally stacking cylindrical rods. A shock tube facility has been developed to launch an impactor on the woodpile structure at a velocity of 30 m s-1. Embedded granular chain sensors were fabricated to study the behavior of the solitary wave. The impact induced stress wave is studied to investigate solitary wave parameters, i.e. contact force, contact time, and solitary wave velocity. With the aid of the experimental setup, numerical simulations, and a theoretical solution based on the long wavelength approximation, formation of the solitary wave in the woodpile structure is validated to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The nondispersive and compact supported solitary waves traveling at sonic wave velocity offer unique properties that could be leveraged for application in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.

  20. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  1. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  2. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  3. Bohmian mechanics without wave function ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Albert

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I critically assess different interpretations of Bohmian mechanics that are not committed to an ontology based on the wave function being an actual physical object that inhabits configuration space. More specifically, my aim is to explore the connection between the denial of configuration space realism and another interpretive debate that is specific to Bohmian mechanics: the quantum potential versus guidance approaches. Whereas defenders of the quantum potential approach to the theory claim that Bohmian mechanics is better formulated as quasi-Newtonian, via the postulation of forces proportional to acceleration; advocates of the guidance approach defend the notion that the theory is essentially first-order and incorporates some concepts akin to those of Aristotelian physics. Here I analyze whether the desideratum of an interpretation of Bohmian mechanics that is both explanatorily adequate and not committed to configuration space realism favors one of these two approaches to the theory over the other. Contrary to some recent claims in the literature, I argue that the quasi-Newtonian approach based on the idea of a quantum potential does not come out the winner.

  4. Imaging the wave functions of adsorbed molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F. Stefan; Ramsey, Michael G.; Puschnig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The basis for a quantum-mechanical description of matter is electron wave functions. For atoms and molecules, their spatial distributions and phases are known as orbitals. Although orbitals are very powerful concepts, experimentally only the electron densities and -energy levels are directly observable. Regardless whether orbitals are observed in real space with scanning probe experiments, or in reciprocal space by photoemission, the phase information of the orbital is lost. Here, we show that the experimental momentum maps of angle-resolved photoemission from molecular orbitals can be transformed to real-space orbitals via an iterative procedure which also retrieves the lost phase information. This is demonstrated with images obtained of a number of orbitals of the molecules pentacene (C22H14) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (C24H8O6), adsorbed on silver, which are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. The procedure requires no a priori knowledge of the orbitals and is shown to be simple and robust. PMID:24344291

  5. Impacts of ULF wave power on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Doherty, P.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of the ULF wave power, which is excited by long-lived high solar wind speed streams, in the magnetosphere has been well understood. For example, it has been reported that ULF pulsations may be the likely acceleration mechanism for generating storm-time MeV "killer" electrons in the magnetosphere. However, the impact of this energetic ULF wave power onto the ionosphere is not yet explored very well. In this paper we unequivocally demonstrated that during intense Pc5 ULF wave activity period, distinct pulsations with the same periodicity were found in the TEC data observed by GPS receivers located at different latitudes. The GPS-TEC has been used as a powerful tool to study the propagation pattern of transient ionospheric disturbances generated by seismic or internal gravity waves. Since then the small-scale variations (undulation) of GPS TEC has been associated with either gravity wave or TIDs. However, these small scale undulations of TECs turned out to be sensitive enough to the intense global ULF waves as well. The wavelet analysis of GPS TEC small scale undulations shows a peak value at the frequency of 2-10mHz which is a typical frequency range of Pc5 ULF wave. The typical internal gravity wave frequency is less than 1.6 or 2 mHz, therefore the TEC waves are likely due to ULF waves. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using a chain of ground-based magnetometer data, depicting the ULF wave penetration from high latitude to low latitude region. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the ionosphere and cause small scale undulation on the ionospheric density structures.

  6. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  7. Light Front Wave Function for Hadrons with Arbitrary Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a phenomenological light-front wave function for hadrons with arbitrary twist dimension (mesons, baryons and multiquark states), which gives the correct scaling behavior of structure functions and form factors. Some examples of his uses are presented.

  8. Light Front Wave Function for Hadrons with Arbitrary Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a phenomenological light-front wave function for hadrons with arbitrary twist dimension (mesons, baryons and multiquark states), which gives the correct scaling behavior of structure functions and form factors. Some examples of his uses are presented.

  9. Wind-wave source functions in opposing seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the center of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition.

  10. Modular matrices from universal wave-function overlaps in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jia-Wei; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-03-01

    We implement the universal wave-function overlap (UWFO) method to extract modular S and T matrices for topological orders in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions (GPWFs). The modular S and T matrices generate a projective representation of S L (2 ,Z ) on the degenerate-ground-state Hilbert space on a torus and may fully characterize the 2+1D topological orders, i.e., the quasiparticle statistics and chiral central charge (up to E8 bosonic quantum Hall states). We use the variational Monte Carlo method to computed the S and T matrices of the chiral spin liquid (CSL) constructed by the GPWF on the square lattice, and we confirm that the CSL carries the same topological order as the ν =1/2 bosonic Laughlin state. We find that the nonuniversal exponents in the UWFO can be small, and direct numerical computation can be applied on relatively large systems. The UWFO may be a powerful method to calculate the topological order in GPWFs.

  11. Joint inversion of body wave receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chu, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave dispersion has been used to image lithospheric structure jointly with receiver function, or Rayleigh wave ellipticity (Julia et al., 2000; Lin et al., 2012). Because surface wave dispersion is the total propagation effect of the travel path, the joint inversion relies on dense seismic arrays or high seismicity to obtain local velocity structure. However, both receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity are single station measurements with localized sensitivities and could be combined for joint inversion naturally. In this study we explored the feasibility of the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function. We performed sensitivity tests with forward modeling, and found that the receiver function is sensitive to sharp velocity interfaces but shows weak sensitivity to long wavelength structure, almost complementary to Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Therefore, joint inversion with two single-station measurements provides tighter constraints on the velocity structure beneath the seismic station. A joint inversion algorithm based on the Fast Simulated Annealing method is developed to invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function for the lithospheric structure. Application of the algorithm to the Indian Craton and the Williston Basin in the United States demonstrates its effectiveness in reducing the non-uniqueness of the inversion. However, the joint inversion is not sensitive to average crustal velocity, suggesting the need to combine surface wave dispersion, receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity to more accurately resolve the velocity structure. ReferenceJuliá, J., C. Ammon, R. Herrmann, and A. Correig, 2000. Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations, Geophys. J. Int., 143(1), 99-112. Lin F.C., Schmandt B. and Tsai V.C., 2012. Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity using USArray: constraining velocity and density structure in the upper

  12. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  13. Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.

  14. Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation

  15. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  16. Traveling waves and impact-parameter correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, S.; Salam, G. P.; Soyez, G.

    2008-09-01

    It is usually assumed that the high-energy evolution of partons in QCD remains local in coordinate space. In particular, fixed impact-parameter scattering is thought to be in the universality class of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion processes as if the evolutions at different points in the transverse plane became uncorrelated through rapidity evolution. We check this assumption by numerically comparing a toy model with QCD-like impact-parameter dependence to its exact counterpart with uniform evolution in impact-parameter space. We find quantitative differences, but which seem to amount to a mere rescaling of the strong coupling constant. Since the rescaling factor does not show any strong {alpha}{sub s} dependence, we conclude that locality is well verified, up to subleading terms at small {alpha}{sub s}.

  17. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  18. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  19. Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Tucker, Don H; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.

  20. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  1. How beaming of gravitational waves compares to the beaming of electromagnetic waves: impacts to gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew L.; Wickramasinghe, Thulsi

    2016-05-01

    We focus on understanding the beaming of gravitational radiation from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) by approximating GRBs as linearly accelerated point masses. For accelerated point masses, it is known that gravitational radiation is beamed isotropicly at high speeds, and beamed along the polar axis at low speeds. Aside from this knowledge, there has been very little work done on beaming of gravitational radiation from GRBs, and the impact beaming could have on gravitational wave (GW) detection. We determine the following: (1) the observation angle at which the most power is emitted as a function of speed, (2) the maximum ratio of power radiated away as a function of speed, and (3) the angular distribution of power ratios at relativistic and non-relativistic speeds. Additionally the dependence of the beaming of GW radiation on speed is essentially the opposite of the beaming of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from GRBs. So we investigate why this is the case by calculating the angular EM radiation distribution from a linear electric quadrupole, and compare this distribution to the angular gravitational radiation distribution from a GRB.

  2. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  3. Structure of the number-projected BCS wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Pittel, S.; Esebbag, C.

    2016-03-01

    We study the structure of the number-projected BCS (PBCS) wave function in the particle-hole basis, displaying its similarities with coupled clusters theory (CCT). The analysis of PBCS together with several modifications suggested by the CCT wave function is carried out for the exactly solvable Richardson model involving a pure pairing Hamiltonian acting in a space of equally spaced, doubly degenerate levels. We point out the limitations of PBCS to describe the nonsuperconducting regime and suggest possible avenues for improvement.

  4. Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich

    2014-06-15

    Multi-time wave functions such as ϕ(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ψ(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.

  5. The Pion Renormalized Light-Cone Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawiński, Arkadiusz P.

    2016-06-01

    An approximate light-cone wave function for the pion effective quark-antiquark Fock sector corresponding to a small value of the renormalization group parameter is presented. The approximate wave function is motivated by the LF-holography and the quadratic confinement potential in the front form of Hamiltonian dynamics, which is in harmony with the linear confining potential in the instant form. The pion radius, decay constant and form-factor are also presented.

  6. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    total and local force transducers which measured the response of the structure to the impact force. Also, the free surface elevations, the water particle velocity and the water particle acceleration were recorded during the WaveSlam experiment. Both the total and the local force data have been analysed using the Frequency Response Function method, which has been already applied to the estimation of the wave slamming forces. The results of this classical approach were compared to the calculated slamming forces based on Goda and Wienke and Oumeraci theories. Slamming wave forces and slamming coefficients calculated using both models appeared to be very much larger than those obtained from the analysed recorded data, therefore there is a need for further research. Details of this research and modelling results will be presented in the final poster.

  7. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  8. Improved variational wave functions for few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Arriaga, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We continued to work on improvements to our variational wave functions for use in Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei. These trial functions include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two-body correlations and three-body correlations for the three-nucleon potential. In the last two years we studied a variety of extra three-body correlations. Our search for possible forms was guided by comparisons made with 34-channel Faddeev wave functions provided by the Los Alamos-Iowa group. The new trial functions reduce the discrepancy with exact Faddeev calculations in {sup 3}H and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations in {sup 4}He by about 40%. This work is now being written up for publication. We hope to use similar comparisons with GFMC calculations in the six-body nuclei to find further improvements for the light p-shell nuclei, where the variational wave functions are not as good.

  9. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  10. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  11. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  12. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  13. Pfaffian wave functions and topology of fermion nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitas, Lubos

    2007-03-01

    Pfaffian is defined as a signed sum of all pair partitions of even number of elements and it can be viewed as a nontrivial generalization of determinant. Pfaffian enables to define the simplest possible antisymmetric wave function based on pair spinorbital(s) and therefore represents a pairing generalization of the Slater determinant of one-particle orbitals. Pfaffians actually accomodate several types of pairing wave functions, for example, one special case is the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer wave function. Using this platform we propose pfaffian wave functions with simultaneous pairings both in singlet and triplet channels and we benchmark their performance in fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo. We implement Gaussian elimination-like algorithm which enables to calculate pfaffians with efficiency similar to calculation of determinants. For a testing set of first row atoms and molecules we show that single pfaffians provide correlation energies systematically at the level of about 95%. Linear combinations of small number of pfaffians recover another fraction of the missing correlation energy comparable to significantly larger determinantal expansions. In addition, we show that pfaffians possess an important property of fermionic wave functions, namely, the minimal number of two nodal domains defined by fermion nodes. This is related to the proof that under rather general conditions closed-shell ground state wave functions of fermionic systems in d>1 have two nodal domains for arbitrary system size. The explicit proofs cover a number of paradigmatic models such as fermions on a sphere surface, in a periodic box, atomic states, etc, and we discuss the implications of this on efficient construction of wave functions and on several types of many-body effects. Supported by NSF and done in collaboration with M. Bajdich, L.K. Wagner, G. Drobny, and K.E Schmidt.Refs: L. Mitas, PRL 96, 240402 (2006); L. Mitas, cond-mat/0605550; M. Bajdich et al, PRL 96, 130201 (2006); cond

  14. Rossby wave Green's functions in an azimuthal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Duba, C. T.; Hu, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\\psi$ depends on $r$, $\\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case, which has a different but equivalent form to the Green's function obtained in the present paper. We emphasize the role of the wave eikonal solution, which plays an important role in the form of the solution. The corresponding Green's function for a rotating wind with azimuthal wind velocity ${\\bf u}=\\Omega r{\\bf e}_\\phi$ ($\\Omega=$const.) is also obtained by Fourier methods, in which the advective rotation operator in position space is transformed to a rotation operator in ${\\bf k}$ transform space. The finite Rossby deformation radius is included in the analysis. The physical characteristics of the Green's functions are delineated and applications are discussed. In the limit as $\\Omega\\to 0$, the rotating wind Green's function reduces to the Rossby wave Green function with no wind.

  15. Joint Resummation for TMD Wave Function of Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-02-01

    QCD corrections to transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave function develop the mixed double logarithm ln x ln(ζ P2/k_T^2), when the gluon emission is collinear to the energetic pion. The fist scheme-independent kT factorization formula for γ*π → γ transition form factor is achieved by resumming all the enhanced logarithms for both pion wave function and short-distance coefficient function. High-order QCD corrections and transfer momentum √ {Q2} dependence of pion form factor are found to be distinct from those predicted by the conventional resummation approach.

  16. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

  17. Inside looking out: Probing JIMWLK wave functions with BFKL calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the relation between the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) and Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK/KLWMIJ) Hamiltonians. We show that the eigenvalues of the BFKL Hamiltonians are also exact eigenvalues of the KLWMIJ (and JIMWLK) Hamiltonian, albeit corresponding to possibly non-normalizable eigenfunctions. The question whether a given eigenfunction of BFKL corresponds to a normalizable eigenfunction of KLWMIJ is rather complicated, except in some obvious cases, and requires independent investigation. As an example to illustrate this relation we concentrate on the color octet exchange in the framework of KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. We show that it corresponds to the reggeized gluon exchange of BFKL, and find first correction to the BFKL wave function, which has the meaning of the impact factor for shadowing correction to the Reggeized gluon. We also show that the bootstrap condition in the KLWMIJ framework is satisfied automatically and does not carry any additional information to that contained in the second quantized structure of the KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. This is an example of how the bootstrap condition inherent in the t-channel unitarity arises in the s-channel picture.

  18. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  19. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  20. Two-dimensional Coulomb scattering of a quantum particle: Wave functions and Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupyshev, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    We solve the problem of the propagation of a charged quantum particle in a two-dimensional plane embedded in the three-dimensional coordinate space. We consider scattering of this particle by a stable Coulomb center situated in the same plane. We study the wave function of this particle, its Green's function, and all radial components of these functions. We derive uniform majorant bounds on absolute values of these functions and find the wave function representation in terms of regular radial Coulomb functions and the scattering amplitude representation via partial phases. We obtain integral representations of the Greens's function and all its radial components.

  1. Simulations of Wave Propagation in the Jovian Atmosphere after SL9 Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Jarrad W.; Palotai, C.; Korycansky, D.; Harrington, J.

    2013-10-01

    Our previous numerical investigations into Jovian impacts, including the Shoemaker Levy- 9 (SL9) event (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642; Palotai et al. 2011 ApJ 731. 3), the 2009 bolide (Pond et al. 2012 ApJ 745. 113), and the ephemeral flashes caused by smaller impactors in 2010 and 2012 (Hueso et al. 2013; Submitted to A&A), have covered only up to approximately 3 to 30 seconds after impact. Here, we present further SL9 impacts extending to minutes after collision with Jupiter’s atmosphere, with a focus on the propagation of shock waves generated as a result of the impact events. Using a similar yet more efficient remapping method than previously presented (Pond et al. 2012; DPS 2012), we move our simulation results onto a larger computational grid, conserving quantities with minimal error. The Jovian atmosphere is extended as needed to accommodate the evolution of the features of the impact event. We restart the simulation, allowing the impact event to continue to progress to greater spatial extents and for longer times, but at lower resolutions. This remap-restart process can be implemented multiple times to achieve the spatial and temporal scales needed to investigate the observable effects of waves generated by the deposition of energy and momentum into the Jovian atmosphere by an SL9-like impactor. As before, we use the three-dimensional, parallel hydrodynamics code ZEUS-MP 2 (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188) to conduct our simulations. Wave characteristics are tracked throughout these simulations. Of particular interest are the wave speeds and wave positions in the atmosphere as a function of time. These properties are compared to the characteristics of the HST rings to see if shock wave behavior within one hour of impact is consistent with waves observed at one hour post-impact and beyond (Hammel et al. 1995 Science 267. 1288). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1109729 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program Grant

  2. Hydrodynamic waves and correlation functions in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1997-11-01

    A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations. It is shown that in the presence of weakly damped, long-wavelength dust-acoustic waves, the dust autocorrelation function is of the Debye{endash}H{umlt u}ckel form and the characteristic shielding distance is the dust Debye length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Oblique propagation, wave particle interaction and particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmane, Adnane; Hamza, A. M.; Meziane, Karim

    Recent results from the Cluster mission have stimulated theoretical investigations and simulations to explain ion distribution functions observed in the quasi-perp bow shock. High-time resolution observations have revealed distributions of gyrating ions that are gyrophase-bunched. When not produced at the shock, such distributions are believed to be resulting from interactions between field-aligned beams and low frequency beamdriven waves . The Conventional models used to account for such distributions assume that the waves are purely transverse, and that they propagate parallel to the ambient magnetic eld. However observations indicate that these waves are propagating obliquely with respect to the ambient magnetic eld [Meziane et al., 2001]. A theoretical investigation of the non-relativistic wave-particle interaction in a background magnetic eld with the electromagnetic wave propagating obliquely has been addressed previously, resulting in a dynamical system describing the wave interaction with a single ion in the absence of dissipation mechanisms. [Hamza et al., 2005] This dynamical system has been numerically integrated to construct the ion distribution functions by seeding the particles with di erent initial conditions. We compute the particle orbits and simulate the time evolution of the distribution functions based on Liouville's theorem of phase space density conservation. It will be shown that the trapping which is due to the oblique propagation of the wave, gives an explanation for gyrophase-bunching and unstable distributions in velocity space which could trigger instabilities such as firehose and mirror. Therefore this exercise provide insights on the particle dynamics and onset of waves away from the shock. Meziane, K., C. Mazelle, R.P. Lin, D. LeQueau, D.E. Larson, G.K. Parks, R.P. Lepping (2001), Three dimensional observations of gyrating ions distributions far upstream from the Earth's bow shock and their association with low-frequency waves, J

  4. Source Time Function of P-wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the site effect of time function of the Taiwan area will be invested. The recorded response function of a single earthquake will be calculated by Complex Demodulation. The path effect of each event-station pair will be estimated by using the forward method with a 3-D attenuation structure. After removing the path effect, the source frequency function of each single event will be obtained by averaging the whole station gotten. Using this source time function to calculate the path effect of the all stations, the theoretic received time frequency function can be obtained. The difference between this theoretic function and the recorded function is the site effect function of the single station. The characterics of the site effect in Taiwan area will be analyzed. Recalculate the path effect and remove the site effect of each station to get the new source time function of P-wave acceleration.

  5. Dark energy and normalization of the cosmological wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peng; Huang, Yue; Li, Miao; Li, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Dark energy is investigated from the perspective of quantum cosmology. It is found that, together with an appropriate normal ordering factor q, only when there is dark energy can the cosmological wave function be normalized. This interesting observation may require further attention.

  6. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  7. Vector Meson Form Factors and Wave Functions from Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannes Grigoryan; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-10-10

    Based on the holographic dual model of QCD, we study 2- and 3-point functions of vector currents and derive form factors as well as wave functions for the vector mesons. As a result, generalized vector-meson dominance representation for form factors is obtained with a very specific VMD pattern. The calculated electric radius of the rho-meson is shown to be in a good agreement with predictions from lattice QCD.

  8. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the 8B nucleus.

  9. Refined applications of the collapse of the wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodolsky, L.

    2015-05-01

    In a two-part system, the collapse of the wave function of one part can put the other part in a state which would be difficult or impossible to achieve otherwise, in particular, one sensitive to small effects in the "collapse" interaction. We present some applications to the very symmetric and experimentally accessible situations of the decays ϕ (1020 )→KoKo , ψ (3770 )→DoDo, or ϒ (4 s )→BoBo , involving the internal state of the two-state Ko, Do, or Bo mesons. The collapse of the wave function occasioned by a decay of one member of the pair (away side) fixes the state vector of that side's two-state system. Bose-Einstein statistics then determines the state of the recoiling meson (near side), whose evolution can then be followed further. In particular, the statistics requirement dictates that the "away side" and "near side" internal wave functions must be orthogonal at the time of the collapse. Thus a C P violation in the away side decay implies a complementary C P impurity on the near side, which can be detected in the further evolution. The C P violation so manifested is necessarily direct C P violation, since neither the mass matrix nor time evolution was involved in the collapse. A parametrization of the direct C P violation is given, and various manifestations are presented. Certain rates or combination of rates are identified which are nonzero only if there is direct C P violation. The very explicit and detailed use made of the collapse of the wave function makes the procedure interesting with respect to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. We note an experimental consistency test for our treatment of the collapse of the wave function, which can be carried out by a certain measurement of partial decay rates.

  10. How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faletič, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.

  11. Local properties of three-body atomic wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.; Varga, K.

    2000-06-01

    The local properties and accuracy of the positronium negative-ion (Ps{sup -}) ground-state wave functions obtained by the stochastic variational method (SVM) and by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method (CFHHM) are studied and compared. Though the energy, calculated by both methods, agrees to up to ten digits, the amplitudes of the values of the operator D=H{psi}/E{psi}-1, characterizing local deviation of the wave function from its true value, in all of the coordinate space in the SVM are consistently larger (by up to five orders of magnitude) than in the CFHHM, despite the fact that the SVM observables except <{delta}(r{sub k})> converge to significantly more digits than the CFHHM observables for their respective selected bases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Edge states for the Kalmeyer-Laughlin wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwerth, Benedikt; Sierra, Germán; Tu, Hong-Hao; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Nielsen, Anne E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We study lattice wave functions obtained from the SU(2)1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory. Following Moore and Read's construction, the Kalmeyer-Laughlin fractional quantum Hall state is defined as a correlation function of primary fields. By an additional insertion of Kac-Moody currents, we associate a wave function with each state of the conformal field theory. These wave functions span the complete Hilbert space of the lattice system. On the cylinder, we study global properties of the lattice states analytically and correlation functions numerically using a Metropolis Monte Carlo method. By comparing short-range bulk correlations, numerical evidence is provided that the states with one current operator represent edge states in the thermodynamic limit. We show that the edge states with one Kac-Moody current of lowest order have a good overlap with low-energy excited states of a local Hamiltonian, for which the Kalmeyer-Laughlin state approximates the ground state. For some states, exact parent Hamiltonians are derived on the cylinder. These Hamiltonians are SU(2) invariant and nonlocal with up to four-body interactions.

  13. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  14. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  15. Resonating valence bond wave functions and classical interacting dimer models.

    PubMed

    Damle, Kedar; Dhar, Deepak; Ramola, Kabir

    2012-06-15

    We relate properties of nearest-neighbor resonating valence-bond (NNRVB) wave functions for SU(g) spin systems on two-dimensional bipartite lattices to those of fully packed interacting classical dimer models on the same lattice. The interaction energy can be expressed as a sum of n-body potentials V(n), which are recursively determined from the NNRVB wave function on finite subgraphs of the original lattice. The magnitude of the n-body interaction V(n) (n>1) is of order O(g(-(n-1))) for small g(-1). The leading term is a two-body nearest-neighbor interaction V2(g) favoring two parallel dimers on elementary plaquettes. For SU(2) spins, using our calculated value of V2(g=2), we find that the long-distance behavior of the bond-energy correlation function is dominated by an oscillatory term that decays as 1/|r|α with α≈1.22. This result is in remarkable quantitative agreement with earlier direct numerical studies of the corresponding wave function, which give α≈1.20. PMID:23004328

  16. Estimating Moho depth utilizing S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, S.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.

    2014-12-01

    H-k stacking method [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000] is a widely used grid search technique for estimating the Moho depth (H) and Vp/Vs (k) beneath a given station. The H-k surface reaches a maximum when the optimum H and k values are used, which is assumed to be the average crustal structure beneath the seismic station. In general, the method is employed in conjunction with P-wave receiver functions. Here, we investigate the usability of H-k stacking method with S-to-P (Sp) conversions and S-wave reverberations within the crust, employing an extended multi-taper deconvolution. We apply the method to southern California, using data recorded between 1990-2011. We compare results with those of prior studies that used P-to-S (Ps) conversions [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000; Yan and Clayton, 2007], applying a smoothing length of 0.5 degrees to reflect lateral Sp sensitivity. P-waves have better potential to resolve lateral variations in Moho depth owing to the higher frequency content and the geometry of Ps ray path. Our results from Sp conversions are in broad agreement with those from Ps, affirming that S-wave receiver functions can be used in conjunction with the H-k stacking method. Consistent with the P-wave receiver function results, crust is thinner beneath the central Transverse Range (30 km) with respect to eastern Transverse Range (33 km) and Peninsular Region (35 km). Our Moho depth observations (35 km) are more compatible with those of Yan and Clayton [2007] (~35 km) than Zhu and Kanamori [2000] (~30 km) beneath Sierra Nevada, most probably due to a larger data set this study and Yan and Clayton [2007] use. Also, results from this study are deeper than those from Ps for the Salton Trough (30-35 km vs. 25 km). In this case, broad receiver function waveform characteristics suggest a more gradual impedance change across the Moho discontinuity and/or a multi-layered crust. We suggest that a combination of P- and S-wave receiver functions can yield more robust crustal thickness

  17. Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.

  18. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    SciTech Connect

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  19. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-01

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  20. Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-03-01

    Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.

  1. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  2. Hydrodynamic Waves and Correlation Functions in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Wang, Xiaogang

    1997-11-01

    A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations [L. P. Kadanoff and P. C. Martin, Ann. Phys. 24, 419 (1963)]. It is shown that in the presence of the slow dust-acoustic waves, the dust auto-correlation function is of the Debye-Hekel form and the shielding distance is the dust Debye length. In the short-wavelength regime, an integral equation is derived from kinetic theory and solved numerically to yield particle correlation functions that display ``liquid-like'' behavior and have been observed experimentally [R. A.. Quinn, C. Cui, J. Goree, J. B. Pieper, H. Thomas and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 53, R2049 (1996)].

  3. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  4. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-07-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  5. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-04-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  6. Transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2012-05-15

    The transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} semiconductor structures with a finite concentration of donors N in the n layer has been theoretically analyzed. It is assumed that the high velocity u of impact ionization waves is ensured owing to the avalanche multiplication of the uniform background of electrons and holes whose concentration {sigma}{sub b} ahead of the front is high enough for the continuum approximation to be applicable. The problem of the calculation of the growth rate s of a small harmonic perturbation with wavenumber k is reduced to the eigenvalue problem for a specific homogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind containing the sum of double and triple integrals of an unknown eigenfunction. This problem has been solved by the method of successive approximations. It has been shown that the function s(k) for small k values increases monotonically in agreement with the analytical theory reported in Thermal Engineering 58 (13), 1119 (2011), reaches a maximum s{sub M} at k = k{sub M}, then decreases, and becomes negative at k > k{sub 01}. This behavior of the function s(k) for short-wavelength perturbations is due to a decrease in the distortion of the field owing to a finite thickness of the space charge region of the front and 'smearing' of perturbation of concentrations owing to the transverse transport of charge carriers. The similarity laws for perturbations with k Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To k{sub M} have been established: at fixed {sigma}{sub b} values and the maximum field strength on the front E{sub 0M}, the growth rate s depends only on the ratio k/N and the boundary wavenumber k{sub 01} {proportional_to} N. The parameters s{sub M}, k{sub M}, and k{sub 01}, which determine the perturbation growth dynamics and the upper boundary of the instability region for impact ionization waves, have been presented as functions of E{sub 0M}. These dependences indicate that the model of a plane

  7. Computational aspects of the continuum quaternionic wave functions for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.

    2014-10-15

    Over the past few years considerable attention has been given to the role played by the Hydrogen Continuum Wave Functions (HCWFs) in quantum theory. The HCWFs arise via the method of separation of variables for the time-independent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates. The HCWFs are composed of products of a radial part involving associated Laguerre polynomials multiplied by exponential factors and an angular part that is the spherical harmonics. In the present paper we introduce the continuum wave functions for hydrogen within quaternionic analysis ((R)QHCWFs), a result which is not available in the existing literature. In particular, the underlying functions are of three real variables and take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4}). We prove that the (R)QHCWFs are orthonormal to one another. The representation of these functions in terms of the HCWFs are explicitly given, from which several recurrence formulae for fast computer implementations can be derived. A summary of fundamental properties and further computation of the hydrogen-like atom transforms of the (R)QHCWFs are also discussed. We address all the above and explore some basic facts of the arising quaternionic function theory. As an application, we provide the reader with plot simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. (R)QHCWFs are new in the literature and have some consequences that are now under investigation.

  8. Wave impact on walls with/without parapets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Jannette; Tremblay, Olivier; Xharde, Regis

    2015-11-01

    This work is concerned with coastline protection. The usage of vertical walls is examined for various wave trains. The effect of parapets is further studied to minimize overtopping. The results presented are based on large scale flume experiments (Quebec) with a geometric scaling of 1:4. The beach has a slope 1:10. The beach material is highly absorbing and contains a mix of sand-gravel-cobble. Steel plates are mounted locally at the beach top to eliminate effect from local scour. The critical cases found relates to the plunging breakers breaking directly impacting the wall. Entrapped air-pocket(s) under the breaking wave contribute to the run-up energy through compressibility effects and bubble burst physics even from relatively small air-pockets. Highly localized wall pressures greater than 1 MPa and 10 m run-up are easily developed even with moderate amplitude waves at the inlet. The max. peak pressure on the wall identified caused either by water or entrained air pressure is typically greater than 1 MPa occurring in the order of 0.1 ms. The pressure distributions contain either single, double or triple peaks occurring typically above/at mean flume water depth and at around the local water depth in front of the wall. Furthermore, it was identified that the cases with maximum pressure on the wall does not necessarily give the maximum jet velocity (equivalent to vertical force considered in design of parapets). This work is supported by Le ministere des Transports du Quebec, and Le ministere de la Securite publique du Quebec, Canada.

  9. Spin-orbit interaction with nonlinear wave functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozell, S. R.; Shepard, R.; Zhang, Z.; Stanford Univ.

    2007-12-01

    The computation of the spin-orbit interaction is discussed for electronic wave functions expressed in the new nonlinear expansion form. This form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the graphical unitary group approach (GUGA). The nodes of a Shavitt graph in GUGA are connected by arcs, and a Configuration State Function (CSF) is represented as a walk along arcs from the vacuum node to a head node. The wave function is a linear combination of product functions each of which is a linear combination of all CSFs, wherein each CSF coefficient is a product of nonlinear arc factors. When the spin-orbit interaction is included the Shavitt graph is a union of single-headed Shavitt graphs each with the same total number of electrons and orbitals. Thus spin-orbit Shavitt graphs are multiheaded. For full-CI multiheaded Shavitt graphs, analytic expressions are presented for the number of walks, the number of nodes, the number of arcs, and the number of node pairs in the associated auxiliary pair graph.

  10. Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao

    This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.

  11. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  12. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous

  13. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle. PMID:26442830

  14. The impact of crustal density variations on seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct.We propose to develop a seismic tomography technique that directly inverts for density, using complete seismograms rather than arrival times of certain waves only. The first task in this challenge is to systematically study the imprints of density on synthetic seismograms.To compute the full seismic wavefield in a 3D heterogeneous medium without making significant approximations, we usenumerical wave propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the 1D Earth model PREM (with 40 km crust thickness) as a background. Onto this (in the uppermost 40 km) we superimpose 3D randomly generated velocity and density heterogeneities of various magnitudes and correlation lenghts. We use different random realizations of heterogeneity distribution.We compare the synthetic seismograms for 3D velocity and density structure with 3D velocity structure and with the 1D background, calculating relative amplitude differences and timeshifts as functions of time and frequency.Our analyses indicate that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both traveltimes and amplitudes. This suggests (1) that crustal tomography can be significantly biased when density heterogeneities are not properly accounted for, and (2) that the solution of the seismic inverse problem for density may become feasible.

  15. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  16. Is spontaneous wave function collapse testable at all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2015-07-01

    Mainstream literature on spontaneous wave function collapse never reflects on or profits from the formal coincidence and conceptual relationship with standard collapse under time-continuous quantum measurement (monitoring). I propose some easy lessons of standard monitoring theory which would make spontaneous collapse models revise some of their claims. In particular, the objective detection of spontaneous collapse remains impossible as long as the correct identification of what corresponds to the signal in standard monitoring is missing from spontaneous collapse models, the physical detectability of the “signal” is not stated explicitly and, finally, the principles of physical detection are not revealed.

  17. Standard quantum mechanics featuring probabilities instead of wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. I. Manko, O. V.

    2006-06-15

    A new formulation of quantum mechanics (probability representation) is discussed. In this representation, a quantum state is described by a standard positive definite probability distribution (tomogram) rather than by a wave function. An unambiguous relation (analog of Radon transformation) between the density operator and a tomogram is constructed both for continuous coordinates and for spin variables. A novel feature of a state, tomographic entropy, is considered, and its connection with von Neumann entropy is discussed. A one-to-one map of quantum observables (Hermitian operators) on positive probability distributions is found.

