Science.gov

Sample records for wave short wavelength

  1. Short wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE-1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emissions has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low frequency cutoff ranges from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, while the high frequency limit ranges from about 1kHz to 4kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to these wave number vectors, requiring the confinement of those vectors to a plane which contains the geocentric solar eclilptic coordinate z-axis. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest-frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that the emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 30 meters and 600 meters. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k vector direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath.

  2. Tunable short-wavelength spin wave excitation from pinned magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Hämäläinen, Sampo J.; Baláž, Pavel; Montoncello, Federico; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors. PMID:26883893

  3. Tunable short-wavelength spin wave excitation from pinned magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Hämäläinen, Sampo J; Baláž, Pavel; Montoncello, Federico; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors. PMID:26883893

  4. Tunable short-wavelength spin wave excitation from pinned magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wiele, Ben; Hämäläinen, Sampo J.; Baláž, Pavel; Montoncello, Federico; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors.

  5. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  7. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  8. A modified beam-to-earth transformation to measure short-wavelength internal waves with an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Butman, B.; Beardsley, R.C.; Alexander, P.S.; Anderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100-200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  9. Properties of short-wavelength oblique Alfvén and slow waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Voitenko, Y.; Yu, M. Y.; Lu, J. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Linear properties of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) are studied in the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. We obtain the wave dispersion relations that are valid in a wide range of the wave frequency ω and plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio β. The KAW frequency can reach and exceed the ion-cyclotron frequency at ion kinetic scales, whereas the KSW frequency remains sub-cyclotron. At β ∼ 1, the plasma and magnetic pressure perturbations of both modes are in anti-phase, so that there is nearly no total pressure perturbations. However, these modes also exhibit several opposite properties. At high β, the electric polarization ratios of KAWs and KSWs are opposite at the ion gyroradius scale, where KAWs are polarized in the sense of electron gyration (right-hand polarized) and KSWs are left-hand polarized. The magnetic helicity σ ∼ 1 for KAWs and σ ∼ –1 for KSWs, and the ion Alfvén ratio R{sub Ai} << 1 for KAWs and R{sub Ai} >> 1 for KSWs. We also found transition wavenumbers where KAWs change their polarization from left-handed to right-handed. These new properties can be used to discriminate KAWs and KSWs when interpreting kinetic-scale electromagnetic fluctuations observed in various solar-terrestrial plasmas. This concerns, in particular, identification of modes responsible for kinetic-scale pressure-balanced fluctuations and turbulence in the solar wind.

  10. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  11. Review of short wavelength lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  12. Transition operators in acoustic-wave diffraction theory. I - General theory. II - Short-wavelength behavior, dominant singularities of Zk0 and Zk0 exp -1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    A formal theory of the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic scalar waves from impenetrable, immobile obstacles is established. The time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, in particular the theory of the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator, provides the model. The quantum-mechanical approach is modified to allow the treatment of acoustic-wave scattering with imposed boundary conditions of impedance type on the surface (delta-Omega) of an impenetrable obstacle. With k0 as the free-space wavenumber of the signal, a simplified expression is obtained for the k0-dependent T operator for a general case of homogeneous impedance boundary conditions for the acoustic wave on delta-Omega. All the nonelementary operators entering the expression for the T operator are formally simple rational algebraic functions of a certain invertible linear radiation impedance operator which maps any sufficiently well-behaved complex-valued function on delta-Omega into another such function on delta-Omega. In the subsequent study, the short-wavelength and the long-wavelength behavior of the radiation impedance operator and its inverse (the 'radiation admittance' operator) as two-point kernels on a smooth delta-Omega are studied for pairs of points that are close together.

  13. A 50-MeV mm-wave electron linear accelerator system for production of tunable short wavelength synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Mills, F.E.; Kang, Y.W.; Matthews, P.J.; Grudzien, D.; Song, J.; Horan, D.; Feinerman, A.D.; Willke, T.L. |; Henke, H. |

    1993-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Wisconsin at Madison is developing a new millimeter wavelength, 50-MeV electron linear accelerator system for production of coherent tunable wavelength synchrotron radiation. Modern micromachining techniques based on deep etch x-ray lithography, LIGA (Lithografie, Galvanoformung, Abformung), capable of producing high-aspect ratio structures are being considered for the fabrication of the accelerating components.

  14. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops.

  15. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.

    1994-08-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  16. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  17. Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    1985-08-26

    Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

  18. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-11

    Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

  19. Far-field measurements of short-wavelength surface plasmons

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Yochai; Gjonaj, Bergin; David, Asaf; Dolev, Shimon; Shterman, Doron; Bartal, Guy

    2015-03-23

    We present direct far-field measurements of short-wavelength surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) by conventional optics means. Plasmonic wavelength as short as 231 nm was observed for 532 nm illumination on a Ag−Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} platform, demonstrating the capability to characterize SPPs well below the optical diffraction limit. This is done by scaling a sub-wavelength interferometric pattern to a far-field resolvable periodicity. These subwavelength patterns are obtained by coupling light into counter-propagating SPP waves to create a standing-wave pattern of half the SPP wavelength periodicity. Such patterns are mapped by a scattering slit, tilted at an angle so as to increase the periodicity of the intensity pattern along it to more than the free-space wavelength, making it resolvable by diffraction limited optics. The simplicity of the method as well as its large dynamic range of measurable wavelengths make it an optimal technique to characterize the properties of plasmonic devices and high-index dielectric waveguides, to improve their design accuracy and enhance their functionality.

  20. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOEpatents

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  1. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  2. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (

  3. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.; Cobb, J.; Loew, G.; Morton, P.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Paterson, J.; Pianetta, P.; Raubenheimer, T.; Seeman, J.; Tatchyn, R.; Vylet, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Travish, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.-J.; Schlueter, R.; Xie, M.; Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

    1994-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a linac coherent light source (LCLS) (C. Pellegrini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 331 (1993) 223; H. Winick et al., Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, May 1993; C. Pellegrini, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 341 (1994) 326; J. Seeman, SPIE Meet. on Electron Beam Sources of High Brightness Radiation, San Diego, CA, July 1993 [1-4]); it would be a fourth-generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much shorter wavelength than the 240 nm that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3 to 100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high-energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low-gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by self-amplified-spontaneous-emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops (M. Cornacchia and H. Winick (eds.), SLAC Report 92/02; I. Ben-Zvi and H. Winick (eds.), BNL report 49651 [5,6]). The required low-emittance electron beam can be achieved with recently-developed rf photocathode electron guns (B.E. Carlsten, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 285 (1989) 313; J. Rosenzweig and L. Serafini, Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, 1993 [7,8]). The peak current is increased by about an

  4. Short-wavelength Magnetic Buoyancy Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizerski, K. A.; Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by Gilman of the short-wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by k, is large (i.e., short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as k is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate z since, in the large k limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, for sufficiently strong field gradients, are the most unstable. The results of our analysis are backed up by comparison with a series of initial value problems. Finally, we extend the analysis to three-dimensional perturbations.

  5. Dissipation regimes for short wind waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulliez, Guillemette

    2013-02-01

    The dissipation processes affecting short wind waves of centimeter and decimeter scales are investigated experimentally in laboratory. The processes include damping due to molecular viscosity, generation of capillary waves, microbreaking, and breaking. The observations were made in a large wind wave tank for a wide range of fetches and winds, using a laser sheet and a high-resolution video camera. The work aims at constructing a comprehensive picture of dissipative processes in the short wind wave field, to find for which scales particular dissipative mechanism may become important. Four distinct regimes have been identified. For capillary-gravity wave fields, i.e., for dominant waves with scales below 4 cm, viscous damping is found to be the main dissipation mechanism. The gravity-capillary wave fields with dominant wavelength less than 10 cm usually exhibit a train of capillary ripples at the crest wavefront, but no wave breaking. For such waves, the main dissipation process is molecular viscosity occurring through nonlinear energy cascade toward high-frequency motions. Microscale breaking takes place for waves longer than 10 cm and manifests itself in a very localized surface disruption on the forward face of the crest. Such events generate turbulent motions in water and thus enhance wave dissipation. Plunging breaking, characterized by formation of a crest bulge, a microjet hitting the water surface and a splash-up, occurs for short gravity waves of wavelength exceeding 20 cm. Macroscale spilling breaking is also observed for longer waves at high winds. In both cases, the direct momentum transfer from breaking waves to the water flow contributes significantly to wave damping.

  6. Short wavelength infrared hybrid focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D.; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D.; Rode, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The employment of area focal plane arrays (FPA) has made it possible to obtain second generation infrared imaging systems with high resolution and sensitivity. The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1-2.5 microns) is of importance for imaging objects at high temperature and under conditions of reflected sunlight. The present investigation is concerned with electrooptical characterization results for 32 x 32 SWIR detector arrays and FPAs which are suitable for use in a prototype imaging spectrometer. The employed detector material is Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te grown by liquid phase epitaxy on a CdTe transparent substrate. Attention is given to details of processing, the design of the detector array, the multiplexer, the fabrication of the hybrid FPA, and aspects of performance.

  7. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  8. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  9. Silicon-integrated short-wavelength hybrid-cavity VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Emanuel P; Kumari, Sulakshna; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Larsson, Anders

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a short-wavelength hybrid-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) heterogeneously integrated on silicon. A GaAs-based "half-VCSEL" has been attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on a silicon wafer using ultra-thin divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) adhesive bonding, thereby creating a cavity with the standing-wave optical field extending over the silicon- and GaAs-based parts of the cavity. A 9 µm oxide aperture diameter VCSEL with a threshold current of 1.2 mA produces 1.6 mW optical output power at 6.0 mA bias current with a wavelength of ~845 nm. PMID:26832027

  10. Short Wavelength Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D...; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D...; Rode, J. P.

    1983-11-01

    Short wavelength (λc = 2.5 μm) 32 x 32 HgCdTe focal plane arrays have been fabricated for use in an Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) developed by the Jet Propulsion Labora-tory for NASA. An Imaging Spectrometer provides simultaneous imaging of several spectral bands for applications in the sensing and monitoring of earth resources. The detector material is HgCdTe grown on CdTe substrates using liquid phase epitaxy. Planar processing is used to make photovoltaic detectors on 68 um centers. The detector array is mated to a silicon charge coupled device multiplexer to make hybrid focal plane arrays. Results show high performance detectors with a mean RoA = 9.6 x 107 Ω --cm2 and IleakAge (-100 mV) = 0.037 pA at 120K and near zero background. The yield and uniformity are high. The ratio of the standard deviation of the dc responsivity to the mean is 3% for 98.5% of the pixels. The D1.0 = 1.3 x 1012 cm - âœ"fiz/W at a background of 1013 ph/cm2-s and 120K which is close to the background limited (BLIP) D* of 1.9 x 1012 cm- âœ"Hz/W.

  11. Laser-to-electricity energy converter for short wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1975-01-01

    Short-wavelength energy converter can be made using Schottky barrier structure. It has wider band gap than p-n junction silicon semiconductors, and thus it has improved response at wavelengths down to and including ultraviolet region.

  12. Short-wavelength plasma turbulence and temperature anisotropy instabilities: Recent computational progress

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gary, S. Peter

    2015-04-06

    Plasma turbulence consists of an ensemble of enhanced, broadband electromagnetic fluctuations, typically driven by multi-wave interactions which transfer energy in wavevector space via non- linear cascade processes. In addition, temperature anisotropy instabilities in collisionless plasmas are driven by quasi-linear wave–particle interactions which transfer particle kinetic energy to field fluctuation energy; the resulting enhanced fluctuations are typically narrowband in wavevector magnitude and direction. Whatever their sources, short-wavelength fluctuations are those at which charged particle kinetic, that is, velocity-space, properties are important; these are generally wavelengths of the order of or shorter than the ion inertial length or the thermal ion gyroradius.more » The purpose of this review is to summarize and interpret recent computational results concerning short-wavelength plasma turbulence, short-wavelength temperature anisotropy instabilities and relationships between the two phenomena.« less

  13. Short-wavelength plasma turbulence and temperature anisotropy instabilities: Recent computational progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S. Peter

    2015-04-06

    Plasma turbulence consists of an ensemble of enhanced, broadband electromagnetic fluctuations, typically driven by multi-wave interactions which transfer energy in wavevector space via non- linear cascade processes. In addition, temperature anisotropy instabilities in collisionless plasmas are driven by quasi-linear wave–particle interactions which transfer particle kinetic energy to field fluctuation energy; the resulting enhanced fluctuations are typically narrowband in wavevector magnitude and direction. Whatever their sources, short-wavelength fluctuations are those at which charged particle kinetic, that is, velocity-space, properties are important; these are generally wavelengths of the order of or shorter than the ion inertial length or the thermal ion gyroradius. The purpose of this review is to summarize and interpret recent computational results concerning short-wavelength plasma turbulence, short-wavelength temperature anisotropy instabilities and relationships between the two phenomena.

  14. Short-wavelength plasma turbulence and temperature anisotropy instabilities: recent computational progress

    PubMed Central

    Gary, S. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plasma turbulence consists of an ensemble of enhanced, broadband electromagnetic fluctuations, typically driven by multi-wave interactions which transfer energy in wavevector space via non- linear cascade processes. Temperature anisotropy instabilities in collisionless plasmas are driven by quasi-linear wave–particle interactions which transfer particle kinetic energy to field fluctuation energy; the resulting enhanced fluctuations are typically narrowband in wavevector magnitude and direction. Whatever their sources, short-wavelength fluctuations are those at which charged particle kinetic, that is, velocity-space, properties are important; these are generally wavelengths of the order of or shorter than the ion inertial length or the thermal ion gyroradius. The purpose of this review is to summarize and interpret recent computational results concerning short-wavelength plasma turbulence, short-wavelength temperature anisotropy instabilities and relationships between the two phenomena. PMID:25848081

  15. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  16. Peripheral detection and resolution with mid-/long-wavelength and short-wavelength sensitive cone systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Feng; Zele, Andrew J; Suheimat, Marwan; Lambert, Andrew J; Atchison, David A

    2016-08-01

    This study compared neural resolution and detection limits of the human mid-/long-wavelength and short-wavelength cone systems with anatomical estimates of photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell spacings and sizes. Detection and resolution limits were measured from central fixation out to 35° eccentricity across the horizontal visual field using a modified Lotmar interferometer. The mid-/long-wavelength cone system was studied using a green (550 nm) test stimulus to which S-cones have low sensitivity. To bias resolution and detection to the short-wavelength cone system, a blue (450 nm) test stimulus was presented against a bright yellow background that desensitized the M- and L-cones. Participants were three trichromatic males with normal visual functions. With green stimuli, resolution showed a steep central-peripheral gradient that was similar between participants, whereas the detection gradient was shallower and patterns were different between participants. Detection and resolution with blue stimuli were poorer than for green stimuli. The detection of blue stimuli was superior to resolution across the horizontal visual field and the patterns were different between participants. The mid-/long-wavelength cone system's resolution is limited by midget ganglion cell spacing and its detection is limited by the size of the M- and L-cone photoreceptors, consistent with previous observations. We found that no such simple relationships occur for the short-wavelength cone system between resolution and the bistratified ganglion cell spacing, nor between detection and the S-cone photoreceptor sizes. PMID:27580041

  17. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers.

    PubMed

    Holzrichter, J F; Campbell, E M; Lindl, J D; Storm, E

    1985-09-13

    Three high-temperature, high-density experments were conducted recently with the 10-terawatt, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous laser-plasma interaction experiments with long-wavelength (greater than 1 micrometer) lasers: (i) large-scale plasmas, with dimensions approaching those needed for high-gain inertial fusion targets, were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped; (ii) deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 grams per cubic centimeter and a pressure of 10(10) atmospheres under the improved laser conditions, and compression conditions (preheating and pressure) were consistent with code calculations that predict efficient (high-gain) burn of a large thermonuclear fuel mass when driven with a large, short-wavelength laser; and (iii) soft x-rays were amplified by a factor of 700 by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 angstroms (62 electron volts) from selenium ions in a laser-generated plasma. These small, short-pulse x-ray sources are 10(10) to 10(11) times brighter than the most powerful x-ray generators and synchrotron sources available today. The plasma conditions for these experiments were made possible by advances in Nd:glass laser technology, in techniques to generate efficiently its short-wavelength harmonics at 0.53, 0.35, and 0.26 micrometers, and in diagnostic and computational modeling. PMID:17753271

  18. Nonblocking space wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasylva, Abel Clement; Montuno, Delfin Y.; Kodaypak, Prasad

    2002-06-01

    We describe what we believe to be new designs for all-optical cross connects, capable of wavelength conversion. They are based on two-dimensional, space-wavelength, Benes or Cantor topologies, and they exploit cascaded wave-mixing bulk frequency conversion. In these cross connects many channels at distinct frequencies can be simultaneously frequency translated in a common wave-mixing device, and a given lightpath may be converted many times between its input and output. The new wavelength-interchanging cross connects are nonblocking and require O{F log2 W[log2(FW)]n} wave-mixing converters, where n = 0, 1.

  19. Short wavelength trapped electron modes in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Gong, X. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Huang, Q. H.; Gong, L.; Li, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    The collisionless trapped electron modes in the short wavelength region k⊥ρs>1 (SWTEMs) are studied with the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation in tokamak plasmas. Here, we present a systematic study of the correlation between the SWTEMs and short wavelength ion temperature gradient (SWITG) modes. The kθρs spectra of TEM have double humps in the short wavelength and long wavelength regions, respectively. The SWITG modes with trapped electron effects taking into account have broader kθρs spectra. Dependences of growth rate and real frequency of SWTEMs on the various parameters, such as ion temperature gradient (ηi), the temperature gradient of trapped electrons (ηe), toroidicity (ɛn), magnetic shear ( s ̂ ), safety factor (q), and the ratio of temperature (Te/Ti), are investigated in detail. It is found that the SWTEMs propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction and require temperature gradient of trapped electrons ηe exceeding thresholds. Moreover, the ion temperature gradient has a strong stabilizing effect on the SWTEMs. The SWTEMs become stable in both regimes of toroidicity ɛn > 0.1 and magnetic shear s ̂>0.5 regardless of the fraction of trapped electrons. In addition, the properties of short wavelength ITG (SWITG) modes are discussed with different ratio of trapped electrons. It is found that trapped electrons of greater fraction have a stronger destabilizing effect on the SWTEM and SWITG modes. These results are significant for the electrons anomalous transport experiments in the future.