  18. Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints.

  19. Average wave function method for gas-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Dacol, Dalcio K.; Rabitz, Herschel

    1986-02-01

    The average wave function method (AWM) is applied to scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. For an ordered lattice an explicit relation is derived for the Bragg peaks along with a numerical illustration. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian-like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configurations is illustrated. Enhanced uniform backscattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface.

  20. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)-, Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)2-, and Gd(III)(H2O)83+ in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  1. Quasirelativistic quasilocal finite wave-function collapse model

    SciTech Connect

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-03-01

    A Markovian wave-function collapse model is presented where the collapse-inducing operator, constructed from quantum fields, is a manifestly covariant generalization of the mass-density operator utilized in the nonrelativistic continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. However, the model is not Lorentz invariant because two such operators do not commute at spacelike separation, i.e., the time-ordering operation in one Lorentz frame, the 'preferred' frame, is not the time-ordering operation in another frame. However, the characteristic spacelike distance over which the commutator decays is the particle's Compton wavelength so, since the commutator rapidly gets quite small, the model is 'almost' relativistic. This quasirelativistic CSL (QRCSL) model is completely finite: unlike previous, relativistic, models, it has no (infinite) energy production from the vacuum state. QRCSL calculations are given of the collapse rate for a single free particle in a superposition of spatially separated packets, and of the energy production rate for any number of free particles: these reduce to the CSL rates if the particle's Compton wavelength is small compared to the model's distance parameter. One motivation for QRCSL is the realization that previous relativistic models entail excitation of nuclear states which exceeds that of experiment, whereas QRCSL does not; an example is given involving quadrupole excitation of the {sup 74}Ge nucleus.

  2. Horizon wave-function and the quantum cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture by means of the horizon wave-function (HWF) formalism. We consider a charged massive particle whose quantum mechanical state is represented by a spherically symmetric Gaussian wave-function, and restrict our attention to the superextremal case (with charge-to-mass ratio α > 1), which is the prototype of a naked singularity in the classical theory. We find that one can still obtain a normalisable HWF for α2 < 2, and this configuration has a non-vanishing probability of being a black hole, thus extending the classically allowed region for a charged black hole. However, the HWF is not normalisable for α2 > 2, and the uncertainty in the location of the horizon blows up at α2 = 2, signalling that such an object is no more well-defined. This perhaps implies that a quantum Cosmic Censorship might be conjectured by stating that no black holes with charge-to-mass ratio greater than a critical value (of the order of √{ 2}) can exist.

  3. Wave functions for fractional Chern insulators in disk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ai-Lei; Luo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2015-12-01

    Recently, fractional Chern insulators (FCIs), also called fractional quantum anomalous Hall (FQAH) states, have been theoretically established in lattice systems with topological flat bands. These systems exhibit similar fractionalization phenomena to the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems. Using the mapping relationship between the FQH states and the FCI/FQAH states, we construct the many-body wave functions of the fermionic FCI/FQAH states in disk geometry with the aid of the generalized Pauli principle (GPP) and Jack polynomials. Compared with the ground state by the exact diagonalization method, the wave-function overlap is higher than 0.97, even when the Hilbert space dimension is as large as 3 × 106. We also use the GPP and the Jack polynomials to construct edge excitations for the fermionic FCI/FQAH states. The quasi-degeneracy sequences of fermionic FCI/FQAH systems reproduce the prediction of the chiral Luttinger liquid theory, complementing the exact diagonalization results with larger lattice sizes and more particles.

  4. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.

  5. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  6. Elimination of the impact of vessels on ocean wave height inversion with X-band wave monitoring radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Xiongbin; Ma, Ketao; Tian, Yun; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-09-01

    Directional wave spectra and integrated wave parameters can be derived from X-band radar sea surface images. A vessel on the sea surface has a significant influence on wave parameter inversions that can be seen as intensive backscatter speckles in X-band wave monitoring radar sea surface images. A novel algorithm to eliminate the interference of vessels in ocean wave height inversions from X-band wave monitoring radar is proposed. This algorithm is based on the characteristics of the interference. The principal components (PCs) of a sea surface image sequence are extracted using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The standard deviation of the PCs is then used to identify vessel interference within the image sequence. To mitigate the interference, a suppression method based on a frequency domain geometric model is applied. The algorithm framework has been applied to OSMAR-X, a wave monitoring system developed by Wuhan University, based on nautical X-band radar. Several sea surface images captured on vessels by OSMAR-X are processed using the method proposed in this paper. Inversion schemes are validated by comparisons with data from in situ wave buoys. The root-mean-square error between the significant wave heights (SWH) retrieved from original interference radar images and those measured by the buoy is reduced by 0.25 m. The determinations of surface gravity wave parameters, in particular SWH, confirm the applicability of the proposed method.

  7. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  8. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended. PMID:23525899

  9. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  10. Magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function information from wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Robert F.; ViñAs, Adolfo F.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph; Purser, Carola M.; Adrian, Mark L.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2013-08-01

    The electron-velocity-distribution function was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode waves that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution function used in the plasma-wave dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution, and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.

  11. Magnetospheric Electron-Velocity-Distribution Function Information from Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.; Vinas, A. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Purser, C. M.; Adrian, M. L.; Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The electron-velocity-distribution function was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode waves that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution function used in the plasma-wave dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in-situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.

  12. Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using

  13. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  14. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat waves and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80%.

  15. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat wave and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80 %.

  16. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call ‘connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory–inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation–inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness. PMID:26792267

  17. Semiclassical-wave-function perspective on high-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M.; Lopata, Kenneth; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a semiclassical-wave-function (SCWF) model for strong-field physics and attosecond science. When applied to high-harmonic generation (HHG), this formalism allows one to show that the natural time-domain separation of the contribution of ionization, propagation, and recollisions to the HHG process leads to a frequency-domain factorization of the harmonic yield into these same contributions, for any choice of atomic or molecular potential. We first derive the factorization from the natural expression of the dipole signal in the temporal domain by using a reference system, as in the quantitative rescattering (QRS) formalism [J. Phys. B 43, 122001 (2010), 10.1088/0953-4075/43/12/122001]. Alternatively, we show how the trajectory component of the SCWF can be used to express the factorization, which also allows one to attribute individual contributions to the spectrum to the underlying trajectories.

  18. Source function and plane waves: Toward complete bader analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantardini, Christian; Ceresoli, Davide; Benassi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The source function (SF) is a topological descriptor that was introduced and developed by C. Gatti and R.W. Bader in 1998. The SF describes the contribution of each atom to the total electron density at a given point. To date, this descriptor has only been calculable from electron densities generated by all-electron (AE) methods for the investigation of single molecules or periodic systems. This study broadens the accessibility of the SF, offering its calculation from electron densities generated by plane wave (PW) methods. The new algorithm has been implemented in the open source code, CRITIC2. Our novel approach has been validated on a series of test systems, comparing the results obtained at PW level with those previously obtained through AE methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364862

  19. Longitudinal Variations of Low-Latitude Gravity Waves and Their Impacts on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lower atmospheric forcing has important roles in the ionospheric variability. However, influences of lower atmospheric gravity waves on the ionospheric variability are still not clear due to the simplified gravity wave parameterizations and the limited knowledge of gravity wave distributions. In this study, we aim to study the longitudinal variations of gravity waves and their impacts of longitudinal variations of low-latitude gravity waves on the ionospheric variability. Our SABER results show that longitudinal variations of gravity waves at the lower boundary of TIME-GCM are the largest in June-August and January-February. We have implemented these low-latitude gravity wave variations from SABER instrument into TIME-GCM model. TIME-GCM simulation results of ionospheric responses to longitudinal variations of gravity waves and physical mechanisms will be discussed.