  20. Short-wavelength ablation of solids: pulse duration and wavelength effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juha, Libor; Bittner, Michal; Chvostova, Dagmar; Letal, Vit; Krasa, Josef; Otcenasek, Zdenek; Kozlova, Michaela; Polan, Jiri; Prag, Ansgar R.; Rus, Bedrich; Stupka, Michal; Krzywinski, Jacek; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Pelka, Jerzy B.; Sobierajski, Ryszard H.; Ryc, Leszek; Feldhaus, Josef; Boody, Frederick P.; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Bartnik, Andrzej; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Rakowski, Rafal; Kubat, P.; Pina, Ladislav; Grisham, Michael E.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J. G.

    2004-11-01

    For conventional wavelength (UV-Vis-IR) lasers delivering radiation energy to the surface of materials, ablation thresholds, ablation (etch) rates, and the quality of ablated structures often differ dramatically between short (typically nanosecond) and ultrashort (typically femtosecond) pulses. Various short-wavelength (l < 100 nm) lasers emitting pulses with durations ranging from ~ 10 fs to ~ 1 ns have recently been put into a routine operation. This makes it possible to investigate how the ablation characteristics depend on the pulse duration in the XUV spectral region. 1.2-ns pulses of 46.9-nm radiation delivered from a capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (Colorado State University, Fort Collins), focused by a spherical Sc/Si multilayer-coated mirror were used for an ablation of organic polymers and silicon. Various materials were irradiated with ellipsoidal-mirror-focused XUV radiation (λ = 86 nm, τ = 30-100 fs) generated by the free-electron laser (FEL) operated at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF1 FEL) in Hamburg. The beam of the Ne-like Zn XUV laser (λ = 21.2 nm, τ < 100 ps) driven by the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) was also successfully focused by a spherical Si/Mo multilayer-coated mirror to ablate various materials. Based on the results of the experiments, the etch rates for three different pulse durations are compared using the XUV-ABLATOR code to compensate for the wavelength difference. Comparing the values of etch rates calculated for short pulses with those measured for ultrashort pulses, we can study the influence of pulse duration on XUV ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiencies measured with short pulses at various wavelengths (i.e. 86/46.9/21.2 nm from the above-mentioned lasers and ~ 1 nm from the double stream gas-puff Xe plasma source driven by PALS) show that the wavelength influences the etch rate mainly through the different attenuation lengths.

  1. Short Wavelength Seeding through Compression for Fee Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-03-29

    In this paper, we propose a seeding scheme that compresses an initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space of an electron beam by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C , where Cis the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Using two lasers as energy chirpers, such a modulation compression scheme can generate kilo-Ampershort wavelength current modulation with significant bunching factor from an initial a few tens Amper current. This compression scheme can also be used togenerate a prebunched single atto-second short wavelength current modulation and prebunched two color, two atto-second modulations.

  2. Simultaneous rocket probe and radar measurements of equatorial spread F-transitional and short wavelength results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.C.; Pfaff, R.; Baker, K.D.; Ulwick, J.C.; Livingston, R.; Rino, C.; Tsunoda, R.

    1982-03-01

    During the PLUMEX I rocket flight from Kwajalein Island, plasma density and electric field fluctuations were measured in situ, simultaneous with ground-based radar backscatter measurements at 0.96-m and 0.36-m wavelengths. The rocket penetrated an extremely turbulent topside region which had associated intense backscatter. As measured by the radar the backscatter power was decaying with time during and after the flight. The intermediate wavelength (0.1--10 km) in situ electron density measurements are described in a companion paper, while here we report the transitional and short wavelength results (lambda<100 m). These data include the first in situ equatorial spread F measurements of the electric field component of electrostatic fluctuations with wavelengths less than 1 m. At all altitudes above about 280 km, a repeatable form for the wave-number spectrum was found for the electron density and electric field fluctuations at wavelengths less than about 100 m. The density spectrum varies approximately as k/sup -5/ and the electric field spectrum as k/sup -3/. The steepness of the density spectrum corresponds to an absence of steep edges in the density waveform on the scale of 100 m and less. These two spectral forms are shown to be consistent with an explanation involving low-frequency waves with finite wave numbers parallel to the magnetic field (k/sub parallel/).Both theory and laboratory experiments show a power law density fluctuation spectrum for gradient-driven drift waves with negative index in the range 4.5--6.0. Since such waves do have finite k/sub parallel/, and since sharp gradients exist in the spread F environment, we conclude that at sufficiently high altitudes, drift waves act on the steep gradients caused by a primary longer-wavelength instability to create the observed spectral form.

  3. Method for fabricating photovoltaic device having improved short wavelength photoresponse

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.

    1989-07-04

    Amorphous p-i-n silicon photovoltaic cells with improved short wavelength photoresponse are fabricated with reduced p-dopant contamination at the p/i interface. Residual p-dopants are removed by flushing the deposition chamber with a gaseous mixture capable of reacting with excess doping contaminants prior to the deposition of the i-layer and subsequent to the deposition of the p-layer.

  4. Interferometric coherency determination of wavelength or what are broadband ELF waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Franz, J.; Schuck, P.; Klatt, E.

    2000-09-01

    To determine the wavelength of waves within a random, isotropic wave field, we introduce the observable of wave coherency measured with plasma wave interferometers. We show generally that within a random direction wave field, wavelengths large compared to the interferometer length produce large coherency (nearly 1), but wavelengths the order of a few times the interferometer length, or smaller, produce small coherency (close to zero). We apply this principle first to examining auroral hiss and lower hybrid waves measured by the Physics of Auroral Zone Electrons (PHAZE) 2 and Topside Probe of the Auroral Zone (TOPAZ) 3 experiments and show that the implied wavelengths are consistent with the expected dispersion relations and with other, different estimates of wavelength for these modes. Next, we apply the principle to broadband extra low frequency (BB-ELF) electric fields observed in both experiments and conclude that the wavelengths are small. In one case we calculate the coherency of BB-ELF electric fields, using an ensemble average of 7889 data samples, and demonstrate that the coherency near the oxygen gyrofrequency is very small (≅0.15), corresponding to wavelengths of 10 m and the order of the ion gyroradius. We conclude that because of the short wavelengths, previous satellite measurements of BB-ELF electric fields may have underestimated the electric field amplitudes, unless ion gyroradii are substantially larger than the case for these rocket measurements. Although the wavelengths and frequencies of BB-ELF electric fields are now known, we are unable to assign the wave to a known, normal mode of homogeneous plasmas. This suggests that inhomogeneities may be essential for describing BB-ELF electric fields.

  5. Short wave infrared imager cockpit interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of the night-vision goggle (NVG) into vehicle cockpits, the transfer of visual information to the observer became more complex. This problem stems primarily from the fact that the image intensifier tube photocathode was sensitive to much of the visible spectrum. NVGs were capable of sensing and amplifying visible cockpit light, making the observation of the scene outside of the cockpit, the primary use for NVGs, difficult if not impossible. One solution was to establish mutually exclusive spectral bands; a band of shorter wavelengths reserved for transmission of visible information from the cockpit instrumentation to the observer and a longer wavelength region left to the night vision goggle for imaging the night environment. Several documents have been published outlining the night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting performance enabling this approach, seen as necessary for military and civilian aviation. Recent advances in short wave infrared (SWIR) sensor technology make it a possible alternative to the image intensifiers for night imaging application. However, application-specific integration issues surrounding the new sensor type must still be thoroughly investigated. This paper examines the impact of the SWIR spectral sensitivity on several categories of lighting found in vehicle cockpits and explores cockpit integration issues that may arise from the SWIR spectral sensitivity.

  6. Output characteristics of SASE-driven short-wavelength FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawley, William M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper investigates various properties of the 'microspikes' associated with self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in a short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL). Using results from the 2-D numerical simulation code GINGER, we confirm theoretical predictions such as the convective group velocity in the exponential gain regime. In the saturated gain regime beyond the initial saturation, we find that the average radiation power continues to grow with an approximately linearly dependence upon undulator length. Moreover, the spectrum significantly broadens and shifts in wavelength to the redward direction, with P(omega) approaching a constant, asymptotic value. This is in marked contrast to the exponential gain regime where the spectrum steadily narrows, P(omega) grows, and the central wavelength remains constant with z. Via use of a spectrogram diagnostic S(omega, t), it appears that the radiation pattern in the saturated gain regime is composed of an ensemble of distinct 'sinews' whose widths (Delta) (lambda) remain approximately constant but whose central wavelengths can 'chirp' by varying a small extent with t.

  7. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  8. Frequency and wavelength prediction of ultrasonic induced liquid surface waves.

    PubMed

    Mahravan, Ehsan; Naderan, Hamid; Damangir, Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    A theoretical investigation of parametric excitation of liquid free surface by a high frequency sound wave is preformed, using potential flow theory. Pressure and velocity distributions, resembling the sound wave, are applied to the free surface of the liquid. It is found that for impinging wave two distinct capillary frequencies will be excited: One of them is the same as the frequency of the sound wave, and the other is equal to the natural frequency corresponding to a wavenumber equal to the horizontal wavenumber of the sound wave. When the wave propagates in vertical direction, mathematical formulation leads to an equation, which has resonance frequency equal to half of the excitation frequency. This can explain an important contradiction between the frequency and the wavelength of capillary waves in the two cases of normal and inclined interaction of the sound wave and the free surface of the liquid. PMID:27566141

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Wind- and Mechanically Generated Short Wavelength Spilling Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diorio, J. D.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2006-11-01

    Short wavelength spilling breakers are studied in a wind wave tank that is 12.8 m long and 1.15 m wide and 0.91 m deep. The crest profile histories during breaking are measured with a photographic technique that employs a high-speed digital movie camera, a laser light sheet, and fluorescent dye. The photographic system is mounted on an instrument carriage that is set to move along the tank in phase with the crests of the breaking waves. In the first step in the experiment, breakers generated by the wind are measured at three wind speeds and three fetches at each wind speed. In the second step in the experiment, a mechanical wave maker is used without wind to generate a wave train consisting of a dominant wave and two unstable sidebands. The amplitudes and frequencies of these wave components are adjusted to create breakers at the various fetches and dominant wave frequencies found in the wind wave experiments. The similarities and differences between the ripple patterns at the crest during breaking between the wind wave and mechanical wave cases are discussed.

  10. Volcano monitoring by short wavelength infrared satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of short wavelength IR Landsat TM data for volcano monitoring is examined. By determining the pixel-integrated from the TM data, it is possible to estimate the temperature and size of hot areas which occupy less than one complete pixel. Examples of volcano monitoring with remote sensing data are discussed. It is suggested that the entire volcanic temperature range (100-1200 C) could be accomplished by decreasing the band 6 gain by just one order of magnitude so that it was sensitive to radiance from 1 to 100 mW/sq cm/sr/micron.

  11. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.

    1985-03-05

    Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1..mu..m) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm/sup 3/ and a pressure of 10/sup 10/ atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se/sup +24/ ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y/sup +29/ was also demonstrated.

  12. On the wavelength of self-organized shoreline sand waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falqués, A.; van den Berg, N.; Ribas, F.; Caballeria, M.; Calvete, D.

    2012-04-01

    Shoreline sand waves are undulations of the shoreline that extend into the bathymetry up to a certain depth. Here we will focus on self-organized sand waves that form due to shoreline instability in case of very oblique wave incidence (Ashton et al., 2001). The model of Ashton and co-authors did not predict any wavelength selection for the emerging sand waves whereas Falqués and Calvete (2005) predicted a wavelength selection in the range 4-15 km. This difference is attributable to that Falqués and Calvete (2005) computed wave refraction and shoaling over the actual curvilinear depth contours while Ashton et al. (2001) assumed locally rectilinear and parallel contours. Although there exist shoreline features at a larger scale (Ashton et al. 2001; Falqués et al. 2011) sand waves at a few km scale are more common (Ruessink and Jeuken, 2002; Davidson-Arnott and van Heyningen, 2003; Falqués et al., 2011; Medellin et al., 2008) . While their characteristic wavelength is a robust model output (Falqués and Calvete, 2005; Uguccioni et al., 2006; van den Berg et al., 2011) the physical reasons for the existence of a wavelength selection are still unknown. Furthermore, the parameter dependence of the dominant wavelength, Lm, is largely unexplored. In particular, the disparity between the large length scale of sand waves and the relevant length scales of the problem: width of the surf zone, water wave wavelength, etc. is intriguing. The aim of the present contribution is to gain insight into those physical reasons and the dependence of Lm on beach profile and water wave properties. The essence of sandwave behaviour can be captured with the simple one-line shoreline modelling concept by looking at the alongshore position of the maximum in total transport rate Q, which is here investigated with both the linearized model of Falqués and Calvete (2005) and the nonlinear model of van den Berg et al. (2011) . It is found that the position of that maximum is largely controlled

  13. Short-wavelength visible light emission from silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Xiaodong; Liptak, Rick; Campbell, Stephen; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2007-03-01

    Si is the material of choice for modern microelectronics but, as an indirect-bandgap semiconductor, it is not an efficient light emitter. An electrically pumped Si laser would present a breakthrough for optoelectronic integration that may enable optical interconnect to make computers faster. Si light emitting diodes may revolutionize solid-state lighting and displays because of the low cost and environmental friendliness of Si. One of the most challenging problems of Si-based lighting and displays is the lack of a reliable and efficient full visible spectrum emission. Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) have so far been the most promising form of Si to emit light. Most of the synthesis approaches of Si-NCs, however, only lead to red light emission. Our recent work on Si-NCs synthesized by non-thermal plasmas has focused on extending their light emission into the short-wavelength range. Firstly, the process of oxidation-etching-oxidation of Si-NCs is investigated. This process causes the size of Si-NCs to decrease, leading to shorter wavelength light emission from Si-NCs. Yellow or green photoluminescence (PL) has been observed from initially oxidized red light emitting Si-NCs after HF vapour etching and atmospheric oxidation. The intensity of PL from Si-NCs, however, decreases by a factor up to 100. It is found that HF etching restructures the surface of Si-NCs. This leads to a decrease in the incorporation of O during subsequent oxidation, which finally results in silicon suboxide SiO1.9. Such an understoichiometry indicates a high density of defects such as Si dangling bonds at the Si-NC/oxide interface. Therefore, the PL efficiency is extremely low for short-wavelength light emitting Si-NCs obtained by the process of oxidation-etching-oxidation. Secondly, an integrated two-stage plasma system is employed to achieve the light emission from Si-NCs in the full visible spectrum range. Red-light-emitting Si-NCs are produced in the first stage by the plasma decomposition of SiH4

  14. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    SciTech Connect

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-09-22

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known {Delta}{prime} stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting {Delta}{prime} for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces.

  15. Put a Short-Wave Radio in Your Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksenholt, Svein

    1977-01-01

    Advantages of the short-wave radio as a supplement to foreign language instruction as well as practical hints on wavelength, antenna, and techniques for use are provided. Selective annotated bibliography. (STS)

  16. Coherent control with a short-wavelength free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, K. C.; Allaria, E.; Callegari, C.; Cucini, R.; de Ninno, G.; di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrari, E.; Finetti, P.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Mahne, N.; Penco, G.; Plekan, O.; Raimondi, L.; Rebernik, P.; Roussel, E.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.; Negro, M.; Carpeggiani, P.; Reduzzi, M.; Sansone, G.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Gryzlova, E. V.; Strakhova, S. I.; Bartschat, K.; Douguet, N.; Venzke, J.; Iablonskyi, D.; Kumagai, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ueda, K.; Fischer, A.; Coreno, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short-wavelength pulses with high intensity, ultrashort duration, well-defined polarization and transverse coherence, and have been utilized for many experiments previously possible only at long wavelengths: multiphoton ionization, pumping an atomic laser and four-wave mixing spectroscopy. However one important optical technique, coherent control, has not yet been demonstrated, because self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs have limited longitudinal coherence. Single-colour pulses from the FERMI seeded FEL are longitudinally coherent, and two-colour emission is predicted to be coherent. Here, we demonstrate the phase correlation of two colours, and manipulate it to control an experiment. Light of wavelengths 63.0 and 31.5 nm ionized neon, and we controlled the asymmetry of the photoelectron angular distribution by adjusting the phase, with a temporal resolution of 3 as. This opens the door to new short-wavelength coherent control experiments with ultrahigh time resolution and chemical sensitivity.

  17. The photobleaching sequence of a short-wavelength visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Kusnetzow, A; Dukkipati, A; Babu, K R; Singh, D; Vought, B W; Knox, B E; Birge, R R

    2001-07-01

    The photobleaching pathway of a short-wavelength cone opsin purified in delipidated form (lambda(max) = 425 nm) is reported. The batho intermediate of the violet cone opsin generated at 45 K has an absorption maximum at 450 nm. The batho intermediate thermally decays to the lumi intermediate (lambda(max) = 435 nm) at 200 K. The lumi intermediate decays to the meta I (lambda(max) = 420 nm) and meta II (lambda(max) = 388 nm) intermediates at 258 and 263 K, respectively. The meta II intermediate decays to free retinal and opsin at >270 K. At 45, 75, and 140 K, the photochemical excitation of the violet cone opsin at 425 nm generates the batho intermediate at high concentrations under moderate illumination. The batho intermediate spectra, generated via decomposing the photostationary state spectra at 45 and 140 K, are identical and have properties typical of batho intermediates of other visual pigments. Extended illumination of the violet cone opsin at 75 K, however, generates a red-shifted photostationary state (relative to both the dark and the batho intermediates) that has as absorption maximum at approximately 470 nm, and thermally reverts to form the normal batho intermediate when warmed to 140 K. We conclude that this red-shifted photostationary state is a metastable state, characterized by a higher-energy protein conformation that allows relaxation of the all-trans chromophore into a more planar conformation. FTIR spectroscopy of violet cone opsin indicates conclusively that the chromophore is protonated. A similar transformation of the rhodopsin binding site generates a model for the VCOP binding site that predicts roughly 75% of the observed blue shift of the violet cone pigment relative to rhodopsin. MNDO-PSDCI calculations indicate that secondary interactions involving the binding site residues are as important as the first-order chromophore protein interactions in mediating the wavelength maximum. PMID:11425310

  18. Wavelength Tuning Characteristics of Idler Waves in Terahertz-Wave Parametric Oscillator Using Optical Double Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takida, Yuma; Ohira, Tatsuya; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Nashima, Shigeki

    We experimentally investigated the wavelength tuning of oscillating idler (Stokes) waves by slightly translating the position of a mirror constituting an enhancement cavity in a terahertz (THz)-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) with optical double resonance. The wide tuning range of the idler wavelength was from 781.5 to 787.3 nm, corresponding to the frequency range of THz (signal) waves from 0.7 to 3.5 THz. The measured intersecting angle between pump and idler waves was in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of the noncollinear phase-matching condition in all the above tuning range.

  19. Short wavelength topography on the inner-core boundary

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Aimin; Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Constraining the topography of the inner-core boundary is important for studies of core–mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high-quality earthquake doublet, observed postcritically at the short-period Yellowknife seismic array (YK), which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a 10-year interval (1993/2003). This observation, complemented by data from several other doublets, indicates the presence of topography at the inner-core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength on the order of 10 km. Such topography could be sustained by small-scale convection at the top of the inner core and is compatible with a rate of super rotation of the inner core of ≈0.1–0.15° per year. In the absence of inner-core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the inner-core boundary topography would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core. PMID:17190798

  20. Ultrafast molecular processes at the short-wavelength regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picon, A.; Lehmann, C. S.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Rolles, D.; Marinelli, A.; Young, L.; Pratt, S. T.; Southworth, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Fundamental molecular processes that underlie chemical reactivity and biological processes typically involve intramolecular dynamics consisting of nuclear motion and the flow of charge and energy across atomic sites. Examples include photosynthesis, electron transfer in biomolecules, and molecular fragmentation. Molecular phenomena initiated by the absorption of an XUV/x-ray photon is one of the most challenging questions for the new generation of XUV/x-ray sources. New capabilities at accelerator-based are continuously being developed, being possible to nowadays generate two-color XUV/x-ray pulses with controlled time delay. The site-specificity of those photons allow the excitation of inner-shell electrons in a particular site of the molecule and, with a controlled time delay, the probing of the induced intramolecular dynamics in another site of the same molecule, opening the door to the unexplored field of intramolecular processes initiated by short-wavelength photons. Also, novel XUV/x-ray sources allow the generation of two-color pulses with a high spatio-temporal degree of coherence, suitable for quantum control schemes involving inner-shell electrons. In this talk, we present new theoretical and experimental results towards this direction. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Ultra-short wavelength operation of a thulium fibre laser in the 1660-1750 nm wavelength band.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J M O; Simakov, N; Tokurakawa, M; Ibsen, M; Clarkson, W A

    2015-07-13

    Ultra-short wavelength operation of a thulium fibre laser is investigated. Through use of core pumping and high feedback efficiency wavelength selection, a continuously-tunable fibre laser source operating from 1660 nm to 1720 nm is demonstrated in a silica host. We discuss the range of applications within this important wavelength band such as polymer materials processing and medical applications targeting characteristic C-H bond resonance peaks. As a demonstration of the power scalability of thulium fibre lasers in this band, fixed wavelength operation at 1726 nm with output power up 12.6 W and with slope efficiency > 60% is also shown. PMID:26191883

  2. The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches.

    PubMed

    Stockman, A; Sharpe, L T; Fach, C

    1999-08-01

    We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated. PMID:10492818

  3. Solar irradiance short wave radiation users guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinolich, Paul; Arnone, Robert A.

    1995-05-01

    Solar irradiance for short wave radiation (400-700 nm) at the sea surface can be calculated using inputs obtained from satellite systems and model estimates. The short wave solar irradiance is important for estimating the surface heating that occurs in the near surface and estimating the available irradiance for biological growth in the upper ocean. The variability of the solar irradiance is believed to have significant influence on the global carbon cycle. This users guide provides an understanding of the models and operational procedures for using the software and understanding the results.

  4. Submicrojoule femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser for the generation of dispersive waves at submicron wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Koptev, M Yu; Anashkina, E A; Muravyev, S V; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E; Ignat'ev, A D; Lipatov, D S; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-05-30

    We have demonstrated a femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser system built in the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) approach. The final amplifier stage utilises a specially designed large mode area active fibre cladding-pumped by multimode laser diodes. The system is capable of generating submicrojoule pulses at a wavelength near 1.6 μm. We have obtained 530-fs pulses with an energy of 400 nJ. The output of the system can be converted to wavelengths shorter than 1 μm through the generation of dispersive waves in passive nonlinear fibre. We have obtained ultra-short 7-nJ pulses with a spectral width of ∼100 nm and a centre wavelength of 0.9 μm, which can be used as a seed signal in parametric amplifiers in designing petawatt laser systems. (lasers)

  5. Wavelength selection and symmetry breaking in orbital wave ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin C. T.; Myrow, Paul M.

    2014-10-01

    Sand ripples formed by waves have a uniform wavelength while at equilibrium and develop defects while adjusting to changes in the flow. These patterns arise from the interaction of the flow with the bed topography, but the specific mechanisms have not been fully explained. We use numerical flow models and laboratory wave tank experiments to explore the origins of these patterns. The wavelength of "orbital" wave ripples (λ) is directly proportional to the oscillating flow's orbital diameter (d), with many experimental and field studies finding λ/d ≈ 0.65. We demonstrate a coupling that selects this ratio: the maximum length of the flow separation zone downstream of a ripple crest equals λ when λ/d ≈ 0.65. We show that this condition maximizes the growth rate of ripples. Ripples adjusting to changed flow conditions develop defects that break the bed's symmetry. When d is shortened sufficiently, two new incipient crests appear in every trough, but only one grows into a full-sized crest. Experiments have shown that the same side (right or left) wins in every trough. We find that this occurs because incipient secondary crests slow the flow and encourage the growth of crests on the next flank. Experiments have also shown that when d is lengthened, ripple crests become increasingly sinuous and eventually break up. We find that this occurs because crests migrate preferentially toward the nearest adjacent crest, amplifying any initial sinuosity. Our results reveal the mechanisms that form common wave ripple patterns and highlight interactions among unsteady flows, sediment transport, and bed topography.

  6. Cameras Reveal Elements in the Short Wave Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Goodrich ISR Systems Inc. (formerly Sensors Unlimited Inc.), based out of Princeton, New Jersey, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, Kennedy Space Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Ames Research Center, Stennis Space Center, and Langley Research Center to assist in advancing and refining indium gallium arsenide imaging technology. Used on the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in 2009 for imaging the short wave infrared wavelengths, the technology has dozens of applications in military, security and surveillance, machine vision, medical, spectroscopy, semiconductor inspection, instrumentation, thermography, and telecommunications.

  7. The degradation of alzak by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Mcintosh, R., Jr.; Henninger, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The changes in reflectance of thermal aluminum coating samples exposed to different irradiating utraviolet wavelengths are discussed. It is shown that the coating is damaged faster and further by 180 to 210 in radiation than by Lyman alpha radiation. On an equivalent incident energy basis, Lyman alpha does less damage than 180 to 210 nm radiation. Above 300 nm no degradation is observed for long exposures and below 300 nm increasing degradation with decreasing wavelength is found. It is concluded that Lyman alpha radiation need not be included in laboratory testing of this thermal coating for spacecraft structures.

  8. Atomic diffraction by light gratings with very short wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    Lasers with wavelengths of the order of the atomic size are becoming available. We explore the behavior of light-matter interactions in this emergent field by considering the atomic Kapitza-Dirac effect. We derive the diffraction patterns, which are in principle experimentally testable. From a fundamental point of view, our proposal provides an example of system where the periodicity of the diffraction grating is comparable to the size of the diffracted object.

  9. Dark- and bright-rogue-wave solutions for media with long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of intricate structures are presented for the long-wave-short-wave resonance equation. These vector parametric solutions feature coupled dark- and bright-field counterparts of the Peregrine soliton. Numerical simulations show the robustness of dark and bright rogue waves in spite of the onset of modulational instability. Dark fields originate from the complex interplay between anomalous dispersion and the nonlinearity driven by the coupled long wave. This unusual mechanism, not available in scalar nonlinear wave equation models, can provide a route to the experimental realization of dark rogue waves in, for instance, negative index media or with capillary-gravity waves. PMID:24580164

  10. Panorama of new generation of accelerator based short wavelength coherent light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The newly developed intense short wavelength light sources (from Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) to X-rays) have open the path to the exploration of matter for revealing structures and electronic processes and for following their evolution in time. After drawing the panorama of existing accelerator based short wavelength light sources, the new trends of evolution of short wavelengths FEL are described, with some illustrations with the example of the LUNEX5 (free electron Laser a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) demonstrator project of advanced compact Free Electron Laser.

  11. Short-Wavelength Infrared Views of Messier 81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The magnificent spiral arms of the nearby galaxy Messier 81 are highlighted in this NASA Spitzer Space Telescope image. Located in the northern constellation of Ursa Major (which also includes the Big Dipper), this galaxy is easily visible through binoculars or a small telescope. M81 is located at a distance of 12 million light-years from Earth.

    Because of its proximity, M81 provides astronomers with an enticing opportunity to study the anatomy of a spiral galaxy in detail. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of Spitzer at infrared wavelengths show a clear separation between the several key constituents of the galaxy: the old stars, the interstellar dust heated by star formation activity, and the embedded sites of massive star formation. The infrared images also permit quantitative measurements of the galaxy's overall dust content, as well as the rate at which new stars are being formed.

    The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (yellow) and 8.0 microns (red). Winding outward from the bluish-white central bulge of the galaxy, where old stars predominate and there is little dust, the grand spiral arms are dominated by infrared emission from dust. Dust in the galaxy is bathed by ultraviolet and visible light from the surrounding stars. Upon absorbing an ultraviolet or visible-light photon, a dust grain is heated and re-emits the energy at longer infrared wavelengths. The dust particles, composed of silicates (which are chemically similar to beach sand) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trace the gas distribution in the galaxy. The well-mixed gas (which is best detected at radio wavelengths) and dust provide a reservoir of raw materials for future star formation.

    The infrared-bright clumpy knots within the spiral arms denote where massive stars are being born in giant H

  12. Interpretation of long- and short-wavelength magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeNoyer, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Magset was launched on October 30, 1979. More than a decade of examining existing data, devising appropriate models of the global magnetic field, and extending methods for interpreting long-wavelength magnetic anomalies preceded this launch Magnetic data collected by satellite can be interrupted by using a method of analysis that quantitively describes the magnetic field resulting from three-dimensional geologic structures that are bounded by an arbitrary number of polygonal faces, Each face my have any orientation and three or more sides. At each point of the external field, the component normal to each face is obtained by using an expression for the solid angle subtended by a generalized polygon. The "cross" of tangential components are relatively easy to obtain for the same polygons. No approximations have been made related to orbit height that restrict the dimensions of the polygons relative to the distance from the external field points. This permits the method to be used to model shorter wavelength anomalies obtained from aircraft or ground surveys. The magnetic fields for all the structures considered are determine in the same rectangular coordinate system. The coordinate system is in depended from the orientation of geologic trends and permits multiple structures or bodies to be included in the same magnetic field calculations. This single reference system also simplified adjustments in position and direction to account for earth curvature in regional interpretation.

  13. All-incoherent wavelength conversion in highly nonlinear fiber using four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharraz, Osayd M.; Ahmad, Harith; Forsyth, David I.; Dernaika, Mohamad; Zulkifli, Mohd Zamani B.; Ismail, Mohd Faizal B.; Mohammad, Abu Bakar B.

    2014-09-01

    This work describes efficient and polarization insensitive, all-incoherent four-wave mixing wavelength conversion achieved within a short length of highly nonlinear fiber medium, created by using both spectrally sliced pump and probe channels from a single-amplified spontaneous emission source coupled to two narrowband Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filters. This simple and cost-effective scheme is capable of generating a down-converted probe channel across a 17.2-nm wavelength span, while still maintaining a high conversion efficiency of around -22 dB and an optical-signal-to-noise ratio of ˜21 dB. The effects of pump power, FBG detuning, and polarization are also reported.

  14. Non-wiggler-averaged theory of short wavelength free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of the interaction in short wavelength free-electron lasers is presented using a non-wiggler-averaged formulation for the electron trajectories. The analysis and simulation code is based upon a slow-time-scale amplifier model in which it is assumed that the interaction is with a single frequency wave, and Maxwell`s equations are averaged over a wave period. This eliminates the fast time scale from the analysis. Note that although Maxwell`s equations are averaged over the wave period, no average is imposed on the Lorentz force equations. The electromagnetic field is represented as a superposition of Gaussian optical modes. The wiggler model used is that of a three-dimensional planar wiggler which dictates the choice of a Gauss-Hermite mode decomposition. These fields are substituted into Maxwell`s equations and, after averaging over the wave period and integration over the transverse coordinates, yields nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of the amplitude and phase of each mode. These equations are integrated simultaneously with the three-dimensional Lorentz force equations for an ensemble of electrons. Advantages which are derived from the non-wiggler-averaged orbit treatment are: the adiabatic injection of the beam into the wiggler can be modeled; effects due to the transverse wiggler inhomogeniety such as betatron oscillations and synchrotron-betatron coupling are implicitly included in the treatment; wiggler imperfections can be included in the analysis by the relatively simple expedient of allowing the wiggler amplitude to vary with axial position; and harmonic interactions are implicitly included. The first two advantages relate to the self-consistent treatment of emittance growth due to the injection process and the transverse wiggler inhomogenieties. It should be noted that MEDUSA is also capable of analyzing the effect of the measured imperfections of a specific wiggler magnet to be used in an experiment.

  15. LSWAVE 2000: Lasers and short-wavelength applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, W.

    2001-07-01

    LSWAVE 2000 was organized as a Satellite Workshop to the Seventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI 2000. It was held on Saturday, August 26, 2000, at the Technische Universität Berlin, and was jointly organized by the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Technical University Berlin (TUB). The organizing committee consisted of Wilhelm Raith (chairman), Wolfgang Sandner, Ingolf Hertel, Manfred Wick, Bernd Winter, Tatjana Gießel, Holger Stiel, Ingo Will, Ursula Bayr (secretary) and Silvia Szlapka (secretary). Continuing information on the Workshop and its proceedings may be found under http://www.mbi-berlin.de/lswave2000/.

  16. Ultrafast terawatt laser sources for high-field particle acceleration and short wavelength generation

    SciTech Connect

    Downer, M.C.; Siders, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely.

  17. Gravitational waves and short gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi, Valeriu

    2012-07-01

    Short hard gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are believed to be produced by compact binary coalescences (CBC) { either double neutron stars or neutron star{black hole binaries. The same source is expected to emit strong gravitational radiation, detectable with existing and planned gravitational wave observatories. The focus of this work is to describe a series of searches for gravitational waves (GW) from compact binary coalescence (CBC) events triggered by short gamma-ray burst detections. Specifically, we will present the motivation, frameworks, implementations and results of searches for GW associated with short gamma-ray bursts detected by Swift, Fermi{GBM and the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) gamma-ray detectors. We will begin by presenting the main concepts that lay the foundation of gravitational waves emission, as they are formulated in the theory of General Relativity; we will also brie y describe the operational principles of GW detectors, together with explaining the main challenges that the GW detection process is faced with. Further, we will motivate the use of observations in the electromagnetic (EM) band as triggers for GW searches, with an emphasis on possible EM signals from CBC events. We will briefly present the data analysis techniques including concepts as matched{filtering through a collection of theoretical GW waveforms, signal{to{ noise ratio, coincident and coherent analysis approaches, signal{based veto tests and detection candidates' ranking. We will use two different GW{GRB search examples to illustrate the use of the existing coincident and coherent analysis methods. We will also present a series of techniques meant to improve the sensitivity of existing GW triggered searches. These include shifting background data in time in order to obtain extended coincident data and setting a prior on the GRB inclination angle, in accordance with astrophysical observations, in order to restrict the searched parameter space. We will describe the GW data analysis

  18. Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

  19. Mercury cadmium telluride short- and medium-wavelength infrared staring focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vural, Kadri

    1987-01-01

    Short and medium IR wavelength 64 x 64 hybrid focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been developed using sapphire-grown HgCdTe. The short wavelength arrays were developed for a prototype airborne imaging spectrometer, while those of medium wavelength are suitable for tactical missile seekers and strategic surveillance systems. Attention is presently given to results obtained for these FPAs' current-voltage characteristics, as well as for their characterization at different temperatures. The detector arrays were also mated to a multiplexer and characterized under different operating conditions. The unit cell size used is 52 x 52 microns.

  20. Increased signals from short-wavelength-excited fluorescent molecules using sub-Ti:Sapphire wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    NORRIS, G; AMOR, R; DEMPSTER, J; AMOS, W B; MCCONNELL, G

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of an all-solid-state ultrashort pulsed source specifically for two-photon microscopy at wavelengths shorter than those of the conventional Ti:Sapphire laser. Our approach involves sum–frequency mixing of the output from an optical parametric oscillator (λ= 1400–1640 nm) synchronously pumped by a Yb-doped fibre laser (λ= 1064 nm), with the residual pump radiation. This generated an fs-pulsed output tunable in the red spectral region (λ= 620–636 nm, ∼150 mW, 405 fs, 80 MHz, M2∼ 1.3). We demonstrate the performance of our ultrashort pulsed system using fluorescently labelled and autofluorescent tissue, and compare with conventional Ti:Sapphire excitation. We observe a more than 3-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity using our visible laser source in comparison with the Ti:Sapphire laser for two-photon excitation at equal illumination peak powers of 1.16 kW or less. PMID:23078118

  1. Conversion of electrostatic plasma waves into electromagnetic waves - Numerical calculation of the dispersion relation for all wavelengths.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oya, H.