  20. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  1. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore » conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  2. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction <span class="hlt">waves</span> and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.2185R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.2185R"><span id="translatedtitle">SH <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Number Green's <span class="hlt">Function</span> for a Layered, Elastic Half-Space. Part I: Theory and Dynamic Canyon Response by the Discrete <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Number Boundary Element Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Restrepo, Doriam; Gómez, Juan David; Jaramillo, Juan Diego</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We present a closed-form frequency-<span class="hlt">wave</span> number ( ω - k) Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for a layered, elastic half-space under SH <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. It is shown that for every ( ω - k) pair, the fundamental solution exhibits two distinctive features: (1) the original layered system can be reduced to a system composed by the uppermost superficial layer over an equivalent half-space; (2) the fundamental solution can be partitioned into three different fundamental solutions, each one carrying out a different physical interpretation, i.e., an equivalent half-space, source image <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and dispersive <span class="hlt">wave</span> effect, respectively. Such an interpretation allows the proper use of analytical and numerical integration schemes, and ensures the correct assessment of Cauchy principal value integrals. Our method is based upon a stiffness-matrix scheme, and as a first approach we assume that observation points and the impulsive SH line-source are spatially located within the uppermost superficial layer. We use a discrete <span class="hlt">wave</span> number boundary element strategy to test the benefits of our fundamental solution. We benchmark our results against reported solutions for an infinitely long circular canyon subjected to oblique incident SH <span class="hlt">waves</span> within a homogeneous half-space. Our results show an almost exact agreement with previous studies. We further shed light on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of horizontal strata by examining the dynamic response of the circular canyon to oblique incident SH <span class="hlt">waves</span> under different layered half-space configurations and incident angles. Our results show that modifications in the layering structure manifest by larger peak ground responses, and stronger spatial variability due to interactions of the canyon geometry with trapped Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in combination with impedance contrast effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu-Cheng Li</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, <span class="hlt">waves</span> of long period, <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction, and wind on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4253536','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4253536"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Connectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Damaraju, Eswar; Phlypo, Ronald; Plis, Sergey; Allen, Elena; Ma, Sai; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity and argue that not correcting for autocorrelation in fMRI time-series results in “spurious” correlation coefficients. In this paper, first we assess the effect of autocorrelation on Pearson correlation coefficient through theoretical approximation and simulation. Then we present this effect on real fMRI data. To our knowledge this is the first work comprehensively investigating the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity estimates. Our results show that although FC values are altered, even following correction for autocorrelation, results of hypothesis testing on FC values remain very similar to those before correction. In real data we show this is true for main effects and also for group difference testing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. We further discuss model order selection in the context of autoregressive processes, effects of frequency filtering and propose a preprocessing pipeline for connectivity studies. PMID:25072392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns and their characteristics of Havelock form green <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yong; Dong, Wen-cai; Xiao, Wen-bin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A new mathematical integral representation including five integrals about the far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape <span class="hlt">function</span> of Havelock form translating-pulsating source is obtained by performing variable substitution. Constant-phase curves and propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns are investigated by applying stationary phase analysis method to the new representation. Some findings are summarized as follows: (1) when 0< τ <0.25 (where τ is the Strouhal number), three types of stationary phase curves corresponding to three propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, inner V and outer V <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, are found in the integral representation. (2) When τ>0.25, besides three types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as a ring-faning <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern and an inner V <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a new one called parallel <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern is also found which not only exists in the integrals about the ring-fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> and fan <span class="hlt">wave</span>, but also in the integrals whose interval is [0, γ] In addition, Characteristics about these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> such as mathematical expressions, existence conditions, propagation directions and <span class="hlt">wave</span> lengths are obtained, and cancellation relationships between these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> are stated, which certificates the fact that there are no parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> existing in the far field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N"><span id="translatedtitle">Bohmian Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (and the status of the quantum state)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norsen, Travis</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span> theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are called “Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> description constructed from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umezawa, Naoto; Tsuneyuki, Shinji</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We suggest a new approach to the nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory. In our method, the nonlocal correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> is derived from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using the transcorrelated similarity transformation [1,2]. Our formalism is rigorous in principle if the v-representable density is assumed. In practice, Jastrow-Slater-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is adopted and the correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> consists of many-body interactions originated from the Jastrow factor. Instead of struggling with these higher order interactions, we retain only 2-body interactions multiplying an adjusting parameter so that it can reproduce the exact correlation energy for the homogeneous electron gas. Therefore, the computational cost is comparable to the exact exchange method. Moreover, parameters in the Jastrow factor are determined by the two conditions: the cusp conditions and the random-phase approximation without empirical fitting. We found that our correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> gives fairly good results for small atoms and ions (He, Li^+, Be^2+, Li, and Be). [1]S. F. Boys and N. C. Handy, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 309, 209; 310, 43; 310, 63; 311, 309. [2] N. Umezawa and S. Tsuneyuki, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10015 (2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1343..209C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1343..209C"><span id="translatedtitle">Variational Approach to Yang-Mills Theory with non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functionals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A general method for treating non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functionals</span> in quantum field theory is presented and applied to the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge in order to include a three-gluon kernel in the exponential of the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span>. The three-gluon vertex is calculated using the propagators found in the variational approach with a Gaussian trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> as input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638"><span id="translatedtitle">Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> from <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">function</span> at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28j5602T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28j5602T"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the orbital selective Mott transition with variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tocchio, Luca F.; Arrigoni, Federico; Sorella, Sandro; Becca, Federico</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the two-band Hubbard model with different hopping amplitudes t 1 and t 2 for the two orbitals on the two-dimensional square lattice by using non-magnetic variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, similarly to what has been considered in the limit of infinite dimensions by dynamical mean-field theory. We work out the phase diagram at half filling (i.e. two electrons per site) as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of R={{t}2}/{{t}1} and the on-site Coulomb repulsion U, for two values of the Hund’s coupling J  =  0 and J/U  =  0.1. Our results are in good agreement with previous dynamical mean-field theory calculations, demonstrating that the non-magnetic phase diagram is only slightly modified from infinite to two spatial dimensions. Three phases are present: a metallic one, for small values of U, where both orbitals are itinerant; a Mott insulator, for large values of U, where both orbitals are localized because of the Coulomb repulsion; and the so-called orbital-selective Mott insulator (OSMI), for small values of R and intermediate Us, where one orbital is localized while the other one is still itinerant. The effect of the Hund’s coupling is two-fold: on one side, it favors the full Mott phase over the OSMI; on the other side, it stabilizes the OSMI at larger values of R.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p>The many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R"><span id="translatedtitle">Photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> similar to the matter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912"><span id="translatedtitle">The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376788"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> and stability analysis of Viking particle and low-frequency <span class="hlt">wave</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.G. )</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>In this paper the authors present an investigation of low-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span> observed on auroral field lines below the acceleration region by the Swedish satellite Viking. The measured frequency spectra are peaked at half the local proton gyrofrequency, and the <span class="hlt">waves</span> are observed in close connection with precipitating electrons. In order to obtain information about the distribution of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy in <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector space, they reconstruct the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> (WDF) from observed spectral densities. They use a new scheme that allows them to reconstruct simultaneously the WDF over a broad frequency band. The method also makes it possible to take into account available particle observations as well as Doppler shifts caused by the relative motion between the plasma and the satellite. The distribution of energy in <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector space suggested by the reconstructed WDF is found to be consistent with what is expected from a plasma instability driven by the observed precipitating electrons. Furthermore, by using UV images obtained on Viking, they demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation directions indicated by the reconstructed WDFs are consistent with a simple model of the presumed <span class="hlt">wave</span> source in the electron precipitation region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> on estimating Stokes drift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, A.; Fox-Kemper, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Stokes drift, and its leading-order approximation, for a random sea depend upon the interaction of different <span class="hlt">wave</span> groups and the process of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Here Stokes drift direction and magnitude from prescribed spectra, local observational buoy data, and global model WAVEWATCH III output are used to analyze approximations of Stokes drift for directional random seas in deep water. To facilitate analysis, a new approximation is defined to incorporate the systematic effects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Stokes drift is typically overestimated by ignoring these effects or by ignoring directional differences in swell and wind seas. These two errors are differentiated and found to be largely uncorrelated. These errors depend strongly on depth, with deeper Stokes drift favoring narrow-banded swell and shallower Stokes drift favoring wind seas. Results are consistent among the data examined. Mean Stokes drift magnitude reductions from <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">wave</span> effects alone are 14-20% and 7-23% respectively, giving a combined reduction of 20-40% versus unidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span>, depending on <span class="hlt">wave</span> age and depth. Approximations that do not include these reductions however, will on average overestimate Stokes drift by 16-26%, 26-43%, and 45-71% respectively. In addition to magnitude, the direction of Stokes drift is also affected and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> generate a directional veer with depth: the 30/60/90% confidence intervals are bounded (approximately) by ± 0.12/0.28/0.84 radians (± 7/16/48 deg) at the surface, with smaller intervals at depth. Complementary depth-integrated approximations are also investigated and directional effects are similar with depth-dependent subsurface results. Furthermore, an optimized directional spread correction for the surface is nearly identical for global simulations and a buoy located at Ocean Weather Station P (50°N 145°W), and does not require directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectrum data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979846"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with guaranteed precision: the first-order Møller-Plesset <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the ground state of helium atom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bischoff, Florian A; Harrison, Robert J; Valeev, Edward F</p> <p>2012-09-14</p> <p>We present an approach to compute accurate correlation energies for atoms and molecules using an adaptive discontinuous spectral-element multiresolution representation for the two-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Because of the exponential storage complexity of the spectral-element representation with the number of dimensions, a brute-force computation of two-electron (six-dimensional) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with high precision was not practical. To overcome the key storage bottlenecks we utilized (1) a low-rank tensor approximation (specifically, the singular value decomposition) to compress the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and (2) explicitly correlated R12-type terms in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to regularize the Coulomb electron-electron singularities of the Hamiltonian. All operations necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation were expressed so that the reconstruction of the full-rank form of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is never necessary. Numerical performance of the method was highlighted by computing the first-order Møller-Plesset <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a helium atom. The computed second-order Møller-Plesset energy is precise to ~2 microhartrees, which is at the precision limit of the existing general atomic-orbital-based approaches. Our approach does not assume special geometric symmetries, hence application to molecules is straightforward. PMID:22979846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145f4107H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145f4107H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact density <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> embedding schemes based on orbital localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Exact schemes for the embedding of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density <span class="hlt">functional</span> is employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.504a2020D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.504a2020D"><span id="translatedtitle">Newton force from <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse: speculation and test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diósi, Lajos</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with S, D, and P-state components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, G. Ramalho, M. T. Pena</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Expressions for the nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> includes contributions from S, P and D-<span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G"><span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond photoemission dynamics encoded in real-valued continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaillac, Romain; Vacher, Morgane; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of photoemission is fully encoded in the continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> selected by the transitions. Using numerical simulations on simple benchmark models, we show how scattering phase shifts and photoemission delays can be retrieved from this unambiguously defined class of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In contrast with standard scattering <span class="hlt">waves</span> inherited from collision theory, they are real-valued for one-photon transitions and provide a clear-cut interpretation of the delays recently discussed in the framework of attosecond science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Phase Transitions on P <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D Weidner; L Li</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219335"><span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wintgen, D. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-6900 Heidelberg, ); Honig, A. )</p> <p>1989-10-02</p> <p>We study the irregular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a highly excited hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field. The scarring of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> by periodic orbits is quantitatively investigated. The shape of unperturbed scars is in good agreement with recent semiclassical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are presented. PMID:26854874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5153M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5153M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractal dimensions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a theoretical framework for understanding the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7166P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7166P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of density heterogeneities on seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Płonka, Agnieszka; Fichtner, Andreas</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Using 3D numerical simulations of seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in heterogeneous media, we systematically compare the imprints of heterogeneities of different type (and particularly density heterogeneities) on synthetic seismograms. Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion in the mantle. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be true. We propose to develop a seismic tomography technique that directly inverts for density, using complete seismograms rather than arrival times of certain <span class="hlt">waves</span> only. The first task in this challenge is to systematically study the imprints of density on synthetic seismograms. In this context, our study aims to compare the significance of density heterogeneities relative to velocity heterogeneities, and to design a numerical experiment with a source-receiver configuration particularly sensitive to density. To compute the full seismic wavefield in a 3D heterogeneous medium without making significant approximations, we use numerical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the 1D Earth model ak135 as a background. Onto this we superimpose 3D Gaussian-shaped perturbations of different type (P, SV, SH velocities and density) for depths in the range from 10 km to 70 km. The choice of depth in which the 3D heterogeneities were placed (10 km - 70 km) was dictated by the surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> sensitivity to density. For each depth we perform 4 <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation simulations corresponding to 4 different types of heterogeneities, and calculate surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> sensitivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser <span class="hlt">wave</span>: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and stochastic trajectory approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argonov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light <span class="hlt">wave</span> delocalizes very fast due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the <span class="hlt">wave</span> while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1683.1076M"><span id="translatedtitle">Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Spectroscopic Instruments: Multi-<span class="hlt">functional</span> Atmospheric Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mehdi, I.; Gulkis, S.; Allen, M. A.; Schlecht, E.; Chattopadhyay, G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Submillimeter-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectroscopic instruments provide unique capability in terms of providing quantitative measurements of trace gas compositions in planetary atmospheres. Such instruments also provide temporal and wind velocity mapping capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1058H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1058H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Life's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Soil Production <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, Emma; Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>]. The depth of soil mixing in the soil profiles we collect is shown by the homogenization of 10Be concentrations in grains. Mixing changes the residence time of grains in soil. The length of this residence time is a critical component in the rate of weathering reactions, the mechanism by which material is lost to chemical dissolution and leaching. Additionally, mixing may drive the value of the diffusion coefficient, which determines the flux of sediment out of the soil mantle in the geomorphic soil production <span class="hlt">function</span>. Life actively <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the soil-hillslope system, and quantifying these effects is an essential modification of a fundamental paradigm in the geomorphology of soil-mantled landscapes. [1] Heimsath et al. 1997. Nature 388:358-361 [2] Zou et al., 1995. Forest Ecol. and Management 78:147-157 [3] Pett-Ridge et al., 2009. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73:25-43 [4] Hidy et al. 2010. Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 11 [5] González et al. 2007. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 43:S24-S32</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShWav..25..675B"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation inside a granular column <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, E.; Blachman, M.; Britan, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A simple experimental technique, based on pressure transducers, capable of measuring the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates along the solid phase of a granular column after being hit head-on by a plane shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> is presented. The technique is based on installing couples of gauges at different cross-sections along the granular column in such a way that one transducer measures the overall pressure acting on it while the other measures only the pressure exerted on it by the gaseous phase of the granular column. By means of the presented experimental technique the time histories of the stresses normal to the shock tube walls and data on the stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> attenuation as it propagates downstream towards the shock tube end wall were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2360B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2360B"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding complex teleseismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the Sierra Nevada through vertical-component P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernardino, M. J.; Jones, C. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Past seismic studies attempting to image the lithosphere underneath the Sierra Nevada and to constrain the geometry of the upper mantle Isabella anomaly, a high <span class="hlt">wave</span>-speed body underneath the western foothills of the range, have observed complex behavior in teleseismic and regional waveforms recorded at stations within the range. Notably, a 1993 teleseismic mini-array recorded multipath P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> arrivals, topographic reflections, and scattered energy ~25 km west of the Sierran crest. These effects suggest <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through strongly heterogeneous lithosphere complicated by near-surface phenomena. Multipathing and other complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation are indicative of strong variations in wavespeed, which in turn reflect structural complexity important in understanding the genesis of the Isabella anomaly. However, determining the extent of such propagative behavior in and underneath the Sierra Nevada has not been studied. We investigate the behavior of teleseismic P-<span class="hlt">waves</span> using vertical-component receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> in an effort to better understand the extent of complex waveforms as a first tool in better constraining the geographic region(s) where sufficiently complex lithospheric structure exists. We expect that the presence of sufficiently high velocity gradients should result in P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> multipath arrivals from events that skirt the perimeter of the Isabella anomaly from certain backazimuths. We deconvolve regionally beamed vertical P-waveforms from individual vertical component P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>. This effectively recovers variability in the P waveforms that is normally lost in typical single-station radial- and transverse-component receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analyses. Vertical P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> beams are constructed using dbxcor, a waveform correlation algorithm developed by G. Pavlis. Seismic data for the northern and central Sierra Nevada are from the 2005-2007 Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (SNEP) and further supplemented by many permanent and temporary stations including the Earthscope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29k6801T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29k6801T"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelastic Stress in a <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Infinite Plate with Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xing-Zhe; Zhou, You-He</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of thermal and thermoelastic behaviors of a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded infinite plate taking into account electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption. To treat with the inhomogeneity of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded <span class="hlt">wave</span>-absorbing (FGWA) materials, the plate is approximated by subdividing it into thin homogeneous layers to solve the governing equations together with proper boundary and connecting conditions. The results illustrate that the FGWA plate is a broadband type absorber with electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption. By choosing proper material gradation character and the thickness of the FGWA plate, it is possible to obtain a good performance of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> absorption and thermoelastic stress characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical methods for the calculation of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ipatov, E. B.; Lukin, D. S.; Palkin, E. A.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The paper investigates the properties of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are used for the asymptotic description of the structure of <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields near various types of focusings. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> are realized in software packages for the BESM-6 computer using FORTRAN. The canonical equations and basic properties of these <span class="hlt">functions</span> are examined along with the development of numerical algorithms for their computation. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> may be applied in the study of various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> problems, including: (1) radio <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the ionosphere and ionospheric waveguide channels; (2) the fine structure of sound fields in an acoustic duct; and (3) the focusing of laser radiation reflected from a rough surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvC..82c4004G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvC..82c4004G"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with χ2/Ndata≃1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=142660','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=142660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different extents and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=simulated+AND+rainfall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63284281&CFTOKEN=43614884','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=simulated+AND+rainfall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63284281&CFTOKEN=43614884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational <span class="hlt">waves</span> is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental validation of theoretical methods to estimate the energy radiated by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Rosny, Julien de; Toussaint, Renaud; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Estimating the energy lost in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is an important problem in seismology and in industry. We propose three complementary methods to estimate the elastic energy radiated by bead <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on thin plates and thick blocks from the generated vibration. The first two methods are based on the direct <span class="hlt">wave</span> front and are shown to be equivalent. The third method makes use of the diffuse regime. These methods are tested for laboratory experiments of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and are shown to give the same results, with error bars of 40 percent and 300 percent for <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a smooth plate and on a rough block, respectively. We show that these methods are relevant to establish the energy budget of an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. On plates of glass and PMMA, the radiated elastic energy increases from 2 percent to almost 100 percent of the total energy lost as the bead diameter approaches the plate thickness. The rest of the lost energy is dissipated by viscoelasticity. For beads larger than the plate thickness, plastic deformation occurs and reduces the amount of energy radiated in the form of elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. On a concrete block, the energy dissipation during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> is principally inelastic because only 0.2-2 percent of the energy lost by the bead is transported by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The radiated elastic energy estimated with the presented methods is quantitatively validated by Hertz's model of elastic <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadronic Spectra and Light-Front <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de</p> <p>2006-05-26</p> <p>We show how the string amplitude {phi}(z) defined on the fifth dimension in AdS{sub 5} space can be precisely mapped to the light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of hadrons in physical space-time. We find an exact correspondence between the holographic variable z and an <span class="hlt">impact</span> variable {zeta}, which represents the measure of transverse separation of the constituents within the hadrons. In addition, we derive effective four dimensional Schroedinger equations for the bound states of massless quarks and gluons which exactly reproduce the anti-de Sitter conformal field theory results and give a realistic description of the light-quark meson and baryon spectrum as well as the form factors for spacelike Q{sup 2}. Only one parameter which sets the mass scale, {lambda}{sub QCD}, is introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated and volcanogenic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Impulse-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land <span class="hlt">impact</span> might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have <span class="hlt">wave</span>-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all ocean depths. Typical <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">wave</span> height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> of ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original <span class="hlt">wave</span> elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, a phenomenon also observed in wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> tank experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tropospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> variability on stratospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.</p> <p>2002-06-25</p> <p>The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking have been refined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612706"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)(-), Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)(2-), and Gd(III)(H2O)8(3+) in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude. PMID:25612706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar Odelius, Michael; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water <span class="hlt">wave</span> action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, and the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period . These parameters reflect <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span> level, having a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and when the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, and particularly <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy manifested in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, has a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the type and grain size of material</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of a spring heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of short-term high temperature events on forest <span class="hlt">functioning</span> remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> can have severe <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests. PMID:24038752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652641','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652641"><span id="translatedtitle">Has the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality changed in France since the European heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> of summer 2003? A study of the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fouillet, Anne; Rey, Grégoire; Wagner, Vérène; Laaidi, Karine; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Le Tertre, Alain; Frayssinet, Philippe; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Laurent, Françoise; De Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Jougla, Eric; Hémon, Denis</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Context In July 2006, a lasting and severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurred in Western Europe. Since the2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, several preventive measures and an alert system aiming at reducing the risks related to high temperatures have been set up in France by the health authorities and institutions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of those measures, the observed excess mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was compared to the expected excess mortality. Methods A Poisson regression model relating the daily fluctuations in summer temperature and mortality in France from 1975 to 2003 was used to estimate the daily expected number of deaths over the period 2004–2006 as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the observed temperatures. Results During the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> (from 11th to 28th July), about 2065 excess deaths occurred in France. Considering the observed temperatures and with the hypothesis that heat-related mortality had not changed since 2003, 6452 excess deaths were predicted for the period. The observed mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was thus markedly less than the expected mortality (approximately 4400 less deaths). Conclusions The excess mortality during the 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which was markedly lower than that predicted by the model, may be interpreted as a decrease in the population’s vulnerability to heat, together with, since 2003, increased awareness of the risk related to extreme temperatures, preventive measures and the set-up of the warning system. PMID:18194962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of quasi-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for lithium hydride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asthalter, T.; Weyrich, W.; Harker, A. H.; Kunz, A. B.; Orlando, R.; Pisani, C.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>We compare the Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for crystalline LiH obtained either with a standard Crystalline-Orbital—LCAO procedure or following the Adams-Gilbert-Kunz (AGK) prescription. Total energy, band-structure, reciprocal form factors [ B( r)] are taken as a reference, for checking the quality of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>. The influence of the inclusion of high angular-quantum-number <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the AGK basis set is explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of complex blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the human head: a computational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single planar blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce <span class="hlt">wave</span> entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330 kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235 kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Sketches of a hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hasbrouck, W.P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Generation of shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin; Ma, Yin</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Reflection of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008 were investigated by applying two dimensional Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux and three-dimensional Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes. The planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation can clearly be seen in the longitude-height and latitude-height sections of the Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity flux and EP flux, respectively, when the stratospheric basic state is partially reflective. Primarily, a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet emanating from Baffin Island/coast of Labrador propagated eastward, equatorward and was reflected over Central Eurasia and parts of China, which in turn triggered the advection of cold wind from the northern part of the boreal forest regions and Siberia to the subtropics. The wide region of Central Eurasia and China experienced extreme cold weather during the second ten days of January 2008, whereas the extraordinary persistence of the event might have occurred due to an anomalous blocking high in the Urals-Siberia region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..47M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..47M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of rotation on stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathis, S.; Neiner, C.; Tran Minh, N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Context. Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (or their signatures) are detected in stars thanks to helio- and asteroseismology, and they may play an important role in the evolution of stellar angular momentum. Moreover, a previous observational study of the CoRoT target HD 51452 demonstrated the potential strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stellar interiors. Aims: Our goal is to explore and unravel the action of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stars. Methods: The dynamics of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stellar interiors in both radiation and in convection zones is described with a local non-traditional f-plane model. The coupling of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> with convective turbulent flows, which leads to their stochastic excitation, is studied in this framework. Results: First, we find that in the super-inertial regime in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency is twice as high as the rotation frequency (σ > 2Ω), the evanescence of gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in convective regions decreases with decreasing <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency. Next, in the sub-inertial regime (σ < 2Ω), gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> become purely propagative inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span> in convection zones. Simultaneously, turbulence in convective regions is modified by rotation. Indeed, the turbulent energy cascade towards small scales is slowed down, and in the case of rapid rotation, strongly anisotropic turbulent flows are obtained that can be understood as complex non-linear triadic interactions of propagative inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. These different behaviours, due to the action of the Coriolis acceleration, strongly modify the <span class="hlt">wave</span> coupling with turbulent flows. On one hand, turbulence weakly influenced by rotation is coupled with evanescent gravito-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. On the other hand, rapidly rotating turbulence is intrinsically and strongly coupled with sub-inertial <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Finally, to study these mechanisms, the traditional approximation cannot be assumed because it does not properly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Plasmaspheric Hiss and their Effects on Radiation Belt Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santolik, O.; Ripoll, J. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plasmaspheric hiss is formed by whistler-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> which play an important role in the dynamics the Earth's radiation belts, specifically in connection with the slot region between the inner and outer Van Allen belts. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss is still a subject of discussions and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> are known for their complex propagation properties. They are often far from a single plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation, forming a continuous distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy density with respect to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector direction (<span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>). Analysis of polarization and propagation parameters of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> provides us with inputs for modeling of radiation belt dynamics. We use the data of the <span class="hlt">Waves</span> instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, to analyze simultaneous measurements of all electric and magnetic field components, together with measurements of the plasma density based on the determination of the upper hybrid resonance frequency. Using this unique data set we estimate the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> of plasmaspheric hiss and we model the effects of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the decay rates of radiation belt electrons through quasilinear pitch angle diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPM.....3..155P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPM.....3..155P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the SPH method to solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on an offshore platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the interaction between large <span class="hlt">waves</span> and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are <span class="hlt">impact</span> due to dam break, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced <span class="hlt">waves</span>, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcDyn..65.1547Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcDyn..65.1547Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents in <span class="hlt">wave</span> power potential modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. The obtained results prove that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the sea surface currents is quite significant in <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreased <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The paper examines <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on mortality of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared to previous heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH21B3839E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH21B3839E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim); to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and generate the source <span class="hlt">wave</span> for the large-scale shallow water <span class="hlt">wave</span> program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three <span class="hlt">impact</span> areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact <span class="hlt">impact</span> location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for <span class="hlt">impact</span> points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Induced Pressure Under an Internal Solitary <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> at the Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera, Gustavo; Diamesis, Peter; Jenkins, James; Berzi, Diego</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Particular emphasis is placed on the diffusion into the bed of the pressure field driven by the wake and any near-bed instabilities produced under specific conditions. To this end, a spectral nodal Galerkin approach is used for solving the diffusion equation for the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced pressure. At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is examined. The potential for bed failure upon the passage of the ISW trough and implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are both discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvA..53.2911A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvA..53.2911A"><span id="translatedtitle">Protective measurement of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single squeezed harmonic-oscillator state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, Orly; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A scheme for the "protective measurement" <article>[Phys. Rev. A 47, 4616 (1993)]</article> of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a squeezed harmonic-oscillator state is described. This protective measurement is shown to be equivalent to a measurement of an ensemble of states. The protective measurement, therefore, allows for a definition of the quantum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on a single system. Yet, this equivalency also suggests that both measurement schemes account for the epistemological meaning of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> only. The protective measurement requires a full a priori knowledge of the measured state. The intermediate cases, in which only partial a priori information is given, are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93d3606S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93d3606S"><span id="translatedtitle">Polaronic mass renormalization of impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates: Correlated Gaussian-<span class="hlt">wave-function</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Grusdt, Fabian; Rubtsov, Alexey N.; Demler, Eugene</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We propose a class of variational Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to describe Fröhlich polarons at finite momenta. Our <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> give polaron energies that are in excellent agreement with the existing Monte Carlo results for a broad range of interactions. We calculate the effective mass of polarons and find smooth crossover between weak- and intermediate-coupling strength. Effective masses that we obtain are considerably larger than those predicted by the mean-field method. A prediction based on our variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is a special pattern of correlations between host atoms that can be measured in time-of-flight experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800067236&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span>-radar modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the West Coast experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Short gravity-capillary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>. These short <span class="hlt">waves</span> are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> probe. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by <span class="hlt">waves</span> of typical ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> by the ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612"><span id="translatedtitle">Data synthesis and display programs for <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E1245M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E1245M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of intense inward and outward ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion on the Van Allen belts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Rae, I. Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>During geomagnetic storms, the power in ultra-low frequency (ULF) <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by statistics determined from an entire solar cycle. This is especially true during the main phase and early recovery phase. These periods of enhanced storm-time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power can have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the morphology and structure of the Van Allen belts. Either fast inward or outward radial diffusion can result, depending on the profiles of the electron phase space density and the outer boundary condition at the edge of the belts. Small changes in the time sequence of powerful ULF <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and the time sequence of any magnetopause shadowing or the recovery of plamasheet sources relative to the ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrence, have a remarkable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resulting structure of the belts. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the enhanced ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power is profound, but the response can be very different depending on the available source flux in the plasmasheet. We review these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by examining ultra-relativistic electron dynamics during seemingly different storms during the Van Allen Probe era, including during the Baker et al. third radiation belt, and show the observed behaviour can be largely explained by differences in the time sequence of events described above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H; Cohen, Aron J; Cole, Jacqueline M</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared. PMID:26001454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1431H"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the O2 1.27-um nightglow distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoshino, Naoya; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro</p> <p></p> <p>O2 -1.27µm nightglow is the indicator of the general circulation at about 95 km in Venus. Recent nightglow observations reported that the nightglow emission showed the temporal variations with a timescale of a few hours and days [e.g.,Gerard et al., 2008]. The temporal variations are thought to be caused by wind fluctuations due to atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating from the lower atmosphere. In recent years, the importance of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the general circulation of the Venusian atmosphere has been recognized. Forbes and Konopliv [2007] suggested the propagation of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> originated in the cloud deck into the upper atmosphere. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the Venusian upper atmosphere has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which includes the altitude region of 80 -about 200 km in order to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the nightglow distribution. Our model considers the chemical processes and calculates the O2 -1.27µm nightglow intensity. The planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (thermal tides, Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and Rosbby <span class="hlt">wave</span>) are imposed at the lower boundary. The amplitudes and phase velocities of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> are assumed from the study by Del Genio and Rossow [1990]. The simulation results show dominance of the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> at about 80 -120 km with a vertical wavelength of about 40 -50 km. The amplitude of the zonal wind fluctuation caused by the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> has a maximum value of about 9 m/s at about 95 km. Our results suggest that the Kelvin <span class="hlt">wave</span> would cause the wind variation of the nightglow emission region between the 00:00LT -00:40LT with a period of 4 days. In this presentation, we will show the details of our simulation results considering the planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In addition, we will present the initial results of a simulation considering the small-scale gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973022"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on teleost immune <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Makrinos, Daniel L; Bowden, Timothy J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The environment in which teleosts exist can experience considerable change. Short-term changes can occur in relation to tidal movements or adverse weather events. Long-term changes can be caused by anthropogenic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as climate change, which can result in changes to temperature, acidity, salinity and oxygen capacity of aquatic environments. These changes can have important <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the physiology of an animal, including its immune system. This can have consequences on the well-being of the animal and its ability to protect against pathogens. This review will look at recent investigations of these types of environmental change on the immune response in teleosts. PMID:26973022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Propagation Characteristic of One-dimensional Stress <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Armor Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S. Y.; Liu, X.; Cao, D. F.; Mei, H.; Lei, Z. T.; Liu, L. S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The development of <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Materials (FGM) for energy-absorbing applications requires understanding of stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in these structures in order to optimize their resistance to failure. One-dimensional stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading have been investigated. The stress distributions through the thickness and stress status have been analyzed and some comparisons have been done with the materials of sharp interfaces (two-layered material). The results demonstrate that the gradient structure design greatly decreases the severity of the stress concentrations at the interfaces and there are no clear differences in stress distribution in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-28</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity vF depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through quartz sand simulating asteroid regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Rie; Tsujido, Sayaka; Takano, Shota; Hasegawa, Sunao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Introduction: Recent spacecraft surveys clarified that asteroid surfaces were covered with regolith made of boulders and pebbles such as that found on the asteroid Itokawa. It was also found that surface morphologies of asteroids formed on the regolith layer were modified. For example, the high-resolution images of the asteroid Eros revealed the evidence of the downslope movement of the regolith layer, then it could cause the degradation and the erasure of small <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. One possible process to explain these observations is the regolith layer collapse caused by seismic vibration after projectile <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be an important physical process affecting the morphology change of regolith layer on asteroid surfaces. Therefore, it is significant for us to know the relationship between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span>. So in this study, we carried out <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments in order to observe the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the target far from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater.Experimental method: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> cratering experiments were conducted by using a single stage vertical gas gun set at Kobe Univ and a two-stage vertical gas gun set at ISAS. We used quartz sands with the particle diameter of 500μm, and the bulk density of 1.48g/cm3. The projectile was a ball made of polycarbonate with the diameter of 4.75mm and aluminum, titan, zirconia, stainless steel, cupper, tungsten carbide projectile with the diameter of 2mm. These projectiles were launched at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity from 0.2 to 7km/s. The target was set in a vacuum chamber evacuated below 10 Pa. We measured the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> by using a piezoelectric uniaxial accelerometer.Result: The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was measured to show a large single peak and found to attenuate with the propagation distance. The maximum acceleration of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was recognized to have a good relationship with the normalized distance x/R, where x is the propagation distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> with high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> differently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> day. Important increases in extreme stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the boreal winter stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Dingzhu; Tian, Wenshou; Xie, Fei; Wang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jiankai</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper uses a state-of-the-art general circulation model to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion from 1980 to 2000 and the expected partial ozone recovery from 2000 to 2020 on the propagation of planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in December, January, and February. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a cooler and stronger Antarctic stratosphere, while the stratospheric ozone recovery has the opposite effects. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion on polar stratospheric temperature are not opposite to that of the stratospheric ozone recovery; i.e., the stratospheric ozone depletion causes a weak cooling and the stratospheric ozone recovery causes a statistically significant cooling. The stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a weakening of the Arctic polar vortex, while the stratospheric ozone recovery leads to a strengthening of the Arctic polar vortex. The cooling of the Arctic polar vortex is found to be dynamically induced via modulating the planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity by stratospheric ozone increases. Particularly interesting is that stratospheric ozone changes have opposite effects on the stationary and transient <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refractive index and Eliassen-Palm flux in the NH indicates (1) that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction in the stratosphere cannot fully explain <span class="hlt">wave</span> flux changes in the Arctic stratosphere and (2) that stratospheric ozone changes can cause changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the northern midlatitude troposphere which in turn affect <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. In the SH, the radiative cooling (warming) caused by stratospheric ozone depletion (recovery) produces a larger (smaller) meridional temperature gradient in the midlatitude upper troposphere, accompanied by larger (smaller) zonal wind vertical shear and larger (smaller) vertical gradients of buoyancy frequency. Hence, there are more (fewer) transient <span class="hlt">waves</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G</p> <p>2016-05-14</p> <p>We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation. PMID:27179473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the parent Hamiltonians for a complete set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: An inverse quantum problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramezanpour, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. On the other hand, a complete set of tree <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the Hamiltonian.