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion curves have been computed for a wide range of wavelengths from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves in a magnetoactive warm plasma with a Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The computation was carried out mainly for the perpendicular propagation mode. The upper hybrid resonance is the connection point of the electrostatic waves and the electromagnetic waves. The electrostatic waves not associated with the upper hybrid resonance are subjected to electron cyclotron damping when the wavelength becomes long. Oblique propagation is allowed for the electrostatic waves in a frequency range from the plasma frequency to the upper hybrid resonance frequency in the long-wavelength region where Landau damping can be neglected and where the electrostatic mode smoothly connects to the electromagnetic X-mode. In a slightly inhomogeneous plasma, the Bernstein-mode electrostatic wave can escape by being converted into the O-mode electromagnetic wave; two reflections take place during this escape process.

  2. Short-wave cooperative instabilities in representative aircraft vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, David; Jacquin, Laurent

    2004-05-01

    This paper considers the short-wave cooperative instabilities in a family of vortices representative of aircraft wakes. These vortices are characterized by two core scales, an internal core scale a1 and an external core scale a2, and their azimuthal velocity follows a power law V(r)˜r-α in the intermediate zone (a1wavelengths and the structure of the unstable modes are characterized as functions of the base flow parameters α and a2/a1. For 0.5⩽α⩽1, the wavelength of the instability is of the order of the internal scale a1 and the unstable modes only affect the internal core. In this case the growth rate of the instability is in accordance with the predictions of the elliptical instability theory and is a growing function of the parameter a2/a1. For 0⩽α<0.4, the wavelength of the instability is of the order of the external scale a2 and the unstable modes extend into the intermediate zone. In this case the growth rate of the instability differs from the predictions of the elliptical instability theory and is independent upon the parameter a2/a1. Interestingly, a sharp transition between these two regimes occurs for 0.4<α<0.5, in a range of parameters corresponding to experimentally measured trailing wakes. In this range, the bands of wave numbers affected by the instability are particularly large and may coalesce into a broadband spectrum.

  3. Influence of short gravity waves on thermal radio emission of water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilin, V. A.; Naumov, A. A.; Rayzer, V. Y.; Filonovich, S. R.; Etkin, V. S.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental study is presented of the thermal radio emission caused by short waves, accompanied by a quantitative interpretation of the data obtained. Emphasis is on an analysis of the variation in radio brightness contrast as a function of steepness of the short gravity waves, measured by means of a high-frequency radiometer operating in the lambda = 0.8 cm range. Waves were artificially generated in a small channel, wavelength 8 to 40 cm, height 0.6 to 3 cm. Due to the high sensitivity of the radiometric apparatus used, effects were recorded which were related to the influence of the profile and steepness of the short gravity waves. The possibility of using the geometrical optics approximation for quantitative interpretation of the experimental data is demonstrated. The model is based on essentially non-Gaussian statistics of slopes corresponding to quasimonochromatic waves of finite amplitude.

  4. Terahertz imaging of sub-wavelength particles with Zenneck surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Cía, M.; Natrella, M.; Graham, C.; Renaud, C. C.; Seeds, A. J.; Mitrofanov, O.; Dominec, F.; Kužel, P.; Delagnes, J. C.; Mounaix, P.

    2013-11-25

    Impact of sub-wavelength-size dielectric particles on Zenneck surface waves on planar metallic antennas is investigated at terahertz (THz) frequencies with THz near-field probe microscopy. Perturbations of the surface waves show the particle presence, despite its sub-wavelength size. The experimental configuration, which utilizes excitation of surface waves at metallic edges, is suitable for THz imaging of dielectric sub-wavelength size objects. As a proof of concept, the effects of a small strontium titanate rectangular particle and a titanium dioxide sphere on the surface field of a bow-tie antenna are experimentally detected and verified using full-wave simulations.

  5. Widely Wavelength-Tunable Blue-Shifted Dispersive Waves for Broadband Visible Wavelength Generation in a Photonic Crystal Fiber Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Hui; Sang, Xin-Zhu; Yu, Chong-Xiu; Shen, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Kui-Ru; Yan, Bin-Bin; Han, Ying; Zhou, Gui-Yao; Hou, Lan-Tian

    2012-10-01

    Blue-shifted dispersive waves (DWs) are efficiently generated from the red-shifted solitons by coupling the 120 fs pulses into the fundamental mode of the multi-knots of a photonic crystal fiber cladding. When the femtosecond pulses at the wavelength of 825 nm and the average power of 300 mW are coupled into knots 1-3, the conversion efficiency ηDW of 32% and bandwidth BDW of 50 nm are obtained. The ultrashort pulses generated by the DWs can be tunable over the whole visible wavelength by adjusting the wavelengths of the pump pulses coupled into different knots. It can be believed that this widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort visible pulse source has important applications in ultrafast photonics and resonant Raman scattering.

  6. Effect of short wavelength illumination on the characteristic bulk diffusion length in ribbon silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. T.; Mathias, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of short wavelength light on the characteristic bulk minority carrier diffusion length of the ribbon silicon photovoltaic cell has been investigated. We have measured the intensity and wavelength dependence of the diffusion length in an EFG ribbon cell, and compared it with a standard Czochralski grown silicon cell. While the various short wavelength illuminations have shown no influence on the diffusion length in the CZ cell, the diffusion lengths in the ribbon cell exhibit a strong dependence on the volume generation rate as well as on the wavelength of the superimposed lights. We have concluded that the trap-filling phenomenon at various depths in the bulk neutral region of the cell is consistent with the experimental observation.

  7. 256×1 element linear InGaAs short wavelength near-infrared detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Fan, Guangyu; Liu, Dafu; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Xinyu; Zhu, Sangen; Gong, Haimei; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2008-03-01

    256×1 element linear InGaAs detector arrays assembly have been fabricated for the short wave infrared band(0.9~1.7μm), including the detector, CMOS readout circuits, thermoelectric cooler in a sealed package. The InGaAs detectors were achieved by mesa structure on the p-InP/i-InGaAs/n-InP double hetero-structure epitaxial material. 256×1 element linear InGaAs detectors were wire-bonded to 128×1 element odd and even ROIC, which were packaged in a dual-in-line package by parallel sealing. The characteristics of detectors and detector arrays module were investigated at the room temperature. The detector shows response peak at 1.62μm with 50% cutoff wavelength of 1.73μm and average R0A with 5.02KΩ•cm2. Response non-uniformity and average peak detectivity of 256×1 element linear InGaAs detector arrays are 3.10% and 1.38×10 12cmHz 1/2/W, respectively.

  8. Short wavelength HgCdTe staring focal plane for low background astronomy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Stobie, J.; Hartle, N.; Lacroix, D.; Maschhoff, K.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a 128x128 staring short wave infrared (SWIR) HgCdTe focal plane incorporating charge integrating transimpedance input preamplifiers is presented. The preamplifiers improve device linearity and uniformity, and provide signal gain ahead of the miltiplexer and readout circuitry. Detector's with cutoff wavelength of 2.5 microns and operated at 80 K have demonstrated impedances in excess of 10(exp 16) ohms with 60 percent quantum efficiency. Focal plane performance using a smaller format device is presented which demonstrates the potential of this approach. Although the design is capable of achieving less than 30 rms electrons with todays technology, initial small format devices demonstrated a read noise of 100 rms electrons and were limited by the atypical high noise performance of the silicon process run. Luminescence from the active silicon circuitry in the multiplexer limits the minimum detector current to a few hundred electrons per second. Approaches to eliminate this excessive source of current is presented which should allow the focal plane to achieve detector background limited performance.

  9. Skylab radar altimeter - Short-wavelength perturbations detected in ocean surface profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitao, C. D.; Mcgoogan, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Short-wavelength anomalies in sea surface topography, caused by the gravitational effects of major ocean bottom topographic features, have been detected by the radar altimeter aboard Skylab. Some features, such as deep ocean trenches, seamounts, and escarpments, displace the ocean surface by as much as 15 meters over 100-kilometer wavelengths. This experiment demonstrates the potential of satellite altimetry for determining the ocean geoid and for mapping major features of the ocean bottom.

  10. Skylab radar altimeter: short-wavelength perturbations detected in ocean surface profiles.

    PubMed

    Leitao, C D; McGoogan, J T

    1974-12-27

    Short-wavelength anomalies in sea surface topography, caused by the gravitational effects of major ocean bottom topographic features, have been detected by the radar altimeter aboard Skylab. Some features, such as deep ocean trenches, seamounts, and escarpments, displace the ocean surface by as much as 15 meters over 100-kilometer wavelengths. This experiment demonstrates the potential of satellite altimetry for determining the ocean geoid and for mapping major features of the ocean bottom. PMID:17833933

  11. Short Wavelength Cone Opsin Is Not Expressed in the Retina of Arboreal African Pangolin (Manis tricuspis)

    PubMed Central

    Adekanmbi, Adejoke J.; Adekanmbi, Adefisayo A.; Akinola, Oluwole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of cone photoreceptors present in the retina of Manis tricuspis. Specifically, the LWS (L-) opsin expressed in longwave-sensitive cones and SWS1 (S-) opsin shortwave-sensitive cones were targeted. Vertical sections revealed reactivity to a cone marker, peanut agglutinin (PNA), and to an LWS antibody, but not to an SWS1 antibody. This suggests that the Manis tricuspis visual system is not able to discriminate shorter wavelengths from longer wavelengths because the short wavelength cones are not expressed in their retina. PMID:27242946

  12. Short Wavelength Cone Opsin Is Not Expressed in the Retina of Arboreal African Pangolin (Manis tricuspis).

    PubMed

    Adekanmbi, Adejoke J; Adekanmbi, Adefisayo A; Akinola, Oluwole B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of cone photoreceptors present in the retina of Manis tricuspis. Specifically, the LWS (L-) opsin expressed in longwave-sensitive cones and SWS1 (S-) opsin shortwave-sensitive cones were targeted. Vertical sections revealed reactivity to a cone marker, peanut agglutinin (PNA), and to an LWS antibody, but not to an SWS1 antibody. This suggests that the Manis tricuspis visual system is not able to discriminate shorter wavelengths from longer wavelengths because the short wavelength cones are not expressed in their retina. PMID:27242946

  13. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using multiple wave-length LED array light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully imaged photoacoustic differences of light absorbance between two images acquired by different wave-length LED array light source. Compared to photoacoustic imaging system using conventional solid-state laser light source, LED light source can be driven at higher frequency pulses, so we were able to get the subtraction image at higher frame rate that calculated from two images which were captured at each wave-length LED light pulse timing. We developed LED array light source which is composed to have two different wave-length chips, so each wave-length light pulse can be controlled and emitted freely. Thus LED array light source can be composed as multiple selectable wavelength more than two, and a various combination of subtraction image may become available at high frame rate.

  14. Enhancement of the short wavelength upconversion emission in inverse opal photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hangjun; Zhu, Jialun; Yang, Zhengwen; Yan, Dong; Wang, Rongfei; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo; Yu, Xue; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Yin, Zhaoyi

    2014-05-01

    Upconversion luminescence properties of Yb-Tb codoped Bi4Ti3O12 inverse opals have been investigated. The results show that the upconversion emission can be modulated by the photonic band gap. More significantly, in the upconversion inverse opals, the excited-state absorption of Tb3+ is greatly enhanced by the suppression of upconversion spontaneous emissions of the intermediate excited state, and thus the short wavelength upconversion emission from Tb3+ is considerably improved. We believe that the present work will be valuable for not only the foundational study of upconversion emission modifications but also new optical devices in upconversion displays and short wavelength upconversion lasers. PMID:24734648

  15. Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    The coexistence of two different types of fundamental rogue waves is unveiled, based on the coupled equations describing the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance. For a wide range of asymptotic background fields, each family of three rogue wave components can be triggered by using a slight deterministic alteration to the otherwise identical background field. The ability to trigger markedly different rogue wave profiles from similar initial conditions is confirmed by numerical simulations. This remarkable feature, which is absent in the scalar nonlinear Schrödinger equation, is attributed to the specific three-wave interaction process and may be universal for a variety of multicomponent wave dynamics spanning from oceanography to nonlinear optics. PMID:25314555

  16. Four-wave mixing in wavelength-division-multiplexed soliton systems: damping and amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Biondini, G.; Chakravarty, S.; Jenkins, R. B.; Sauer, J. R.

    1996-10-01

    Four-wave mixing in wavelength-division-multiplexed soliton systems with damping and amplification is studied. An analytical model is introduced that explains the dramatic growth of the four-wave terms. The model yields a resonance condition relating the soliton frequency and the amplifier distance. It correctly predicts all essential features regarding the resonant growth of the four-wave contributions.

  17. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Investigation of pump-wavelength dependence of terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Jin-Song; Li, En-Bang; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the performances of terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) based on the LiNbO3 crystal at different pump wavelengths. The calculated results show that TPO characteristics, including the frequency tuning range, the THz-wave gain and the stability of THz-wave output direction based on the Si-prism coupler, can be significantly improved by using a short-wavelength pump. It also demonstrates that a long-wavelength-pump allows the employment of a short TPO cavity due to an enlarged phase-matching angle, that is, an increased angular separation between the pump and oscillated Stokes beams under the THz-wave generation at a specific frequency. The study provides an useful guide and a theoretical basis for the further improvement of TPO systems.

  18. Exploiting the short wavelength gain of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Jung, Y; Daniel, J M O; Simakov, N; Tokurakawa, M; Shardlow, P C; Jain, D; Sahu, J K; Heidt, A M; Clarkson, W A; Alam, S U; Richardson, D J

    2016-05-15

    Short wavelength operation (1650-1800 nm) of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers (TDFAs) is investigated. We report the first demonstration of in-band diode-pumped silica-based TDFAs working in the 1700-1800 nm waveband. Up to 29 dB of small-signal gain is achieved in this spectral region, with an operation wavelength accessible by diode pumping as short as 1710 nm. Further gain extension toward shorter wavelengths is realized in a fiber laser pumped configuration. A silica-based TDFA working in the 1650-1700 nm range with up to 29 dB small-signal gain and noise figure as low as 6.5 dB is presented. PMID:27176961

  19. Internal stress and degradation in short-wavelength AlGaAs double-heterojunction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Furman, T. R.; Marinelli, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Aging tests of incoherently operated zinc-doped double-heterojunction (DH) lasers designed for short-wavelength (0.71-0.72 micron) operation show that the introduction of buffer layers between the substrate and the DH structure leads to a drastic reduction in gradual degradation. This is attributed to a decrease in lattice mismatch stress.

  20. Sensitivity enhancement of surface thermal lens technique with a short-wavelength probe beam: Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Li, Bincheng

    2015-02-15

    Surface thermal lens is a highly sensitive photothermal technique to measure low absorption losses of various solid materials. In such applications, the sensitivity of surface thermal lens is a key parameter for measuring extremely low absorption. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the influence of probe beam wavelength on the sensitivity of surface thermal lens for measuring the low absorptance of optical laser components. Three probe lasers with wavelength 375 nm, 633 nm, and 1570 nm were used, respectively, to detect the surface thermal lens amplitude of a highly reflective coating sample excited by a cw modulated Gaussian beam at 1064 nm. The experimental results showed that the maximum amplitude of surface thermal lens signal obtained at corresponding optimized detection distance was inversely proportional to the wavelength of the probe beam, as predicted by previous theoretical model. The sensitivity of surface thermal lens could, therefore, be improved by detecting surface thermal lens signal with a short-wavelength probe beam.

  1. Short-wavelength enrichment of polychromatic light enhances human melatonin suppression potency.

    PubMed

    Brainard, George C; Hanifin, John P; Warfield, Benjamin; Stone, Marielle K; James, Mary E; Ayers, Melissa; Kubey, Alan; Byrne, Brenda; Rollag, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The basic goal of this research is to determine the best combination of light wavelengths for use as a lighting countermeasure for circadian and sleep disruption during space exploration, as well as for individuals living on Earth. Action spectra employing monochromatic light and selected monochromatic wavelength comparisons have shown that short-wavelength visible light in the blue-appearing portion of the spectrum is most potent for neuroendocrine, circadian, and neurobehavioral regulation. The studies presented here tested the hypothesis that broad spectrum, polychromatic fluorescent light enriched in the short-wavelength portion of the visible spectrum is more potent for pineal melatonin suppression in healthy men and women. A total of 24 subjects were tested across three separate experiments. Each experiment used a within-subjects study design that tested eight volunteers to establish the full-range fluence-response relationship between corneal light irradiance and nocturnal plasma melatonin suppression. Each experiment tested one of the three types of fluorescent lamps that differed in their relative emission of light in the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum between 400 and 500 nm. A hazard analysis, based on national and international eye safety criteria, determined that all light exposures used in this study were safe. Each fluence-response curve demonstrated that increasing corneal irradiances of light evoked progressively increasing suppression of nocturnal melatonin. Comparison of these fluence-response curves supports the hypothesis that polychromatic fluorescent light is more potent for melatonin regulation when enriched in the short-wavelength spectrum. PMID:25726691

  2. Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.

  3. Water Surface Currents, Short Gravity-Capillary Waves and Radar Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakturk, Serhad S.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1993-01-01

    Despite their importance for air-sea interaction and microwave remote sensing of the ocean surface, intrinsic properties of short gravity-capillary waves are not well established. This is largely due to water surface currents and their effects on the direct measurements of wave parameters conducted at a fixed point. Frequencies of small scale waves propagating on a surface which itself is in motion, are subject to Doppler shifts. Hence, the high frequency tail of the wave spectra obtained from such temporal observations is smeared. Conversion of this smeared measured-frequency spectra to intrinsic-frequency (or wavenumber) spectra requires corrections for the Doppler shifts. Such attempts in the past have not been very successful in particular when field data were used. This becomes evident if the amplitude modulation of short waves by underlying long waves is considered. Microwave radar studies show that the amplitude of a short wave component attains its maximum value near the crests and its minimum in the troughs of the long waves. Doppler-shifted wave data yield similar results but much larger in modulation magnitude, as expected. In general, Doppler shift corrections reduce the modulation magnitude. Overcorrection may result in a negligible modulation or even in a strong modulation with the maximum amplitude in the wave troughs. The latter situation is clearly contradictory to our visual observations as well as the radar results and imply that the advection by currents is overestimated. In this study, a differential-advection approach is used in which small scale waves are advected by the currents evaluated not at the free surface, but at a depth proportional to their wavelengths. Applicability of this approach is verified by the excellent agreement in phase and magnitude of short-wave modulation between results based on radar and on wave-gauge measurements conducted on a lake.

  4. Short wind waves on the ocean: Wavenumber-frequency spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, William J.

    2015-03-01

    Dominant surface waves on the ocean exhibit a dispersion relation that confines their energy to a curve in a wavenumber-frequency spectrum. Short wind waves on the ocean, on the other hand, are advected by these dominant waves so that they do not exhibit a well-defined dispersion relation over many realizations of the surface. Here we show that the short-wave analog to the dispersion relation is a distributed spectrum in the wavenumber-frequency plane that collapses to the standard dispersion relation in the absence of long waves. We compute probability distributions of short-wave wavenumber given a (frequency, direction) pair and of short-wave frequency given a (wavenumber, direction) pair. These two probability distributions must yield a single spectrum of surface displacements as a function of wavenumber and frequency, F(k,f). We show that the folded, azimuthally averaged version of this spectrum has a "butterfly" pattern in the wavenumber-frequency plane if significant long waves are present. Integration of this spectrum over frequency yields the well-known k-3 wavenumber spectrum. When integrated over wavenumber, the spectrum yields an f-4 form that agrees with measurement. We also show that a cut through the unfolded F(k,f) at constant k produces the well-known form of moderate-incidence-angle Doppler spectra for electromagnetic scattering from the sea. This development points out the dependence of the short-wave spectrum on the amplitude of the long waves.

  5. Low work function surface layers produced by laser ablation using short-wavelength photons

    DOEpatents

    Balooch, Mehdi; Dinh, Long N.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    2000-01-01

    Short-wavelength photons are used to ablate material from a low work function target onto a suitable substrate. The short-wavelength photons are at or below visible wavelength. The elemental composition of the deposit is controlled by the composition of the target and the gaseous environment in which the ablation process is performed. The process is carried out in a deposition chamber to which a short-wavelength laser is mounted and which includes a substrate holder which can be rotated, tilted, heated, or cooled. The target material is mounted onto a holder that spins the target during laser ablation. In addition, the deposition chamber is provided with a vacuum pump, an external gas supply with atomizer and radical generator, a gas generator for producing a flow of molecules on the substrate, and a substrate cleaning device, such as an ion gun. The substrate can be rotated and tilted, for example, whereby only the tip of an emitter can be coated with a low work function material.

  6. Controlled generation of short-wavelength periodic megagauss magnetic fields in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.

    2009-01-22

    We examine the possibility of producing short-wavelength MG magnetic fields by exciting a magnetic mode from the collision of electromagnetic light pulses with relativistic ionization fronts. PIC simulation results demonstrate the validity of the scheme to generate compact coherent long lived magnetic structures that can be used to produce ultrashort-wavelength radiation with existing state-of-the-art laser systems. In particular, we analyze the possibility of making a compact Gamma-ray synchrotron source based on this magnetic mode.

  7. Short-wavelength near infrared stimulation of the inner ear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Nan; Peng, Fei; Wang, Xing; Zheng, Xiao L; Wan, Xiao P; Yuan, Wei; Hou, Wen S

    2014-01-01

    To explore whether the short wavelength near infrared laser can stimulate the functional hair cells, pulsed laser with wavelength of 808-nm was used to stimulate guinea pigs cochlea. Compound action potential (CAP) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded during the experiments. We successfully recorded photomechanical responses from normal hearing animals and demonstrated the responses were not induced by optical acoustic events. Furthermore, we studied the effect of different stimulation parameters on neural response. The results show that cochlear activation can be modulated with different optical parameters. PMID:25570531

  8. New Insight into Short-Wavelength Solar Wind Fluctuations from Vlasov Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Belmont, G.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of solar wind (SW) turbulence below the proton gyroscale is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations gave evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at sub-ion scales with omega < omega(sub ci), other studies suggest that the KAW mode cannot carry the turbulence cascade down to electron scales and that the whistler mode (i.e., omega > omega (sub ci)) is more relevant. Here, we study key properties of the short-wavelength plasma modes under limited, but realistic, SW conditions, Typically Beta(sub i) approx. > Beta (sub e) 1 and for high oblique angles of propagation 80 deg <= Theta (sub kB) < 90 deg as observed from the Cluster spacecraft data. The linear properties of the plasma modes under these conditions are poorly known, which contrasts with the well-documented cold plasma limit and/or moderate oblique angles of propagation (Theta (sub kB) < 80 deg). Based on linear solutions of the Vlasov kinetic theory, we discuss the relevance of each plasma mode (fast, Bernstein, KAW, whistler) in carrying the energy cascade down to electron scales. We show, in particular, that the shear Alfven mode (known in the magnetohydrodynamic limit) extends at scales kappa rho (sub i) approx. > 1 to frequencies either larger or smaller than omega (sub ci), depending on the anisotropy kappa (parallel )/ kappa(perpendicular). This extension into small scales is more readily called whistler (omega > omega (sub ci)) or KAW (omega < omega (sub ci)) although the mode is essentially the same. This contrasts with the well-accepted idea that the whistler branch always develops as a continuation at high frequencies of the fast magnetosonic mode. We show, furthermore, that the whistler branch is more damped than the KAW one, which makes the latter the more relevant candidate to carry the energy cascade down to electron scales. We discuss how these new findings may facilitate resolution

  9. NEW INSIGHT INTO SHORT-WAVELENGTH SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS FROM VLASOV THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Sahraoui, F.; Belmont, G.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    The nature of solar wind (SW) turbulence below the proton gyroscale is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations gave evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at sub-ion scales with {omega} < {omega}{sub ci}, other studies suggest that the KAW mode cannot carry the turbulence cascade down to electron scales and that the whistler mode (i.e., {omega} > {omega}{sub ci}) is more relevant. Here, we study key properties of the short-wavelength plasma modes under limited, but realistic, SW conditions, typically {beta}{sub i} {approx}> {beta}{sub e} {approx} 1 and for high oblique angles of propagation 80 Degree-Sign {<=} {Theta}{sub kB} < 90 Degree-Sign as observed from the Cluster spacecraft data. The linear properties of the plasma modes under these conditions are poorly known, which contrasts with the well-documented cold plasma limit and/or moderate oblique angles of propagation ({Theta}{sub kB} < 80 Degree-Sign ). Based on linear solutions of the Vlasov kinetic theory, we discuss the relevance of each plasma mode (fast, Bernstein, KAW, whistler) in carrying the energy cascade down to electron scales. We show, in particular, that the shear Alfven mode (known in the magnetohydrodynamic limit) extends at scales k{rho}{sub i} {approx}> 1 to frequencies either larger or smaller than {omega}{sub ci}, depending on the anisotropy k{sub ||}/k . This extension into small scales is more readily called whistler ({omega} > {omega}{sub ci}) or KAW ({omega} < {omega}{sub ci}), although the mode is essentially the same. This contrasts with the well-accepted idea that the whistler branch always develops as a continuation at high frequencies of the fast magnetosonic mode. We show, furthermore, that the whistler branch is more damped than the KAW one, which makes the latter the more relevant candidate to carry the energy cascade down to electron scales. We discuss how these new findings

  10. New methods for calculating short-wave radio paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. V.; Tsedilina, E. E.; Cherkashin, Iu. N.

    Recent research on the calculation of short-wave paths at IZMIRAN (the Soviet Institute for the Study of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and the Propagation of Radio Waves) is reviewed. Particular attention is given to: (1) the development of approximate analytical methods for ray-tracing calculations and for determining the geometrical-optics characteristics of a radio signal in a horizontally irregular ionosphere; (2) investigations of the long-range and short-wave propagation of decametric waves; and (3) the development of a parabolic-equation method for considering diffraction and scattering in a medium with regular and random irregularities.

  11. Forest Canopy Waves: The Long-Wavelength Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Manuel; Chimonas, George

    Air flowing over a forest canopy is examined for instabilities driven by Jeffreys' drag mechanism. The calculations indicate that the mechanism is generally effective in strong wind conditions and extremely effective when the boundary layer supports wave trapping. The instability forces the free wind down amongst the trees, creatingepisodes of stress in the foliage.

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy for mastitis diagnosis: Two-dimensional correlation study in short wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsenkova, Roumiana; Murayama, Koichi; Kawano, Sumio; Wu, Yuqing; Toyoda, Kiyohiko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2000-03-01

    We describe the application of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic (2DCOS) technique for mastitic diagnosis. Seven average spectra in the short wavelength region (700-1100 nm) of mastitic levels separated from healthy to disease were subjected to 2DCOS analysis. Synchronous correlation map clearly showed water and fat bands. Asynchronous correlation map indicated the dynamical variations of milk constituents in milk occurred when a cow gets mastitis.

  13. Permittivity of water at millimeter wave-lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    Work performed on the permittivity of seawater and ice at 100 GHz was described. Measurements on water covered the temperature range from 0 to 50 C, while the measurements on ice were taken near - 10 C. In addition, a small number of measurements were made on the reflectivity of absorber materials used in a previous program on research in millimeter wave techniques. Normal incidence reflectivity was measured, and the result was used to obtain the index of refraction. For the case of normal incidence, reflectivity at a fixed temperature was reproducible to 1% for values near 40%. For reflectivity measurements on ice, the lack of attenuation leads to reflection from the back surface of the sample; this complication was circumvented by using a wedge shaped sample and freezing the water in a container lined with absorber material.

  14. Sub-wavelength energy trapping of elastic waves in a metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Rupin, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    Deep sub-wavelength focusing has been demonstrated for locally resonant metamaterials using electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The elastic equivalents of such objects are made of sub-wavelength resonating beams fixed to a two-dimensional plate, as presented here. Independent of a random or regular arrangement of the resonators, the metamaterial shows large bandgaps that are independent of the incident wave direction. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the insertion of a defect in the layout, as a shorter resonator, creates strong amplification of the wave-field on the defect. This energy trapping, which is localized on a spatial scale that is much smaller than the wavelength in the two-dimensional plate, leads to a >1 factor in terms of the local density of energy. PMID:25096146

  15. Why are very short times so long and very long times so short in elastic waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Guido; Rigamonti, Serena

    2011-01-01

    In a first study of thermoelastic waves, such as in the textbook of Landau and Lifshitz, one might at first glance understand that when the given period is very short, waves are isentropic because heat conduction does not set in, while if the given period is very long, waves are isothermal because there is enough time for thermalization to be thoroughly accomplished. When one pursues the study of these waves further, by the mathematical inspection of the complete thermoelastic wave equation one finds that if the period is very short, much shorter than a characteristic time of the material, the wave is isothermal, while if it is very long, much longer than the characteristic time, the wave is isentropic. One also learns that this fact is supported by experiments: at low frequencies the elastic waves are isentropic, while they are isothermal when the frequencies are so high that can be attained in few cases. The authors show that there is no contradiction between first-glance understanding and the mathematical treatment of the elastic wave equation: for thermal effects very long periods are so short and very short periods are so long.

  16. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems. PMID:27381552

  17. Short and ultrashort wavelength lasers; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 14, 15, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. Randol

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on short and ultrashort wavelength lasers are presented. The topics addressed include: pulsed-power driven, photopumped X-ray laser research at the Naval Research Laboratory; X-ray laser studies at LLE; toward shorter wavelengths for soft X-ray lasers based on lithiumlike ions; imploding coaxial krypton gas puffs as a potential X-ray laser; gain optimization and saturation of the Xe III 109 nm Auger laser; multiphoton double ionization of barium; soft X-ray FEL using a two-beam elliptical pill-box wake-field cavity; and spectra of highly ionized atoms. Also discussed are: progress in the gamma-ray laser program at Texas; nuclear transitions induced by atomic excitations; nuclear structure of the proposed gamma-ray laser candidate nucleus Re-186; conversion-electron experiment to characterize the decay of the Np-237 shape isomer; Mossbauer effect experiments applicable to GRASERS; overview of pulsed premixed short wavelength chemical laser concepts; hybrid chemical/excimer laser concept; isocyanic acid as a laser fuel.

  18. Gene duplications and evolution of the short wavelength-sensitive visual pigments in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S

    1994-01-01

    When invertebrate rhodopsins were used as the outgroup, the rooted phylogenetic tree of 26 vertebrate visual pigments (VPs) was constructed. These VPs are distinguished into the following four clusters: (1) RH1 cluster consisting of rhodopsins, (2) RH2 cluster consisting of VPs with variable ranges of absorption spectra, (3) SWS cluster of short wavelength-sensitive VPs, and (4) LWS/MSW cluster of long and medium wavelength-sensitive VPs. Short wavelength-sensitive VPs from Astyanax fasciatus (AF23), goldfish (BCa), chicken (BCg and VGg), and human (BHs) belong to SWS cluster, whereas that from gecko (BGge) belongs to the RH2 cluster. The SWS cluster is further divided into SWS-I (BHs and VGg) and SWS-II (AF23, BCa, and BGg) groups. The SWS-I group has accumulated more amino acid changes than any other group of VPs. It is suggested that amino acid changes at a few key positions might have been important in the functional differentiation of the SWS-I group from the SWS-II group. PMID:8121284

  19. Short-wavelength buckling and shear failures for compression-loaded composite laminates. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The short-wavelength buckling (or the microbuckling) and the interlaminar and inplane shear failures of multi-directional composite laminates loaded in uniaxial compression are investigated. A laminate model is presented that idealizes each lamina. The fibers in the lamina are modeled as a plate, and the matrix in the lamina is modeled as an elastic foundation. The out-of-plane w displacement for each plate is expressed as a trigonometric series in the half-wavelength of the mode shape for laminate short-wavelength buckling. Nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used. The model is applied to symmetric laminates having linear material behavior. The laminates are loaded in uniform end shortening and are simply supported. A linear analysis is used to determine the laminate stress, strain, and mode shape when short-wavelength buckling occurs. The equations for the laminate compressive stress at short-wavelength buckling are dominated by matrix contributions.

  20. Phase engineered wavelength conversion of ultra-short optical pulses in TI:PPLN waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nouroozi, Rahman; Sohler, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    A phase engineered all-optical wavelength converter for ultra-short pulses (down to 140 fs) in a Ti-diffused, periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguide is proposed. The phase engineering, due to the phase conjugation between signal and idler (converted signal) pulses which takes place in the cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) based wavelength conversion, already leads to shorter idler pulses. The proposed device consists of an unpoled (passive) waveguide section beside of the PPLN waveguide section in order to compensate pulse broadening and phase distortion of the idler pulses induced by the wavelength conversion (in the PPLN section). For example numerical analysis shows that a 140 fs input signal pulse is only broadened by 1.6% in a device with a combination of 20 mm and 6 mm long periodically poled and unpoled waveguide sections. Thus, cSHG/DFG based wavelength converters of a bandwidth of several Tbits/s can be designed.

  1. Output characteristics of SASE-driven short wavelength FEL`s

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates various properties of the ``microspikes`` associated with self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in a short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL). Using results from the 2-D numerical simulation code GINGER, we confirm theoretical predictions such as the convective group velocity in the exponential gain regime. In the saturated gain regime beyond the initial saturation, we find that the average radiation power continues to grow with an approximately linearly dependence upon undulator length. Moreover, the spectrum significantly broadens and shifts in wavelength to the redward direction, with{ital P(w)} approaching a constant, asymptotic value. This is in marked contrast to the exponential gain regime where the spectrum steadily narrows, {ital P(w)} grows, and the central wavelength remains constant with {ital z}. Via use of a spectrogram diagnostic {ital S(w,t)}, it appears that the radiation pattern in the saturated gain regime is composed of an ensemble of distinct ``sinews`` whose widths AA remain approximately constant but whose central wavelengths can ``chirp`` by varying a small extent with {ital t}.

  2. Widely tunable spectrum translation and wavelength exchange by four-wave mixing in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Marhic, M E; Park, Y; Yang, F S; Kazovsky, L G

    1996-12-01

    By a suitable choice of the wavelengths of two pumps and one signal about the zero-dispersion wavelength of a fiber, it is possible to generate mainly one four-wave-mixing product (idler) whose spectrum is a translated version of that of the signal; no spectral inversion or phase conjugation is involved. Unit conversion efficiency can in principle be obtained. Complete exchange of power between two wavelengths can be implemented. One can adjust the wavelengths of the signal and the idler at will over tens of nanometers, while maintaining high conversion efficiency, by suitably tuning the pumps. For fixed pump wavelengths, the signal bandwidth scales linearly with pump power and can reach several nanometers for pump powers of the order of several watts in silica fibers or less in highly nonlinear fibers. PMID:19881841

  3. Task I: A Computational Model for Short Wavelength Stall Inception and Development In Multi-Stage Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth (Technical Monitor); Tan, Choon-Sooi

    2003-01-01

    A computational model is presented for simulating axial compressor stall inception and development via disturbances with length scales on the order of several (typically about three) blade pitches. The model was designed for multi-stage compressors in which stall is initiated by these short wavelength disturbances, also referred to as spikes. The inception process described is fundamentally nonlinear, in contrast to the essentially linear behavior seen in so-called modal stall inception . The model was able to capture the following experimentally observed phenomena: (1) development of rotating stall via short wavelength disturbances, (2) formation and evolution of localized short wavelength stall cells in the first stage of a mismatched compressor, (3) the switch from long to short wavelength stall inception resulting from the re-staggering of the inlet guide vane, (4) the occurrence of rotating stall inception on the negatively sloped portion of the compressor characteristic. Parametric investigations indicated that (1) short wavelength disturbances were supported by the rotor blade row, (2) the disturbance strength was attenuated within the stators, and (3) the reduction of inter-blade row gaps can suppress the growth of short wavelength disturbances. It is argued that each local component group (rotor plus neighboring stators) has its own instability point (i.e. conditions at which disturbances are sustained) for short wavelength disturbances, with the instability point for the compressor set by the most unstable component group.