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144r4109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144r4109M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meek, Garrett A.; Levine, Benjamin G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Central Asian Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite the extensive use of seismic regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. For example, whether regional Lg <span class="hlt">wave</span> has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda <span class="hlt">waves</span> have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> is contained in the time domain source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> using the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> and those of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82g5116D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82g5116D"><span id="translatedtitle">Projector augmented-<span class="hlt">wave</span> method: Application to relativistic spin-density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dal Corso, Andrea</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Applying the projector augmented-<span class="hlt">wave</span> (PAW) method to relativistic spin-density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (RSDFT) we derive PAW Dirac-Kohn-Sham equations for four-component spinor pseudo-<span class="hlt">wave-functions</span>. The PAW freedom to add a vanishing operator inside the PAW spheres allows us to transform these PAW Dirac-type equations into PAW Pauli-type equations for two-component spinor pseudo-<span class="hlt">wave-functions</span>. With these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we get the frozen-core energy as well as the charge and magnetization densities of RSDFT, with errors comparable to the largest between 1/c2 and the transferability error of the PAW data sets. Presently, the latter limits the accuracy of the calculations, not the use of the Pauli-type equations. The theory is validated by applications to isolated atoms of Fe, Pt, and Au, and to the band structure of fcc-Pt, fcc-Au, and ferromagnetic bcc-Fe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786547"><span id="translatedtitle">Recasting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> into valence bond structures: A simple projection method to describe excited states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racine, Julien; Hagebaum-Reignier, Denis; Carissan, Yannick; Humbel, Stéphane</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>A method is proposed to obtain coefficients and weights of valence bond (VB) determinants from multi configurational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. This reading of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can apply to ground states as well as excited states. The method is based on projection operators. Both energetic and overlap-based criteria are used to assess the quality of the resulting VB <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The approach gives a simple access to a VB rewriting for low-lying states, and it is applied to the allyl cation, to the allyl radical and to the ethene (notably to the V-state). For these states, large overlap between VB and multi reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are easily obtained. The approach proves to be useful to propose an interpretation of the nature of the V-state of ethene. PMID:26786547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion. PMID:27276688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, James F; McGough, Robert J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation [Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] models power-law attenuation and dispersion for both viscoelastic and ultrasound <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. The Caputo model can be derived from an underlying fractional constitutive equation and is causal. In this study, an approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is derived for the Caputo equation in three dimensions (3D) for power law exponents greater than one. The Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> consists of a shifted and scaled maximally skewed stable distribution multiplied by a spherical spreading factor 1/(4πR). The approximate one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> are also computed in terms of stable distributions. Finally, this Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is decomposed into a loss component and a diffraction component, revealing that the Caputo <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation may be approximated by a coupled lossless <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation and a fractional diffusion equation. PMID:27586735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of symmetry-protected topological phases from conformal field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, Thomas; Ringel, Zohar</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We propose a method for analyzing two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological (SPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> using a correspondence with conformal field theories (CFTs) and integrable lattice models. This method generalizes the CFT approach for the fractional quantum Hall effect wherein the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> amplitude is written as a many-operator correlator in the CFT. Adopting a bottom-up approach, we start from various known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SPTs with discrete symmetries and show how the CFT description emerges at large scale, thereby revealing a deep connection between group cocycles and critical, sometimes integrable, models. We show that the CFT describing the bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is often also the one describing the entanglement spectrum, but not always. Using a plasma analogy, we also prove the existence of hidden quasi-long-range order for a large class of SPTs. Finally, we show how response to symmetry fluxes is easily described in terms of the CFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005APS..SHK.C5003O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005APS..SHK.C5003O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity U/F depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a gold rod at an <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-<span class="hlt">impact</span>'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod <span class="hlt">impact</span>, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961"><span id="translatedtitle">sup 4 He- sup 4 He elastic scattering and variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. ); Usmani, Q.N. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We calculate differential cross sections for {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He elastic scattering at 4.32 GeV/{ital c} in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory using correlated variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as given by the two-nucleon Urbana {ital v}{sub 14} potential and the spin-isospin averaged Melfleit-Tjon force {ital V}. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are found to give fairly satisfactory results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532"><span id="translatedtitle">Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M</p> <p>2011-10-21</p> <p>We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The ship motion equation with a cosine <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force describes the slip moments in regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A new kind of <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force was applied by sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the atmospheric climate modes on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate in the North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Asensio, Adrián; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Feng, Xiangbo; Gomis, Damià; Jordà, Gabriel; Josey, Simon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study establishes the relationships between the mean modes of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic and present <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. The modes considered, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic Western Russian pattern (EA/WR) and the Scandinavian pattern (SCAN), are obtained from the NOAA Climate Prediction Centre. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> data sets used consist of buoy records and two high-resolution simulations of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height (SWH), mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (MWP) and mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction (MWD) forced with ERA-40 (1958-2002) and ERA-INTERIM (1989-2008) wind fields. The results show the winter <span class="hlt">impact</span> of each mode on <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters which are discussed regionally. The NAO and EA pattern increase winter SWH up to 1 m per unit index at the Scottish and Spanish coasts, respectively, during their positive phase; while EA pattern causes clockwise changes of winter MWD up to more than 60 degrees per unit index at the Bay of Biscay during its negative phase. EA/WR and SCAN patterns have a weaker <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19.1058N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19.1058N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Energy of <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Steels in Crack Arrester Configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nazari, A.; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Charpy <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded steels produced by electroslag remelting composed of graded ferrite and austenite layers together with bainite or martensite intermediate layer in the form of crack arrester configuration has been investigated. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the notch tip position with respect to bainite or martensite layer significantly affects the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy. The closer the notch tip to the tougher layer, the higher the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the composite due to increment of energy absorbed by plastic deformation zone ahead of the notch and vice versa. Empirical relationships have been determined to correlate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded steels to the morphology of layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Stone Removal on Renal <span class="hlt">Function</span>: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wood, Kyle; Keys, Tristan; Mufarrij, Patrick; Assimos, Dean G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Stone removal can improve renal <span class="hlt">function</span> by eradicating obstruction and, in certain cases, an underlying infection. Stone-removing procedures, however, may negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> integrity. Many things may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the latter, including the procedures used, the methods of assessing <span class="hlt">function</span>, the time when these assessments are made, the occurrence of complications, the baseline condition of the kidney, and patient-related factors. In the majority of cases, little significant <span class="hlt">functional</span> impairment occurs. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of this subject, including the cumulative effects of multiple procedures violating the renal parenchyma and long-term <span class="hlt">functional</span> outcomes. PMID:21935339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F"><span id="translatedtitle">EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in real space from molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (<span class="hlt">functional</span> group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are read in from an aimpac-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation. PMID:26374017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4106V"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R.; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Ground state <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: A Variational Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Mandal, Sudhansu</p> <p></p> <p>The internal structure and topology of the ground states for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are determined by the relative angular momenta between all the possible pairs of electrons. Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is the only known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for which these relative angular momenta are homogeneous (same) for any pair of electrons and depend solely on the filling factor. Without invoking any microscopic theory, considering only the relationship between number of flux quanta and particles in spherical geometry, and allowing the possibility of inhomogeneous (different) relative angular momenta between any two electrons, we develop a general method for determining a closed-form ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for any incompressible FQHE state. Our procedure provides variationally obtained very accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, yet having simpler structure compared to any other known complex microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the FQHE states. This method, thus, has potential in predicting a very accurate ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the puzzling states such as the state at filling fraction 5/2. We acknowledge support from Department of Science and Technology, India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640602"><span id="translatedtitle">Exactness of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from two-body exponential transformations in many-body quantum theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mazziotti, David A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies have considered the possibility that the exact ground-state wavefunction from any Hamiltonian with two-particle interactions may be generated from a single finite two-body exponential transformation acting on an arbitrary Slater determinant [Piecuch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113001 (2003)]. Using the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff relation, we show that it is difficult for the variational minimum of this trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to satisfy the contracted Schroedinger equation which is a necessary and sufficient condition for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to satisfy the Schroedinger equation. A counterexample is presented through the Lipkin quasispin model with 4-50 fermions. When the number of fermions exceeds four, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from a finite two-body exponential transformation is shown to be inexact. If the trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz is extended to include products of finite two-body exponential transformations acting on an arbitrary Slater-determinant reference, then we show that the ansatz includes the exact ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from any Hamiltonian with only two-particle interactions. Connections between the two-body exponential transformation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and recent research on two-body exponential similarity transformations of the Hamiltonian [S.R. White, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 7472 (2002)] are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwaves','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwaves"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Acoustic Standing <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Structural Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kolaini, Ali R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing <span class="hlt">wave</span> and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304979"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for scattering problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Xiaoming</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The theory of elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering is a fundamental concept in the study of elastic dynamics and <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expansion technique has been widely used in many subjects. To supply the essential tools for solving <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering problems induced by an eccentric source or multi-sources as well as multi-scatters, a whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is presented and its applicability to some simple cases is demonstrated in this study. The transforms of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in cylindrical coordinates can be classified into two basic types: interior transform and exterior transform, and the existing Graf's addition theorem is only suitable for the former. By performing a new replacement between the two coordinates, the exterior transform formula is first deduced. It is then combined with Graf's addition theorem to establish a whole-space transform formula. By using the whole-space transform formula, the scattering solutions by the sources outside and inside a cylindrical cavity are constructed as examples of its application. The effectiveness and advantages of the whole-space transform formula is illustrated by comparison with the approximate model based on a large cycle method. The whole-space transform formula presented herein can be used to perform the transform between two different cylindrical coordinates in the whole space. In addition, its concept and principle are universal and can be further extended to establish the coordinate transform formula of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in other coordinate systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064"><span id="translatedtitle">The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Relation to Rossby <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, a stationary <span class="hlt">wave</span> model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R(2) below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A.; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M.; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R2 below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of assimilating altimeter data on <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusu, Liliana; Guedes Soares, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The present work describes the implementation of a methodology based on the optimal interpolation method for assimilating the altimeter data in a regional <span class="hlt">wave</span> forecasting system. The main objective is to improve the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coastal environment. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modelling system considered is based on WAM, for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, and on SWAN for the coastal transformation and delivers daily forecast products. An analysis scheme was first applied to the hindcast runs, when the observations and the simulations were blended within a time window of one day. The objective is to validate the methodology proposed and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> produced by this scheme on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions. Corrections are applied to the output of the SWAN model, and consequently, the data assimilation scheme is executed independently of the model simulations. As a second step, the data assimilation scheme is applied to operational runs, when the analysis fields are used as a first guess for the next simulations. The procedure considered uses the observations provided by the multi-satellite altimeter data. Both satellite data and in-situ observations are used for the quality assessment. The results show that the assimilation scheme works correctly and all the statistical parameters evaluated have better values in the case of the assimilated significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height scalar field. As expected, by increasing the amount of the data assimilated, the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions is enhanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of large-scale atmospheric refractive structures on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Conventional techniques used to model optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through the Earth's atmosphere typically as- sume flow fields based on various empirical relationships. Unfortunately, these synthetic refractive index fields do not take into account the influence of transient macroscale and mesoscale (i.e. larger than turbulent microscale) atmospheric phenomena. Nevertheless, a number of atmospheric structures that are characterized by various spatial and temporal scales exist which have the potential to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> refractive index fields, thereby resulting dramatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation characteristics. In this paper, we analyze a subset of spatio-temporal dynamics found to strongly affect optical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through these atmospheric struc- tures. Analysis of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation was performed in the geometrical optics approximation using a standard ray tracing technique. Using a numerical weather prediction (NWP) approach, we simulate multiple realistic atmospheric events (e.g., island wakes, low-level jets, etc.), and estimate the associated refractivity fields prior to performing ray tracing simulations. By coupling NWP model output with ray tracing simulations, we demon- strate the ability to quantitatively assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of coherent atmospheric phenomena on optical ray propagation. Our results show a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatio-temporal characteristics of the refractive index field on optical ray trajectories. Such correlations validate the effectiveness of NWP models as they offer a more comprehensive representation of atmospheric refractivity fields compared to conventional methods based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842991"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> excitation-autoionization of helium in the S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Excitation of the autoionizing states of helium by electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> is shown in calculations in the s-<span class="hlt">wave</span> limit to leave a clear signature in the singly differential cross section for the (e,2e) process. It is suggested that such behavior should be seen generally in (e,2e) experiments on atoms that measure the single differential cross section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622385"><span id="translatedtitle">Pineal <span class="hlt">function</span>: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of microarray analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G; Munson, Peter J; Weller, Joan L; Coon, Steven L</p> <p>2010-01-27</p> <p>Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal <span class="hlt">function</span> by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:19622385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2337B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2337B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating Gravity <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Ionosphere Interactions Using The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model And An Ionosphere Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruntz, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Miller, E. S.; Bust, G. S.; Mayr, H. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) has been used in numerous studies to simulate gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In the TFM, the time dependence is formulated in terms of frequencies, and the horizontal <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern on the globe is formulated in terms of vector spherical harmonics. For a wide range of frequencies, the equations of mass, energy and momentum conservation are solved to compile a transfer <span class="hlt">function</span>. The transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> can then be easily combined with a time-dependent source whose spatial extent is also expressed in spherical harmonics, to produce a global atmospheric response, including gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>. This approach has significant benefits in that the solution is grid-independent (without any inherent limits on resolution), and the solutions do not suffer from singularities at the poles. We will show results from our simulations that couple the output of the TFM to an ionospheric model, to predict traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) driven by the simulated gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Kwansub</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The present study was conducted to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. [Subjects] In the present study, 30 frozen shoulder patients were divided into two groups: an extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group of 15 patients and a conservative physical therapy group of 15 patients. [Methods] Two times per week for six weeks, the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group underwent extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy, and the conservative physical therapy group underwent general physical therapy. Visual analog scales were used to measure frozen shoulder patients’ pain, and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales were used to evaluate the degree of <span class="hlt">functional</span> disorders. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the two groups showed significant decreases in terms of visual analog scales and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales, although the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group showed significantly lower scores than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy is considered an effective intervention for improving frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. PMID:26834326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6922228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6922228"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water-quality <span class="hlt">functions</span> of wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hemond, H.F.; Benoit, J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the water-quality <span class="hlt">function</span> of wetlands are <span class="hlt">impacts</span> whose total effect cannot be predicted from the sum of the effects of individual <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The wetland is not a simple filter; it embodies chemical, physical, and biotic processes that can detain, transform, release, or produce a wide variety of substances. Because wetland water-quality <span class="hlt">functions</span> result from the operation of many individual, distinct, and quite dissimilar mechanisms, it is necessary to consider the nature of each individual process. Given knowledge of the various wetland processes, it is possible to make more-guided judgments about the effects a suite of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is likely to have. When considered in this light, many common wetland alterations seem likely to involve cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The wetland manager may be guided further by appropriate field measurements at specific sites; such data can aid in predicting cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span> or assessing the results of past wetland management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5078399','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5078399"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of a multideterminant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for quantum Monte Carlo: Li sub 2 ( X sup 1. Sigma. sup + sub g )</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sun, Z.; Barnett, R.N.; Lester, W.A. Jr. )</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> constructed as a product of a four-determinant <span class="hlt">function</span> and a symmetric correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> is employed in Monte Carlo computations of the ground-state energy of Li{sub 2} at {ital R}{sub {ital e}} = 5.05 Bohrs. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> parameters are determined by a fixed-sample minimization of deviations of the local energy. Although the variational Monte Carlo energy for this <span class="hlt">function</span> lies, as expected, below that of a similar <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> constructed with a single determinant, the four-determinant <span class="hlt">function</span>/correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> gives no improvement in quantum Monte Carlo energy. However, the unoptimized four-determinant <span class="hlt">function</span>/correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> does yield an energy in excellent agreement with the estimated exact result. The poorer energy of the optimized <span class="hlt">function</span> is caused by degradation of the nodal structure during parameter optimization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12794453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12794453"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceived <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of abnormal facial appearance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Functional</span> facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social <span class="hlt">functionality</span> that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169121"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> from the correlation of coda <span class="hlt">waves</span>: a derivation based on stationary phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snieder, Roel</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> of <span class="hlt">waves</span> that propagate between two receivers can be found by cross-correlating multiply scattered <span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded at these receivers. This technique obviates the need for a source at one of these locations, and is therefore called "passive imaging." This principle has been explained by assuming that the normal modes of the system are uncorrelated and that all carry the same amount of energy (equipartitioning). Here I present an alternative derivation of passive imaging of the ballistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> that is not based on normal modes. The derivation is valid for scalar <span class="hlt">waves</span> in three dimensions, and for elastic surface <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Passive imaging of the ballistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> is based on the destructive interference of <span class="hlt">waves</span> radiated from scatterers away from the receiver line, and the constructive interference of <span class="hlt">waves</span> radiated from secondary sources near the receiver line. The derivation presented here shows that the global requirement of the equipartitioning of normal modes can be relaxed to the local requirement that the scattered <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagate on average isotropically near the receivers. PMID:15169121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> characteristics and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent transport above an Antarctic Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cava, Daniela; Giostra, Umberto; Katul, Gabriel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Turbulence within the stable boundary layer (SBL) remains a ubiquitous feature of many geophysical flows, especially over glaciers and ice-sheets. Although numerous studies have investigated various aspects of the boundary layer motion during stable atmospheric conditions, a unified picture of turbulent transport within the SBL remains elusive. In a strongly stratified SBL, turbulence generation is frequently associated with interactions with sub-meso scale motions that are often a combination of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GWs) and horizontal modes. While some progress has been made in the inclusion of GW parameterisation within global models, description and parameterisation of the turbulence-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction remain an open question. The discrimination between <span class="hlt">waves</span> and turbulence is a focal point needed to make progress as these two motions have different properties with regards to heat, moisture and pollutant transport. In fact, the occurrence of GWs can cause significant differences and ambiguities in the interpretation of turbulence statistics and fluxes if not a priori filtered from the analysis. In this work, the characteristics of GW and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent statistics were investigated using wind velocity components and scalars collected above an Antarctic Ice sheet during an Austral Summer. Antarctica is an ideal location for exploring the characteristics of GW because of persistent conditions of strongly stable atmospheric stability in the lower troposphere. Periods dominated by wavy motions have been identified by analysing time series measured by fast response instrumentation. The GWs nature and features have been investigated using Fourier cross-spectral indicators. The detected <span class="hlt">waves</span> were frequently characterised by variable amplitude and period; moreover, they often produced non-stationarity and large intermittency in turbulent fluctuations that can significantly alter the estimation of turbulence statistics in general and fluxes in particular. A multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlated Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the atoms He through Ne</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, K.E. ); Moskowitz, J.W. )</p> <p>1990-09-15</p> <p>We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the atoms He through Ne. Our trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is of the form introduced by Boys and Handy. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the first and second derivatives of an unreweighted variance and apply Newton's method to minimize this variance. We motivate the form of the correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> using the local current conservation arguments of Feynman and Cohen. Using a self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> multiplied by a Boys and Handy correlation <span class="hlt">function</span>, we recover a large fraction of the correlation energy of these atoms. We give the value of all variational parameters necessary to reproduce our <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The method can be extended easily to other atoms and to molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611405M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611405M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea state projections for the North Sea: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of climate change on very high <span class="hlt">waves</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Groll, Nikolaus; Heinrich, Hartmut</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The research program KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and urban Development investigates the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on waterways and navigation and provides options for adaptations. One aspect of the research task is to analyse climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. Sea <span class="hlt">wave</span> height (SWH), <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction and <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods for the North Sea. Of particular importance for the safety on waterways is the potential change of frequence and magnitude from severe <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The scenarios together with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show the results for projected changes of medium, high and very high <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model WAM4.5.3 The <span class="hlt">wave</span> model is driven with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO) in the scenario A1B. The wind data are delivered in a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. It is seen, that in the eastern North Sea and especially in the German Bight there is a trend to a increasing of the 99th percentile of SWH, while in the western part the 99th percentile of SWH decreases in the future. These changes are mainly caused by changing wind directions in the future, while the wind speed will be mostly unaltered. Supplementary, it was carried out an extrem value analysis with the same data. Although the very high <span class="hlt">waves</span> (eg. <span class="hlt">waves</span> with a return period of 1-, 5-, 10-, up to 100 years) displays a similar behavior as the median or 99th percentile, there are regions in the North Sea (eg. the German Bight) with stronger changes of the higher <span class="hlt">waves</span>. For all <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights a strong decadal variability is detected which superimposes the calculated trends.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag on an eddying global ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trossman, David S.; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Garner, Stephen T.; Jayne, Steven R.; Wallcraft, Alan J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag (<span class="hlt">wave</span> drag hereafter) on several aspects of the low-frequency circulation in a high-resolution global ocean model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is run at two different horizontal resolutions (one nominally 1/12° and the other 1/25°). <span class="hlt">Wave</span> drag, which parameterizes both topographic blocking and the generation of lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography, is inserted into the simulations as they run. The parameterization used here affects the momentum equations and hence the structure of eddy kinetic energy. Lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> also have implications for diapycnal mixing in the ocean, though the parameterization does not directly modify the density. Total near-bottom energy dissipation due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag and quadratic bottom boundary layer drag is nearly doubled, and the energy dissipation due to quadratic bottom drag is reduced by about a factor of two, in simulations with an inserted <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag compared to simulations having only quadratic bottom drag. With the insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, the kinetic energy is reduced in the abyss and in a three-dimensional global integral. Deflection by partial topographic blocking is inferred to be one reason why the near-bottom kinetic energy can increase in locations where there is little change in dissipation by quadratic bottom drag. Despite large changes seen in the abyss, the changes that occur near the sea surface are relatively small upon insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag into the simulations. Both the sea surface height variance and geostrophic surface kinetic energy are reduced on global average by more than twice the seasonal variability in these diagnostics. Alterations in the intensified jet positions brought about by inserting <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag are not distinguishable from the temporal variability of jet positions. Various statistical measures suggest that applying <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag only within a fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9341032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9341032"><span id="translatedtitle">[Coronary artery disease, myocardial perfusion and ventricular <span class="hlt">function</span> in Q-<span class="hlt">wave</span> and non-Q-<span class="hlt">wave</span> myocardial infarcts].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macieira-Coelho, E; Garcia-Alves, M; da Costa, B; Cantinho, G; Pedro, P; Dionisio, I; Gouveia, A; de Padua, F</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Controversy remains in considering non-Q <span class="hlt">wave</span> myocardial infarction (NQMI) a distinct pathophysiological entity of Q <span class="hlt">wave</span> myocardial infarction (QMI). In order to analyze the severity of coronary artery disease, extension of myocardial scar or myocardial ischemia and ventricular <span class="hlt">function</span>, 78 consecutive patients with QMI and 32 with NQMI, mean age 55.4 +/- 8.5, not submitted to thrombolytic therapy, were studied. Coronary angiography, exercise thallium scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography were performed in all at least within 3 months of a prior myocardial infarction. In the present study the occurrence of QMI was significantly more frequent in older patients than NQMI. There was no prevalence of occlusion either in the right, left circumflex or left anterior descending coronary arteries in both groups. Ejection fraction, degree of occlusion and presence of collateral circulation showed an equal prevalence in QMI and NQMI patients. A higher incidence of multivessel disease was found in NQMI that had less necrosis than QMI patients. The prevalence of exercise induced thallium-201 redistribution defects within the infarct zone was substantially higher and involved more scar segments in NQMI patients. Physiological and clinical consequences of coronary thrombosis depends on the size and the number of diseased arteries, the approach the pathophysiologic consequences of coronary disease in terms of fractal structure has been suggested. A pronounced heterogeneity in regional myocardial blood flow in a fractal branching arterial network may be responsible for the pathophysiologic differences of coronary thrombosis between Q-<span class="hlt">wave</span> and non Q-<span class="hlt">wave</span> infarction. PMID:9341032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ187590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ187590"><span id="translatedtitle">Completeness of the Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mukunda, N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Gives an explicit and elementary proof that the radial energy eigenfunctions for the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, bound and scattering states included, form a complete set. The proof uses some properties of the confluent hypergeometric <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the Cauchy residue theorem from analytic <span class="hlt">function</span> theory. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3915308S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3915308S"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>: Passive source reverse time migration and inverse scattering of converted <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shang, Xuefeng; de Hoop, Maarten V.; van der Hilst, Robert D.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation prestack depth migration to image crust and mantle structures using multi-component earthquake data recorded at dense seismograph arrays. Transmitted P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded on the surface are back propagated using an elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation solver. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes are separated after the reverse-time continuation of the wavefield from the surface, and subjected to a (cross-correlation type) imaging condition forming an inverse scattering transform. Reverse time migration (RTM) does not make assumptions about the presence or properties of interfaces - notably, it does not assume that interfaces are (locally) horizontal. With synthetic experiments, and different background models, we show that passive source RTM can reconstruct dipping and vertically offset interfaces even in the presence of complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena (such as caustics and point diffraction) and that its performance is superior to traditional receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis, e.g., common conversion point (CCP) stacking, in complex geological environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/"><span id="translatedtitle">A test of a mechanical multi-<span class="hlt">impact</span> shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Worley, David M.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We modified two gasoline-engine-powered earth tampers, commonly used as compressional-(P) <span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic energy sources for shallow reflection studies, for use as shear(S)-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy sources. This new configuration, termed ?Hacker? (horizontal Wacker?), is evaluated as an alternative to the manual sledgehammer typically used in conjunction with a large timber held down by the front wheels of a vehicle. The Hacker maximizes the use of existing equipment by a quick changeover of bolt-on accessories as opposed to the handling of a separate source, and is intended to improve the depth of penetration of S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> data by stacking hundreds of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> over a two to three minute period. Records were made with a variety of configurations involving up to two Hackers simultaneously then compared to a reference record made with a sledgehammer. Preliminary results indicate moderate success by the higher amplitude S-<span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded with the Hacker as compared to the hammer method. False triggers generated by the backswing of the Hacker add unwanted noise and we are currently working to modify the device to eliminate this effect. Correlation noise caused by insufficient randomness of the Hacker <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence is also a significant noise problem that we hope to reduce by improving the coupling of the Hacker to the timber so that the operator has more control over the <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968338"><span id="translatedtitle">A singularity free surface hopping expansion for the multistate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herman, Michael F</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A version of a surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for nonadiabatic multistate problems, which is free of turning point singularities, is derived and tested. The primitive semiclassical form of the particular surface hopping method considered has been shown to be highly accurate, even for classically forbidden processes. However, this semiclassical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> displays the usual singular behavior at turning points and caustics in the classical motion. Numerical data has shown that this somewhat reduces its accuracy when the energy is near the crossing energy of the diabatic electronic surfaces. The singularity free version of this surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is derived by partitioning the x-axis into a large number of small steps for one dimensional problems. The adiabatic electronic energy surfaces are approximated to be linear <span class="hlt">functions</span> within each step. The matching conditions required by the continuity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivative at each step boundary provide the needed conditions to obtain the amplitudes for changes in electronic state and/or reflection of the trajectory for the motion of the nuclei. This leads to a form of the surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that is free of turning point singularities. The method is tested for a one dimensional model problem, and it is found to be highly accurate at all energies considered, even when the energy is near the crossing energy. PMID:19968338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CoPhC.191...33R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CoPhC.191...33R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A spectral Phase-Amplitude method for propagating a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to large distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rawitscher, George</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The phase and amplitude (Ph-A) of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> vary slowly with distance, in contrast to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be highly oscillatory. Hence the Ph-A representation of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> requires far fewer computational mesh points than the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> itself. In 1930 Milne presented an equation for the phase and the amplitude <span class="hlt">functions</span> (which is different from the one developed by Calogero), and in 1962 Seaton and Peach solved these equations iteratively. The objective of the present study is to implement Seaton and Peach's iteration procedure with a spectral Chebyshev expansion method, and at the same time present a non-iterative analytic solution to an approximate version of the iterative equations. The iterations converge rapidly for the case of attractive potentials. Two numerical examples are given: (1) for a potential that decreases with distance as 1 /r3, and (2) a Coulomb potential ∝ 1 / r. In both cases the whole radial range of [0-2000] requires only between 25 and 100 mesh points and the corresponding accuracy is between 10-3 and 10-6. The 0th iteration (which is the WKB approximation) gives an accuracy of 10-2. This spectral method permits one to calculate a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> out to large distances reliably and economically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93g5121B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93g5121B"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact results for model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of anisotropic composite fermions in the fractional quantum Hall effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the composite fermion theory can incorporate electron mass anisotropy by a trivial rescaling of the coordinates. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are very likely adiabatically connected to the actual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the anisotropic fractional quantum Hall states. We show in this paper that they possess the nice property that their energies can be analytically related to the previously calculated energies for the isotropic states through a universal scale factor, thus allowing an estimation of several observables in the thermodynamic limit for all fractional quantum Hall states as well as the composite fermion Fermi sea. The rather weak dependence of the scale factor on the anisotropy provides insight into why fractional quantum Hall effect and composite fermions are quite robust to electron mass anisotropy. We discuss how better, though still approximate, <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained by introducing a variational parameter, following Haldane [F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116801 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.116801], but the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are not readily amenable to calculations. Our considerations are also applicable, with minimal modification, to the case where the dielectric <span class="hlt">function</span> of the background material is anisotropic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhA...40.1105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhA...40.1105B"><span id="translatedtitle">Examples of Heun and Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span> as solutions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations in curved spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birkandan, T.; Hortaçsu, M.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>We give examples of where the Heun <span class="hlt">function</span> exists as solutions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations encountered in general relativity. As a new example we find that while the Dirac equation written in the background of Nutku helicoid metric yields Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span> as its solutions in four spacetime dimensions, the trivial generalization to five dimensions results in the double confluent Heun <span class="hlt">function</span>. We reduce this solution to the Mathieu <span class="hlt">function</span> with some transformations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991MsT.........22M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991MsT.........22M"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure in the Rio Grande rift through receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> analysis, appendix B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murphy, Brian P.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>Waveform modeling of radial component receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> from ANMO (Albuquerque, New Mexico Observatory) for three source back azimuths (northwest, southeast, and southwest) was performed. The receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were derived through source equalization deconvolution of merged long period and short period digital three component seismograms. Derived S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity models reflect dominantly intermediate composition granitic rock in the upper crust (above 15 km depth, Vs 3.5 km/sec) and middle crust (15-25 km depth, Vs 3.5-3.7 km/sec). Lower crustal shear velocities of approximately 3.75-3.85 km/sec may be representative of intermediate-to-mafic granulite facies, possibly together with previously underplated mafic material and other precursor crustal rocks. Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> attenuation between about 30-34 km may indicate a lower crustal partial melt zone. A 3-to-6 km thick interval is interpreted as a partial melt zone in the upper mantle leading into less depleted spinel peridotite (Vs = 4.25-4.35 km/sec) near 37 km. Inversion of EPT-ALQ interstation dispersion data for average S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure produces a satisfactory velocity tie to the middle and lower crust portions of the southwest back azimuth model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953176"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> for a signal with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang</p> <p>2016-04-13</p> <p>In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> to describe the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape <span class="hlt">function</span> could be any smooth 2π-periodic <span class="hlt">function</span>. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape <span class="hlt">function</span>. By exploring the fact that the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> is a periodic <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to its phase <span class="hlt">function</span>, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> from the signal. Once the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation can be recovered from the shape <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> approach, we can capture the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. PMID:26953176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AdWR...93..326T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AdWR...93..326T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tambroni, N.; Figueiredo da Silva, J.; Duck, R. W.; McLelland, S. J.; Venier, C.; Lanzoni, S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis are becoming increasingly common in many coastal and estuarine intertidal habitats, thus it is important to determine whether they increase flow resistance, promote bed stability and therefore reduce the risk of erosion favoring tidal flooding or degradation of coastal lagoons. Venier et al. (2012) [6] studied the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis on flow dynamics and sediment stability for uniform flow. Here we extend their experimental work to the case of vegetation under the combined action of <span class="hlt">waves</span> and currents. These hydrodynamic conditions are very common in many shallow coastal environments and lagoons. The experimental facility employed in the present study and the series of flow runs are the same as that used by Venier et al. (2012)[6]. However, <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been superposed to uniform current flowing firstly over a mobile sediment bed covered with U. intestinalis, then over a bare sediment surface. For the depth, <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current conditions considered in the experiments, the time-averaged vertical profile of horizontal velocity for the case of coexisting <span class="hlt">waves</span> and current turns out to be very close to that observed for a pure current, both with and without vegetation. However, contrary to what was observed in the case of a unidirectional current, in the presence of <span class="hlt">waves</span> the time averaged velocity profile is only weakly influenced by the vegetation, whose main effect is to attenuate velocity oscillations induced by <span class="hlt">waves</span> and to slightly increase the overall bed roughness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp....7Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp....7Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4957B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4957B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>While damage or vulnerability <span class="hlt">functions</span> for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> we exploit text-based reports on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the European Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> report Inventory and the US Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, or number of <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link <span class="hlt">functions</span> relating drought hazard indicators with drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: 1) logistic regression for drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for regions at the scale of federal states or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044686&hterms=Baumeister&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBaumeister','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044686&hterms=Baumeister&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBaumeister"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation - Simulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baumeister, K. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation is derived for plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta <span class="hlt">function</span> associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping <span class="hlt">function</span> and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419509"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data{approx_equal}}1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000PhRvD..61d4005B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000PhRvD..61d4005B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quantum black hole formation in scalar field collapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bak, Dongsu; Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Sung Ku; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Yee, Jae Hyung</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>We study quantum mechanically self-similar black hole formation by a collapsing scalar field and find the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that give the correct semiclassical limit. In contrast with classical theory, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for black hole formation even in the supercritical case have not only incoming flux but also outgoing flux. From this result we compute the rate for black hole formation. In the subcritical case our result agrees with the semiclassical tunneling rate. Furthermore, we show how to recover the classical evolution of black hole formation from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by defining the Hamilton-Jacobi characteristic <span class="hlt">function</span> as W=ħ Im ln ψ. We find that the quantum-corrected apparent horizon deviates from the classical value only slightly without any qualitative change even in the critical case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in South Korea: mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and recurrence probability in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kysely, J.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The study deals with mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the population of South Korea, including the megacity of Seoul (with the population exceeding 10 million for the city and 20 million for the metropolitan area), and estimates recurrence probability of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a changing climate in terms of simulations of daily temperature series with a stochastic model. The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> is found exceptional with respect to both climatological characteristics and the mortality effects: significantly elevated mortality occurred in all population groups, including children up to 14 years of age, and the total death toll exceeded 3000 in the Korean population, which ranks the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> among the worst weather-related disasters in East Asia. The estimate represents net excess mortality as no mortality displacement effect appeared. A comparison with other documented natural disasters shows that the death toll of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was much higher than those of the most disastrous floodings and typhoons over Korean Peninsula in the 20th century. The mortality response was stronger in males than females although males are found to be less vulnerable during average heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A climatological analysis reveals that the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be considered an extremely rare event with a return period in the order of hundreds of years if stationarity of temperature time series is assumed. However, under a more realistic assumption of gradual warming related to climate change, recurrence probability of an event analogous to the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> sharply rises for near-future time horizons. If warming of 0.04°C/year is assumed over 2001-2060, the recurrence interval of a very long spell of days with temperature exceeding a high threshold (as in the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>) is estimated to decrease to around 40 (10) years in the 2021-2030 (2041-2050) decade. This emphasizes the need for setting up an efficient heat-watch-warning system in this area in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhLA..321..155V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhLA..321..155V"><span id="translatedtitle">Duality between coordinates and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on noncommutative space [rapid communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vancea, Ion V.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The relation between coordinates and the solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation in the noncommutative algebra of <span class="hlt">functions</span> on R2 N is discussed. We derive this relation for a certain class of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for which the quantum prepotentials depend linearly on the coordinates similarly to the commutative case. Also, the differential equation satisfied by the prepotentials is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial survey of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> for plasmaspheric hiss observed by ISEE 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Storey, L.R.O. ); Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.; Cairo, L. ); Anderson, R.R. )</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>Multicomponent ELF/VLF <span class="hlt">wave</span> data from the ISEE 1 satellite have been analyzed with the aim of identifying the generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss, and especially of determining whether it involves <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation of cyclic trajectories. The data were taken from four passes of the satellite, of which two were close to the geomagnetic equatorial plane and two were farther from it; all four occurred during magnetically quiet periods. The principal method of analysis was calculation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to have been generated over a wide range of altitudes within the plasmasphere, and most, though not all, of them were propagating obliquely with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. On one of the passes near the equator, some <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy was observed at small <span class="hlt">wave</span> normal angles, and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> may have been propagating on cyclic trajectories. Even here, however, obliquely propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> were predominant, a finding that is difficult to reconcile with the classical quasi-linear generation mechanism or its variants. The conclusion is that another mechanism, probably nonlinear, must have been generating most of the hiss observed on these four passes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through granular materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Eri; Arakawa, Masahiko</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> are supposed to cause movements of regolith particles, resulting in modifications of asteroidal surfaces. The imparted seismic energy is thus a key parameter to determining the scale and magnitude of this seismic shaking process. It is important to study the propagation velocity, attenuation rate, and vibration period of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> to estimate the seismic energy. Hence, we conducted <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments at Kobe University using a 200-μm glass beads target to simulate a regolith layer, and measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> using three accelerometers set on the target surface at differences ranging from 3.2 to 12.7 cm. The target was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with three kinds of projectiles at ˜100 m s-1 using a one-stage gas gun. The propagation velocity of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the beads target was 108.9 m s-1, and the maximum acceleration, gmax, in the unit of m s-2, measured by each accelerometer showed good correlation with the distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point normalized by the crater radius, x/R, irrespective of projectile type. They also were fitted by one power-law equation, gmax = 102.19 (x/R)-2.21. The half period of the first peak of the measured seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> was ˜0.72 ms, and this duration was almost consistent with the penetration time of each projectile into the target. According to these measurements, we estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seismic efficiency factor, that is, the ratio of seismic energy to kinetic energy of the projectile, to be almost constant, 5.7 × 10-4 inside the crater rim, while it exponentially decreased with distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point outside the crater rim. At a distance quadruple of the crater radius, the efficiency factors were 4.4 × 10-5 for polycarbonate projectile and 9.5 × 10-5 for alumina and stainless steel projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303"><span id="translatedtitle">Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and spectral features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics. PMID:27627303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CSR...120...14M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CSR...120...14M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of enhanced central Pacific ENSO on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and headland-bay beach morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mortlock, Thomas R.; Goodwin, Ian D.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave</span> climate and Pacific basin coastal behaviour associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is understood at a reconnaissance level, but the coastal response to different central Pacific (CP) versus eastern Pacific (EP) flavours of ENSO is unknown. We show that CP ENSO events produce different patterns of directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> power to EP ENSO along the southeast Australian shelf and southwest Pacific region, because of significant variability in trade-wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation. The modulation of the trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate during CP ENSO has thus far been neglected in existing coastal process studies. We also show that coastal change between CP and EP ENSO cannot be inferred from shifts in the deepwater <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. This is because variability in trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation is masked in deepwater by the persistence of high power extra-tropical <span class="hlt">waves</span> that have reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nearshore processes due to high <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction. Morphodynamic modelling in a headland-bay beach indicates that CP ENSO leads to higher coastal erosion potential and slower post-storm recovery than EP ENSO during an El Niño/La Niña cycle. We show that the alongshore variability in beach morphological type can be used to model the static equilibrium planform response for each ENSO phase. Results indicate that shoreline response to ENSO in most headland-bay beach coasts is not as simple as the existing paradigm that (anti-) clockwise rotation occurs during El Niño (La Niña). Our methods provide a second-order approach to project coastal response and predict the discrete shoreline rotations for ENSO flavours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838572','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sarcopenia in respiratory muscles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elliott, Jonathan E.; Greising, Sarah M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The risk for respiratory complications and infections is substantially increased in old age, which may be due, in part, to sarcopenia (aging-related weakness and atrophy) of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm), reducing its force generating capacity and impairing the ability to perform expulsive non-ventilatory motor behaviors critical for airway clearance. The aging-related reduction in DIAm force generating capacity is due to selective atrophy of higher force generating type IIx and/or IIb muscle fibers, whereas lower force generating type I and IIa muscle fiber sizes are preserved. Fiber type specific DIAm atrophy is also seen following unilateral phrenic nerve denervation and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, the effect of aging on DIAm <span class="hlt">function</span> resembles that of neurodegeneration and suggests possible common mechanisms, such as the involvement of several neurotrophic factors in mediating DIAm sarcopenia. This review will focus on changes in two neurotrophic signaling pathways that represent potential mechanisms underlying the aging-related fiber type specific DIAm atrophy. PMID:26467183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467183"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sarcopenia in respiratory muscles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, Jonathan E; Greising, Sarah M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The risk for respiratory complications and infections is substantially increased in old age, which may be due, in part, to sarcopenia (aging-related weakness and atrophy) of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm), reducing its force generating capacity and impairing the ability to perform expulsive non-ventilatory motor behaviors critical for airway clearance. The aging-related reduction in DIAm force generating capacity is due to selective atrophy of higher force generating type IIx and/or IIb muscle fibers, whereas lower force generating type I and IIa muscle fiber sizes are preserved. Fiber type specific DIAm atrophy is also seen following unilateral phrenic nerve denervation and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, the effect of aging on DIAm <span class="hlt">function</span> resembles that of neurodegeneration and suggests possible common mechanisms, such as the involvement of several neurotrophic factors in mediating DIAm sarcopenia. This review will focus on changes in two neurotrophic signaling pathways that represent potential mechanisms underlying the aging-related fiber type specific DIAm atrophy. PMID:26467183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=enzyme+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Denzyme%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=enzyme+function&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Denzyme%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weightlessness on muscle <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent <span class="hlt">function</span> of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AIPC.1637.1381S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AIPC.1637.1381S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Hormonal profile <span class="hlt">impact</span> on female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> in young women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4318A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4318A"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in 206Pb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, more accurate measurements are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701"><span id="translatedtitle">AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> RESULTING FROM THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF HIGH VELOCITY MISSILES ON ANIMAL TISSUES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harvey, E. Newton; McMillen, J. Howard</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>The spark shadowgram method of studying shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> is described. It has been used to investigate the properties of such <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a high velocity missile on the surface of water. The method can be adapted for study of behavior of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in tissue by placing the tissue on a water surface or immersing it in water. Spark shadowgrams then reveal <span class="hlt">waves</span> passing from tissue to water or reflected from tissue surfaces. Reflection and transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> from muscle, liver, stomach, and intestinal wall are compared with reflection from non-living surfaces such as gelatin gel, steel, plexiglas, cork, and air. Because of its heterogeneous structure, <span class="hlt">waves</span> transmitted by tissue are dispersed and appear as a series of wavelets. When the accoustical impedance (density x <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity) of a medium is less than that in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> is moving, reflection will occur with inversion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>; i.e., a high pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> will become a low pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This inversion occurs at an air surface and is illustrated by shadowgrams of reflection from stomach wall, from a segment of colon filled with gas, and from air-filled rubber balloons. Bone (human skull and beef ribs) shows good reflection and some transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>. When steel is directly hit by a missile, clearly visible elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> pass from metal to water, but a similar direct hit on bone does not result in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> strong enough to be detected by a spark shadowgram. PMID:19871617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CSR....27..594V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CSR....27..594V"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced turbulence on intertidal mudflats: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of boat traffic and wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verney, R.; Deloffre, J.; Brun-Cottan, J.-C.; Lafite, R.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Semi-diurnal and fortnightly surveys were carried out to quantify the effects of wind- and navigation-induced high-energy events on bed sediments above intertidal mudflats. The mudflats are located in the upper fluvial part (Oissel mudflat) and at the mouth (Vasière Nord mudflat) of the macrotidal Seine estuary. Instantaneous flow velocities and mudflat bed elevation were measured at a high frequency and high resolution with an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) and an ALTUS altimeter, respectively. Suspended particulate matter concentrations were estimated by calibrating the ADV acoustic backscattered intensity with bed sediments collected at the study sites. Turbulent bed shear stress values were estimated by the turbulent kinetic energy method, using velocity variances filtered from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> contribution. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> shear stress and maximum <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current shear stress values were calculated with the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction (WCI) model, which is based on the bed roughness length, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocities and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> period ( TS). In the fluvial part of the estuary, boat passages occurred unevenly during the surveys and were characterized by long <span class="hlt">waves</span> ( TS>50 s) induced by the drawdown effect and by short boat-<span class="hlt">waves</span> ( TS<10 s). Boat <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated large bottom shear stress values of 0.5 N m -2 for 2-5 min periods and, in burst of several seconds, larger bottom shear stress values up to 1 N m -2. At the mouth of the estuary, west south-west wind events generated short <span class="hlt">waves</span> ( TS<10 s) of HS values ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 m. In shallow-water environment (water depth <1.5 m), these <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced bottom shear stress values between 1 and 2 N m -2. <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-current shear stress values are one order of magnitude larger than the current-induced shear stress and indicate that navigation and wind are the dominant hydrodynamic forcing parameters above the two mudflats. Bed elevation and SPM concentration time series showed that these high energy events induced erosion processes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/938976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/938976"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> ionization in GaAs: A screened exchange density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Picozzi, S.; Asahi, R.; Geller, C. B.; Continenza, A.; Freeman, A. J.</p> <p>2001-08-13</p> <p>Results are presented of a fully ab initio calculation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rates in GaAs within the density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory framework, using a screened-exchange formalism and the highly precise all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> method. The calculated <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rates show a marked orientation dependence in k space, indicating the strong restrictions imposed by the conservation of energy and momentum. This anisotropy diminishes as the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> electron energy increases. A Keldysh type fit performed on the energy-dependent rate shows a rather soft edge and a threshold energy greater than the direct band gap. The consistency with available Monte Carlo and empirical pseudopotential calculations shows the reliability of our approach and paves the way to ab initio calculations of pair production rates in new and more complex materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure and correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electron quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sako, Tokuei; Ishida, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>The energy spectra and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electrons confined by a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic and anharmonic potentials have been studied by using a full configuration interaction method employing a Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis set. The energy spectra are classified into three regimes of the strength of confinement, namely, large, medium and small. The polyad quantum number defined by a total number of nodes in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is shown to be a key ingredient to interpret the energy spectra for the whole range of the confinement strength. The nodal pattern of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> exhibits normal modes for the harmonic confining potential, indicating collective motions of electrons. These normal modes are shown to undergo a transition to local modes for an anharmonic potential with large anharmonicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144a4102C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144a4102C"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying local exciton, charge resonance, and multiexciton character in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, David; Krylov, Anna I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new method for quantifying the contributions of local excitation, charge resonance, and multiexciton configurations in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems is presented. The approach relies on fragment-localized orbitals and employs spin correlators. Its utility is illustrated by calculations on model clusters of hydrogen, ethylene, and tetracene molecules using adiabatic restricted-active-space configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In addition to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis, this approach provides a basis for a simple state-specific energy correction accounting for insufficient description of electron correlation. The decomposition scheme also allows one to compute energies of the diabatic states of the local excitonic, charge-resonance, and multi-excitonic character. The new method provides insight into electronic structure of multichromophoric systems and delivers valuable reference data for validating excitonic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JChPh.107.3007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JChPh.107.3007H"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo: The effect of high-order correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Chien-Jung; Umrigar, C. J.; Nightingale, M. P.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Compact and accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be constructed by quantum Monte Carlo methods. Typically, these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> consist of a sum of a small number of Slater determinants multiplied by a Jastrow factor. In this paper we study the importance of including high-order, nucleus-three-electron correlations in the Jastrow factor. An efficient algorithm based on the theory of invariants is used to compute the high-body correlations. We observe significant improvements in the variational Monte Carlo energy and in the fluctuations of the local energies but not in the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo energies. Improvements for the ground states of physical, fermionic atoms are found to be smaller than those for the ground states of fictitious, bosonic atoms, indicating that errors in the nodal surfaces of the fermionic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are a limiting factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvD..94c4021L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvD..94c4021L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-channel effects for the bottomonium with realistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Yu; Anwar, Muhammad Naeem; Zou, Bing-Song</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>With Gaussian expansion method (GEM), realistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used to calculate coupled-channel effects for the bottomonium under the framework of 3P0 model. The simplicity and accuracy of GEM are explained. We calculate the mass shifts, probabilities of the B meson continuum, S -D mixing angles, strong and dielectric decay widths. Our calculation shows that both S -D mixing and the B meson continuum can contribute to the suppression of the vector meson's dielectric decay width. We suggest more precise measurements on the radiative decays of ϒ (10580 ) and ϒ (11020 ) to distinguish these two effects. The above quantities are also calculated with simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> approximation for comparison. The deviation between GEM and SHO indicates that it is essential to treat the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> accurately for near threshold states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> DVR to Atomic Systems in Strong Laser Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We present an efficient and accurate grid method for solving the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (TDSE) for atomic systems interacting with short laser pulses. The radial part of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is expanded in a DVR (Discrete Variable Representation) basis constructed from the positive energy Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The time propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is implemented using the well-known Arnoldi method. Compared with the usual finite difference (FD) discretization scheme for the radial coordinate, this method requires fewer grid points and handles naturally the Coulomb singularity at the origin. As examples, the method is shown to give accurate ionization rates for both H and H^- over a wide range of laser parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512036T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512036T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of nonlinear energy transfer on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field in Pacific hindcast experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tamura, Hitoshi; Waseda, Takuji; Miyazawa, Yasumasa</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of nonlinear energy transfer (Snl) on <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields by performing hindcast experiments for the Pacific Ocean. Specifically, we evaluated model performance using SRIAM, which was developed to accurately reproduce Snl with lower computational cost than more rigorous algorithms. The model results were compared to in situ <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters as well as results from another model employing the widely used discrete interaction approximation method (DIA). Comparison of the model results with buoy observations revealed a negligible difference between SRIAM and DIA for significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights. However, the difference for the peak period was quite pronounced, especially around the tropical Pacific, where a persistent bias in peak frequency was improved by using SRIAM. This study also highlights the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of source terms on spectral shape under a realistic model setting. Detailed analysis of spectral shape indicated that SRIAM can quantitatively capture the overshoot phenomena around the spectral peak during <span class="hlt">wave</span> growth. In addition, Snl played a major role in maintaining the equilibrium range; it reacted to changes in the net external sources to cancel out the total source term. These results show that the magnitude of high-frequency dissipation controls the spectral tail exponent and that the balanced net external source is responsible for the reproduction of the f-4 power law behavior in the equilibrium range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetric multivariate polynomials as a basis for three-boson light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S; Elliott, Blair; Hiller, John R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We develop a polynomial basis to be used in numerical calculations of light-front Fock-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> typically depend on longitudinal momentum fractions that sum to unity. For three particles, this constraint limits the two remaining independent momentum fractions to a triangle, for which the three momentum fractions act as barycentric coordinates. For three identical bosons, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> must be symmetric with respect to all three momentum fractions. Therefore, as a basis, we construct polynomials in two variables on a triangle that are symmetric with respect to the interchange of any two barycentric coordinates. We find that, through the fifth order, the polynomial is unique at each order, and, in general, these polynomials can be constructed from products of powers of the second- and third-order polynomials. The use of such a basis is illustrated in a calculation of a light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in two-dimensional ϕ(4) theory; the polynomial basis performs much better than the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis used in discrete light-cone quantization. PMID:24483584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770039574&hterms=neutral+carbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dneutral%2Bcarbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770039574&hterms=neutral+carbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dneutral%2Bcarbon"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> excitation of carbon and silicon in the distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pindzola, M. S.; Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The 3P to 1D electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> excitation cross section within the ground configuration of both neutral carbon and silicon is calculated in the distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation of the two-state Hartree-Fock coupled equations. An essential element of the present treatment is that orthogonality to core orbitals is not assumed in deriving equations for the scattering orbitals. A local adiabatic polarization potential is also added to the distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> equations. Both elements are necessary in getting good agreement with close-coupling results for carbon to low <span class="hlt">impacting</span> energies. The agreement is sufficiently good that predictions for silicon should be accurate to within a factor of 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Short- and Long-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T"><span id="translatedtitle">Guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> imaging for detection and evaluation of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara; Seebo, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, guided wavefield interactions with delamination damage in laminated composite panels are investigated. The frequency-wavenumber representations of the guided wavefields show that different wavenumbers are present in the delaminated plate, compared to a pristine case. The wavenumbers are correlated to trapped <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the delamination region. Novel approaches for imaging the composite panels using guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> are discussed and demonstrated for quantitative evaluation of the delamination damage. A filter reconstruction imaging method is shown to provide a rapid technique to locate delamination damage by showing where guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is trapped. A spatial wavenumber-based imaging algorithm is applied to calculate wavenumber values at each spatial location and highlights the delamination damage as regions with larger wavenumber values. The imaging approaches are demonstrated using experimental data from a plate with a simulated delamination (teflon insert) and from a plate containing <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination damage. The methods are also applied to a multiple mode guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> case to demonstrate application to complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles--embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities--working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities. PMID:26520497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.; Aquilante, Francesco</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613503L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613503L"><span id="translatedtitle">Using soil <span class="hlt">functional</span> indices to assess wildfire <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Disturbance <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ecosystem are often based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> after fire as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fire on soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface <span class="hlt">functions</span> to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil <span class="hlt">functional</span> status of recently burned areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicriteria analysis to evaluate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converters based on their environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>: an Italian case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, <span class="hlt">waves</span> and offshore wind. Due to the visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81d3629H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81d3629H"><span id="translatedtitle">Condensate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and elementary excitations of bosonic polar molecules: Beyond the first Born approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Chao-Chun; Wang, Daw-Wei; Wu, Wen-Chin</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We investigate the condensate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and elementary excitations of strongly interacting bosonic polar molecules in a harmonic trap, treating the scattering amplitude beyond the standard first Born approximation (FBA). By using an appropriate trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the variational method, effects of the leading-order correction beyond the FBA have been investigated and shown to be significantly enhanced when the system is close to the phase boundary of collapse. How such a leading-order effect of going beyond the FBA can be observed in a realistic experiment is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9504054R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9504054R"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson using Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rai, Ajay Kumar; Devlani, Nayneshkumar; Kher, Virendrasinh H.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Using the Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> mass spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson are investigated in the framework of phenomenological quark anti-quark potential (coulomb plus power) model consisting of relativistic corrections to the kinetic energy term. The spin-spin, spin-orbit and tensor interactions are employed to obtain the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The decay constants (fP/V) are computed using the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin. The di-gamma and di-leptonic decays of the bb¯ meson are investigated using Van-Rayan Weisskopf formula as well as in the NRQCD formalism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels <span class="hlt">waves</span>. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli <span class="hlt">wave</span> (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Of Coral Structures On <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> have the most important forcing <span class="hlt">function</span> on shallow (< 5 m) reefs as they drive most ecological and biogeochemical processes by exerting direct physical stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of coral structures on <span class="hlt">wave</span> directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability Density <span class="hlt">Function</span> for <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pao, H</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent <span class="hlt">function</span>. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these <span class="hlt">waves</span> cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> decrease as the distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20645993','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20645993"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform approximation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with improved semiclassical transformation amplitudes and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, Edward D.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Semiclassical transformation theory implies an integral representation for stationary-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> {psi}{sub m}(q) in terms of angle-action variables ({theta},J). It is a particular solution of Schroedinger's time-independent equation when terms of order ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2} and higher are omitted, but the preexponential factor A(q,{theta}) in the integrand of this integral representation does not possess the correct dependence on q. The origin of the problem is identified: the standard unitarity condition invoked in semiclassical transformation theory does not fix adequately in A(q,{theta}) a factor which is a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the action J written in terms of q and {theta}. A prescription for an improved choice of this factor, based on successfully reproducing the leading behavior of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the vicinity of potential minima, is outlined. Exact evaluation of the modified integral representation via the residue theorem is possible. It yields <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are not, in general, orthogonal. However, closed-form results obtained after Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization bear a striking resemblance to the exact analytical expressions for the stationary-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the various potential models considered (namely, a Poeschl-Teller oscillator and the Morse oscillator)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling rock-avalanche induced <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">waves</span>: Sensitivity of the model chains to model parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. Usually natural hazards are assessed as single hazardous processes, for the above mentioned reasons, however, development of assessment and reproduction methods of the hazardous process chain for the purpose of hazard map generation have to be brought forward. A combination of physical process models have already been suggested and illustrated by means of lake outburst in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where on April 11th 2010 an ice-avalanche of approx. 300'000m3 triggered an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which overtopped the 22m freeboard of the rock-dam for 5 meters and caused and outburst flood which travelled 23 km to the city of Carhuaz. We here present a study, where we assessed the sensitivity of the model chain from ice-avalanche and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> to single parameters considering rock-/ice-avalanche modeling by RAMMS and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> modeling by IBER. Assumptions on the initial rock-/ice-avalanche volume, calibration of the friction parameters in RAMMS and assumptions on erosion considered in RAMMS were parameters tested regarding their influence on overtopping parameters that are crucial for outburst flood modeling. Further the transformation of the RAMMS-output (flow height and flow velocities on the shoreline of the lake) into an inflow-hydrograph for IBER was also considered a possible source of uncertainties. Overtopping time, volume, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> height as much as mean and maximum discharge were considered decisive parameters for the outburst flood modeling and were therewith</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury. PMID:8406976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E"><span id="translatedtitle">Shoreline changes and high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Messenzehl, Karoline; Frenzel, Peter; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander; Wennrich, Volker; Kelletat, Dieter</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Supralittoral coarse-clast deposits along the shores of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) as well as increased hurricane frequency during the past decade testify to the major hazard of high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the southern Caribbean. Since deducing certain events from the subaerial coarse-clast record involves major uncertainties and historical reports are restricted to the past 500 years, we use a new set of vibracore and push core data (i) to contribute to a more reliable Holocene history of regional extreme-<span class="hlt">wave</span> events and (ii) to evaluate their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on shoreline evolution. Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses (XRF, XRD, grain size distribution, carbonate, LOI, microfossils) were carried out using nearshore sedimentary archives from the sheltered western (leeward) side of Bonaire and its small neighbour Klein Bonaire. In combination with 14C-AMS age estimates the stratigraphy reflects a long-term coastal evolution controlled by relative sea level rise, longshore sediment transport, and short-term morphodynamic impulses by extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, all three of which may have significantly influenced the development of polyhaline lagoons and the demise of mangrove populations. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events may be categorized into major episodic incidents (c. 3.6 ka [?] BP; 3.2-3.0 ka BP; 2.0-1.8 ka BP; post-1.3 ka [?] BP), which may correspond to tsunamis and periodic events recurring on the order of decades to centuries, which we interpret as severe tropical cyclones. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events seem to control to a certain extent the formation of coastal ridges on Bonaire and, thus, to cause abrupt shifts in the long-term morphodynamic and ecological boundary conditions of the circumlittoral inland bays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113m3501T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113m3501T"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal-<span class="hlt">wave</span> fields in solid wedges using the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> method: Theory and experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tai, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this work, we establish a theoretical model for a cylindrical rod of radius R with opening angle θ illuminated by a modulated incident beam. The model uses the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> method in cylindrical coordinates. An analytical expression for the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> and thermal-<span class="hlt">wave</span> field in such a solid is presented. The theory is validated in the limit of reducing the arbitrary wedge geometrical structure to simpler geometries. For acute angle wedges, it is shown that the thermal-<span class="hlt">wave</span> field near the edge exhibits confinement behavior and increased amplitude compared to a flat (reference) solid with θ = π. For obtuse angle wedges, it is shown that the opposite is true and relaxation of confinement occurs leading to lower amplitude thermal-<span class="hlt">wave</span> fields. The theory provides a basis for quantitative thermophysical characterization of wedge-shaped objects and it is tested using an AISI 304 steel wedge and photothermal radiometry detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65..255G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65..255G"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on North Sea <span class="hlt">wave</span> conditions: a consistent analysis of ten projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grabemann, Iris; Groll, Nikolaus; Möller, Jens; Weisse, Ralf</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Long-term changes in the mean and extreme wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> conditions as they may occur in the course of anthropogenic climate change can influence and endanger human coastal and offshore activities. A set of ten <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate projections derived from time slice and transient simulations of future conditions is analyzed to estimate the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> of anthropogenic climate change on mean and extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> conditions in the North Sea. This set includes different combinations of IPCC SRES emission scenarios (A2, B2, A1B, and B1), global and regional models, and initial states. A consistent approach is used to provide a more robust assessment of expected changes and uncertainties. While the spatial patterns and the magnitude of the climate change signals vary, some robust features among the ten projections emerge: mean and severe <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights tend to increase in the eastern parts of the North Sea towards the end of the twenty-first century in nine to ten projections, but the magnitude of the increase in extreme <span class="hlt">waves</span> varies in the order of decimeters between these projections. For the western parts of the North Sea more than half of the projections suggest a decrease in mean and extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights. Comparing the different sources of uncertainties due to models, scenarios, and initial conditions, it can be inferred that the influence of the emission scenario on the climate change signal seems to be less important. Furthermore, the transient projections show strong multi-decadal fluctuations, and changes towards the end of the twenty-first century might partly be associated with internal variability rather than with systematic changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.131o4101H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.131o4101H"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated calculation of anharmonic vibrational contributions to first hyperpolarizabilities: Quadratic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from vibrational configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Christiansen, Ove; Hättig, Christof</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Quadratic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> are derived and implemented for a vibrational configuration interaction state. Combined electronic and vibrational quadratic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> are derived using Born-Oppenheimer vibronic product <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Computational tractable expressions are derived for determining the total quadratic response contribution as a sum of contributions involving both electronic and vibrational linear and quadratic response <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In the general frequency-dependent case this includes a new and more troublesome type of electronic linear response <span class="hlt">function</span>. Pilot calculations for the FH, H2O, CH2O, and pyrrole molecules demonstrate the importance of vibrational contributions for accurate comparison to experiment and that the vibrational contributions in some cases can be very large. The calculation of transition properties between vibrational states is combined with sum-over-states expressions for analysis purposes. On the basis of this some simple analysis methods are suggested. Also, a preliminary study of the effect of finite lifetimes on quadratic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/393327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/393327"><span id="translatedtitle">A search for the {Delta}{sup {minus}} <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> component in light nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morris, C.L.; Zumbro, J.D.; Boudrie, R.L.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>We have studied the ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {+-}}p) reactions on {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 7}Li at incident energy 500 MeV in quasi-free kinematics. A signature attributable to pre-existing {Delta} components of the ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of the Information <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> in a Drift Dependent Option Price: A Simple Example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haven, Emmanuel</p> <p>2009-03-10</p> <p>This paper briefly describes how a drift-dependent option price is obtained, following the work of Tan. We briefly argue how the information <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> concept, which has now been used in various financial settings, can be used in this type of option price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006970"><span id="translatedtitle">Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B</p> <p>2013-08-28</p> <p>This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23345171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23345171"><span id="translatedtitle">Adjustment of Born-Oppenheimer electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to simplify close coupling calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Yong; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Chunhua; Qu, Yizhi; Wang, Jianguo</p> <p>2013-04-30</p> <p>Technical problems connected with use of the Born-Oppenheimer clamped-nuclei approximation to generate electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, potential energy surfaces (PES), and associated properties are discussed. A computational procedure for adjusting the phases of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as well as their order when potential crossings occur, is presented which is based on the calculation of overlaps between sets of molecular orbitals and configuration interaction eigenfunctions obtained at neighboring nuclear conformations. This approach has significant advantages for theoretical treatments describing atomic collisions and photo-dissociation processes by means of ab initio PES, electronic transition moments, and nonadiabatic radial and rotational coupling matrix elements. It ensures that the electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are continuous over the entire range of nuclear conformations considered, thereby greatly simplifying the process of obtaining the above quantities from the results of single-point Born-Oppenheimer calculations. The overlap results are also used to define a diabatic transformation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained for conical intersections that greatly simplifies the computation of off-diagonal matrix elements by eliminating the need for complex phase factors. PMID:23345171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1174S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1174S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of the directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span> over swell <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shabani, Behnam; Babanin, Alex V.; Baldock, Tom E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Field measurements of wind stress over shallow water swell traveling in different directions relative to the wind are presented. The directional distribution of the measured stresses is used to confirm the previously proposed but unverified directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span>. The observed wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span> is found to follow a much narrower distribution (β∝cos⁡3.6θ) than the Plant (1982) cosine distribution. The observation of negative stress angles at large wind-<span class="hlt">wave</span> angles, however, indicates that the onset of negative wind shearing occurs at about θ≈ 50°, and supports the use of the Snyder et al. (1981) directional distribution. Taking into account the reverse momentum transfer from swell to the wind, Snyder's proposed parameterization is found to perform exceptionally well in explaining the observed narrow directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span>, and predicting the wind drag coefficients. The empirical coefficient (ɛ) in Snyder's parameterization is hypothesised to be a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape parameter, with ɛ value increasing as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape changes between sinusoidal, sawtooth, and sharp-crested shoaling <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Quantum+AND+computer&pg=2&id=EJ1014570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Quantum+AND+computer&pg=2&id=EJ1014570"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Visualization of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Rotating Molecule: Plot of Spherical Harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Umpei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>At an early stage of learning quantum chemistry, undergraduate students usually encounter the concepts of the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, and then the particle on a sphere. Rotational levels of a diatomic molecule can be well approximated by the energy levels of the particle on a sphere. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the particle in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atom+AND+nucleus&pg=2&id=EJ237412','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atom+AND+nucleus&pg=2&id=EJ237412"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Form of the Hydrogenic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for an Extended, Uniformly Charged Nucleus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ley-Koo, E.; And Others</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Presented are forms of harmonic oscillator attraction and Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which can be explicitly constructed and which lead to numerical results for the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the atomic system. The Schrodinger equation and its solution and specific cases of muonic atoms illustrating numerical calculations are included.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139h4103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139h4103A"><span id="translatedtitle">Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294519"><span id="translatedtitle">Foldy-Wouthuysen <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and conditions of transformation between Dirac and Foldy-Wouthuysen representations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Neznamov, V. P.; Silenko, A. J.</p> <p>2009-12-15</p> <p>The block diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is not sufficient for the transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) representation. The conditions enabling the transition from the Dirac representation to the FW one are formulated and proven. The connection between <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the two representations is derived. The results obtained allow calculating expectation values of operators corresponding to main classical quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316349"><span id="translatedtitle">Most probable <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a single free-moving particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Budiyono, Agung</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We develop the most probable <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a single free quantum particle given its momentum and energy by imposing its quantum probability density to maximize Shannon information entropy. We show that there is a class of solutions in which the quantum probability density is self-trapped with finite-size spatial support, uniformly moving, hence keeping its form unchanged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=Waves&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77204413&CFTOKEN=33975169','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=Waves&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77204413&CFTOKEN=33975169"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-Domain Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Radar <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113330"><span id="translatedtitle">The incomplete plasma dispersion <span class="hlt">function</span>: Properties and application to <span class="hlt">waves</span> in bounded plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baalrud, S. D.</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>The incomplete plasma dispersion <span class="hlt">function</span> is a generalization of the plasma dispersion <span class="hlt">function</span> in which the defining integral spans a semi-infinite, rather than infinite, domain. It is useful for describing the linear dielectric response and <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion in non-Maxwellian plasmas when the distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be approximated as Maxwellian over finite, or semi-infinite, intervals in velocity phase-space. A ubiquitous example is the depleted Maxwellian electron distribution found near boundary sheaths or double layers, where the passing interval can be modeled as Maxwellian with a lower temperature than the trapped interval. The depleted Maxwellian is used as an example to demonstrate the utility of using the incomplete plasma dispersion <span class="hlt">function</span> for calculating modifications to <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T"><span id="translatedtitle">Radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and its correlation with optical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, T.; Maki, K.; Yamori, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the most interesting phenomena of radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A projectile of polycarbonate with 1.1 g weight was accelerated by a rail gun to 3.8 km/sec, and hit two targets which are a 2 mm thick aluminum plate upstream and a 45 mm diameter aluminum column downstream, respectively. The projectile first breaks wires to give a triggering signal to a data recorder, then penetrates the aluminum plate, and finally hit the column, The emitted radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> propagate through the chamber window, and are received by antennas at each frequency band. The receivers in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands consist of a low noise amplifier, a mixer, a local oscillator and an IF amplifier , respectively. The receiver in 1 MHz-band is a simple RF amplifier. The outputs of all receivers are fed to a data recorder which is actually a high-speed digital oscilloscope with a large amount of memory. The radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> were successfully recorded in 22 GHz-band with 500 MHz bandwidth, in 2 GHz-band with 300 MHz bandwidth, and in 1MHz-band. The waveforms in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands coincide well each other, and are composed of two groups of sharp impulses with a separation of about 20 micro seconds. The width of an impulse is less than 2 n sec. which is the resolution limit of the data recorder. We carried out optical observations using an ultra-high speed camera simultaneously through another window of the chamber. The time interval between scenes is 2 micro sec. We can see a faint light of the projectile before the first <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the plate, and then a brilliant gas exploding backward from the plate and forward to the column. After hitting the column target, the brilliant gas flows to the chamber wall and is reflected back to make a mixture with dark gas in the chamber. Excellent correlation between radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission and the observed optical phenomena was obtained in the experiment. It is easily conceived that the radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> consist of quite a wide frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of harmonic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McAleavey, Stephen A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032426','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032426"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of harmonic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McAleavey, Stephen A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M"><span id="translatedtitle">An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (<span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge) for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> series of surge sea level component and <span class="hlt">waves</span> (significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, period and direction) at coastal locations. Altimeter observations are also considered for a spatial validation of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights. Results obtained from this validation process show a general good agreement with observations for the European region. Finally, the hourly time series of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate along the European coast grid-points are analyzed. Historical changes in the <span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge provide a useful information for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies since coastal flooding, beach erosion, coastal structures and physical damages in ecosystems can be affected by long-term changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and sea levels. Reguero, B. G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F. J. Mínguez, R. Losada, I. J. (2012). A Global Ocean <span class="hlt">Wave</span> (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering, 65, 38-55. Cid, A., Castanedo, S., Abascal, A. J., Menéndez, M., & Medina, R. (2014). A high resolution hindcast of the meteorological sea level component for Southern Europe: the GOS dataset. Climate Dynamics, 1-18.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mbah, Blessing Akaraka</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced fracturing of calcareous nannofossils from the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Self-Trail J.M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Fractured calcareous nannofossils of the genus Discoaster from synimpact sediments within the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater demonstrate that other petrographic shock indicators exist for the cratering process in addition to quartz minerals. Evidence for shock-induced taphonomy includes marginal fracturing of rosette-shaped Discoaster species into pentagonal shapes and pressure- and temperature-induced dissolution of ray tips and edges of discoasters. Rotational deformation of individual crystallites may be the mechanism that produces the fracture pattern. Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-fractured calcareous nannofossils were recovered from synimpact matrix material representing tsunami or resurge sedimentation that followed <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Samples taken from cohesive clasts within the crater rubble show no evidence of shock-induced fracturing. The data presented here support growing evidence that microfossils can be used to determine the intensity and timing of wet-<span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014APS..DFDL16005W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014APS..DFDL16005W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on a Wall: Comparison of Experiments with Similarity Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.; Lathrop, D. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a steep water <span class="hlt">wave</span> on a fixed partially submerged cube is studied with experiments and theory. The temporal evolution of the water surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube in its center plane is measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique using frame rates up to 4,500 Hz. For a small range of cube positions, the surface profiles are found to form a nearly circular arc with upward curvature between the front face of the cube and a point just downstream of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> crest. As the crest approaches the cube, the effective radius of this portion of the profile decreases rapidly. At the same time, the portion of the profile that is upstream of the crest approaches a straight line with a downward slope of about 15°. As the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> continues, the circular arc shrinks to zero radius with very high acceleration and a sudden transition to a high-speed vertical jet occurs. This flow singularity is modeled with a power-law scaling in time, which is used to create a time-independent system of equations of motion. The scaled governing equations are solved numerically and the similarly scaled measured free surface shapes, are favorably compared with the solutions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3117K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3117K"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of freak-<span class="hlt">waves</span>: nonlinear vs linear model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachulin, Dmitriy; Dyachenko, Alexander; Zakharov, Vladimir</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>No doubts that estimation of probability of freak-<span class="hlt">wave</span> appearing at the surface of ocean has practical meaning. Among different mechanisms of this phenomenon linear dispersion and modulational instability are generally recognized. For linear equation of water <span class="hlt">waves</span> Probability Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (PDF) can be calculated analytically and it is nothing but normal Gaussian distribution for surface elevation. Or it is Rayleigh distribution for absolute values of elevations. For nonlinear <span class="hlt">waves</span> one can expect something different. In this report we consider and compare these two mechanism for various levels of nonlinearity. We present results of numerical experiments on calculation of Probability Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for surface elevations of waters <span class="hlt">waves</span> both for nonlinear and linear models. Both model demonstrates Rayleigh distribution of surface elevations. However dispersion of PDF for nonlinear case is much larger than for linear case. This work was supported by the Grant "<span class="hlt">Wave</span> turbulence: theory, numerical simulation, experiment" #14-22-00174 of Russian Science Foundation. Numerical simulation was performed on the Informational Computational Center of the Novosibirsk State University.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....30..265B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....30..265B"><span id="translatedtitle">Examples of Heun and Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span> as solutions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations in curved spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birkandan, T.; Horta, M.