  4. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light during work at night: limited melatonin suppression without substantial decline of alertness.

    PubMed

    van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light (<530 nm filtered out) at night preserves dim light melatonin levels and whether it induces similar skin temperature, alertness, and performance levels as under full-spectrum light. All 33 subjects participated in random order during three nights (at least 1 wk apart) either under dim light (3 lux), short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light (193 lux), or full-spectrum light (256 lux). Hourly saliva samples for melatonin analysis were collected along with continuous measurements of skin temperature. Subjective sleepiness and activation were assessed via repeated questionnaires and performance was assessed by the accuracy and speed of an addition task. Our results show that short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light only marginally (6%) suppressed salivary melatonin. Average distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) and its pattern over time remained similar under short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light compared with dim light. Subjects performed equally well on an addition task under short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light compared with full-spectrum light. Although subjective ratings of activation were lower under short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light compared with full-spectrum light, subjective sleepiness was not increased. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light at night has some advantages over bright light. It hardly suppresses melatonin concentrations, whereas performance is similar to the bright light condition. Yet, alertness is slightly reduced as compared with bright light, and DPG shows similarity to the dim light condition, which is

  5. Up-conversion luminescence of gold nanospheres when excited at nonsurface plasmon resonance wavelength by a continuous wave laser.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Bhanu; Zhao, Luyang; Wang, Gufeng

    2013-09-11

    We show that, when gold nanospheres are excited at the red side of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength at 592 nm by a continuous wave (CW) laser, they give substantial up-converted luminescence in the SPR wavelength range. The luminescence intensity scales as a second-order function of the excitation power, with a quantum yield ~1/50 of down-conversion luminescence when illuminated at a power of 30 MW/cm(2). The luminescence spectrum is completely different than the SPR profile, indicating a new emission mechanism possibly involving interband transitions coupled with phonons or localized vibration of neighboring gold atoms. Such luminescence is also observed to be substantial for short gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of ~2 but weak for bulk gold. This study provides new insight to the understanding of gold nanoparticle luminescence and opens a new detection scheme for gold nanoparticle-based biological imaging. PMID:23914976

  6. Shear wavelength estimation based on inverse filtering and multiple-point shear wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Tomoaki; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Elastography provides important diagnostic information because tissue elasticity is related to pathological conditions. For example, in a mammary gland, higher grade malignancies yield harder tumors. Estimating shear wave speed enables the quantification of tissue elasticity imaging using time-of-flight. However, time-of-flight measurement is based on an assumption about the propagation direction of a shear wave which is highly affected by reflection and refraction, and thus might cause an artifact. An alternative elasticity estimation approach based on shear wavelength was proposed and applied to passive configurations. To determine the elasticity of tissue more quickly and more accurately, we proposed a new method for shear wave elasticity imaging that combines the shear wavelength approach and inverse filtering with multiple shear wave sources induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF). The feasibility of the proposed method was verified using an elasticity phantom with a hard inclusion.

  7. Interplay of mulitphoton and tunneling ionization in short-wavelength-driven high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.; Kaertner, Franz X.

    2011-07-15

    High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.

  8. A short wave infrared hyperspectral imager for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Ivanco, Tyler; Anger, Cliff

    2005-06-01

    DRDC Suffield and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging for landmine detection since 1988. There has been considerable success detecting surface-laid landmines by classification of their visible/near infrared (VNIR - 400 to 1000 nm wavelength) spectral signatures, but it has not been possible to find VNIR spectral characteristics that would generically distinguish anthropogenic objects from natural features such as rocks, vegetation, soil, etc. Preliminary studies in 1998 suggested that it might be possible to develop such a generic classifier in the short wave infrared (SWIR) and that detection performance might improve. Because of a lack of available SWIR hyperspectral imagers with adequate performance for mine detection, a prototype pushbroom SWIR hyperspectral imager was developed and completed in summer 2002. The now commercially available instrument, sasi, has 160 bands over a spectral range of 850 to 2450 nm, signal to noise ratio of 400:1 with f/1.8 fore-optics, and 600 pixels over a 37.7° field of view. A number of mission flights have been carried out and excellent imagery obtained. In October 2003, Itres and DRDC Suffield personnel obtained field SWIR hyperspectral imagery in the DRDC Suffield Mine Pen of numerous surface-laid mines, one buried mine, other surface-laid human-made items, background materials and people from a horizontally scanning personnel-lift at an altitude of roughly 5 m. Preliminary indications are that a simple generic classification decision boundary should be able to distinguish surface-laid landmines from many human-made artifacts and natural materials. The buried mine was not detected, but the mine had been buried for several years and hence there would be no residual surface disturbance. Furthermore, the small sample size and limited observation time make it difficult to generalize about SWIR performance for buried mines. The instrument is described and the preliminary

  9. Small animal imaging platform for quantitative assessment of short-wave infrared-emitting contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Philip; Mingozzi, Marco; Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Zevon, Margot; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    We report the design, calibration, and testing of a pre-clinical small animal imaging platform for use with short-wave infrared (SWIR) emitting contrast agents. Unlike materials emitting at visible or near-infrared wavelengths, SWIR-emitting agents require detection systems with sensitivity in the 1-2 μm wavelength region, beyond the range of commercially available small animal imagers. We used a collimated 980 nm laser beam to excite rare-earth-doped NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites, as an example of a SWIR emitting material under development for biomedical imaging applications. This beam was raster scanned across the animal, with fluorescence in the 1550 nm wavelength region detected by an InGaAs area camera. Background adjustment and intensity non-uniformity corrections were applied in software. The final SWIR fluorescence image was overlaid onto a standard white-light image for registration of contrast agent uptake with respect to anatomical features.

  10. Measuring the electron density gradients of dense plasmas by deflectometry using short-wavelength probe

    SciTech Connect

    Nejdl, J.; Kozlova, M.; Mocek, T.; Rus, B.

    2010-12-15

    A new and simple experimental technique for the measurement of electron density gradients in dense laser-produced plasmas using an electromagnetic wave probe is presented. The main advantage of this method is the low requirements on coherence of the probing beam. The method is based on measuring the deformation of the Talbot pattern of a two-dimensional grating that stems from the distortion of the probe beam wave-front caused by the gradients of the index of refraction. The compromise between spatial resolution and sensitivity for the given wavelength of the probe beam is set by the experimental design. The proposed technique was experimentally verified on plasmas that were created by either a point focus or a line focus of a laser interacting with various solid targets. In the experiments reported here, all plasmas were probed by a Ne-like Zn x-ray laser beam at 21.2 nm, but the technique is applicable for any wavelength of the probe.

  11. Improving Short Wave Breaking Behavior In Surfbeat Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, J.; Daly, C.; Vandongeren, A. R.; van Thiel de Vries, J.; McCall, R.

    2009-12-01

    In present surfzone modeling three approaches are widely applied: short-wave resolving models, ‘surfbeat’ models, which resolve wave energy modulations on the time-scale of wave groups and their associated infragravity waves, and wave averaged models. In all three approaches, wave breaking is a process that is highly schematized and governed by several empirical coefficients. In this presentation we will focus on the breaking process in ‘surfbeat’ models, such as XBeach (Roelvink et al, 2009). These models need to describe the short wave dissipation by breaking as a function of the slowly-varying short wave energy or wave height. The model usually applied is that by Roelvink (1993), which combines a probability that waves are breaking as function of wave heigth over water depth ratio H/h with a bore-type dissipation formulation similar to that by Battjes and Janssen (1978). A drawback of such a formulation is that there is no ‘memory’ in the breaking process, and the amount of breaking instantly varies with the water depth (though the wave height itself does have a memory). For cases with bichromatic waves, or for long-period swell, this does not reflect reality enough: waves that start breaking do not instantly stop breaking once the water depth increases, but continue until some lower threshold is reached. This concept was captured in Dally’s (1992) wave-by-wave approach, where individual waves are tracked in a probabilistic setting. We have now implemented a similar formulation in XBeach, where the property that waves are breaking is tracked; it is switched on when H/h exceeds a first criterion; this property is propagated using an advection equation and when H/h gets below a second criterion breaking is switched off. This formulation can do two things the previous one can’t: maintain groupiness inside the surf zone and have a maximum of wave breaking in the trough after a steep bar, as was observed for instance in Arcilla et al’s (1994) test 1

  12. Directional short wind wave spectra derived from the sea surface photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulov, Vladimir; Yurovskaya, Maria; Chapron, Bertrand; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    New field measurements of 2-D wave number short wind wave spectra in the wavelength range from few millimeters to few decimeters are reported and discussed. The measurement method proposed by [Kosnik and Dulov, 2011] is based on stereophotography and image brightness contrast processing. The method strongly builds on the brightness cross-spectral analysis to reduce the noise within this short wave gravity and capillary range. Field measurements of wind wave spectra are still rare, and the reported data thus provide valuable information to bring new evidences on the 2-D spectral distribution of short wind waves in the wavelength range from decimeters to millimeters. As found, the folded spectra of decimeter waves are very weakly dependent on the wind speed and its direction. Wind speed and direction sensitivity only starts to appear in the short wavelength range, more precisely in the vicinity of the wave number 100 rad/m, where the wind exponent grows from 0.5 to 1.5-2.5 at 800 rad/m, and angular anisotropy parameter introduced by [Elfouhaily et al., 1997] amounts the value of 0.5. These aspects are consistent with other previously reported optical and radar data. For the latter, we solely extracted the polarization sensitivity to best isolate the contribution associated to the wave saturation spectrum around the Bragg resonant wave number. For the former, mean-squared slope statistics were used to assess the integrated shortscale directional spectral properties. As revealed, observed direction spectral distributions are significantly different from those previously suggested [Elfouhaily et al., 1997; Kudryavtsev et al., 2003, 2005]. On the basis of these new in situ measurements, we then propose to revise the semiempirical analytical model of short wind wave spectra developed by [Kudryavtsev et al., 2003, 2005]. In this model the key parameter is exponent n governing the nonlinear dissipation rate as D ~ Bn+1, where B is saturation spectrum. Accordingly, new

  13. Effects of filtering visual short wavelengths during nocturnal shiftwork on sleep and performance.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shadab A; Shapiro, Colin M; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J; Casper, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450-480 nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480 nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age ± SD: 31.3 ± 4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2 h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p = 0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40 min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p < 0.05) and middle (p < 0.01) night shifts under intervention compared with baseline. Subjective sleepiness increased throughout the night under both conditions (p < 0.01). However, reaction time and throughput on vigilance tests were similar to daytime performance under intervention but impaired

  14. Demonstration of guided-wave phenomena at extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Ceglio, N M; Hawryluk, A M; Stearns, D G; Kühne, M; Müller, P

    1988-04-01

    We report an explicit demonstration of classical guided-wave propagation at XUV and soft-x-ray wavelengths. Experiments were performed using narrow-band synchrotron radiation at 5, 20.8, 21, and 30 nm. Free-standing gold transmission gratings served as waveguide structures. These structures had a 300-nm grating period with waveguide channel widths as small as 100 nm and were as thick as 700 nm in the direction of guided-wave transmission. Guided-wave phenomena were manifest in strongly asymmetric diffraction patterns resulting from the angular tilt of the transmission-grating normal from the incident-beam direction. PMID:19745868

  15. Characteristics and plasma parameters of a short-wavelength low-pressure discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Malinina, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the working optical characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of a short-wavelength, electric discharge exciplex-halogen UV-VUV lamp employing a mixture of argon and chlorine with a total pressure of P = 0.5 10 kPa. The lamp operates on a system of broadened electron-vibrational bands of ArCl (175 nm) and chlorine (200, 258 nm) molecules, which overlap to form a continuum in the spectral range of 160 260 nm. It is established that the optimum mixtures are those with p(Ar) - p(Cl2) = (2 4)-(0.15 0.30) kPa. The average output power of the short-wavelength radiation is 1 2 W at an efficiency of ˜5%. The electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) and the discharge plasma parameters have been calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation for a gas mixture with the experimentally determined optimum composition in the range of E/ P values from 1 to 200 V/(cm Torr), where E is the electric field strength and P is the total gas pressure. Using the obtained EDFs, the electron transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for the main elementary processes, and rate constants of electron processes are determined.

  16. Short-time Chebyshev wave packet method for molecular photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaopeng; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-08-01

    In this letter we present the extended usage of short-time Chebyshev wave packet method in the laser induced molecular photoionization dynamics. In our extension, the polynomial expansion of the exponential in the time evolution operator, the Hamiltonian operator can act on the wave packet directly which neatly avoids the matrix diagonalization. This propagation scheme is of obvious advantages when the dynamical system has large Hamiltonian matrix. Computational simulations are performed for the calculation of photoelectronic distributions from intense short pulse ionization of K2 and NaI which represent the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) model and Non-BO one, respectively.

  17. Photochemistry of the primary event in short-wavelength visual opsins at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Vought, B W; Dukkipatti, A; Max, M; Knox, B E; Birge, R R

    1999-08-31

    Two short-wavelength cone opsins, frog (Xenopus laevis) violet and mouse UV, were expressed in mammalian COS1 cells, purified in delipidated form, and studied using cryogenic UV-vis spectrophotometry. At room temperature, the X. laevis violet opsin has an absorption maximum at 426 nm when generated with 11-cis-retinal and an absorption maximum of 415 nm when generated with 9-cis-retinal. The frog short-wavelength opsin has two different batho intermediates, one stable at 30 K (lambda(max) approximately 446 nm) and the other at 70 K (lambda(max) approximately 475 nm). Chloride ions do not affect the absorption maximum of the violet opsin. At room temperature, mouse UV opsin has an absorption maximum of 357 nm, while at 70 K, the pigment exhibits a bathochromic shift to 403 nm with distinct vibronic structure and a strong secondary vibronic band at 380 nm. We have observed linear relationships when analyzing the energy difference between the initial and bathochromic intermediates and the normalized difference spectra of the batho-shifted intermediates of rod and cone opsins. We conclude that the binding sites of these pigments change from red to green to violet via systematic shifts in the position of the primary counterion relative to the protonated Schiff base. The mouse UV cone opsin does not fit this trend, and we conclude that wavelength selection in this pigment must operate via a different molecular mechanism. We discuss the possibility that the mouse UV chromophore is initially unprotonated. PMID:10471278

  18. The opto-cryo-mechanical design of the short wavelength camera for the CCAT Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshley, Stephen C.; Adams, Joseph; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2014-07-01

    The CCAT observatory is a 25-m class Gregorian telescope designed for submillimeter observations that will be deployed at Cerro Chajnantor (~5600 m) in the high Atacama Desert region of Chile. The Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) for CCAT is an integral part of the observatory, enabling the study of star formation at high and low redshifts. SWCam will be a facility instrument, available at first light and operating in the telluric windows at wavelengths of 350, 450, and 850 μm. In order to trace the large curvature of the CCAT focal plane, and to suit the available instrument space, SWCam is divided into seven sub-cameras, each configured to a particular telluric window. A fully refractive optical design in each sub-camera will produce diffraction-limited images. The material of choice for the optical elements is silicon, due to its excellent transmission in the submillimeter and its high index of refraction, enabling thin lenses of a given power. The cryostat's vacuum windows double as the sub-cameras' field lenses and are ~30 cm in diameter. The other lenses are mounted at 4 K. The sub-cameras will share a single cryostat providing thermal intercepts at 80, 15, 4, 1 and 0.1 K, with cooling provided by pulse tube cryocoolers and a dilution refrigerator. The use of the intermediate temperature stage at 15 K minimizes the load at 4 K and reduces operating costs. We discuss our design requirements, specifications, key elements and expected performance of the optical, thermal and mechanical design for the short wavelength camera for CCAT.

  19. Short wavelengths active bichromatic pulsed pyrometer for solids and liquids designed for measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navello, L.; Lebedinsky, J.; Offret, J. P.; Serio, B.; Davin, T.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Optical passive methods for temperature measurements such as thermography or optical pyrometry are very interesting because they allow a non-intrusive measurement when the emissivity is known. The knowledge of this coefficient is critical for determining the actual temperature of a surface from the thermal radiation emitted in a wavelength band. The bichromatic pulsed pyrometer allows to overcome the knowledge of this parameter provided that precautions are taken in the choice of the values of wavelengths. When the object to be measured is placed in harsh environments, such passive optical methods are greatly disturbed by the presence of an optically absorbing medium. They are also distorted when the measured objects are located in very hot environments emitting intense disturbing radiation. In this study, we present an active bichromatic radiometric method for measuring the temperature of a surface in harsh environments. The method is based on a localized excitation by a modulated laser source in the infrared range. Detecting the temperature modulation, which is correlated with the excitation, is performed using a lock-in amplifier able to extract the signal embedded in a noise up to a million times superior. Working at short wavelengths (visible range and near infrared range) offers a large dynamic range and minimizes the error due to variations in emissivity with the wavelength. This system collects the radiation emitted by the object at a distance from a few meters up to dozens of meters depending on the configuration of the optical system. Both the principle and the design of the active bichromatic optical surface thermometer are presented and discussed. To demonstrate the method, results obtained on a molten ceramic stream are presented.

  20. Lack of short-wavelength light during the school day delays dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in middle school students

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Circadian timing affects sleep onset. Delayed sleep onset can reduce sleep duration in adolescents required to awake early for a fixed school schedule. The absence of short-wavelength (“blue”) morning light, which helps entrain the circadian system, can hypothetically delay sleep onset and decrease sleep duration in adolescents. The goal of this study was to investigate whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. METHODS Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. RESULTS DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. CONCLUSIONS Lack of short-wavelength light in the morning has been shown to delay the circadian clock in controlled laboratory conditions. The results presented here are the first to show, outside laboratory conditions, that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools. PMID:20150866

  1. Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew; Li, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Light-sound interactions have long been exploited in various acousto-optic devices based on bulk crystalline materials. Conventionally, these devices operate in megahertz frequency range where the acoustic wavelength is much longer than the optical wavelength and a long interaction length is required to attain significant coupling. With nanoscale transducers, acoustic waves with sub-optical wavelengths can now be excited to induce strong acousto-optic coupling in nanophotonic devices. Here we demonstrate microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers co-integrated with nanophotonic resonators on piezoelectric aluminum nitride substrates. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength is achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this scheme are investigated for efficient modulation. The new acousto-optic platform can lead to novel optical devices based on nonlinear Brillouin processes and provides a direct, wideband link between optical and microwave photons for microwave photonics and quantum optomechanics. PMID:25400144

  2. Room temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInNAs long wavelength VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M C; Coldren, C W; Spruytte, S G; Peterson, H E; Harris, J S

    2000-06-22

    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are becoming increasingly important for short-haul optical fiber transmission systems. Given the commercial success of GaAs-based 850nm VCSELs, dramatic enhancements in transmission bandwidth and distance can be achieved in conventional single- and multi-mode fiber by extending the emission wavelength to the 1300nm-1550nm range. GaInNAs is a promising active layer material grown on GaAs that can achieve 1300nm emission [l], and electrically pulsed broad-area GaInNAs VCSELs [2,3] have been realized. Here we take advantage of the properties of GaAs-based materials-thermally-conductive high contrast mirrors and AlAs-oxide current apertures-to demonstrate for the first time low-threshold ({approx}1 mA) GaInNAs VCSELs emitting at a wavelength of 1200 nm under continuous-wave room temperature operation. The device structure is shown schematically in figure 1. The bottom mirror consists of a 22.5-period n-doped GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) designed for a center wavelength {lambda} near 1200nm, the top mirror is a 22-period p-doped DBR whose reflectance is enhanced by a Ti/Au contact electrode, and the GaAs {lambda} cavity contains three 70{angstrom}, Ga{sub 0.3}In{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.02}As{sub 0.98} quantum wells (QWs) separated by 200{angstrom} GaAs barriers. The epilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using solid-source arsenic and a rf nitrogen plasma source. After growth, the first 17 mirror periods of the top mirror were dry etched and subsequently capped with SiO{sub 2}, and the remaining three periods were etched to expose the AlAs for lateral oxidation, which formed square unoxidized apertures as small as 3.6 {micro}m on a side. After the top contact metalization, devices were mounted without heat sinking on a glass slide for optical emission through the substrate, which was contacted electrically with indium solder. The output power and voltage vs. injection current for a 5{micro}m x 5{micro

  3. Into French and the World via Short Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorke, Robert Cornelius

    1978-01-01

    A report on the introduction and use of short wave broadcasts in an intensive spoken French class. The kinds of materials used, class structure, the nature of assignments, student motivation, testing, cultural advantages, student reactions, and suggestions for further application are discussed. A list of useful references is included. (AMH)

  4. Short-Wave Radio: An Aid to Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutcavage, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses use of short-wave radio broadcasts as method for expanding students' appreciation of practical advantages of language learning. Suggests use of news broadcasts and gives guidelines for using broadcasts such as level of aural comprehension in class. (Author/BK)

  5. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  6. Wavelength-assignable 1310/1550 nm wavelength conversion using completely phase-matched two-pump four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Gao, Shiming

    2015-12-01

    A wavelength converter between 1310 and 1550 nm bands is presented based on two-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon waveguide. The principle of the inter-band wavelength conversion is analyzed. For an arbitrary incident signal, the converted idler wavelength can be freely assigned by suitably setting the two pump wavelengths to completely satisfy the phase-matching condition. Simulation results show that the signal can be flexibly converted between 1310 and 1550 bands. The conversion efficiencies for the signals with different wavelengths are very stable because the FWM phase-matching condition is completely met. Using this two-pump FWM configuration, channel-selective function can also be realized for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) signals by engineering the dispersion profile of the silicon waveguide according to the WDM channel spacing.

  7. Radio wave propagation at frequencies exceeding MUF-F2 in the short wave band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkaliyev, Y. F.; Bocharov, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    The results of measurements of field strength and signal/noise ratio on experimental ionospheric-scattering short wave radio links are presented. It is shown that the seasonal and diurnal variations of field strength are determined by features of solar and meteoric activity. The role of the sporadic E-layer in propagation of short radio waves at frequencies exceeding MUF-F2 is noted.

  8. Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion

    PubMed Central

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Ferrari, Carlo; Samarelli, Antonio; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Wave mixing inside optical resonators, while experiencing a large enhancement of the nonlinear interaction efficiency, suffers from strong bandwidth constraints, preventing its practical exploitation for processing broad-band signals. Here we show that such limits are overcome by the new concept of travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). This approach combines the efficiency enhancement provided by resonant propagation with a wide-band conversion process. Compared with conventional FWM in bare waveguides, it exhibits higher robustness against chromatic dispersion and propagation loss, while preserving transparency to modulation formats. Travelling-wave resonant FWM has been demonstrated in silicon-coupled ring resonators and was exploited to realize a 630-μm-long wavelength converter operating over a wavelength range wider than 60 nm and with 28-dB gain with respect to a bare waveguide of the same physical length. Full compatibility of the travelling-wave resonant FWM with optical signal processing applications has been demonstrated through signal retiming and reshaping at 10 Gb s−1 PMID:21540838

  9. InGaAs versus HgCdTe for short-wavelength infrared applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni; Ciupa, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The carrier lifetimes in In(subscript x)Ga(subscript 1-x)As (InGaAs) and Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te (HgCdTe) ternary alloys for radiative and Auger recombination are calculated for temperature 300 K in the short wavelength range 1.5 less than (lambda) less than 3.7 micrometer. Due to photon recycling, an order of magnitude enhancements in the radiative lifetimes over those obtained from the standard van Roosbroeck and Shockley expression, has been assumed. This theoretical prediction has been confirmed by good agreement with experimental data for n-type In(subscript 0.53)Ga(subscript 0.47)As. The possible Auger recombination mechanisms (CHCC, CHLH and CHSH processes) in direct-gap semiconductors are investigated. In both n-type ternary alloys, the carrier lifetimes are similar, and competition between radiative and CHCC processes take place. In p-type materials the carrier lifetime are also comparable, however the most effective channels of Auger mechanisms are: CHSH process in InGaAs, and CHLH process in HgCdTe. Next, the performance of heterostructure p-on-n photovoltaic devices are considered. Theoretically predicted R(subscript o)A values are compared with experimental data reported by other authors. In(subscript 0.53)Ga(subscript 0.47)As photodiodes have shown the device performance within a factor of 10 of theoretical limit. However, the performance of InGaAs photodiodes decreases rapidly at intermediate wavelengths due to mismatch-induced defects. HgCdTe photodiodes maintain high performance close to ultimate limit over a wider range of wavelengths. In this context technology of HgCdTe is considerably advanced since the same lattice parameter of this alloy over wide composition range.

  10. Steady State Analysis of Short-wavelength, High-gainFELs in a Large Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Bane, K.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Hettel, R.; Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA

    2007-10-15

    Storage ring FELs have operated successfully in the low-gain regime using optical cavities. Discussions of a high-gain FEL in a storage ring typically involve a special bypass to decouple the FEL interaction from the storage ring dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the coupled dynamics of a high-gain FEL in a large storage ring such as PEP and analyze the equilibrium solution. We show that an FEL in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes can be integrated into a very bright storage ring and potentially provides three orders of magnitude improvement in the average brightness at these radiation wavelengths. We also discuss possibilities of seeding with HHG sources to obtain ultra-short, high-peak power EUV and soft x-ray pulses.

  11. Random crustal magnetization and its effect on coherence of short-wavelength marine magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies of DSDP samples from layer 2A of oceanic basement have found complex magnetic stratigraphies that seem incompatible with the frequent existence of linear short-wavelength anomalies caused by palaeomagnetic field behavior. Statistical models are developed for the lateral variation of the average magnetization of layer 2A: a Poisson series for reversals of the earth's field and a stairstep random series for discrete magnetic units. It is shown with the power-density spectra of these statistical models that lateral inhomogeneities must average out over distances of less than a few hundred meters. Specifically, individual magnetic units of the type seen at DSDP Site 332 cannot extend uniformly for distances greater than a few hundred meters. ?? 1979.

  12. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  13. SWAT system performance predictions. Project report. [SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques)

    SciTech Connect

    Parenti, R.R.; Sasiela, R.J.

    1993-03-10

    In the next phase of Lincoln Laboratory's SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques) program, the performance of a 241-actuator adaptive-optics system will be measured using a variety of synthetic-beacon geometries. As an aid in this experimental investigation, a detailed set of theoretical predictions has also been assembled. The computational tools that have been applied in this study include a numerical approach in which Monte-Carlo ray-trace simulations of accumulated phase error are developed, and an analytical analysis of the expected system behavior. This report describes the basis of these two computational techniques and compares their estimates of overall system performance. Although their regions of applicability tend to be complementary rather than redundant, good agreement is usually obtained when both sets of results can be derived for the same engagement scenario.... Adaptive optics, Phase conjugation, Atmospheric turbulence Synthetic beacon, Laser guide star.

  14. Short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors operating above room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lotfi, Hossein; Li, Lu; Lei, Lin; Jiang, Yuchao; Yang, Rui Q.; Klem, John F.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2016-01-13

    High temperature operation (250–340 K) of short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIPs) with InAs/GaSb/Al0.2In0.8Sb/GaSb superlattice absorbers has been demonstrated with a 50% cutoff wavelength of 2.9 μm at 300 K. Two ICIP structures, one with two and the other with three stages, were designed and grown to explore this multiple-stage architecture. At λ = 2.1 μm, the two- and three-stage ICIPs had Johnson-noise-limited detectivities of 5.1 × 109 and 5.8 ×109 cm Hz1/2/W, respectively, at 300 K. The better device performance of the three-stage ICIP over the two-stage ICIP confirmed the advantage of more stages for this cascade architecture. Furthermore,more » an Arrhenius activation energy of 450 meV is extracted for the bulk resistance-area product, which indicates the dominance of the diffusion current at these high temperatures.« less

  15. Design considerations for the development of a space qualification Short Wavelength Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SWIFTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document is the final report on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during FY 1992 and 1993 for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to look at problems associated with the design and long term operation of a short wavelength imaging Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer for use in space. In attempts to answer two fundamental questions: is a FT spectrometer with a resolution of 1 cm{sup {minus}1} covering the silicon detector wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.1 microns feasible in a long life space instrument and, if so, is it the best method of obtaining the desired information? Emphasis has been on identifying methods which minimize reliance on precision mechanical alignment and precise velocity control. An important consideration has also been to develop methods which will be compatible with a variety of self-scanning solid state imaging devices. A breadboard instrument was constructed using cube corner retroreflectors and a laser diode position reference. Some preliminary results are reported. This work is primarily intended to act as an aid to engineers at Sandia who wish to pursue the fabrication of a flight qualified instrument. The theoretical parts are intended to be somewhat tutorial in nature to aid the engineer who is not familiar with FT spectroscopy.

  16. Short-wavelength cone-opponent retinal ganglion cells in mammals

    PubMed Central

    MARSHAK, DAVID W.; MILLS, STEPHEN L.

    2014-01-01

    In all of the mammalian species studied to date, the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and the S-cone bipolar cells that receive their input are very similar, but the retinal ganglion cells that receive synapses from the S-cone bipolar cells appear to be quite different. Here, we review the literature on mammalian retinal ganglion cells that respond selectively to stimulation of S-cones and respond with opposite polarity to longer wavelength stimuli. There are at least three basic mechanisms to generate these color-opponent responses, including: (1) opponency is generated in the outer plexiform layer by horizontal cells and is conveyed to the ganglion cells via S-cone bipolar cells, (2) inputs from bipolar cells with different cone inputs and opposite response polarity converge directly on the ganglion cells, and (3) inputs from S-cone bipolar cells are inverted by S-cone amacrine cells. These are not mutually exclusive; some mammalian ganglion cells that respond selectively to S-cone stimulation seem to utilize at least two of them. Based on these findings, we suggest that the small bistratified ganglion cells described in primates are not the ancestral type, as proposed previously. Instead, the known types of ganglion cells in this pathway evolved from monostratified ancestral types and became bistratified in some mammalian lineages. PMID:24759445

  17. Short-wavelength cone-opponent retinal ganglion cells in mammals.

    PubMed

    Marshak, David W; Mills, Stephen L

    2014-03-01

    In all of the mammalian species studied to date, the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and the S-cone bipolar cells that receive their input are very similar, but the retinal ganglion cells that receive synapses from the S-cone bipolar cells appear to be quite different. Here, we review the literature on mammalian retinal ganglion cells that respond selectively to stimulation of S-cones and respond with opposite polarity to longer wavelength stimuli. There are at least three basic mechanisms to generate these color-opponent responses, including: (1) opponency is generated in the outer plexiform layer by horizontal cells and is conveyed to the ganglion cells via S-cone bipolar cells, (2) inputs from bipolar cells with different cone inputs and opposite response polarity converge directly on the ganglion cells, and (3) inputs from S-cone bipolar cells are inverted by S-cone amacrine cells. These are not mutually exclusive; some mammalian ganglion cells that respond selectively to S-cone stimulation seem to utilize at least two of them. Based on these findings, we suggest that the small bistratified ganglion cells described in primates are not the ancestral type, as proposed previously. Instead, the known types of ganglion cells in this pathway evolved from monostratified ancestral types and became bistratified in some mammalian lineages. PMID:24759445

  18. Layered convection in Io: Implications for short-wavelength surface topography and heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Peltier, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Io, one of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter is remarkable for its extensive volcanism and extreme interior tidal heating. The tidal heating likely yields a very low viscosity asthenosphere and consequently a very high Rayleigh number of O(1012) for convection in the interior. In a state of quasi-steady balance the internally generated heat must be transported from the interior to the base of the Io lithosphere and exhausted to space. The mechanisms whereby the convective radial heat transfer is evacuated involve both conduction and volcanism. Despite Io's ubiquitous volcanism, only 4% of its mountains (montes) appear to have a volcanic origin and most of the mountainous regions seem to be related to tectonic processes. By employing an original control volume based numerical model we investigate the style of convection in the interior of Io and the correlation of the scale of convection with the Ionian surface heat flux and topography. Our control volume results support the existence of significant asthenospheric heating and demonstrate that short wavelength features of the surface heat flux are well correlated in scale to an expected layered intra-lithospheric style small-scale convection. These numerical analyses suggest that the amplitude of the short wavelength topography of Io is expected to be on the order of a few hundreds of meters. The model results also demonstrate that the Ionian highs cannot be produced by a lithospheric flexure process above the hot upwellings and therefore other tectonic events, such as have previously been suggested; must be responsible for the formation of the high Ionian mountains that reach in excess of 17 km in elevation.

  19. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q.; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B.; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  20. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Nadeau, Kyle P; Jaworski, Frank B; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J; Durkin, Anthony J

    2014-08-01

    Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  1. Review of short-wave infrared spectroscopy and imaging methods for biological tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Nadeau, Kyle P; Jaworski, Frank B; Tromberg, Bruce J; Durkin, Anthony J

    2015-03-01

    We present a review of short-wave infrared (SWIR, defined here as ∼1000 to 2000 nm) spectroscopy and imaging techniques for biological tissue optical property characterization. Studies indicate notable SWIR absorption features of tissue constituents including water (near 1150, 1450, and 1900 nm), lipids (near 1040, 1200, 1400, and 1700 nm), and collagen (near 1200 and 1500 nm) that are much more prominent than corresponding features observed in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR, defined here as ∼400 to 1000 nm). Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient has been observed to follow a power-law decay from the VIS-NIR to the SWIR region. Thus, the magnitude of tissue scattering is lower at SWIR wavelengths than that observed at VIS or NIR wavelengths, potentially enabling increased penetration depth of incident light at SWIR wavelengths that are not highly absorbed by the aforementioned chromophores. These aspects of SWIR suggest that the tissue spectroscopy and imaging in this range of wavelengths have the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity (relative to VIS-NIR measurements) to chromophores such as water and lipids, thereby helping to characterize changes in the concentrations of these chromophores due to conditions such as atherosclerotic plaque, breast cancer, and burns. PMID:25803186

  2. Review of short-wave infrared spectroscopy and imaging methods for biological tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a review of short-wave infrared (SWIR, defined here as ∼1000 to 2000 nm) spectroscopy and imaging techniques for biological tissue optical property characterization. Studies indicate notable SWIR absorption features of tissue constituents including water (near 1150, 1450, and 1900 nm), lipids (near 1040, 1200, 1400, and 1700 nm), and collagen (near 1200 and 1500 nm) that are much more prominent than corresponding features observed in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR, defined here as ∼400 to 1000 nm). Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient has been observed to follow a power-law decay from the VIS-NIR to the SWIR region. Thus, the magnitude of tissue scattering is lower at SWIR wavelengths than that observed at VIS or NIR wavelengths, potentially enabling increased penetration depth of incident light at SWIR wavelengths that are not highly absorbed by the aforementioned chromophores. These aspects of SWIR suggest that the tissue spectroscopy and imaging in this range of wavelengths have the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity (relative to VIS-NIR measurements) to chromophores such as water and lipids, thereby helping to characterize changes in the concentrations of these chromophores due to conditions such as atherosclerotic plaque, breast cancer, and burns. PMID:25803186

  3. Review of short-wave infrared spectroscopy and imaging methods for biological tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a review of short-wave infrared (SWIR, defined here as ˜1000 to 2000 nm) spectroscopy and imaging techniques for biological tissue optical property characterization. Studies indicate notable SWIR absorption features of tissue constituents including water (near 1150, 1450, and 1900 nm), lipids (near 1040, 1200, 1400, and 1700 nm), and collagen (near 1200 and 1500 nm) that are much more prominent than corresponding features observed in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR, defined here as ˜400 to 1000 nm). Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient has been observed to follow a power-law decay from the VIS-NIR to the SWIR region. Thus, the magnitude of tissue scattering is lower at SWIR wavelengths than that observed at VIS or NIR wavelengths, potentially enabling increased penetration depth of incident light at SWIR wavelengths that are not highly absorbed by the aforementioned chromophores. These aspects of SWIR suggest that the tissue spectroscopy and imaging in this range of wavelengths have the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity (relative to VIS-NIR measurements) to chromophores such as water and lipids, thereby helping to characterize changes in the concentrations of these chromophores due to conditions such as atherosclerotic plaque, breast cancer, and burns.