</p> <p></p> <p>We give examples of where the Heun <span class="hlt">function</span> exists as solutions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations encountered in general relativity. While the Dirac equation written in the background of Nutku helicoid metric yields Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span> as its solutions in four spacetime dimensions, the trivial generalization to five dimensions results in the double confluent Heun <span class="hlt">function</span>. We reduce this solution to the Mathieu <span class="hlt">function</span> with some transformations. We must apply Atiyah-Patodi-Singer spectral boundary conditions to this system since the metric has a singularity at the origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.342..965G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.342..965G"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Probability Distribution for the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of a Quantum System Entangled with its Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A quantum system (with Hilbert space {H}1) entangled with its environment (with Hilbert space {H}2) is usually not attributed to a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> but only to a reduced density matrix {ρ1}. Nevertheless, there is a precise way of attributing to it a random <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> {ψ1}, called its conditional <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, whose probability distribution {μ1} depends on the entangled <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> {ψ in H1 ⊗ H2} in the Hilbert space of system and environment together. It also depends on a choice of orthonormal basis of H2 but in relevant cases, as we show, not very much. We prove several universality (or typicality) results about {μ1}, e.g., that if the environment is sufficiently large then for every orthonormal basis of H2, most entangled states {ψ} with given reduced density matrix {ρ1} are such that {μ1} is close to one of the so-called GAP (Gaussian adjusted projected) measures, {GAP(ρ1)}. We also show that, for most entangled states {ψ} from a microcanonical subspace (spanned by the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with energies in a narrow interval {[E, E+ δ E]}) and most orthonormal bases of H2, {μ1} is close to {GAP({tr}2 ρ_{mc})} with {ρ_{mc}} the normalized projection to the microcanonical subspace. In particular, if the coupling between the system and the environment is weak, then {μ1} is close to {GAP(ρ_β)} with {ρ_β} the canonical density matrix on H1 at inverse temperature {β=β(E)}. This provides the mathematical justification of our claim in Goldstein et al. (J Stat Phys 125: 1193-1221, 2006) that GAP measures describe the thermal equilibrium distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120667"><span id="translatedtitle">Single <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater <span class="hlt">functions</span> for ion bombardment of silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalyanasundaram, N.; Ghazisaeidi, M.; Freund, J. B.; Johnson, H. T.</p> <p>2008-03-31</p> <p>The average effect of a single 500 eV incident argon ion on a silicon surface is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. More than 10{sup 3} ion <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at random surface points are averaged for each of seven incidence angles, from 0 deg. to 28 deg. off normal, to determine a local surface height change <span class="hlt">function</span>, or a crater <span class="hlt">function</span>. The crater shapes are mostly determined by mass rearrangement; sputtering has a relatively small effect. Analytical fitting <span class="hlt">functions</span> are provided for several cases, and may serve as input into kinetic Monte Carlo calculations or stability analyses for surfaces subjected to ion bombardment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pearson+AND+correlation&pg=7&id=EJ956485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pearson+AND+correlation&pg=7&id=EJ956485"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of IQ Discrepancy on Executive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in High-<span class="hlt">Functioning</span> Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive <span class="hlt">function</span>. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation Analysis of Edge Cracked Circular Beams under <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:24972050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876043"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissipation of Magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Energetic Particles: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Interstellar Turbulence and Cosmic Ray Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ptuskin, V.S.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Jones, F.C.; Strong, A.W.; Zirakashvili, V.N.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.</p> <p>2006-01-17</p> <p>The physical processes involved in diffusion of Galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium are addressed. We study the possibility that the nonlinear MHD cascade sets the power-law spectrum of turbulence which scatters charged energetic particles. We find that the dissipation of <span class="hlt">waves</span> due to the resonant interaction with cosmic ray particles may terminate the Kraichnan-type cascade below wavelengths 10{sup 13} cm. The effect of this <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation has been incorporated in the GALPROP numerical propagation code in order to asses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on measurable astrophysical data. The energy-dependence of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient found in the resulting self-consistent model may explain the peaks in the secondary to primary nuclei ratios observed at about 1 GeV/nucleon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5719H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5719H"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the ionospheric <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tsunami-driven gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> with SAMI3: Conjugate effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huba, J. D.; Drob, D. P.; Wu, T.-W.; Makela, J. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Naval Research Laboratory first-principles ionosphere model SAMI3 is used to study the ionospheric effects associated with tsunami-driven gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Specifically, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami of 11 March 2011 is modeled. It is shown that gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced variations in the neutral wind lead to plasma velocity variations both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the electric field induced by the neutral wind perturbations can map to the conjugate hemisphere. Thus, electron density variations can be generated in both hemispheres which <span class="hlt">impact</span> the total electron content (TEC) and 6300 Šairglow emission. It is found that the TEC exhibits variations of ≲ ±0.1 total electron content unit (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) and the 6300 Šairglow emission variation is up to ˜±2.5% relative to the unperturbed background airglow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac <span class="hlt">function</span> and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span>. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive. PMID:24528802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4006W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4006W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Cosmic Body into Earth's Ocean and the Generation of Large Tsunami <span class="hlt">Waves</span>: Insight from Numerical Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Weiss, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The strike of a cosmic body into a marine environment differs in several respects from <span class="hlt">impact</span> on land. Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface, implying not only that oceanic <span class="hlt">impact</span> is a very likely scenario for future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> but also that most <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Earth's history must have happened in marine environments. Therefore, the study of oceanic <span class="hlt">impact</span> is imperative in two respects: (1) to quantify the hazard posed by future oceanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, including the potential threat of large <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunami-like <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and (2) to reconstruct Earth's <span class="hlt">impact</span> record by accounting for the large number of potentially undiscovered crater structures in the ocean crust. Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> record is of crucial importance both for assessing the frequency of collision events in the past and for better predicting the probability of future <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We summarize the advances in the study of oceanic <span class="hlt">impact</span> over the last decades and focus in particular on how numerical models have improved our understanding of cratering in the oceanic environment and the generation of <span class="hlt">waves</span> by <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We focus on insight gleaned from numerical modeling studies into the deceleration of the projectile by the water, cratering of the ocean floor, the late stage modification of the crater due to gravitational collapse, and water resurge. Furthermore, we discuss the generation and propagation of large tsunami-like <span class="hlt">waves</span> as a result of a strike of a cosmic body in marine environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJC...74.2685C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJC...74.2685C"><span id="translatedtitle">Horizon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black-hole decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casadio, Roberto; Scardigli, Fabio</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A localized particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. To combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> determined by the particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass may be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> associated with a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204204"><span id="translatedtitle">De Broglie wavelets versus Schroedinger <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: A ribbon model approach to quantum theory and the mechanisms of quantum interference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang, Jau</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>As an alternative to better physical explanations of the mechanisms of quantum interference and the origins of uncertainty broadening, a linear hopping model is proposed with ``color-varying`` dynamics to reflect fast exchange between time-reversed states. Intricate relations between this model, particle-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dualism, and relativity are discussed. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is shown to possess dual characteristics of a stable, localized ``soliton-like`` de Broglie wavelet and a delocalized, interfering Schroedinger carrier <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study of different SPH schemes on simulating violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xing; Ma, Qing-wei; Duan, Wen-yang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulation especially when free surface breaks or <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust heating by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> using non-Maxwellian distribution <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zubia, K.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Quasilinear theory is employed in order to evaluate the resonant heating rate by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span>, of multiple species dust particles in a hot, collisionless, and magnetized plasma, with the underlying assumption that the dust velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> can be modeled by a generalized (r, q) distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The kinetic linear dispersion relation for the electromagnetic dust cyclotron Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> is derived, and the dependence of the heating rate on the magnetic field, mass, and density of the dust species is subsequently investigated. The heating rate and its dependence on the spectral indices r and q of the distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> are also investigated. It is found that the heating is sensitive to negative value of spectral index r.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.11201021W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.11201021W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-dipolar gauge links for transverse-momentum-dependent pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-Ming</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>I discuss the factorization-compatible definitions of transverse-momentumdependent (TMD) pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are fundamental theory inputs entering QCD factorization formulae for many hard exclusive processes. I will first demonstrate that the soft subtraction factor introduced to remove both rapidity and pinch singularities can be greatly reduced by making the maximal use of the freedom to construct the Wilson-line paths when defining the TMD <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. I will then turn to show that the newly proposed TMD definition with non-dipolarWilson lines is equivalent to the one with dipolar gauge links and with a complicated soft <span class="hlt">function</span>, to all orders of the perturbative expansion in the strong coupling, as far as the infrared behavior is concerned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> in heterogeneous 2.5D media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic <span class="hlt">function</span>. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens <span class="hlt">functions</span> is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporomandibular joint disorders' <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P; John, M T; Hodges, J S; Schiffman, E L</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders ("TMJ intra-articular status"), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability ("TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span>"). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject's most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure → DDwR → DDwoR → DJD) should be explored. PMID:25572112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA34A..01M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA34A..01M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Propagation of Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> are ubiquitous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a significant fraction of its observed variability. These <span class="hlt">waves</span>, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, are thought to be a major means for exchange of momentum and energy between atmospheric regions. The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) describes acoustic gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (AGW) that propagate across the globe in a dissipative static background atmosphere extending from the ground to 700 km. The model is limited to <span class="hlt">waves</span> with periods << 12 hr where the Coriolis force is not important. Formulated in terms of zonal vector spherical harmonics and oscillation frequencies, the linearized equations of energy, mass, and momentum conservation are solved to generate the transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> (TF) for a chosen height distribution of the excitation source. The model accounts for momentum exchange between atmospheric species (He, O, N2, O2, Ar), which affects significantly the <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and phases of thermospheric temperature, densities, and wind fields. Covering a broad range of frequencies and spherical harmonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> numbers (wavelengths), without limitations, the assembled TF captures the physics that controls the propagation of AGW, and the computational effort is considerable. For a chosen horizontal geometry and impulsive time dependence of the source, however, the global <span class="hlt">wave</span> response is then obtained in short order. The model is computationally efficient and well suited to serve as an experimental and educational tool for simulating propagating <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns on the globe. The model is also semi-analytical and therefore well suited to explore the different <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes that can be generated under varying dynamical conditions. The TFM has been applied to simulate the AGW, which are generated in the auroral region of the thermosphere by joule heating and momentum coupling due to solar wind induced electric fields [e.g., Mayr et al., Space Science Reviews, 1990]. The auroral source generates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116805"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based liver stiffness measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ling, Wenwu; Lu, Qiang; Quan, Jierong; Ma, Lin; Luo, Yan</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based ultrasound elastographies have been implemented as non-invasive methods for quantitative assessment of liver stiffness. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies that have investigated <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Moreover, standard examination protocols for LSM are still lacking in clinical practice. Our study aimed to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on LSM to establish its standard examination protocols in clinical practice. We applied shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in 21 healthy individuals to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of liver location (segments I-VIII), breathing phase (end-inspiration and end-expiration), probe position (sub-costal and inter-costal position) and examiner on LSM. Additional studies in 175 healthy individuals were also performed to determine the influence of gender and age on liver stiffness. We found significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> of liver location on LSM, while the liver segment V displayed the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 21%). The liver stiffness at the end-expiration was significantly higher than that at the end-inspiration (P=2.1E-05). The liver stiffness was 8% higher in men than in women (3.8 ± 0.7 kPa vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 kPa, P=0.0168). In contrast, the liver stiffness was comparable in the different probe positions, examiners and age groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> from liver location, breathing phase and gender on LSM, while furthermore strengthening the necessity for the development of standard examination protocols on LSM. PMID:23116805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band. PMID:27001206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623291H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623291H"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=Winds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWinds','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=Winds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWinds"><span id="translatedtitle">A Proton-Cyclotron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Storm Generated by Unstable Proton Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in the Solar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, R. T.; Alexander, R. L.; Stevens, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A.; Jian, L. K.; Roberts, D. A.; O’Modhrain, S.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We use audification of 0.092 seconds cadence magnetometer data from the Wind spacecraft to identify <span class="hlt">waves</span> with amplitudes greater than 0.1 nanoteslas near the ion gyrofrequency (approximately 0.1 hertz) with duration longer than 1 hour during 2008. We present one of the most common types of event for a case study and find it to be a proton-cyclotron <span class="hlt">wave</span> storm, coinciding with highly radial magnetic field and a suprathermal proton beam close in density to the core distribution itself. Using linear Vlasov analysis, we conclude that the long-duration, large-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by the instability of the proton distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The origin of the beam is unknown, but the radial field period is found in the trailing edge of a fast solar wind stream and resembles other events thought to be caused by magnetic field footpoint motion or interchange reconnection between coronal holes and closed field lines in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band. PMID:27001206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6f5307L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6f5307L"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapped orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> method applied to acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span>-based devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, J. E.; Yu, J. G.; Ratolojanahary, F. E.; Elmaimouni, L.; Xu, W. J.; Gryba, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This work presents the modelling of acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span>-based devices of various geometries through a mapped orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> method. A specificity of the method, namely the automatic incorporation of boundary conditions into equations of motion through position-dependent physical constants, is presented in detail. Formulations are given for two classes of problems: (i) problems with guided mode propagation and (ii) problems with stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The method's interest is demonstrated by several examples, a seven-layered plate, a 2D rectangular resonator and a 3D cylindrical resonator, showing how it is easy to obtain either dispersion curves and field profiles for devices with guided mode propagation or electrical response for devices with stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Extensions and possible further developments are also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...819....6W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...819....6W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Proton-cyclotron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Storm Generated by Unstable Proton Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in the Solar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, R. T.; Alexander, R. L.; Stevens, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Moya, P. S.; Viñas, A.; Jian, L. K.; Roberts, D. A.; O'Modhrain, S.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We use audification of 0.092 s cadence magnetometer data from the Wind spacecraft to identify <span class="hlt">waves</span> with amplitudes \\gt 0.1 nT near the ion gyrofrequency (˜0.1 Hz) with duration longer than 1 hr during 2008. We present one of the most common types of event for a case study and find it to be a proton-cyclotron <span class="hlt">wave</span> storm, coinciding with highly radial magnetic field and a suprathermal proton beam close in density to the core distribution itself. Using linear Vlasov analysis, we conclude that the long-duration, large-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by the instability of the proton distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The origin of the beam is unknown, but the radial field period is found in the trailing edge of a fast solar wind stream and resembles other events thought to be caused by magnetic field footpoint motion or interchange reconnection between coronal holes and closed field lines in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9641E..0LQ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9641E..0LQ"><span id="translatedtitle">Bumps of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> in non-Kolmogorov turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Chunhong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Haitao; Huang, Honghua; Fan, Chengyu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The analytical expressions for <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> of plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> are derived both in the viscous dissipation and inertial range. Due to previously research, there is a discrepancy between theoretical results and the experimental datum in viscous dissipation range. In this paper, only considering the inertial range, taking plane <span class="hlt">waves</span> for example, we give a comparison of results of WSF calculated by the analytical formula obtained in this paper and the numerical calculations of the definition at the fixed parameter (i.e., the generalized exponent α), it can be seen that the two results are in agreement with each other exactly. Based on non-Kolmogorov power spectrum, new characteristics for <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> (WSF) have been found for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> models when the different ratio of inner scale l0 and outer scale of turbulence L0 is obtained. In outer scale assumed finite case (i.e., L0 =1m), WSF obtains the maximum when α approximates to 3.3 both for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. In outer scale assumed infinite case (i.e., L0 = ∞), the WSF can be sorted into three parts, including two rapid-rising regions (i.e., 3.0 < α < 3.3 and 3.8 < α < 4.0 ) and one gently rising region (i.e., 3.3 < α < 3.8 ).Further, the changes of scaled WSF versus the ratio of separation distance and inner scale ( p/ l0 ) are investigated under mentioned above conditions for two models. In L0 = 1m case, both for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the value of α determines the bump position of WSF. In L0 = ∞ case, the bump of scaled WSF disappears when the generalized exponent has large values. The changings of scaled WSF monotonically increase as α increased when the generalized exponent is larger than11/3 for two models. Besides, the properties of spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> are similar to plane <span class="hlt">waves</span>, except which the values of WSF and the scaled WSF are smaller than plane ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a drastic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ≥ 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17538700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17538700"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of hemodialysis on P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitude, duration, and dispersion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drighil, Abdenasser; Madias, John E; El Mosalami, Hanane; El Badaoui, Nadia; Mouine, Bahija; Fadili, Wafae; Ramdani, Beenyouness; Bennis, Ahmed</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). P <span class="hlt">wave</span> duration (PWdu) and P <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion (PWdi) have been shown to be predictors of emerging AF in different clinical conditions. We sought to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HD on PWdu, PWdi, and P <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitude in a cohort of patients undergoing HD. Seventeen patients (8 men, 31+/-10 years) were studied. Echocardiography parameters, the sum of the amplitude of P <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all 12 ECG leads (SP), mean PWdu, and PWdi, along with a host of other parameters (body weight, heart rate, electrolytes and hemoglobin/hematochrit) were measured 1/2h, before and after, HD. SP increased (11.8+/-3.9 vs 15.3+/-4.0 mm, p = 0.004), mean PWdu remained stable (82.7+/-11.1 vs 81.6+/-10.5 ms, p = 0.606), PWdi decreased (51.7+/-19.1 vs 41.7+/-19.1 ms, p = 0.03), and left atrial dimension decreased (37.96+/-3.90 vs 30.62+/-3.38 mm, p = 0.0001), after HD. The change in PWdi correlated with fluid removed by HD (r = -0.55, p = 0.022). Re-measurements of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters in a random group of 11 of the 17 patients revealed augmented SP (p = 0.01), and stable mean PWdu (p = 0.36), and PWdi (p = 0.31), after HD. Fluid removed by HD leads to an increase in SP, a stable mean PWdu, and decrease (or stability on re-measurement in a subgroup of patients) in PWdi. Stability of PWdu may be due to the effects of augmentation of the P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitude and the reduction of the left atrial volume, cancelling each other. Variability of PWdi may stem from the occasional impossibility to measure PWdu (or measure it correctly) in minute P-<span class="hlt">waves</span> in certain ECG leads, which in turn profoundly affects the PWdi. PMID:17538700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49mLT02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49mLT02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Fully differential study of <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet scattering in ionization of helium by proton <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arthanayaka, T.; Lamichhane, B. R.; Hasan, A.; Gurung, S.; Remolina, J.; Borbély, S.; Járai-Szabó, F.; Nagy, L.; Schulz, M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a fully differential study of projectile coherence effects in ionization in p + He collisions. The experimental data are qualitatively reproduced by a non-perturbative ab initio time-dependent model, which treats the projectile coherence properties in terms of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet. A comparison between first- and higher-order treatments shows that the observed interference structures are primarily due to a coherent superposition of different <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameters leading to the same scattering angle. Higher-order contributions have a significant effect on the interference term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.162A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.162A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of the Chelyabinsk seismic surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> and comparative constraints on the generation of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> by atmospheric <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karakostas, F. G.; Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are a very important seismic source for planetary seismology, since their locations and, in some cases, their occurence times can be accurately known from orbiters, tracking or optical observations. Their importance becomes greater in the case of a seismic experiment with one seismometer, as the SEIS (Seismic Experiment of Interior Structure) of the future Martian mission "InSight", as the known location allows a direct inversion of differential travel times and <span class="hlt">wave</span> forms in terms of structure. Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> generate body and surface seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> when they reach the surface of a planet. But when they explode into the atmosphere, due to ablation, they generate shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which are converted into linear, seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the solid part and acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the atmosphere. This effect can be modeled when the amplitude of Rayleigh and other Spheroidal normal modes is made with the atmospheric/ground coupling effects. In this study, meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are modeled as seismic sources in a comparative analysis for the cases of Earth and Mars. Using the computed seismograms, calculated by the summation of the normal modes of the full planet (e.g. with atmosphere) the properties of the seismic source can be obtained. Its duration is typically associated to the radiation duration of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> until they reach the linear regime of propagation. These transition times are comparatively analyzed, for providing constraints on the seismic source duration on Earth and Mars. In the case of Earth, we test our approach with the Chelyabinsk superbolide. The computed seismograms are used in order to perform the inversion of the source, by comparison with the data of the Global Seismographic Network. The results are interpreted and compared with other observations. In the case of Mars, equivalent sources are similarly modeled in different atmospheric, <span class="hlt">impact</span> size and lithospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..426L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..426L"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial reef effect and fouling <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on offshore <span class="hlt">wave</span> power foundations and buoys - a pilot study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langhamer, Olivia; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Engström, Jens</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and further research could assist in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. While biofouling on marine energy conversion devices on one hand has the potential to be an engineering concern, these structures can also affect biodiversity by <span class="hlt">functioning</span> as artificial reefs. The Lysekil Project is a test park for <span class="hlt">wave</span> power located at the Swedish west coast. Here, buoys acting as point absorbers on the surface are connected to generators anchored on concrete foundations on the seabed. In this study we investigated the colonisation of foundations by invertebrates and fish, as well as fouling assemblages on buoys. We examined the influence of surface orientation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> power foundations on epibenthic colonisation, and made observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans during three years of submergence. We also examined fouling assemblages on buoys and calculated the effects of biofouling on the energy absorption of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> power buoys. On foundations we demonstrated a succession in colonisation over time with a higher degree of coverage on vertical surfaces. Buoys were dominated by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Calculations indicated that biofouling have no significant effect in the energy absorption on a buoy working as a point absorber. This study is the first structured investigation on marine organisms associated with <span class="hlt">wave</span> power devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712"><span id="translatedtitle">Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AL-Robayi, Enas M.</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering <span class="hlt">function</span>, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3361177','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3361177"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessments of Arterial Stiffness and Endothelial <span class="hlt">Function</span> Using Pulse <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stoner, Lee; Young, Joanna M.; Fryer, Simon</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Conventionally, the assessments of endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span> and arterial stiffness require different sets of equipment, making the inclusion of both tests impractical for clinical and epidemiological studies. Pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> analysis (PWA) provides useful information regarding the mechanical properties of the arterial tree and can also be used to assess endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span>. PWA is a simple, valid, reliable, and inexpensive technique, offering great clinical and epidemiological potential. The current paper will outline how to measure arterial stiffness and endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span> using this technique and include discussion of validity and reliability. PMID:22666595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoPhC.181.2098P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoPhC.181.2098P"><span id="translatedtitle">An accurate Fortran code for computing hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at a wide range of parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> in plasma sheet boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p>The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JDE...259.4799K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JDE...259.4799K"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evans-<span class="hlt">function</span> approach to spectral stability of internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stratified fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klaiber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Frequently encountered in nature, internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in stratified fluids have been investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Mathematically, these <span class="hlt">waves</span> are exact solutions of the incompressible 2D Euler equations. Contrasting with a rich existence theory and the development of methods for their computation, their stability analysis has hardly received attention at a rigorous mathematical level. This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation of stability of internal solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a continuously stratified fluid and carries out the following four steps of this approach: (I) to formulate the eigenvalue problem as an infinite-dimensional spatial-dynamical system, (II) to introduce finite-dimensional truncations of the spatial-dynamics description, (III) to demonstrate that each truncation, of any order, permits a well-defined Evans <span class="hlt">function</span>, (IV) to prove absence of small zeros of the Evans <span class="hlt">function</span> in the small-amplitude limit. The latter notably implies the low-frequency spectral stability of small-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> to arbitrarily high truncation order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathways and <span class="hlt">functions</span> of gut microbiota metabolism <span class="hlt">impacting</span> host physiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Smitha; Alden, Nicholas; Lee, Kyongbum</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The bacterial populations in the human intestine <span class="hlt">impact</span> host physiological <span class="hlt">functions</span> through their metabolic activity. In addition to performing essential catabolic and biotransformation <span class="hlt">functions</span>, the gut microbiota produces bioactive small molecules that mediate interactions with the host and contribute to the neurohumoral axes connecting the intestine with other parts of the body. This review discusses recent progress in characterizing the metabolic products of the gut microbiota and their biological <span class="hlt">functions</span>, focusing on studies that investigate the responsible bacterial pathways and cognate host receptors. Several key areas are highlighted for future development: context-based analysis targeting pathways; integration of analytical approaches; metabolic modeling; and synthetic systems for in vivo manipulation of microbiota <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Prospectively, these developments could further our mechanistic understanding of host-microbiota interactions. PMID:26340103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21164674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21164674"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of cost <span class="hlt">functions</span> on inverse lithography patterning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jue-Chin; Yu, Peichen</p> <p>2010-10-25</p> <p>For advanced CMOS processes, inverse lithography promises better patterning fidelity than conventional mask correction techniques due to a more complete exploration of the solution space. However, the success of inverse lithography relies highly on customized cost <span class="hlt">functions</span> whose design and know-how have rarely been discussed. In this paper, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various objective <span class="hlt">functions</span> and their superposition for inverse lithography patterning using a generic gradient descent approach. We investigate the most commonly used objective <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which are the resist and aerial images, and also present a derivation for the aerial image contrast. We then discuss the resulting pattern fidelity and final mask characteristics for simple layouts with a single isolated contact and two nested contacts. We show that a cost <span class="hlt">function</span> composed of a dominant resist-image component and a minor aerial-image or image-contrast component can achieve a good mask correction and contour targets when using inverse lithography patterning. PMID:21164674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> monitoring in soil using a dynamic fiber sensor based on stimulated brillouin scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525....1K"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of dam-break induced shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a vertical wall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kocaman, Selahattin; Ozmen-Cagatay, Hatice</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In the present study, experimental tests and VOF-based CFD simulations concerning <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dam-break induced shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> on a vertical wall at downstream end were investigated. New laboratory experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume with a smooth horizontal wet bed for two different tailwater levels. Image processing was used for flow measurement and time evolutions of water levels were determined effectively by means of synchronous recorded video images of the flow. This study scrutinized formation and travelling of negative <span class="hlt">wave</span> towards upstream direction, which was resulted from the reflection of flood <span class="hlt">wave</span> against downstream end wall. In numerical simulation, two distinct approaches available in FLOW-3D were used: Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) with the k-ε turbulence model and the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs). The measured results were then compared with those of numerical simulations and reasonable agreements were achieved. General agreement between laboratory measurements and RANS solution was better than that of SWE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of current-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Lin, Huichan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Hurricane Bob moved up the U.S. east coast and crossed over southern New England and the Gulf of Maine [with peak marine winds up to 54 m/s (100 mph)] on 19-20 August 1991, causing significant damage along the coast and shelf. A 3-D fully <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current-coupled finite-volume community ocean model system was developed and applied to simulate and examine the coastal ocean responses to Hurricane Bob. Results from process study-oriented experiments showed that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction on surge elevation varied in space and time, more significant over the shelf than inside the inner bays. While sea level change along the coast was mainly driven by the water flux controlled by barotropic dynamics and the vertically integrated highest water transports were essentially the same for cases with and without water stratification, the hurricane-induced <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction could generate strong vertical current shear in the stratified areas, leading to a strong offshore transport near the bottom and vertical turbulent mixing over the continental shelf. Stratification could also result in a significant difference of water currents around islands where the water is not vertically well mixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.200.1317B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.200.1317B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of water saturation on seismoelectric transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>: a laboratory study of coseismic phenomenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bordes, C.; Sénéchal, P.; Barrière, J.; Brito, D.; Normandin, E.; Jougnot, D.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in a porous medium, under favourable conditions, generate measurable electromagnetic fields due to electrokinetic effects. It has been proposed, following experimental and numerical studies, that these so-called `seismoelectromagnetic' couplings depend on pore fluid properties. The theoretical frame describing these phenomena are based on the original Biot's theory, assuming that pores are fluid-filled. We study here the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a partially saturated medium on amplitudes of those seismoelectric couplings by comparing experimental data to an effective fluid model. We have built a 1-m-length-scale experiment designed for imbibition and drainage of an homogeneous silica sand; the experimental set-up includes a seismic source, accelerometers, electric dipoles and capacitance probes in order to monitor seismic and seismoelectric fields during water saturation. Apparent velocities and frequency spectra (in the kiloHertz range) are derived from seismic and electrical measurements during experiments in varying saturation conditions. Amplitudes of seismic and seismoelectric <span class="hlt">waves</span> and their ratios (i.e. transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>) are discussed using a spectral analysis performed by continuous wavelet transform. The experiments reveal that amplitude ratios of seismic to coseismic electric signals remain rather constant as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the water saturation in the Sw = [0.2-0.9] range, consistently with theoretically predicted transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) as a Tool for Simulating Gravity <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Phenomena in the Mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, H.; Mayr, H.; Moore, J.; Wilson, S.; Armaly, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) is semi-analytical and linear, and it is designed to describe the acoustic gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GW) propagating over the globe and from the ground to 600 km under the influence of vertical temperature variations. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> interactions with the flow are not accounted for. With an expansion in terms of frequency-dependent spherical harmonics, the time consuming vertical integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> (TF). (The applied lower and upper boundary conditions assure that spurious <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections will not occur.) The TF describes the dynamical properties of the medium divorced from the complexities of the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source is then obtained in short order to simulate the GW propagating through the atmosphere over the globe. In the past, this model has been applied to study auroral processes, which produce distinct <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena such as: (1) standing lamb modes that propagate horizontally in the viscous medium of the thermosphere, (2) <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated in the auroral oval that experience geometric amplification propagating to the pole where constructive interference generates secondary <span class="hlt">waves</span> that propagate equatorward, (3) ducted modes propagating through the middle atmosphere that leak back into the thermosphere, and (4) GWs reflected from the Earth's surface that reach the thermosphere in a narrow propagation cone. Well-defined spectral features characterize these <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes in the TF to provide analytical understanding. We propose the TFM as a tool for simulating GW in the mesosphere and in particular the features observed in Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). With present-day computers, it takes less than one hour to compute the TF, so that there is virtually no practical limitation on the source configurations that can be applied and tested in the lower atmosphere. And there is no limitation on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717754"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment of electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pyper, N. C.; Kampp, Marco; Whelan, Colm T.</p> <p>2005-05-15</p> <p>The symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment of electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization are investigated. It is shown that the square modulus of the scattering matrix element in which the spin states of all four electrons are determined is not invariant under the reversal of the direction of alignment of all spins. The largest of two contributions to this noninvariance originates from the relativistic modifications of the continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> induced by the distorting potential of the target atom. A second smaller contribution is manifested on reducing the eight-dimensional matrix elements of the QED covariant propagator to purely spatial two-electron integrals. The triple differential cross section (TDCS) exhibits a spin asymmetry unless the entire scattering process occurs in a single plane. There will be a difference in the TDCS between an (e,2e) event in which the initial beam is polarized parallel or antiparallel with respect to the beam direction even if the target is unpolarized and the final spin states are not determined. The TDCS will remain unchanged if, in addition to reversal of the direction of spin alignment, one appropriate momentum component of one of the two outgoing electrons is reversed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.8687I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.8687I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of nonlinear <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the dissipation of internal tidal energy at a shelf break</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inall, Mark E.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Sherwin, Toby J.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>The vertical and temporal structure of the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy within the internal tide at a location 5 km shoreward of the shelf break on the Malin Shelf has been determined using a combination of the free-falling light yo-yo profiler and acoustic doppler current profilers. Two distinct internal <span class="hlt">wave</span> regimes were encountered: period I in which large-amplitude high-frequency nonlinear internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> (NIWs) occurred (around neap tides) and period II in which the internal <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectral continuum was not dominated by any particular frequency band (around spring tides). Empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis shows that for the low-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span>, 76% of the variance was described by mode 1, rising to 95% for the high-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span>. During period I the dissipation and vertical mixing were characterized by the NIWs, and 70% of the dissipation occurred in the bottom boundary layer. During period II the depth-integrated dissipation was more evenly distributed throughout the tidal cycle, whereas vertical mixing was greatly enhanced during a single hour long episode of elevated thermocline dissipation coincident with weakened stratification. During both periods I and II ˜30% of the total measured dissipation occurred within the thermocline when averaged over 12.4 hours; the remainder occurred within the bottom boundary layer(BBL). Tidal average values for depth-integrated dissipation and vertical eddy diffusivity for period I (II) were 1.1×10-2 W m-2 (4.0×10-2 W m-2) and 5 cm2 s-1 (12 cm2 s-1), respectively. Decay rates and internal damping are discussed, and vertical heat fluxes are estimated. Observed dissipation rates are compared with a simple model for BBL dissipation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.HV008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.HV008C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ex vivo Characterization of Blast <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Spinal Cord Tissue Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jun; Gao, Jian; Connell, Sean; Shi, Riyi</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Primary blast injury on central nervous system is responsible for many of the war related casualties and mortalities. An ex vivo model system is developed to introduce a blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>, generated from a shock tube, directly to spinal cord tissue sample. A high-speed shadowgraph system is utilized to visualize the development of the blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its interaction with tissue sample. Surface deformation of the tissue sample is also measured for the analysis of internal stress and possible injury occurred within the tissue sample. Understanding the temporal development of the blast-tissue interaction provides valuable input for modeling blast-induced neurotrauma. Tracking the sample surface deformation as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of time provides realistic boundary conditions for numerical simulation of injury process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JChPh.113..676P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JChPh.113..676P"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple model potential and model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patil, S. H.; Tang, K. T.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>A simple model potential is proposed to describe the interaction of a valence electron with the alkali core, which incorporates the correct asymptotic behavior in terms of dipolar polarizabilities, and the short-range exchange effects in terms of a hard core adjusted to give the correct energy for the valence electron. Based on this potential, simple <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are developed to describe the (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> exhibit some important structures of the ions, and provide a universal description of the properties of all (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions, in particular, the equilibrium separations of the nuclei and the corresponding dissociation energies. They also allow us to calculate the dipolar polarizabilities of Li2+, Na2+, K2+, Rb2+, and Cs2+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state—i.e., the Loschmidt echo—vanishes at critical times {t*}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state-i.e., the Loschmidt echo-vanishes at critical times {t^{*}}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations. PMID:27588874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20955433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20955433"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy and Exact Matrix-Product Representation of the Laughlin <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Iblisdir, S.; Latorre, J. I.; Orus, R.</p> <p>2007-02-09</p> <p>An analytical expression for the von Neumann entropy of the Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is obtained for any possible bipartition between the particles described by this <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, for a filling fraction {nu}=1. Also, for a filling fraction {nu}=1/m, where m is an odd integer, an upper bound on this entropy is exhibited. These results yield a bound on the smallest possible size of the matrices for an exact representation of the Laughlin ansatz in terms of a matrix-product state. An analytical matrix-product state representation of this state is proposed in terms of representations of the Clifford algebra. For {nu}=1, this representation is shown to be asymptotically optimal in the limit of a large number of particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358918"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy and exact matrix-product representation of the Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iblisdir, S; Latorre, J I; Orús, R</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>An analytical expression for the von Neumann entropy of the Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is obtained for any possible bipartition between the particles described by this <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, for a filling fraction nu=1. Also, for a filling fraction nu=1/m, where m is an odd integer, an upper bound on this entropy is exhibited. These results yield a bound on the smallest possible size of the matrices for an exact representation of the Laughlin ansatz in terms of a matrix-product state. An analytical matrix-product state representation of this state is proposed in terms of representations of the Clifford algebra. For nu=1, this representation is shown to be asymptotically optimal in the limit of a large number of particles. PMID:17358918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18c3025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18c3025H"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models with a classically driven mechanical oscillator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ho, Melvyn; Lafont, Ambroise; Sangouard, Nicolas; Sekatski, Pavel</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We show that the interaction of a pulsed laser light with a mechanical oscillator through the radiation pressure results in an opto-mechanical entangled state in which the photon number is correlated with the oscillator position. Interestingly, the mechanical oscillator can be delocalized over a large range of positions when driven by an intense laser light. This provides a simple yet sensitive method to probe hypothetical post-quantum theories including an explicit <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse model, like the Diosi & Penrose model. We propose an entanglement witness to reveal the quantum nature of this opto-mechanical state as well as an optical technique to record the decoherence of the mechanical oscillator. We also report on a detailed feasibility study giving the experimental challenges that need to be overcome in order to confirm or rule out predictions from explicit <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJA...51...39A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJA...51...39A"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as a probe of a two-color baryonic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amato, Alessandro; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The properties of the ground state of two-color QCD at non-zero baryon chemical potential μ present an interesting problem in strongly interacting gauge theory; in particular the nature of the physically relevant degrees of freedom in the superfluid phase in the post-onset regime μ > m π /2 still needs clarification. In this study we present evidence for in-medium effects at high μ by studying the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of mesonic and diquark states using orthodox lattice simulation techniques, made possible by the absence of a sign problem for the model with N f = 2. Our results show that beyond onset the spatial extent of hadrons decreases as μ grows, and that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> profiles are consistent with the existence of a dynamically gapped Fermi surface in this regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423683"><span id="translatedtitle">Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in random media: a spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> in the frequency-wavenumber domain (ω, p), also known as the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span>, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:22423683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860043880&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860043880&hterms=modulation+transfer+function&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodulation%2Btransfer%2Bfunction"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JChPh.123t4109B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JChPh.123t4109B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of nodal structures and the construction of trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bressanini, Dario; Morosi, Gabriele; Tarasco, Silvia</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The factors influencing the quality of the nodal surfaces, namely, the atomic basis set, the single-particle orbitals, and the configurations included in the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> expansion, are examined for a few atomic and molecular systems. The following empirical rules are found: the atomic basis set must be fairly large, complete active space and natural orbitals are usually better than Hartree-Fock orbitals, multiconfiguration expansions perform better than single-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, but only few configurations are effective and their choice is suggested by symmetry considerations, while too long determinantal expansions spoil the nodal surfaces. These rules allow us to reduce the nodal error and to compute the best fixed node-diffusion Monte Carlo energies for a series of dimers of first-row atoms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138"><span id="translatedtitle">Perturbations in vibrational diatomic spectra: Factorization of the molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, R.</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>The coupling between two electronic states of a diatomic molecule may lead to an erratic behaviour of the associated vibrational energies. An example is the homogeneous coupling between the valence b′ state and the Rydberg c′ state of the N{sub 2} molecule, both of symmetry {sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}. The standard treatment of such a situation is to write the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum of two Born-Oppenheimer products. It has recently been argued [L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 224110 (2013); N. I. Gidopoulos and E. K. U. Gross, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372, 20130059 (2014)] that even in such a case the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> should be representable as a single product, with an electronic factor depending parametrically on nuclear positions and a nuclear factor. We setup such a representation in the case of the perturbations in the N{sub 2} molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33f5003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33f5003G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in 2D causal set quantum gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaser, Lisa; Surya, Sumati</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We define the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for causal set theory (CST) over the discrete analogs of spacelike hypersurfaces. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and numerical integration methods we analyze the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in non-perturbative 2D CST. We find that in the low-temperature regime it is dominated by causal sets which have no continuum counterparts but possess physically interesting geometric properties. Not only do they exhibit a rapid spatial expansion with respect to the discrete proper time, but a high degree of spatial homogeneity. The latter is due to the extensive overlap of the causal pasts of the elements in the final discrete hypersurface and corresponds to high graph connectivity. Our results thus suggest new possibilities for the role of quantum gravity in the observable Universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49n5003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49n5003S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-configurational explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the study of confined many electron atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarsa, A.; Buendía, E.; Gálvez, F. J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to study confined atoms under impenetrable spherical walls have been obtained. Configuration mixing and a correlation factor are included in the variational ansatz. The behaviors of the ground state and some low-lying excited states of He, Be, B and C atoms with the confinement size are analyzed. Level crossing with confinement is found for some cases. This effect is analyzed in terms of the single particle energy of the occupied orbitals. The multi-configuration parameterized optimized effective potential method is employed with a cut-off factor to account for Dirichlet boundary conditions. The variational Monte Carlo method is used to deal with explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995405"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of shallow Li and Na donors in ZnO nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Orlinskii, Serguei B; Schmidt, Jan; Baranov, Pavel G; Hofmann, Detlev M; de Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, Andries</p> <p>2004-01-30</p> <p>Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments on ZnO nanoparticles reveal the presence of shallow donors related to interstitial Li and Na atoms. The shallow character of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is evidenced by the multitude of 67Zn ENDOR lines and further by the hyperfine interactions with the 7Li and 23Na nuclei that are much smaller than for atomic lithium and sodium. In the case of the Li-doped nanoparticles, an increase of the hyperfine interaction with the 7Li nucleus and with the 1H nuclei in the Zn(OH)(2) capping layer is observed when reducing the size of the nanoparticles. This effect is caused by the confinement of the shallow-donor 1s-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has a Bohr radius of about 1.5 nm, i.e., comparable to the dimension of the nanoparticles. PMID:14995405</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92d7603O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92d7603O"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of Shallow Li and Na Donors in ZnO Nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orlinskii, Serguei B.; Schmidt, Jan; Baranov, Pavel G.; Hofmann, Detlev M.; de Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, Andries</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments on ZnO nanoparticles reveal the presence of shallow donors related to interstitial Li and Na atoms. The shallow character of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is evidenced by the multitude of 67Zn ENDOR lines and further by the hyperfine interactions with the 7Li and 23Na nuclei that are much smaller than for atomic lithium and sodium. In the case of the Li-doped nanoparticles, an increase of the hyperfine interaction with the 7Li nucleus and with the 1H nuclei in the Zn(OH)2 capping layer is observed when reducing the size of the nanoparticles. This effect is caused by the confinement of the shallow-donor 1s-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that has a Bohr radius of about 1.5nm, i.e., comparable to the dimension of the nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984940"><span id="translatedtitle">Donor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> delocalization in silicon nanowires: the peculiar [011] orientation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petretto, Guido; Debernardi, Alberto; Fanciulli, Marco</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The localization of the donor electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be of key importance in various silicon applications, since for example it determines the interactions between neighboring donors. Interestingly, the physical confinement of the electrons in quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures, like silicon nanowires, noticeably affects this property. Using fully ab initio calculations, we show that the delocalization of the donor electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> along the axis of a nanowire is much greater in [011] oriented nanowires for phosphorus and selenium donors. We also demonstrate that its value can be controlled by applying a compressive or tensile uniaxial strain. Finally, we discuss the implications of these features from both an experimental and a theoretical point of view. PMID:23984940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors. PMID:11461411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARP20008C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARP20008C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Auxiliary-field based trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chia-Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda; Morales, Miguel</p> <p></p> <p>We propose a simple scheme for generating correlated multi-determinant trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quantum Monte Carlo algorithms. The method is based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation which decouples a two-body Jastrow-type correlator into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields. We apply the technique to generate stochastic representations of the Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and present benchmark resuts for the ground state energy of the Hubbard model in one dimension. Extensions of the proposed scheme to chemical systems will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, 15-ERD-013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9676M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9676M"><span id="translatedtitle">On the dependence of storm time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power on magnetopause location: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> for ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murphy, Kyle R.; Mann, Ian R.; Sibeck, David G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Ultralow frequency (ULF) <span class="hlt">waves</span> play a crucial role in energetic particle dynamics in the inner magnetosphere. We examine the role of the magnetopause location in controlling the amplitude and penetration of ULF <span class="hlt">waves</span> within the inner magnetosphere during 63 coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven and corotating interaction region (CIR)-driven geomagnetic storms. Significantly, at the time when the magnetopause is most compressed, ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power increases and penetrates to the deepest L shells. Most likely this is explained by proximity to the energy source and accumulation of energy within a smaller volume through solar wind-magnetopause-magnetosphere coupling, and changes in the storm time Alfvén continuum resulting from variations in the cold plasma density. The observed ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power is consistently larger than Kp-dependent statistical estimates—especially in the heart of the outer radiation belt. This has important implications for radiation belt dynamics, including main phase loss and storm time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..855Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..855Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Floating potential perturbations due to micrometeoroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: Theory and application to S/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaslavsky, A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In situ observation of dust grains from various origins is routinely performed by space missions equipped with radio instruments. These measurements consist in observations of voltage pulses or their spectral signature. It has for long been proposed that one of the mechanisms able to produce these pulses is the collection by the spacecraft of electric charges generated by <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization. Here for the first time, a complete theoretical model of how pulses are generated by charge collection is proposed. In the solar wind at 1 AU, the pulses are shown to be shaped by local plasma and photoelectron parameters. However, the situation can be different in hotter or denser plasma environments. We use the data provided by the STEREO/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span> (S/<span class="hlt">WAVES</span>) radio instrument onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft to validate our model. We find that the observations indeed strongly support the theory. The proposed model is an important step forward, since it makes it possible to reproduce the shape, timescales, and amplitudes of pulses generated by dust <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in various space environments. Such a model can be used to infer the dust detection abilities of radio instruments onboard different spacecraft and can help the design of dust detection optimized radio instruments for future missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014346&hterms=calculation+vector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bvector','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014346&hterms=calculation+vector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bvector"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiclassical Study of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Vector Dependence of the Interband <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Ionization Rate in Bulk Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yang; Brennan, Kevin F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We present calculations of the interband <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rate calculated using a <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector dependent (k-dependent) semiclassical formulation of the transition rate. The transition rate is determined using Fermi's golden rule from a two-body screened Coulomb interaction assuming energy and momentum conservation. The transition rate is calculated for the first two conduction bands of silicon by numerically integrating over the full Brillouin zone. The overlap integrals in the expression for the transition rate are determined numerically using a 15 band k-p calculation. It is found that the transition rate depends strongly on the initiating electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector (k vector) and that the transition rate is greatest for electrons originating within the second conduction band than the first conduction band. An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, which includes the numerically determined ionization transition rate as well as the full details of the first two conduction bands, is used to calculate the total <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rate in bulk silicon. Good agreement with the experimentally determined electron ionization rate data is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H"><span id="translatedtitle">Catastrophic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of typhoon <span class="hlt">waves</span> on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Typhoon-generated storm <span class="hlt">waves</span> generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> height,H = 20 m; <span class="hlt">wave</span> period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely <span class="hlt">impacted</span>. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Slow <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Sleep with Sodium Oxybate Reduces the Behavioral and Physiological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sleep Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walsh, James K.; Hall-Porter, Janine M.; Griffin, Kara S.; Dodson, Ehren R.; Forst, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Denise T.; Eisenstein, Rhody D.; Schweitzer, Paula K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Study Objectives: To investigate whether enhancement of slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep (SWS) with sodium oxybate reduces the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep deprivation. Design: Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled design Setting: Sleep research laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight healthy adults (28 placebo, 30 sodium oxybate), ages 18-50 years. Interventions: A 5-day protocol included 2 screening/baseline nights and days, 2 sleep deprivation nights, each followed by a 3-h daytime (08:00-11:00) sleep opportunity and a recovery night. Sodium oxybate or placebo was administered prior to each daytime sleep period. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and Profile of Mood States were administered during waking hours. Measurements and Results: During daytime sleep, the sodium oxybate group had more SWS, more EEG spectral power in the 1-9 Hz range, and less REM. Mean MSLT latency was longer for the sodium oxybate group on the night following the first daytime sleep period and on the day following the second day sleep period. Median PVT reaction time was faster in the sodium oxybate group following the second day sleep period. The change from baseline in SWS was positively correlated with the change in MSLT and KSS. During recovery sleep the sodium oxybate group had less TST, SWS, REM, and slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity (SWA) than the placebo group. Conclusions: Pharmacological enhancement of SWS with sodium oxybate resulted in a reduced response to sleep loss on measures of alertness and attention. In addition, SWS enhancement during sleep restriction appears to result in a reduced homeostatic response to sleep loss. Citation: Walsh JK; Hall-Porter JM; Griffin KS; Dodson ER; Forst EH; Curry DT; Eisenstein RD; Schweitzer PK. Enhancing slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep with sodium oxybate reduces the behavioral and physiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep loss. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1217-1225. PMID:20857869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415"><span id="translatedtitle">Short range structure of hadron and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at high x</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoyer, P.; Brodsky, S.J.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>We discuss the short-range structure of hadronic and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> expected in QCD. In addition to the extrinsic'' contributions associated with radiation from single partons, there is an intrinsic'' hardness of the high-mass fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> due to the spatial overlap of two or more partons. We argue that intrinsically-hard partons, having large mass and/or large transverse momentum, will dominate in the region of large Feynman x{sub F}. Their rescattering in nuclear targets is expected to be larger than for extrinsically-hard partons, leading to a suppressed production cross section for hadrons scattering on heavy nuclei. Experimental evidence for this exists for open chars. J/{psi}, and {gamma} production at large x{sub F}. The effects of intrinsic hardness may be particularly striking in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, where the overlap of partons belonging to different nucleons can give rise to cumulative (x > 1) phenomena. The data on backward cumulative particle production from nuclei supports the existence of an intrinsically-hard component in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Partons at large x{sub F} may also be associated with the enhanced subthreshold production of particles observed in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We discuss the evidence for anomalies in the large angle pp {yields} pp cross section near the charm threshold. Arguments are presented that chromium states may bind to nuclei through the QCD Van der Waals force. This would lead to a striking signal in charm production near threshold. 49 refs., 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7041681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7041681"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum statistical foundation to the Fermi liquid model and Ginzburg-Landau <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, S. )</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>An energy eigenvalue equation for a quasi-particle is derived, starting with the Heisenberg equation of motion for an annihilation operator. An elementary derivation of the Fermi liquid model having a sharply defined Fermi surface in the k-space is given, starting with a realistic model of a metal including the Coulomb interaction among and between electrons and lattice-ions. The Ginzburg-Landau <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> [Psi][sub [sigma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.189..481S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.189..481S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of pore space topology on permeability, cut-off frequencies and validity of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarout, Joël.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>For the first time, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the domains of validity of popular <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation theories for porous/cracked media is provided. The case of a simple, yet versatile rock microstructure is detailed. The microstructural parameters controlling the applicability of the scattering theories, the effective medium theories, the quasi-static (Gassmann limit) and dynamic (inertial) poroelasticity are analysed in terms of pores/cracks characteristic size, geometry and connectivity. To this end, a new permeability model is devised combining the hydraulic radius and percolation concepts. The predictions of this model are compared to published micromechanical models of permeability for the limiting cases of capillary tubes and penny-shaped cracks. It is also compared to published experimental data on natural rocks in these limiting cases. It explicitly accounts for pore space topology around the percolation threshold and far above it. Thanks to this permeability model, the scattering, squirt-flow and Biot cut-off frequencies are quantitatively compared. This comparison leads to an explicit mapping of the domains of validity of these <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation theories as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the rock's actual microstructure. How this mapping <span class="hlt">impacts</span> seismic, geophysical and ultrasonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity data interpretation is discussed. The methodology demonstrated here and the outcomes of this analysis are meant to constitute a quantitative guide for the selection of the most suitable modelling strategy to be employed for prediction and/or interpretation of rocks elastic properties in laboratory-or field-scale applications when information regarding the rock's microstructure is available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27375274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27375274"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Organismal Innovation on <span class="hlt">Functional</span> and Ecological Diversification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wainwright, Peter C; Price, Samantha A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Innovations in organismal <span class="hlt">functional</span> morphology are thought to be a major force in shaping evolutionary patterns, with the potential to drive adaptive radiation and influence the evolutionary prospects for lineages. But the evolutionary consequences of innovation are diverse and usually do not result in adaptive radiation. What factors shape the macroevolutionary <span class="hlt">impact</span> of innovations? We assert that little is known in general about the macroevolutionary outcomes associated with <span class="hlt">functional</span> innovations and we discuss a framework for studying biological innovations in an evolutionary context. Innovations are novel <span class="hlt">functional</span> mechanisms that enhance organismal performance. The ubiquity of trade-offs in <span class="hlt">functional</span> systems means that enhanced performance on one axis often occurs at the expense of performance on another axis, such that many innovations result in an exchange of performance capabilities, rather than an expansion. Innovations may open up new resources for exploitation but their consequences for <span class="hlt">functional</span> and ecological diversification depend heavily on the adaptive landscape around these novel resources. As an example of a broader program that we imagine, we survey five feeding innovations in labrid fishes, an exceptionally successful and ecologically diverse group of reef fishes, and explore their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the rate of evolution of jaw <span class="hlt">functional</span> morphology. All of the innovations provide performance enhancements and result in changes in patterns of resource use, but most are not associated with subsequent <span class="hlt">functional</span> diversification or substantial ecological diversification. Because selection acts on a specific performance enhancement and not on the evolutionary potential of an innovation, the enhancement of diversity may be highly serendipitous. The macroevolutionary potential of innovations depends critically on the interaction between the performance enhancement and the ecological opportunity that is exposed. PMID:27375274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694"><span id="translatedtitle">Working With the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized <span class="hlt">function</span> (GF) theory to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing <span class="hlt">functions</span> as continuous linear <span class="hlt">functionals</span>. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C"><span id="translatedtitle">Many-body Localization Transition in Rokhsar-Kivelson-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xiao; Yu, Xiongjie; Cho, Gil Young; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo</p> <p></p> <p>We construct a family of many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to study the many-body localization phase transition. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have a Rokhsar-Kivelson form, in which the weight for the configurations are chosen from the Gibbs weights of a classical spin glass model, known as the Random Energy Model, multiplied by a random sign structure to represent a highly excited state. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> show a phase transition into an MBL phase. In addition, we see three regimes of entanglement scaling with subsystem size: scaling with entanglement corresponding to an infinite temperature thermal phase, constant scaling, and a sub-extensive scaling between these limits. Near the phase transition point, the fluctuations of the Renyi entropies are non-Gaussian. We find that Renyi entropies with different Renyi index transition into the MBL phase at different points and have different scaling behavior, suggesting a multifractal behavior. This work was supported in part by DMR-1064319 and DMR-1408713 (XC,GYC,EF) at the University of Illinois, PHY11-25915 at KITP (EF), DOE, SciDAC FG02-12ER46875 (BKC and XY), and the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government (GYC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84t5308B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84t5308B"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting the density profile of an electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in a quantum dot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyd, Erin E.; Westervelt, Robert M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We use a model of a one-dimensional nanowire quantum dot to demonstrate the feasibility of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) imaging technique that can extract both the energy of an electron state and the amplitude of its <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using a single instrument. This imaging technique can probe electrons that are buried beneath the surface of a low-dimensional semiconductor structure and provide valuable information for the design of quantum devices. A conducting SPM tip, acting as a movable gate, measures the energy of an electron state using Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. When the tip is close to the nanowire dot, it dents the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> Ψ(x) of the quantum state, changing the electron's energy by an amount proportional to |Ψ(x)|2. By recording the change in energy as the SPM tip is moved along the length of the dot, the density profile of the electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be found along the length of the quantum dot.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of complex and spinor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nottale, Laurent; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>One of the main results of scale relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The scale relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, from which the usual expression of the Schrödinger equation can be derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARV21013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARV21013P"><span id="translatedtitle">Bond Breaking of Simple Molecules in Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo with GVB <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purwanto, Wirawan; Krakauer, Henry; Zhang, Shiwei; Al-Saidi, Wissam</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Accurate potential energy curves are an essential ingredient in understanding chemical reactions. This problem spans a wide range of correlations, with correlation effects being the most important in the bond-breaking regime. We report potential energy curves of simple molecules, including water and the carbon dimer, within the framework of the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method. AFQMC projects the many-body ground-state from a trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, which is also used to control the sign/phase problem. A previous calculation showed that AFQMC could provide a fairly uniform description of the bond stretching of a water molecule, even with a simple unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We investigate the use of Generalized Valence Bond (GVB). GVB gives a better description of the molecule than UHF; so it is a simple yet efficient alternative to using a single Slater determinant trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We will compare AFQMC results with other correlated methods and the exact configuration interaction calculations. Al-Saidi, Zhang, Krakauer, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224101 (2006)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal-ligand delocalization and spin density in the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} molecules: Some insights from <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giner, Emmanuel Angeli, Celestino</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to unravel the physical phenomena involved in the calculation of the spin density of the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} systems using <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods. Various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used here, both variational and perturbative, to analyse the effects <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the spin density. It is found that the spin density on the chlorine ligands strongly depends on the mixing between two types of valence bond structures. It is demonstrated that the main difficulties found in most of the previous studies based on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods come from the fact that each valence bond structure requires a different set of molecular orbitals and that using a unique set of molecular orbitals in a variational procedure leads to the removal of one of them from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Starting from these results, a method to compute the spin density at a reasonable computational cost is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Neurocognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Continuous Positive Air Pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davies, Charles R; Harrington, John J</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There is evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> attention, memory, learning, executive <span class="hlt">function</span>, and overall intellectual <span class="hlt">function</span> in adults and children. Imaging techniques, including MRI, MR diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and fMRI, have provided additional insight into the anatomic and <span class="hlt">functional</span> underpinnings of OSA-related cognitive impairment. Both animal and human studies have looked to elucidate the separate effects of oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation on independent aspects of cognition. Data from animal models point to neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress as driving factors of cognitive impairment. PMID:27542875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in <span class="hlt">functional</span> toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems. PMID:25828059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMOS42A..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMOS42A..04R"><span id="translatedtitle">Current state of acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation modelling and its use in the estimation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on marine mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Racca, R.; Hannay, D.; Carr, S.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Underwater acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation modelling has matured into a sophisticated and reliable forecasting tool for predicting the acoustic noise footprints of geophysical exploration activities. Computational methods such as Parabolic Equation solutions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can account for all aspects of acoustic propagation including diffraction, mode stripping, and compressional and shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> transmission in the seabed substrate. Given sufficient knowledge of the acousto-physical properties of the water column and the seabed, it is possible to estimate the acoustic transmission loss for individual sound frequencies and hence the overall attenuation of a spectrally described source at any range. In combination with numerical models that provide reliable estimates of the acoustic pulse properties and spatial pattern of the sound emission from any design of airgun array, <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation modelling provides the means to fully characterize the ensonification of an area without need for experimental measurement, allowing the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine environment of a planned operation to be studied in advance of physical deployment of the equipment. In this presentation we provide an overview of the current state of acoustic propagation modelling methods with particular emphasis on full noise footprint estimation, whereby the acoustic propagation model is automatically run along multiple traverses to cover the region of interest to a desired spatial resolution. The prediction of sound level footprints, however, is only a step in the process of estimating the acoustic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on sea life and especially marine mammals. The interaction between the sound and the subject is also influenced by the subject's frequency-dependent auditory sensitivity relative to the frequency content of the sounds to which it is exposed. Much experimental work has been performed recently to measure frequency- dependent auditory thresholds (audiograms) for many marine mammal species. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOpt...17h5610L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOpt...17h5610L"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase structure <span class="hlt">function</span> and AOA fluctuations of plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through oceanic turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Lu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Ji, Xiaoling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Based on the characteristics of a hypergeometric <span class="hlt">function</span>, the analytical expressions for the phase structure <span class="hlt">function</span> and angle-of-arrival (AOA) fluctuations of plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through oceanic turbulence are derived. The results are verified by comparing them with the numerical calculations of the definitions using four important parameters (i.e., the rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature {χ }T, the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid \\varepsilon , the ratio of temperature to salinity contribution to the refractive index spectrum w, and the Kolmogorov microscale η ). The relation between AOA fluctuations and the spatial coherence radius {ρ }0 is also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881"><span id="translatedtitle">The seismic response of an aquifer to the propagation of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> generated shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>: A possible trigger of the Martian outflow channels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leyva, Ivett A.; Clifford, Stephen M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Aquifer dilation from shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the 8.4 magnitude Alaskan earthquake of 1964 led to water and sediment ejection from the ground up to 400 km away from the earthquake's epicenter. Groundwater disturbances were observed as far away as Perry, Florida (approximately 5500 km), where well water fluctuations with an amplitude of as much as 2.3 m were reported. The martian cratering record provides evidence that the planet has experienced numerous seismic events of a similar, and often much greater, magnitude. Given this fact, and the photogeologic evidence for abundant water in the early crust, the response of a basalt aquifer to the propagation of compressional <span class="hlt">waves</span> (P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>) produced by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the 33-1000 km diameter size range were investigated. The resulting one-dimensional changes in effective stress and pore pressure were calculated - as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of both distance and time - based on the following assumptions: (1) that all of the seismic energy radiated by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is transmitted as a single compressional <span class="hlt">wave</span>; (2) that both the host rock and groundwater are compressible; and (3) that there is no net flow between the water-filled pores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">function</span> (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25389166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25389166"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitri, Farid</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-<span class="hlt">wave</span> series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical <span class="hlt">waves</span> from finite transducers as opposed to <span class="hlt">waves</span> of infinite extent. PMID:25389166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMNH53A..08E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMNH53A..08E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and their effects on US shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.; Dennison, D. S.; Glascoe, L. G.; Antoun, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On February 15, 2013 an undetected ~17-20-m diameter asteroid entered earth's atmosphere and, due to its large entry speed of 18.6 km/s and its shallow entry angle, the asteroid exploded in an airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, generating a bright flash, producing many small fragment meteorites and causing a powerful shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> which released the equivalent of ~440 kt TNT of energy. About 16 hours after the Chelyabinsk asteroid, the elongated ~20m by ~40m (~30 m diameter) NEA 2012 DA14 with an estimated mass of 40 kt neared the earth surface at ~28,100km, ~2.2 earth's diameter. These two consecutive events, which were unrelated and had drastically different orbits, generated considerable attention and awareness from the public, confusion among the local residents, and raised the issue of emergency response and preparedness of local, state and government agencies. LLNL and other government agencies have performed numerical simulations of a postulated asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean and generated data to support an emergency preparedness exercise. We illustrate the exercise through the application of several codes from source (asteroid entry) to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim) to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation and interaction with the shoreline. Using state-of-the-art high performance computing codes we simulate three <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites; one site is located off the eat coat by Maryland's shoreline and two other sites on the west coast: the San Francisco bay and the Los Angeles bay shorelines, respectively. Simulations were conducted not only under deterministic conditions but also under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment of flood hazards zones and structural integrity of infrastructures will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20786702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20786702"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of simple correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for few-electron systems using a Jastrow factor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Umezawa, N.; Sarsa, A.; Le Sech, C.; Chikyow, T.</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>Compact Jastrow-Slater-type correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for three- and four-electron atoms and ions (Li, Be{sup +}, B{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Be, B{sup +}, and C{sup 2+}) are proposed. The Jastrow factor we employed consists of one-body and two-body <span class="hlt">functions</span> including only two variational parameters in total. We found that a one-body Jastrow <span class="hlt">function</span> with one variational parameter, which is responsible for the screening effect around the nucleus, is effective for reproducing good total energies of the three- and four-electron atomic systems if hydrogenoid orbitals are adopted in the Slater determinant. On the other hand, a determinant composed of Hartree-Fock orbitals multiplied by the same Jastrow factor was found to give rather worse results than that composed of hydrogenoid orbitals. This result clearly indicates that analytic hydrogenoid orbitals coupled with the one-body Jastrow <span class="hlt">function</span> are useful for describing simple <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and understanding the physical properties of these systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88a4507K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88a4507K"><span id="translatedtitle">Optically engineered quantum interference of delocalized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in a bulk solid: The example of solid para-hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Kayanuma, Yosuke; Ohmori, Kenji</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Local excitations of indistinguishable particles in a solid are quantum-mechanically superposed to give delocalized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Their interference is often so short-lived that it eludes observation and manipulation. Here we have actively controlled interference of delocalized vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in solid para-hydrogen produced by a pair of ultrashort laser pulses. The ultrafast evolution of their interference changes from almost completely constructive (amplification by a factor of ˜4) to destructive when we change the timing of those two laser pulses by only 4 fs. This active control serves as an experimental tool to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in a bulk solid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Natur.421..129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Natur.421..129L"><span id="translatedtitle">Econophysics: Master curve for price-<span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lillo, Fabrizio; Farmer, J. Doyne; Mantegna, Rosario N.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The price reaction to a single transaction depends on transaction volume, the identity of the stock, and possibly many other factors. Here we show that, by taking into account the differences in liquidity for stocks of different size classes of market capitalization, we can rescale both the average price shift and the transaction volume to obtain a uniform price-<span class="hlt">impact</span> curve for all size classes of firm for four different years (1995-98). This single-curve collapse of the price-<span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> suggests that fluctuations from the supply-and-demand equilibrium for many financial assets, differing in economic sectors of activity and market capitalization, are governed by the same statistical rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress at the interface of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> and density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The Kohn-Sham (KS) potential of density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) emerges as the minimizing effective potential in a variational scheme that does not involve fixing the unknown single-electron density. Using Rayleigh Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory (PT), we construct ab initio approximations for the energy difference, the minimization of which determines the KS potential directly - thereby bypassing DFT's traditional algorithm to search for the density that minimizes the total energy. From second-order RS PT, we obtain variationally stable energy differences to be minimized, solving the severe problem of variational collapse of orbital-dependent exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> based on second-order RS PT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185944"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient neuronal coactivations embedded in globally propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> underlie resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsui, Teppei; Murakami, Tomonari; Ohki, Kenichi</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity (FC), which measures the correlation of spontaneous hemodynamic signals (HemoS) between brain areas, is widely used to study brain networks noninvasively. It is commonly assumed that spatial patterns of HemoS-based FC (Hemo-FC) reflect large-scale dynamics of underlying neuronal activity. To date, studies of spontaneous neuronal activity cataloged heterogeneous types of events ranging from <span class="hlt">waves</span> of activity spanning the entire neocortex to flash-like activations of a set of anatomically connected cortical areas. However, it remains unclear how these various types of large-scale dynamics are interrelated. More importantly, whether each type of large-scale dynamics contributes to Hemo-FC has not been explored. Here, we addressed these questions by simultaneously monitoring neuronal calcium signals (CaS) and HemoS in the entire neocortex of mice at high spatiotemporal resolution. We found a significant relationship between two seemingly different types of large-scale spontaneous neuronal activity-namely, global <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating across the neocortex and transient coactivations among cortical areas sharing high FC. Different sets of cortical areas, sharing high FC within each set, were coactivated at different timings of the propagating global <span class="hlt">waves</span>, suggesting that spatial information of cortical network characterized by FC was embedded in the phase of the global <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, we confirmed that such transient coactivations in CaS were indeed converted into spatially similar coactivations in HemoS and were necessary to sustain the spatial structure of Hemo-FC. These results explain how global <span class="hlt">waves</span> of spontaneous neuronal activity propagating across large-scale cortical network contribute to Hemo-FC in the resting state. PMID:27185944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> of the bound quadratic Hamiltonian system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Um, Chung IN; George, T. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The bound quadratic Hamiltonian system is analyzed explicitly on the basis of quantum mechanics. We have derived the invariant quantity with an auxiliary equation as the classical equation of motion. With the use of this invariant it can be determined whether or not the system is bound. In bound system we have evaluated the exact eigenfunction and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> through unitary transformation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959396','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959396"><span id="translatedtitle">Current management of <span class="hlt">functional</span> dyspepsia: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Rome III subdivision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karamanolis, Georgios P.; Tack, Jan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Functional</span> dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disease characterized by symptoms originating from the gastroduodenal region in the absence of underlying organic disease. The Rome III consensus made a distinction between meal-induced and meal-unrelated symptoms and proposed subdivision of FD into postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. The applicability of this subdivision and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on management are areas of active research. So far, empirical approaches are still employed for the treatment of FD, although various therapeutic modalities for FD have been explored; acid-suppressive, prokinetic, and fundic relaxant drugs, antidepressants and psychological therapies. FD remains a challenge and presents unmet clinical needs. PMID:24714074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26850609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26850609"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of maternal obesity and diabetes on placental <span class="hlt">function</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabory, Anne; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Vambergue, Anne; Tarrade, Anne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Located at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is involved in exchange, endocrine and immune <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which <span class="hlt">impact</span> fetal development. In contact with the maternal environment, this organ is sensitive to metabolic disorders as over-nutrition, obesity or diabetes. The alteration of blood parameters associated with these pathologies affects placental histology, vascularization and nutrient transfers and, according to the types of troubles, induces local inflammation or hypoxia. These placental changes lead to disturbance of development and fetal growth, which increase the risk of pathologies in offspring in adulthood. The placenta thus appears as a crucial player in the fetal programming. PMID:26850609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175871"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron energy distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in low-pressure oxygen plasma columns sustained by propagating surface <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stafford, L.; Margot, J.; Moisan, M.; Khare, R.; Donnelly, V. M.</p> <p>2009-01-12</p> <p>Electron energy distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> (EEDFs) were measured in a 50 mTorr oxygen plasma column sustained by propagating surface <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Trace-rare-gas-optical-emission spectroscopy was used to derive EEDFs by selecting lines to extract ''electron temperature''(T{sub e}) corresponding to either lower energy electrons that excite high-lying levels through stepwise excitation via metastable states or higher energy electrons that excite emission directly from the ground state. Lower energy T{sub e}'s decreased from 8 to 5.5 eV with distance from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> launcher, while T{sub e}{approx_equal}6 eV for higher energy electrons and T{sub e}>20 eV for a high-energy tail. Mechanisms for such EEDFs are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2755142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2755142"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of vocational rehabilitation on social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, and psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suresh Kumar, P. N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of vocational rehabilitation on psychopathology, social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in schizophrenia Materials and Methods: 34 patients with DSM IV diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were compared 40 patients with same diagnosis but not attending vocational rehabilitation using PANSS, SCARF social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> Index and MMSE. Results and Discussion: Basic psycho-socio-demographic data were comparable in both groups except more hospitalization in the no rehabilitation group. Comparison of social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and psychopathology showed significant improvement in rehabilitated patients. Cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> had positive correlation with occupational role in the rehabilitated group and negative correlation in the rehabilitated group. Social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> had negative correlation with positive and negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score and cognitive symptoms in patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion: The present concludes that there is a definite limitation in the domains of social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia patients who had no rehabilitation. However vocational rehabilitation significantly improves these limitations, which in turn help these patients to integrate into the society so as to <span class="hlt">function</span> efficiently in their roles as parents, home makers and social beings. PMID:19823610</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing–most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon’s characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops. PMID:27388276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops. PMID:27388276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014IJBm..tmp...24S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014IJBm..tmp...24S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat, cold, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5 % (95 % confidence interval 0.7, 8.5 %) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2 %), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5 %), and 53.6 % (9.8, 114.9 %) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared with nonheat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079"><span id="translatedtitle">Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> calculations in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fattebert, J</p> <p>2008-07-29</p> <p>We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation delay on latency in optical communication systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Latency is an important figure to describe performance of transmission systems for particular applications, such as data transfer for earthquake early warning, transaction for financial businesses, interactive services such as online games, etc. Latency consists of delay due to signal processing at nodes and transmitters, and of signal propagation delay due to propagation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The lower limit of the latency in transmission systems using conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) depends on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation speed in the SMFs which is slower than c. Photonic crystal fibers, holly fibers and large core fibers can have low effective refractive indices, and can transfer light faster than in SMFs. In free-space optical systems, signals propagate with the speed c, so that the latency could be smaller than in optical fibers. For example, LEO satellites would transmit data faster than optical submarine cables, when the transmission distance is longer than a few thousand kilometers. This paper will discuss combination of various transmission media to reduce negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the latency, as well as applications of low-latency systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227733"><span id="translatedtitle">[Influence of the brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> state evoked by spreading depression <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation on the recurrent <span class="hlt">waves</span> properties].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roshchina, G Ia; Koroleva, V I; Davydov, V I</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>EEG aftereffects of spreading depression <span class="hlt">waves</span> were studied in waking rabbits in chronic experiments by spectral coherence analysis. Experiments were divided in two groups: early (from the first to the third-fourth experiments) and late (fifth-tenth experiments). During the early experimental series, unilateral persistent EEG changes consisting in an increase in the delta- and beta-band power with a simultaneous depression of the gamma-band activity were observed in the ipsilateral to SD hemisphere. In addition, interhemispheric coherence between symmetrical cortical points decreased. During the late experimental series, a generalized bilateral increase in the power of the delta and beta activity was demonstrated with a rise in coherence in the beta band. This generalized activity occurred cyclically and was distinct during a long period of time (2-3 hours) after propagation of a single SD <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Such kind of cyclical activity blocked the propagation of subsequent SD <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the neocortex of a waking rabbit and decreased the probability of recurrent <span class="hlt">wave</span> origin up to a complete cessation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation. Thus, a cortical SD <span class="hlt">wave</span> provoked the appearance of synchronized beta oscillations in the EEG, which in turn actively influenced the properties of recurrent <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:23227733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding Energy of d¹º Transition Metals to Alkenes By <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Theory and Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Averkiev, Boris B; Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The structures of Pd(PH₃)₂ and Pt(PH₃)₂ complexes with ethene and conjugated CnH<sub>n+2</sub> systems (n=4, 6, 8, and 10) were studied. Their binding energies were calculated using both <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT). Previously it was reported that the binding energy of the alkene to the transition metal does not depend strongly on the size of the conjugated C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>n+2</sub> ligand, but that DFT methods systematically underestimate the binding energy more and more significantly as the size of the conjugated system is increased. Our results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> predict the binding energy for these systems much more accurately. New benchmark calculations carried out by the coupled cluster method based on Brueckner orbitals with double excitations and a quasiperturbative treatment of connected triple excitations (BCCD(T)) with a very large basis set agree even better with the DFT predictions than do the previous best estimates. The mean unsigned error in absolute and relative binding energies of the alkene ligands to Pd(PH₃)₂ is 2.5 kcal/mol for the ωB97 and M06 density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and 2.9 kcal/mol for the M06-L <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Adding molecular mechanical damped dispersion yields even smaller mean unsigned errors: 1.3 kcal/mol for the M06-D <span class="hlt">functional</span>, 1.5 kcal/mol for M06- L-D, and 1.8 kcal/mol for B97-D and ωB97X-D. The new <span class="hlt">functionals</span> also lead to improved accuracy for the analogous Pt complexes. These results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> may be very useful for studying catalytic systems involving Pd d¹º centers and alkenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2045B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2045B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin <span class="hlt">waves</span> on upper ocean variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Convectively coupled Kelvin <span class="hlt">waves</span> (CCKWs) are atmospheric weather systems that propagate eastward along the equatorial <span class="hlt">wave</span> guide with phase speeds between 11 and 14 m s-1. They are an important constituent of the convective envelope of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), for which ocean-atmosphere interactions play a vital role. Hence, ocean-atmosphere interactions within CCKWs may be important for MJO development and prediction and for tropical climate, in general. Although the atmospheric structure of CCKWs has been well studied, their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the underlying ocean is unknown. In this paper, the ocean-atmosphere interactions in CCKWs are investigated by a case study from November 2011 during the CINDY/DYNAMO field experiment, using in situ oceanographic measurements from an ocean glider. The analysis is then extended to a 15 year period using precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and surface fluxes from the TropFlux analysis. A methodology is developed to calculate trajectories of CCKWs. CCKW events are strongly controlled by the MJO, with twice as many CCKWs observed during the convectively active phase of the MJO compared to the suppressed phase. Coherent ocean-atmosphere interaction is observed during the passage of a CCKW, which lasts approximately 4 days at any given longitude. Surface wind speed and latent heat flux are enhanced, leading to a transient suppression of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and a sustained decrease in bulk SST of 0.1°C. Given that a typical composite mean MJO SST anomaly is of the order of 0.3°C, and more than one CCKW can occur during the active phase of a single MJO event, the oceanographic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CCKWs is of major importance to the MJO cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6177..104A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6177..104A"><span id="translatedtitle">Crack detection in a wheel end spindle using <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation via modal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and piezo actuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ackers, Spencer; Evans, Ronald; Johnson, Timothy; Kess, Harold; White, Jonathan; Adams, Douglas E.; Brown, Pam</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>This research demonstrates two methodologies for detecting cracks in a metal spindle housed deep within a vehicle wheel end assembly. First, modal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are imposed on the hub of the wheel in the longitudinal direction to produce broadband elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitation spectra out to 7000 Hz. The response data on the flange is collected using 3000 Hz bandwidth accelerometers. It is shown using frequency response analysis that the crack produces a filter, which amplifies the elastic response of the surrounding components of the wheel assembly. Experiments on wheel assemblies mounted on the vehicle with the vehicle lifted off the ground are performed to demonstrate that the modal <span class="hlt">impact</span> method can be used to nondestructively evaluate cracks of varying depths despite sources of variability such as the half shaft angular position relative to the non-rotating spindle. Second, an automatic piezo-stack actuator is utilized to excite the wheel hub with a swept sine signal extending from 20 kHz. Accelerometers are then utilized to measure the response on the flange. It is demonstrated using frequency response analysis that the crack filters <span class="hlt">waves</span> traveling from the hub to the flange. A simple finite element model is used to interpret the experimental results. Challenges discussed include variability from assembly to assembly, the variability in each assembly, and the high amount of damping present in each assembly due to the transmission gearing, lubricant, and other components in the wheel end. A two-channel measurement system with a graphical user interface for detecting cracks was also developed and a procedure was created to ensure that operators properly perform the test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.7278P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.7278P"><span id="translatedtitle">Boundary condition determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the ground states of one- and two-electron homonuclear molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patil, S. H.; Tang, K. T.; Toennies, J. P.</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Simple analytical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> satisfying appropriate boundary conditions are constructed for the ground states of one-and two-electron homonuclear molecules. Both the asymptotic condition when one electron is far away and the cusp condition when the electron coalesces with a nucleus are satisfied by the proposed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. For H2+, the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is almost identical to the Guillemin-Zener <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> which is known to give very good energies. For the two electron systems H2 and He2++, the additional electron-electron cusp condition is rigorously accounted for by a simple analytic correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> which has the correct behavior not only for r12→0 and r12→∞ but also for R→0 and R→∞, where r12 is the interelectronic distance and R, the internuclear distance. Energies obtained from these simple <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> agree within 2×10-3 a.u. with the results of the most sophisticated variational calculations for all R and for all systems studied. This demonstrates that rather simple physical considerations can be used to derive very accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for simple molecules thereby avoiding laborious numerical variational calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.148A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.148A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in mortality. Evaluating current risks and future threats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrade, H.; Canario, P.; Nogueira, H.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in morbidity and mortality are largely known. Climate Change is expected to increase the climate health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in summer while the winter will be probably favored. The health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of extreme thermal events are mainly studied at a national or regional level, considering macro or mesoscale thermal features. But it can be assumed that local variations in mortality must exist, associated, in one hand, with local climatic differences, due to features such as land use and urbanization and, in other hand, with vulnerability factors (depending on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of populations). A model of hazard - vulnerability - risk was developed, to analyze the spatial variations of mortality in extreme thermal events, at the level of city district, in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal). In that model, risk is considered as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Daily mortality data by sex, age and cause of death was supplied by the Health National Authority. The research is yet on-going. In our model, hazard is represented mainly by temperature and air pollution (the influence of other atmospheric variables that affect the human energy balance, such as solar radiation and wind speed should be tested too). Small scale variation of meteorological features, in extreme thermal events, were simulated with a Regional Atmospheric Model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the results were validated and calibrated using observation data from an urban network of termo-higrometers placed in sites with different urban characteristics. Vulnerability is a result on personal sensitivity and exposure. Personal sensitivity is assessed considering individual constitutional and demographic factors as well as socio, cultural and economic variables. Daily mobility determines the population exposure to heat. Since many of these variables are redundant, a set of indicators, including a multiple deprivation index, was used. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the Lithospheric Structure of the Central Andes Using P- and S- <span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Central Andean Plateau (CAP) has elevations in excess of 3 km, and is part of the Andean Cordillera that resulted in part from shortening along the western edge of South America as it was compressed between the subducting Nazca plate and underthrusting Brazilian cratonic lithosphere. We calculated P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-20°S) region to investigate crustal thickness and lithospheric structure. Migration of the receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> is done using common conversion point (CCP) stacks through a 3D shear velocity model from ambient noise tomography (Ward et al., 2013). The P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> provide similar estimates of the depth to Moho under the CAP. Crustal thicknesses include 60-65 km thick crust underneath the Bolivian Altiplano, crust that varies from ~70 km to ~50 km underneath the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone, and thins to 50 to 40 km crust in the Subandes and the edge of the foreland. The variable crustal thickness of the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone ranges from >70 km associated with the Los Frailes volcanic field at 19°-20°S to ~55 km beneath the 6 km peaks of the Cordillera Real at ~16°S. From our S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, that have no multiples that can interfere with deeper structure, we also identify structures below the Moho. Along a SW-NE line that runs near La Paz where we have our highest station density, the S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> CCP receiver-<span class="hlt">function</span> stacks show a strong negative polarity arrival at a depth of ~120 km from the eastern edge of the Altiplano to the Subandean zone. We suggest this may be a good candidate for the base of the CAP lithosphere. In addition, above this depth the mantle is strongly layered, suggesting that there is not a simple high velocity mantle lithosphere associated with the continental lithosphere underthrusting the Andean orogen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21333923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21333923"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated Block Preconditioned Gradient method for large scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> calculations in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fattebert, J.-L.</p> <p>2010-01-20</p> <p>An Accelerated Block Preconditioned Gradient (ABPG) method is proposed to solve electronic structure problems in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory. This iterative algorithm is designed to solve directly the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations for accurate discretization schemes involving a large number of degrees of freedom. It makes use of an acceleration scheme similar to what is known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of convergence for large scale applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27176991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27176991"><span id="translatedtitle">Regularized quadratic cost-<span class="hlt">function</span> for integrating <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front gradient fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villa, Jesús; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>From the Bayesian regularization theory we derive a quadratic cost-<span class="hlt">function</span> for integrating <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front gradient fields. In the proposed cost-<span class="hlt">function</span>, the term of conditional distribution uses a central-differences model to make the estimated <span class="hlt">function</span> well consistent with the observed gradient field. As will be shown, the results obtained with the central-differences model are superior to the results obtained with the backward-differences model, commonly used in other integration techniques. As a regularization term we use an isotropic first-order differences Markov Random-Field model, which acts as a low-pass filter reducing the errors caused by the noise. We present simulated and real experiments of the proposal applied in the Foucault test, obtaining good results. PMID:27176991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026667','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026667"><span id="translatedtitle">Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity variation across the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, from receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bannister, S.; Bryan, C.J.; Bibby, H.M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand is a region characterized by very high magma eruption rates and extremely high heat flow, which is manifest in high-temperature geothermal waters. The shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure across the region is inferred using non-linear inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which were derived from teleseismic earthquake data. Results from the non-linear inversion, and from forward synthetic modelling, indicate low S velocities at ???6- 16 km depth near the Rotorua and Reporoa calderas. We infer these low-velocity layers to represent the presence of high-level bodies of partial melt associated with the volcanism. Receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> at other stations are complicated by reverberations associated with near-surface sedimentary layers. The receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> data also indicate that the Moho lies between 25 and 30 km, deeper than the 15 ?? 2 km depth previously inferred for the crust-mantle boundary beneath the TVZ. ?? 2004 RAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1022176','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1022176"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient calculation of 1-D periodic Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for leaky-<span class="hlt">wave</span> applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baccarelli, Paolo; Johnson, William Arthur; Paulotto, Simone; Jackson, David R.; Wilton, Donald R.; Galli, A.; Valero, G.; Celepcikay, F. T.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>In this paper an approach is described for the efficient computation of the mixed-potential scalar and dyadic Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a one-dimensional periodic (periodic along x direction) array of point sources embedded in a planar stratified structure. Suitable asymptotic extractions are performed on the slowly converging spectral series. The extracted terms are summed back through the Ewald method, modified and optimized to efficiently deal with all the different terms. The accelerated Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> allow for complex wavenumbers, and are thus suitable for application to leaky-<span class="hlt">wave</span> antennas analysis. Suitable choices of the spectral integration paths are made in order to account for leakage effects and the proper/improper nature of the various space harmonics that form the 1-D periodic Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.6750M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.6750M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanarella, Luca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The European Commission has presented in September 2006 its Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection consists of a Communication from the Commission to the other European Institutions, a proposal for a framework Directive (a European law), and an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment. The Communication (COM(2006) 231) sets the frame. It defines the relevant soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> for Europe and identifies the major threats. It explains why further action is needed to ensure a high level of soil protection, sets the overall objective of the Strategy and explains what kind of measures must be taken. It establishes a ten-year work program for the European Commission. The proposal for a framework Directive (COM(2006) 232) sets out common principles for protecting soils across the EU. Within this common framework, the EU Member States will be in a position to decide how best to protect soil and how use it in a sustainable way on their own territory. The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) contains an analysis of the economic, social and environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the different options that were considered in the preparatory phase of the strategy and of the measures finally retained by the Commission. Since 2006 a large amount of new evidence has allowed to further document the extensive negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe. Extensive soil erosion, combined with a constant loss of soil organic carbon, have raised attention to the important role soils are playing within the climate change related processes. Other important processes are related to the loss of soil biodiversity, extensive soil sealing by housing and infrastructure, local and diffuse contamination by agricultural and industrial sources, compaction due to unsustainable agricultural practices and salinization by unsustainable irrigation practices. The extended <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment by the European Commission has attempted to quantify in monetary terms the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...615...21B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...615...21B"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for atoms and singly charged ions from Li through Sr: Variational and Diffusion Monte Carlo results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buendía, E.; Gálvez, F. J.; Maldonado, P.; Sarsa, A.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Total energies calculated from explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the ground state of the atoms Li to Sr and their singly charged anions and cations are obtained. Accurate all electron, non-relativistic Variational and Diffusion Monte Carlo energies are reported. The quality of the results, when comparing with exact estimations and experimental electron affinities and ionization potential is similar for all of the atoms studied. The parameterization of the explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for all of the atomic systems studied is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639981','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639981"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of the bound-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in capture-loss rates: Slow proton in an electron gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alducin, M.; Nagy, I.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Capture and loss rates for protons moving in an electron gas are calculated using many-body perturbation theory. The role of the form of the bound-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for weakly bound states around the proton is analyzed. We find significant differences (up to a factor of 2 higher) in the values of Auger capture and loss rates when using Hulthen-type instead of hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Its relevance in stopping power is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550"><span id="translatedtitle">Virial theorem for an inhomogeneous medium, boundary conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and stress tensor in quantum statistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bobrov, V B; Trigger, S A; van Heijst, G J F; Schram, P P J M</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>On the basis of the stationary Schrödinger equation, the virial theorem in an inhomogeneous external field for the canonical ensemble is proved. It is shown that the difference in the form of virial theorem is conditioned by the value of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> derivative on the surface of the volume, surrounding the system under consideration. The stress tensor in such a system is determined by the average values of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> space derivatives. PMID:20866550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812943M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812943M"><span id="translatedtitle">P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> study of crustal structure in Scandinavia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makushkina, Anna; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev; Youssof, Mohammad</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we present preliminary results on the structure of the continental crust in northern Scandinavia. The research area consists of three geologically different domains: the Archaean Domain in the north-east, the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain in the east and the Caledonian Deformed Domain in the west (Gorbatschev and Bogdanova,1993). We present results based on data collected by 60 seismic stations during 2-4 years of deployment in the ScanArray experiment, which is an international collaboration between Scandinavian, German and British universities. We use the receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> (RF) technique in the LQT ray-oriented coordinate system (Vinnik, 1977). Receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis has rather high vertical resolution of the depth to seismic discontinuities which cause transformation between P- and S-<span class="hlt">waves</span>. The whole dataset is uniformly filtered and deconvolved records are stacked using appropriate moveout corrections. We have used events with a magnitude ≥ 5.5 Mw, with epicentral distances range from 30° to 95°. The technique allows us to constrain crustal structure and determine the Moho depth around stations by analyzing the PS converted phases generated at discontinuities in particular the Moho. We present preliminary interpretation of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> RF analysis in terms of the complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Baltic Shield. Further studies will include joint P and S receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis of this area as well as investigations of the upper mantle. References: Vinnik L.P. (1977) Detection of <span class="hlt">waves</span> converted from P to SV in the mantle. Phys. Earth planet. Inter. 15, 39-45 Gorbatschev R., Bogdanova, S. (1993) Frontiers in the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Res. 64, 3-21</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503621"><span id="translatedtitle">Big bounce as the scattering of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the big crunch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amemiya, Fumitoshi; Koike, Tatsuhiko</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>A gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with dust is studied in terms of the Ashtekar variables. We use the reduced phase space quantization which has following advantages: (i) fundamental variables are all gauge invariant, (ii) there exists a physical time evolution of gauge-invariant quantities, so that the problem of time is absent, and (iii) the reduced phase space can be quantized in the same manner as in ordinary quantum mechanics. In the FRW model, the dynamical components of the Ashtekar variables are given by a single quantity p and its conjugate momentum, where p is related to the scale factor a as a{proportional_to}{radical}(|p|) and its sign gives the orientation of triads. We solve a scattering problem in terms of ingoing and outgoing energy eigenstates. We show that the incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> is reflected in rate 1/4 and transmitted in rate 3/4 at the classical singularity p=0. Analyzing the dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet, we show that the classical initial singularity is replaced by a big bounce in quantum theory. A possible interpretation of the result is that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the universe has been in a superposition of states representing right-handed and left-handed systems before the big bounce.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528562"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting elements of molecular structure from the all-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus; Hutter, Juerg; Mueller-Herold, Ulrich</p> <p>2011-11-28</p> <p>Structural information is extracted from the all-particle (non-Born-Oppenheimer) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by calculating radial and angular densities derived from n-particle densities. As a result, one- and two-dimensional motifs of classical molecular structure can be recognized in quantum mechanics. Numerical examples are presented for three- (H{sup -}, Ps{sup -}, H{sub 2}{sup +}), four- (Ps{sub 2}, H{sub 2}), and five-particle (H{sub 2}D{sup +}) systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121.9313R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121.9313R"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient calculation of potential energy surfaces for the generation of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rauhut, Guntram</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>An automatic procedure for the generation of potential energy surfaces based on high level ab initio calculations is described. It allows us to determine the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for molecules of up to ten atoms. Speedups in computer time of about four orders of magnitude in comparison to standard implementations were achieved. Effects due to introduced approximations—within the computation of the potential—on fundamental modes obtained from vibrational self-consistent field and vibrational configuration interaction calculations are discussed. Benchmark calculations are provided for formaldehyde and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (furazan).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15538851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15538851"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient calculation of potential energy surfaces for the generation of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauhut, Guntram</p> <p>2004-11-15</p> <p>An automatic procedure for the generation of potential energy surfaces based on high level ab initio calculations is described. It allows us to determine the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for molecules of up to ten atoms. Speedups in computer time of about four orders of magnitude in comparison to standard implementations were achieved. Effects due to introduced approximations--within the computation of the potential--on fundamental modes obtained from vibrational self-consistent field and vibrational configuration interaction calculations are discussed. Benchmark calculations are provided for formaldehyde and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (furazan). PMID:15538851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NJPh...18g3026Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NJPh...18g3026Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> inspired density <span class="hlt">functional</span> applied to the H2/{{\\rm{H}}}_{2}^{+} challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Igor Ying; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We start from the Bethe–Goldstone equation (BGE) to derive a simple orbital-dependent correlation functional—BGE2—which terminates the BGE expansion at the second-order, but retains the self-consistent coupling of electron-pair correlations. We demonstrate that BGE2 is size consistent and one-electron ‘self-correlation’ free. The electron-pair correlation coupling ensures the correct H2 dissociation limit and gives a finite correlation energy for any system even if it has a no energy gap. BGE2 provides a good description of both H2 and {{{H}}}2+ dissociation, which is regarded as a great challenge in density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT). We illustrate the behavior of BGE2 analytically by considering H2 in a minimal basis. Our analysis shows that BGE2 captures essential features of the adiabatic connection path that current state-of-the-art DFT approximations do not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703821','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703821"><span id="translatedtitle">Antidepressants <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Connexin 43 Channel <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Astrocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jeanson, Tiffany; Pondaven, Audrey; Ezan, Pascal; Mouthon, Franck; Charvériat, Mathieu; Giaume, Christian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Glial cells, and in particular astrocytes, are crucial to maintain neuronal microenvironment by regulating energy metabolism, neurotransmitter uptake, gliotransmission, and synaptic development. Moreover, a typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexins, a family of membrane proteins that form gap junction channels allowing intercellular exchanges and hemichannels that provide release and uptake pathways for neuroactive molecules. Interestingly, several studies have revealed unexpected changes in astrocytes from depressive patients and rodent models of depressive-like behavior. Moreover, changes in the expression level of the astroglial connexin 43 (Cx43) have been reported in a depressive context. On the other hand, antidepressive drugs have also been shown to <span class="hlt">impact</span> the expression of this connexin in astrocytes. However, so far there is little information concerning the <span class="hlt">functional</span> consequence of these changes, i.e., the status of gap junctional communication and hemichannel activity in astrocytes exposed to antidepressants. In the present work we focused our attention on the action of seven antidepressants from four different therapeutic classes and tested their effects on Cx43 expression and on the two connexin-based channels <span class="hlt">functions</span> studied in cultured astrocytes. We here report that when used at non-toxic and clinically relevant concentrations they have no effects on Cx43 expression but differential effects on Cx43 gap junction channels. Moreover, all tested antidepressants inhibit Cx43 hemichannel with different efficiency depending on their therapeutic classe. By studying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of antidepressants on the <span class="hlt">functional</span> status of astroglial connexin channels, contributing to dynamic neuroglial interactions, our observations should help to better understand the mechanism by which these drugs provide their effect in the brain. PMID:26778961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469023','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469023"><span id="translatedtitle">Serum Uric Acid Level and Diverse <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Regional Arterial Stiffness and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bian, Suyan; Guo, Hongyang; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Xiao, Wenkai</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: Both increased arterial stiffness and hyperuricaemia are associated with elevated cardiovascular risks. Little is known about the relations of serum uric acid (UA) level to regional arterial stiffness and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. The aim of the study was to investigate the gender-specific association of serum UA and indices of arterial <span class="hlt">function</span> in a community-based investigation in China. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2374 adults (mean age 58.24 years) who underwent routine laboratory tests, regional pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity (PWV) and pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> analysis measurements were analyzed in a gender-specific manner. None of the participants had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, systemic inflammatory disease, gout, or were under treatment which would affect serum UA level. Results: Men had higher serum UA level than women. Subjects with hyperuricaemia had significantly higher carotid-ankle PWV in both genders (P< 0.05), and the carotid-femoral PWV (PWVc-f) was higher in women (P< 0.001) while the augmentation index was marginally lower in men (P = 0.049). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum UA was an independent determinant only for PWVc-f in women (β = 0.104, P = 0.027) when adjusted for atherogenic confounders. No other independent relationship was found between UA level and other surrogates of arterial stiffness. Conclusions: Serum UA levels are associated with alterations in systemic arterial stiffness that differ in men and women. Women might be more susceptible to large vascular damage associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:23113222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898048','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898048"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveillance of Summer Mortality and Preparedness to Reduce the Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Michelozzi, Paola; de’ Donato, Francesca K.; Bargagli, Anna Maria; D’Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Marino, Claudia; Schifano, Patrizia; Cappai, Giovanna; Leone, Michela; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Ventura, Martina; di Gennaro, Marta; Leonardi, Marco; Oleari, Fabrizio; De Martino, Annamaria; Perucci, Carlo A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The Italian program represents an important example of an integrated approach to prevent the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat on health, comprising Heat Health Watch Warning Systems, a mortality surveillance system and prevention activities targeted to susceptible subgroups. City-specific warning systems are based on the relationship between temperature and mortality and serve as basis for the modulation of prevention measures. Local prevention activities, based on the guidelines defined by the Ministry of Health, are constructed around the infrastructures and services available. A key component of the prevention program is the identification of susceptible individuals and the active surveillance by General Practitioners, medical personnel and social workers. The mortality surveillance system enables the timely estimation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, on mortality during summer as well as to the evaluation of warning systems and prevention programs. Considering future predictions of climate change, the implementation of effective prevention programs, targeted to high risk subjects, become a priority in the public health agenda. PMID:20623023</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3849S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3849S"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a Setup to test the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High-Amplitude Pressure <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Living Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a Setup to test the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High-Amplitude Pressure <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Living Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction. PMID:24458018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S"><span id="translatedtitle">Using NASA Earth Science Datasets for National Climate Assessment Indicators: Urban <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Associated with Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadoff, N.; Weber, S.; Zell, E. R.; de Sherbinin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Climate-induced heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been increasing globally in the past 5-10 years and are projected to continue increasing throughout the 21st century. In urban areas, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are exacerbated by the non-climate stressor of urban heat islands (UHIs). The vulnerability of a city's population to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> reflects exposure to extreme heat events, sensitivity of the population to <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, such as adverse health effects, and adaptive capacity to prepare for and respond to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Socially and economically vulnerable populations are especially at risk to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, due to increasing energy costs, air pollution, and heat-related illness and mortality. NASA earth science datasets, combined with socioeconomic data, can be used to create indicators that characterize vulnerability to urban heat events and address the effectiveness of adaptation measures designed to reduce local temperatures. The indicator development process should include engagement from local stakeholders and end users from the onset to ensure local relevance and, ultimately, indicator uptake and sustainability. This presentation will explore the process of working with urban stakeholders in Philadelphia to develop a set of policy-relevant, interdisciplinary vulnerability indicators focused on extreme heat events in urban areas. Ambient and land surface temperature, land cover classifications, NDVI, and US Census data are used to create a basket of indicators that reflect urban heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> duration and intensity, UHI exposure, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptation effectiveness. These indicators can be assessed at the city level and also comparatively among different parts of a city to help quantify and track heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on vulnerable populations and the effectiveness of adaptation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811146H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811146H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and productivity patterns across Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and <span class="hlt">functioning</span> with major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and <span class="hlt">functional</span> responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, <span class="hlt">functional</span> class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92i4511K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92i4511K"><span id="translatedtitle">Manipulation and visualization of two-dimensional phase distribution of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in solid parahydrogen crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Kenzo; Horie, Toru; Yanagi, Hisao; Ohmori, Kenji</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Solid parahydrogen, which is known to have an exceptionally long vibrational coherence lifetime as a molecular solid, offers an ideal testbed to perform coherent control experiments in the condensed phase. Here we demonstrate the spatial manipulation and visualization of the relative phase of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in solid parahydrogen. Spatial distribution of vibrational excitation is generated by femtosecond impulsive Raman excitation. It is shown that the imprinted initial phase can be manipulated by <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front modulation of the excitation laser pulses with a spatial light modulator. An interferometric measurement is used to convert the spatial phase distribution of the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the amplitude distribution. We have confirmed that the spatial profile of the scattered anti-Stokes pulse reveals the spatial phase distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The read-and-write scheme demonstrated in this experiment is applicable to a broad range of Raman memory systems accessible by Λ -type transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356684"><span id="translatedtitle">DNA--a molecule in search of additional <span class="hlt">functions</span>: recipient of pool <span class="hlt">wave</span> emissions? A hypothesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doerfler, Walter</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Almost the entire nucleotide sequence of human DNA is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> unaccounted for, although large parts of the human genome are transcribed. The genes, as defined by current molecular biology, comprise about 1.5-2% of the DNA molecule. It is proposed that DNA encodes additional, hitherto unrecognized <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In this discussion, the total information inside and outside the universe we live in is termed the pool or the sum total, known or unknown, of all laws, matter, energy, concepts and events. In a hypothetical model, a Gedankenexperiment, it is suggested that the total of all information emits pool <span class="hlt">waves</span> of an unknown physical nature. They could be related to black energy or have completely different qualities. The designation pool <span class="hlt">waves</span> should not imply any similarity to electromagnetism. Further, DNA is suggested to have the capability of interacting with the pool <span class="hlt">waves</span> and thus permit humans - to some partly genetically determined and yet very limited extent - to perceive information from the pool. Pool emissions might be one of the forces that have been instrumental in and are still driving evolution from simple oligonucleotides to DNA with ever more complex recipient capacities. It will be a major challenge for researchers in the field to unravel these and less hypothetical undetected coding principles in DNA. It is uncertain whether the current trend to search the available DNA sequences with ever more refined computer technology on the basis of our present understanding of biology will detect unknown coding systems. For molecular medicine, research into the genetics of the most common human diseases could profit from the elucidation of presently still ephemeral codes in human DNA. Young scientists with a proven record of original research deserve support for the pursuit of unconventional ideas. This concept of granting priorities will be of the utmost importance in advancing the field beyond current concepts in molecular biology. PMID:20356684</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020060107&hterms=wave+length&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Blength','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020060107&hterms=wave+length&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Blength"><span id="translatedtitle">System and Method for Measuring the Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> of a Guided <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Froggatt, Mark E. (Inventor); Erdogan, Turan (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A method/system are provided for measuring the NxN scalar transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> elements for an N-port guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> device. Optical energy of a selected wavelength is generated at a source and directed along N reference optical paths having N reference path lengths. Each reference optical path terminates in one of N detectors such that N reference signals are produced at the N detectors. The reference signals are indicative of amplitude, phase and frequency of the optical energy carried along the N reference optical paths. The optical energy from the source is also directed to the N-ports of the guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> device and then on to each of the N detectors such that N measurement optical paths are defined between the source and each of the N detectors. A portion of the optical energy is modified in terms of at least one of the amplitude and phase to produce N modified signals at each of the N detectors. At each of the N detectors, each of the N modified signals is combined with a corresponding one of the N reference signals to produce corresponding N combined signals at each of the N detectors. A total of N(sup 2) measurement signals are generated by the N detectors. Each of the N(sup 2) measurement signals is sampled at a <span class="hlt">wave</span> number increment (Delta)k so that N(sup 2) sampled signals are produced. The NxN transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> elements are generated using the N(sup 2) sampled signals. Reference and measurement path length constraints are defined such that the N combined signals at each of the N detectors are spatially separated from one another in the time domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665"><span id="translatedtitle">The ecology of seamounts: structure, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Malcolm R; Rowden, Ashley A; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I; Rogers, Alex D; O'Hara, Timothy D; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M; Hall-Spencer, Jason M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of benthic communities, human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research. PMID:21141665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308267"><span id="translatedtitle">Ergodicity breaking and <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> statistics in disordered interacting systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Luca, Andrea</p> <p>2014-08-20</p> <p>We present the study of the structure of many-body eigenfunctions in a one-dimensional disordered spin chain. We discuss the choice of an appropriate basis in the Hilbert space, where the problem can be seen as an Anderson model defined on a high-dimensional non-trivial graph, determined by the many-body Hamiltonian. The comparison with the usual behavior of <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> in finite dimensional Anderson localization allows us to put in light the main differences of the many-body case. At high disorder, the typical eigenfunctions do not seem to localize though they occupy a infinitesimal portion of the Hilbert space in the thermodynamic limit. We perform a detailed analysis of the distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> coefficients and their peculiar scaling in the small and large disorder phase. We propose a criterion to identify the position of the transition by looking at the long tails of these distributions. The results coming from exact diagonalization show signs of breaking of ergodicity when the disorder reaches a critical value that agrees with the estimation of the many-body localization transition in the same model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894780','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894780"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal Structure of Iraq from Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Surface <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gok, R; Mahdi, H; Al-Shukri, H; Rodgers, A J</p> <p>2006-08-31</p> <p>We report the crustal structure of Iraq, located in the northeastern Arabian plate, estimated by joint inversion of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocity dispersion. Receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were computed from teleseismic recordings at two temporary broadband seismic stations in Mosul (MSL) and Baghdad (BHD), separated by approximately 360 km. Group velocity dispersion curves at the sites were derived from continental-scale tomography of Pasyanos (2006). The inversion results show that the crustal thicknesses are 39 km at MSL and 43 km at BHD. Both sites reveal low velocity surface layers consistent with sedimentary thickness of about 3 km at station MSL and 7 km at BHD, agreeing well with the existing models. Ignoring the sediments, the crustal velocities and thicknesses are remarkably similar between the two stations, suggesting that the crustal structure of the proto-Arabian Platform in northern Iraq was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments in the Cenozoic. Deeper low velocity sediments at BHD are expected to result in higher ground motions for earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587234"><span id="translatedtitle">Is a system's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in one-to-one correspondence with its elements of reality?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>Although quantum mechanics is one of our most successful physical theories, there has been a long-standing debate about the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>--the central object of the theory. Two prominent views are that (i) it corresponds to an element of reality, i.e., an objective attribute that exists before measurement, and (ii) it is a subjective state of knowledge about some underlying reality. A recent result [M. F. Pusey, J. Barrett, and T. Rudolph, arXiv:1111.3328] has placed the subjective interpretation into doubt, showing that it would contradict certain physically plausible assumptions, in particular, that multiple systems can be prepared such that their elements of reality are uncorrelated. Here we show, based only on the assumption that measurement settings can be chosen freely, that a system's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is in one-to-one correspondence with its elements of reality. This also eliminates the possibility that it can be interpreted subjectively. PMID:22587234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002JChPh.117.3625L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002JChPh.117.3625L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelet approximation of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. II. Hyperbolic wavelets and adaptive approximation schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Hongjun; Kolb, Dietmar; Flad, Heinz-Jurgen; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Koprucki, Thomas</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>We have studied various aspects concerning the use of hyperbolic wavelets and adaptive approximation schemes for wavelet expansions of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In order to analyze the consequences of reduced regularity of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the electron-electron cusp, we first considered a realistic exactly solvable many-particle model in one dimension. Convergence rates of wavelet expansions, with respect to L2 and H1 norms and the energy, were established for this model. We compare the performance of hyperbolic wavelets and their extensions through adaptive refinement in the cusp region, to a fully adaptive treatment based on the energy contribution of individual wavelets. Although hyperbolic wavelets show an inferior convergence behavior, they can be easily refined in the cusp region yielding an optimal convergence rate for the energy. Preliminary results for the helium atom are presented, which demonstrate the transferability of our observations to more realistic systems. We propose a contraction scheme for wavelets in the cusp region, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom and yields a favorable cost to benefit ratio for the evaluation of matrix elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SHPMP..53....9Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SHPMP..53....9Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Niels Bohr on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and the classical/quantum divide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zinkernagel, Henrik</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>It is well known that Niels Bohr insisted on the necessity of classical concepts in the account of quantum phenomena. But there is little consensus concerning his reasons, and what he exactly meant by this. In this paper, I re-examine Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, and argue that the necessity of the classical can be seen as part of his response to the measurement problem. More generally, I attempt to clarify Bohr's view on the classical/quantum divide, arguing that the relation between the two theories is that of mutual dependence. An important element in this clarification consists in distinguishing Bohr's idea of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as symbolic from both a purely epistemic and an ontological interpretation. Together with new evidence concerning Bohr's conception of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse, this sets his interpretation apart from both standard versions of the Copenhagen interpretation, and from some of the reconstructions of his view found in the literature. I conclude with a few remarks on how Bohr's ideas make much sense also when modern developments in quantum gravity and early universe cosmology are taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28q5701T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28q5701T"><span id="translatedtitle">Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for finite systems: superconductivity in the Hubbard model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomski, Andrzej; Kaczmarczyk, Jan</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We study the superconducting phase of the Hubbard model using the Gutzwiller variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (GWF) and the recently proposed diagrammatic expansion technique (DE-GWF). The DE-GWF method works on the level of the full GWF and in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we consider a finite-size system to study the accuracy of the results as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the system size (which is practically unrestricted). We show that the finite-size scaling used, e.g. in the variational Monte Carlo method can lead to significant, uncontrolled errors. The presented research is the first step towards applying the DE-GWF method in studies of inhomogeneous situations, including systems with impurities, defects, inhomogeneous phases, or disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023047"><span id="translatedtitle">Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for finite systems: superconductivity in the Hubbard model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomski, Andrzej; Kaczmarczyk, Jan</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We study the superconducting phase of the Hubbard model using the Gutzwiller variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (GWF) and the recently proposed diagrammatic expansion technique (DE-GWF). The DE-GWF method works on the level of the full GWF and in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we consider a finite-size system to study the accuracy of the results as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the system size (which is practically unrestricted). We show that the finite-size scaling used, e.g. in the variational Monte Carlo method can lead to significant, uncontrolled errors. The presented research is the first step towards applying the DE-GWF method in studies of inhomogeneous situations, including systems with impurities, defects, inhomogeneous phases, or disorder. PMID:27023047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvE..53.1907S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvE..53.1907S"><span id="translatedtitle">Schwinger variational principle calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering from conducting cylinders using physically motivated trial <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoyanov, B. J.; Farrell, R. A.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>The Schwinger variational principle for the scattering amplitude is applied to two related test problems: an infinitely long perfectly conducting circular cylinder and a hemicylindrically embossed plane illuminated by a normally incident plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> whose magnetic field is perpendicular to the cylinder axis (TM polarization). It is demonstrated that the variational principle yields very good results with trial <span class="hlt">functions</span> containing only a few variational parameters, provided the trial <span class="hlt">functions</span> mimic not only the correct boundary conditions on the scatterer surface but also the expected shadowing effects of the obstacle. A variety of analytical variational limits for both low and high frequencies are derived, which, together with the numerical results for intermediate frequencies, compare very favorably with the available exact solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoJI.206.1179L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoJI.206.1179L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in half-space: an asymptotic approach to study the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">function</span> and its relation to the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Tianshi; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Haiming</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To obtain the synthetic seismogram using the Cagniard-de Hoop method, one needs to calculate the integral over slowness. When the source is shallow and the slowness is near the zero of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">function</span>, the integrand behaves like a sharp pulse. In this study, we attempt to study this pulse with an asymptotic approach, and conclude that the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the time domain originates from this pulse in the slowness domain. We therefore offer an explanation of the excitation of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a mathematical point of view. In addition, we propose a method to improve the efficiency of the numerical quadrature in the calculation of the synthetic seismogram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..157L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..157L"><span id="translatedtitle">On Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in half-space: an asymptotic approach to study the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">function</span> and its relation to the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Tianshi; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Haiming</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>To obtain the synthetic seismogram using the Cagniard-de Hoop method, one needs to calculate the integral over slowness. When the source is shallow and the slowness is near the zero of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">function</span>, the integrand behaves like a sharp pulse. In this study, we attempt to study this pulse with an asymptotic approach, and conclude that the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the time domain originates from this pulse in the slowness domain. We therefore offer an explanation of the excitation of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a mathematical point of view. In addition, we propose a method to improve the efficiency of the numerical quadrature in the calculation of the synthetic seismogram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411323','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411323"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Laser Type <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Myocardial <span class="hlt">Function</span> Following Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Estvold, Soren K.; Mordini, Frederico; Zhou, Yifu; Yu, Zu X.; Sachdev, Vandana; Arai, Andrew; Horvath, Keith A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) is currently clinically performed with either a CO2 or Ho:YAG laser for the treatment of severe angina. While both lasers provide symptomatic relief, there are significant differences in the laser–tissue interactions specific to each device that may <span class="hlt">impact</span> their ability to enhance the perfusion of myocardium and thereby improve contractile <span class="hlt">function</span> of the ischemic heart. Methods A porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia was employed. After collecting baseline <span class="hlt">functional</span> data with cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dobutamine stress echo (DSE), 14 animals underwent TMR with either a CO2 or Ho:YAG laser. Transmural channels were created with each laser in a distribution of 1/cm2 in the ischemic zone. Six weeks post-treatment repeat MRI as well as DSE were obtained after which the animals were sacrificed. Histology was preformed to characterize the laser–tissue interaction. Results CO2 TMR led to improvement in wall thickening in the ischemic area as seen with cine MRI (40.3% vs. baseline, P < 0.05) and DSE (20.2% increase vs. baseline, P < 0.05). Ho:YAG treated animals had no improvement in wall thickening by MRI (−11.6% vs. baseline, P = .67) and DSE (−16.7% vs. baseline, P = 0.08). Correlative semi-quantitative histology revealed a significantly higher fibrosis index in Ho:YAG treated myocardium versus CO2 (1.81 vs. 0.083, P < 0.05). Conclusions In a side-by-side comparison CO2 TMR resulted in improved <span class="hlt">function</span> of ischemic myocardium as assessed by MRI and echocardiography. Ho:YAG TMR led to no improvement in regional <span class="hlt">function</span> likely due to concomitant increase in fibrosis in the lasered area. PMID:21246579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7861549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7861549"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern and cavitation bubble size on tissue damage during ureteroscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vorreuther, R; Corleis, R; Klotz, T; Bernards, P; Engelmann, U</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>It is known that electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) during ureteroscopy may cause ureteral damage. To evaluate this trauma potential, find its mechanism and make it possible to avoid it, our research employed photographic evaluation, tissue studies, shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> measurements and disintegration tests. The setup included a 3.3 F probe attached to an experimental generator with adjustable voltages and capacities providing energies from 25 mJ. to 1300 mJ. per pulse. In general, we distinguish between two traumatic mechanisms: (1) After placing the probe directly on the mucosa the rapid initial plasma penetrates the tissue resulting in a small, nonthermal, punched-like defect, whose depth depends on the energy applied. This trauma has minor clinical implications and is avoided by maintaining a minimum safety distance of 1 mm.; (2) According to physics, each plasma is followed by a cavitation bubble. The maximum size of this bubble depends on the energy applied and ranges from 3 mm. (25 mJ) to > 15 mm. (1300 mJ). In proportion to the bubble size, the ureteral wall may be distended or disrupted, even when the probe is not in direct contact with the mucosa. Therefore, the goal should be to obtain a low energy pressure pulse with high disintegration efficacy. Our evaluation of the pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> revealed that the selection of a high voltage and a low capacity leads to short and steep "laser-like" pulses. These pulses have a significant higher <span class="hlt">impact</span> on stone disintegration than the broader pulses of the same energy provided by currently available generators. PMID:7861549</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125a4109R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125a4109R"><span id="translatedtitle">Franck-Condon factors based on anharmonic vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of polyatomic molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez-Garcia, Valerie; Yagi, Kiyoshi; Hirao, Kimihiko; Iwata, Suehiro; Hirata, So</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Franck-Condon (FC) integrals of polyatomic molecules are computed on the basis of vibrational self-consistent-field (VSCF) or configuration-interaction (VCI) calculations capable of including vibrational anharmonicity to any desired extent (within certain molecular size limits). The anharmonic vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the initial and final states are expanded unambiguously by harmonic oscillator basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> of normal coordinates of the respective electronic states. The anharmonic FC integrals are then obtained as linear combinations of harmonic counterparts, which can, in turn, be evaluated by established techniques taking account of the Duschinsky rotations, geometry displacements, and frequency changes. Alternatively, anharmonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of both states are expanded by basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> of just one electronic state, permitting the FC integral to be evaluated directly by the Gauss-Hermite quadrature used in the VSCF and VCI steps [Bowman et al., Mol. Phys. 104, 33 (2006)]. These methods in conjunction with the VCI and coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method have predicted the peak positions and intensities of the vibrational manifold in the X˜B12 photoelectron band of H2O with quantitative accuracy. It has revealed that two weakly visible peaks are the result of intensity borrowing from nearby states through anharmonic couplings, an effect explained qualitatively by VSCF and quantitatively by VCI, but not by the harmonic approximation. The X˜B22 photoelectron band of H2CO is less accurately reproduced by this method, likely because of the inability of CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ to describe the potential energy surface of open-shell H2CO+ with the same high accuracy as in H2O+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.1356M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.1356M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Indexes to anticipate negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban Mediterranean environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span>. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ≥ 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26991989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26991989"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Controlled Induced Hypotension on Cognitive <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Patients Undergoing <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nowak, Stanislaw; Oldak, Anna; Kluzik, Anna; Drobnik, Leon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND Controlled induced hypotension guarantees less blood loss and better visibility of the surgical site. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hypotension on post-operative cognitive <span class="hlt">functions</span> is still being discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled induced hypotension on the cognitive <span class="hlt">functions</span> of patients undergoing <span class="hlt">functional</span> endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We allocated 47 patients with a good grade of preoperative cognitive <span class="hlt">functions</span> evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination to 3 groups (1 - mild hypotension, 2 - intermediate hypotension, 3 - severe hypotension) according to the degree of mean intraoperative arterial pressure compared with preoperative blood pressure. Cognitive <span class="hlt">functions</span> were evaluated preoperatively, 6 h, and 30 h postoperatively with standardized tests: the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test (TMT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). A decrease in the test results and increase in the number of mistakes made were considered an impairment of cognitive <span class="hlt">functions</span>. RESULTS A total of 47 patients (group 1 - mild hypotension - 15, group 2 - intermediate hypotension - 19, group 3 - severe hypotension - 13) were included in the study. A significant decrease was observed in all the 3 groups after Stroop A test 6h postoperatively but it improved 30h postoperatively, without differences between the groups. Neither a significant decrease in the test results nor an increase in the number of mistakes was noted for Stroop B tests, TMT A&B tests and VFT. CONCLUSIONS The degree of controlled intraoperative hypotension during FESS did not influence the results of psychometric tests. PMID:26991989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411961P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411961P"><span id="translatedtitle">PICASSO: Lithosphere Structure in the Western Mediterranean from Ps Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Humphreys, E.; Miller, M. S.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The western Mediterranean is a diffuse plate boundary separating the African and Eurasian plates. Cenozoic deformation is centered on the Gibraltar arc and Alboran Sea, and occupies a wide area from the southern Iberian Massif in Spain to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. We present a model of the lithospheric structure of this region derived from Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> tomography and Ps receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, using data from the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) linear broadband array of ~100 seismographs. This array is deployed from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border. We complement these data with some of that recorded by IberArray, an areal broadband array, operated by the Spanish seismological community, covering the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of stations. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured from 20-167s period using the two-plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a 0.25 by 0.25 degree grid. Ps receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> at 1Hz and 2Hz were calculated for the same area using water-level and time-domain iterative deconvolution, and were then CCP stacked. The Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> shear velocity model, jointly interpreted with the discontinuity structure from the CCP stack, shows the first-order lithospheric structure, and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). From north to south along the PICASSO profile: The lithosphere is ~120 km thick beneath the Iberian Massif, where it has the highest shear velocity, 4.45 km/s. To the south the lithosphere thins dramatically beneath the Betic Mountains to ~85 km, and then varies in thickness and decreases in velocity beneath the Alboran Sea and Gibraltar Arc. The thinnest lithosphere, ~60 km, is observed beneath the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas, with a low velocity feature (4.2 km/s) at ~60 km depth beneath a site of Late Cenozoic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623048"><span id="translatedtitle">Human adipocyte <span class="hlt">function</span> is <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by mechanical cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pellegrinelli, V; Heuvingh, J; du Roure, O; Rouault, C; Devulder, A; Klein, C; Lacasa, M; Clément, E; Lacasa, D; Clément, K</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Fibrosis is a hallmark of human white adipose tissue (WAT) during obesity-induced chronic inflammation. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of increased interstitial fibrosis (peri-adipocyte fibrosis) on adjacent adipocytes remains unknown. Here we developed a novel in vitro 3D culture system in which human adipocytes and decellularized material of adipose tissue (dMAT) from obese subjects are embedded in a peptide hydrogel. When cultured with dMAT, adipocytes showed decreased lipolysis and adipokine secretion and increased expression/production of cytokines (IL-6, G-CSF) and fibrotic mediators (LOXL2 and the matricellular proteins THSB2 and CTGF). Moreover, some alterations including lipolytic activity and fibro-inflammation also occurred when the adipocyte/hydrogel culture was mechanically compressed. Notably, CTGF expression levels correlated with the amount of peri-adipocyte fibrosis in WAT from obese individuals. Moreover, dMAT-dependent CTGF promoter activity, which depends on β1-integrin/cytoskeleton pathways, was enhanced in the presence of YAP, a mechanosensitive co-activator of TEAD transcription factors. Mutation of TEAD binding sites abolished the dMAT-induced promoter activity. In conclusion, fibrosis may negatively affect human adipocyte <span class="hlt">function</span> via mechanosensitive molecules, in part stimulated by cell deformation. PMID:24623048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085172"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span> are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have <span class="hlt">impacted</span> rhizosphere microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span> via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication. 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