  4. Concentric waves and short-period oscillations observed in the ionosphere after the 2013 Moore EF5 tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Michi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Kubota, Minoru; Ishii, Mamoru

    2013-11-01

    We detected clear concentric waves and short-period oscillations in the ionosphere after an Enhanced Fujita scale (EF)5 tornado hit Moore, Oklahoma, U.S., on 20 May 2013 using dense wide-coverage ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations in North America. These concentric waves were nondispersive, with a horizontal wavelength of ~120 km and a period of ~13 min. They were observed for more than 7 h throughout North America. TEC oscillations with a period of ~4 min were also observed to the south of Moore for more than 8 h. A comparison between the TEC observations and infrared cloud image from the GOES satellite indicates that the concentric waves and short-period oscillations are caused by supercell-induced atmospheric gravity waves and acoustic resonances, respectively. This observational result provides the first clear evidence of a severe meteorological event causing atmospheric waves propagating upward in the upper atmosphere and reaching the ionosphere.

  5. Large-amplitude plasma wave generation with a high-intensity short-pulse beat wave.

    PubMed

    Walton, B; Najmudin, Z; Wei, M S; Marle, C; Kingham, R J; Krushelnick, K; Dangor, A E; Clarke, R J; Poulter, M J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Hawkes, S; Neely, D; Collier, J L; Danson, C N; Fritzler, S; Malka, V

    2002-12-15

    A short-pulse laser beat wave scheme for advanced particle accelerator applications is examined. A short, intense (3-ps, >10(18)-W cm(-2)) two-frequency laser pulse is produced by use of a modified chirped-pulse amplification scheme and is shown to produce relativistic plasma waves during interactions with low-density plasmas. The generation of plasma waves was observed by measurement of forward Raman scattering. Resonance was found to occur at an electron density many times that expected, owing to ponderomotive displacement of plasma within the focal region. PMID:18033483

  6. Comparing wavelengths simulated by the coastal wave model CWAM and TerraSAR-X satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang; Lehner, Susanne; Hoffmann, Peter; Kieser, Jens; Bruns, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of the high resolution coastal wave forecast model CWAM is validated on the basis of sea state information from satellite images of TerraSAR-X (TS-X). At the same time, the performance of the satellite retrieval of sea state parameters is demonstrated. Employing 2-dimensional spatial Fourier Transformation, image spectra are derived from TS-X and locally varying patterns of the peak wavelength are provided using state-of-the-art satellite retrieval. Subsequently, wavelength comparisons are performed between a typical set of TS-X scenes acquired in December 2013 over the German Bight and the model hindcasts. The results are mostly in reasonable agreement. Potential shortcomings of the wave model are discussed as well.

  7. Wave-length dependencies of light scattering in normal and cold swollen rabbit corneas and their structural implications*

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, R. A.; McCally, R. L.; Tatham, P. E. R.

    1973-01-01

    1. The studies described herein involve the use of light scattering measurements to characterize the ultrastructural arrangement of the constituent collagen fibrils in rabbit corneal stromas. 2. Theoretical light scattering techniques for calculating the scattering to be expected from the structures revealed by electron micrographs are discussed, and comparison with the experimental light scattering tests the validity of these structures. 3. The wave-length dependence of light transmission and of angular light scattering from normal corneas is in agreement with the short range ordering of collagen fibrils depicted in electron micrographs. 4. The transmission measurements on oedematous rabbit corneas indicate that transmission decreases linearly with the ratio of thickness to normal thickness. 5. The wave-length dependence of transmission through cold swollen corneas indicates that the increased scattering is caused by large inhomogeneities in the ultrastructure. Electron micrographs do, indeed, reveal the presence of such inhomogeneities in the form of large regions completely devoid of fibrils. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3 PMID:4754873

  8. Automated model-based calibration of short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrographs.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Matjaž; Bürmen, Miran; Tomaževič, Dejan; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-10-01

    Among the variety of available hyperspectral imaging systems, the line-scan technique stands out for its short acquisition time and good signal-to-noise ratio. However, due to imperfections in the camera lens and, in particular, optical components of the imaging spectrograph, the acquired images are spatially and spectrally distorted, which can significantly degrade the accuracy of the subsequent hyperspectral image analysis. In this work, we propose and evaluate an automated method for correction of spatial and spectral distortions introduced by a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system operating in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral range from 1000 nm to 2500 nm. The proposed method is based on non-rigid registration of the distorted and reference images corresponding to two passive calibration objects. The results of the validation show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient, and applicable for calibration of line-scan hyperspectral imaging systems. Moreover, the design of the method and of the calibration objects allows integration with systems operating in diffuse reflectance or transmittance modes. PMID:23031695

  9. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Measurements of Short Wind Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocholz, Roland; Jähne, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Spatio-temporal measurements of wind-driven short-gravity capillary waves are reported for a wide range of experimental conditions, including wind, rain and surface slicks. The experiments were conducted in the Hamburg linear wind/wave flume in cooperation with the Institute of Oceanography at the University of Hamburg, Germany. Both components of the slope field were measured optically at a fetch of 14.4 m using a color imaging slope gauge (CISG) with a footprint of 223 x 104 mm and a resolution of 0.7 mm. The instrument was improved versus earlier versions (Jähne and Riemer (1990), Klinke (1992)) to achieve a sampling rate of 312.5 Hz, which now allows for the computation of 3D wavenumber-frequency spectra (see Rocholz (2008)). This made it possible to distinguish waves traveling in and against wind direction, which proved useful to distinguish wind waves from ring waves caused by rain drop impacts. Using a new calibration method it was possible to correct for the intrinsic nonlinearities of the instrument in the slope range up to ±1. In addition, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was measured and employed for the restoration of the spectral amplitudes for wavenumbers in the range from 60 to 2300 rad/m. The spectra for pure wind conditions are generally consistent with previous measurements. But, the shape of the saturation spectra in the vicinity of k~1000 rad/m (i.e. pure capillary waves) stands in contradiction to former investigations where a sharp spectral cutoff (k^(-2) or k^(-3)) is commonly reported (e.g. Jähne and Riemer (1990)). This cutoff is reproduced by almost all semi-empirical models of the energy flux in the capillary range (e.g. Kudryavtsev et al. (1999), Apel (1994)). However, the new MTF corrected spectra show only a gentle decrease (between k^(-0.5) and k^(-1)) for k > 1000 rad/m. Therefore the question for the relative importance of different dissipation mechanisms might need a new assessment. References: J. R. Apel. An improved

  11. Wavelength dependence of eddy dissipation and Coriolis force in the dynamics of gravity wave driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, M. P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of inclusion of Coriolis force and eddy dissipation in the gravity wave dynamics theory of Walterscheid et al. (1987). It was found that the values of the ratio 'eta' (where eta is a complex quantity describing the ralationship between the intensity oscillation about the time-averaged intensity, and the temperature oscillation about the time-averaged temperature) strongly depend on the wave period and the horizontal wavelength; thus, if comparisons are to be made between observations and theory, horizontal wavelengths will need to be measured in conjunction with the OH nightglow measurements. For the waves with horizontal wavelengths up to 1000 km, the eddy dissipation was found to dominate over the Coriolis force in the gravity wave dynamics and also in the associated values of eta. However, for waves with horizontal wavelengths of 10,000 km or more, the Coriolis force cannot be neglected; it has to be taken into account along with the eddy dissipation.

  12. Spectral tuning and evolution of primate short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Livia S.; Davies, Wayne L.; Robinson, Phyllis R.; Hunt, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The peak sensitivities (λmax) of the short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) pigments in mammals range from the ultraviolet (UV) (360–400 nm) to the violet (400–450 nm) regions of the spectrum. In most cases, a UV or violet peak is determined by the residue present at site 86, with Phe conferring UV sensitivity (UVS) and either Ser, Tyr or Val causing a shift to violet wavelengths. In primates, however, the tuning mechanism of violet-sensitive (VS) pigments would appear to differ. In this study, we examine the tuning mechanisms of prosimian SWS1 pigments. One species, the aye-aye, possesses a pigment with Phe86 but in vitro spectral analysis reveals a VS rather than a UVS pigment. Other residues (Cys, Ser and Val) at site 86 in prosimians also gave VS pigments. Substitution at site 86 is not, therefore, the primary mechanism for the tuning of VS pigments in primates, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that substitutions at site 86 have occurred at least five times in primate evolution. The sole potential tuning site that is conserved in all primate VS pigments is Pro93, which when substituted by Thr (as found in mammalian UVS pigments) in the aye-aye pigment shifted the peak absorbance into the UV region with a λmax value at 371 nm. We, therefore, conclude that the tuning of VS pigments in primates depends on Pro93, not Tyr86 as in other mammals. However, it remains uncertain whether the initial event that gave rise to the VS pigment in the ancestral primate was achieved by a Thr93Pro or a Phe86Tyr substitution. PMID:21697177

  13. TES arrays for the short wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R.; Ridder, M.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Trappe, N.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, A.; Griffin, D.; Goldie, D.; Glowacka, D.; Withington, S.; Jackson, B. D.; Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.

    2012-09-01

    SPICA is an infra-red (IR) telescope with a cryogenically cooled mirror (~5K) with three instruments on board, one of which is SAFARI that is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with three bands covering the wavelength of 34-210 μm. We develop transition edge sensors (TES) array for short wavelength band (34-60 μm) of SAFARI. These are based on superconducting Ti/Au bilayer as TES bolometers with a Tc of about 105 mK and thin Ta film as IR absorbers on suspended silicon nitride (SiN) membranes. These membranes are supported by long and narrow SiN legs that act as weak thermal links between the TES and the bath. Previously an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4×10-19 W/√Hz was achieved for a single pixel of such detectors. As an intermediate step toward a full-size SAFARI array (43×43), we fabricated several 8×9 detector arrays. Here we describe the design and the outcome of the dark and optical tests of several of these devices. We achieved high yield (<93%) and high uniformity in terms of critical temperature (<5%) and normal resistance (7%) across the arrays. The measured dark NEPs are as low as 5×10-19 W/√Hz with a response time of about 1.4 ms at preferred operating bias point. The optical coupling is implemented using pyramidal horns array on the top and hemispherical cavity behind the chip that gives a measured total optical coupling efficiency of 30±7%.

  14. The Design of the Short Wavelength Camera for the CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon J.; Parshley, S.; Nikola, T.; Dowell, C. D.; Adams, J. D.; Bertoldi, F.; Chapman, S.; Cortes, G.; Day, P.; Glenn, J.; Halpern, M.; Hollister, M.; Kovacs, A.; LeDuc, H.; McKenney, C.; Monroe, R.; Mroczkowski, T.; Nguyen, H. T.; Niemack, M.; Rajagopalan, G.; Radford, S. J.; Schaaf, R.; Scott, D.; Schoenwald, J.; Swenson, L.; Yoshida, H.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design for the Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) that we are proposing for use on the 25 meter CCAT submillimeter telescope. SWCam utilizes the absorber-coupled MKID based detector arrays that are being developed at JPL, and will soon be tested in the MAKO camera on the CSO. The primary SWCam band is centered on the 350 um telluric window but we plan capabilities in the 450 and 200 um telluric windows as well. Due to the curvature of the CCAT focal plane, the camera is split into 7 sub-cameras - a central camera and six cameras in a closed-packed outer ring. Each silicon lens-based camera illuminates an array consisting of ~7750 pixels with a plate scale of 3”/pixel which corresponds to an image plane sampling of lambda/D per pixel at 350 um. The combined pixel count is ~ 54,000 and the effective instantaneous field of view is ~ 13’ in diameter. All the cameras are contained in a single closed-cycle cryostat simplifying the optical/cryo/mechanical systems. The system is expected to achieve a back-ground limited sensitivity ~20 to 30 mJy/sqrt(Hz) under good weather conditions 0.43 mm precipitatable water vapor burden), so that the SWCam on CCAT approaches (5 sigma) the expected confusion noise for distant infrared bright galaxies on CCAT (<1 mJy) in about 4 hours integration time, and can map a degree of sky to this limit in about 100 hours of integration time. The primary science for SWCam is to investigate star, galaxy and structure formation over cosmic time through large scale (10s of square degrees) surveys in the submm continuum bands. SWCam is a key part of a triad of instruments that enable this science, including a long wavelength camera (LWCam), and a broad-band direct detection spectrometer (X-Spec) - instruments also described within this session.

  15. A study of short wave instability on vortex filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong Yun

    1996-12-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of the vortex method are studied. The effect of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) solver and of the time step on the numerical stability is analyzed. Various ODE solvers are compared and a best performer is chosen. A new constraint on the time step based on numerical stability is proposed and verified in numerical simulations. It is shown through numerical examples that empirical rules for selecting the spatial discretization obtained in simple test problems may not be extended to more general problems. The thin tube vortex filament method is applied to the problem of Widnall`s instability on vortex rings. Numerical results different from previous calculations are presented and the source of the discrepancies is explained. The long time behavior of the unstable mode on thin vortex rings is simulated and analyzed. The short wave instability on vortex filaments is investigated both theoretically and numerically. It is shown that the short wave instability always occurs on co-rotating vortex filaments of fixed core structure. Furthermore when they are close to each other, vortex filaments produce short wave unstable modes which lead to wild stretching and folding. However, when the inter-filament distance is large in comparison with the core size of the filaments, unstable modes are bounded by a small fraction of the core size and the vortex filaments do not create hairpins nor wild stretching. These findings may explain the smooth behavior of the superfluid vortices. The formation of hairpin structures on numerical vortex filaments is investigated. It is shown that the formation of hairpin structures is independent of the ODE solver, of the time step and of other numerical parameters. The hairpin structures are primarily caused by short wave instability on co-rotating vortex filaments.

  16. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D. Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  17. The search for atmospheric waves below the clouds of Jupiter using radio wavelength observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Rick; Butler, Bryan; Sault, Bob; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Simon, Amy

    2015-11-01

    We observed Jupiter at 2 cm wavelength with the VLA in early February 2015. This particular frequency is mostly sensitive to variations in ammonia opacity and probes a depth between 1 and 2 bars pressure; below the visible cloud deck at 0.7 bars. The data acquired was projected into a cartographic map of the planet following the technique of Sault et al. (2004). The horizontal resolution is ~1500 km and we have examined the map for atmospheric waves on these and larger scales. The map has revealed prominent features near 8N, in the North Equatorial Belt, where the 5 micron hotspot planetary wave feature also resides. The Great Red Spot is also prominent and has a noticeable meridional asymmetry. We will present our analysis of the spatial structure for the entire map and best fit of its wave feature spectrum.Our research is supported by NRAO and NMT.

  18. Effects of Stable Stratification on the Short Wave Instability in a Vortex Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Mahoney, D.; Tsutsui, H.; Crockett, J.; Rottman, J.

    2002-11-01

    The evolution of a counter-rotating vortex pair in a stably stratified fluid is investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The study focuses on the short wave instability occurring in this flow which consists of a sinusoidal asymmetric deformation of the vortices with wavelength on the order of the vortex spacing. The short wave instability has been observed in unstratified laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In stable stratification, our simulation results show an earlier onset and higher growth rate. This is due to the enhanced strain that occurs when the vortices move closer together as a result of the generated baroclinic torque. With relatively weak stratification, the wavelength of the instability remains comparable to that in the unstratified case and a significant increase in the growth rate is exhibited. For stronger stratification, the form of the instability becomes more complex and the growth rate is less than that for weak stratification. Details of the structure and dynamics of the flow are presented.

  19. Characteristics of short-period internal waves in the Kara Sea inferred from satellite SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, I. E.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Zubkova, E. V.; Zimin, A. V.; Chapron, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present the results of short-period internal wave (SIW) observations in the Kara Sea on the basis of satellite ENVISAT ASAR data between July and October 2007. Altogether, 248 internal wave (IW) packets and solitons are identified in 89 SAR images. Detailed spatial statistics of IW signatures and their properties in the Kara Sea is presented. The primary regions of IW activity are the areas near the Kara Gates Strait, the southeastern part of the Novaya Zemlya Trough, and in the vicinity of Cape Zhelaniya. We identify the regions where large IW packets are observed with wavelengths up to 2-3 km and the front length exceeding 200 km. The mean interpacket distance for observed IWs is about 20 km, but it may reach 50-60 km. Consequent IW packets are observed to travel up to 500 km from the presumed generation points. The results of satellite observations are compared with results of previous studies.

  20. A conserved aromatic residue regulating photosensitivity in short-wavelength sensitive cone visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Kuemmel, Colleen M; Sandberg, Megan N; Birge, Robert R; Knox, Barry E

    2013-07-30

    Visual pigments have a conserved phenylalanine in transmembrane helix 5 located near the β-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore. Site-directed mutants of this residue (F207) in a short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (VCOP) were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy to investigate its role in photosensitivity and formation of the light-activated state. The side chain is important for pigment formation: VCOP(F207A), VCOP(F207L), VCOP(F207M), and VCOP(F207W) substitutions all bound 11-cis-retinal and formed a stable visual pigment, while VCOP(F207V), VCOP(F207S), VCOP(F207T), and VCOP(F207Y) substitutions do not. The extinction coefficients of all pigments are close, ranging between 35800 and 45600 M⁻¹ cm⁻¹. Remarkably, the mutants exhibit an up to 5-fold reduction in photosensitivity and also abnormal photobleaching behavior. One mutant, VCOP(F207A), forms an isomeric composition of the retinal chromophore after illumination comparable to that of wild-type VCOP yet does not release the all-trans-retinal chromophore. These findings suggest that the conserved F207 residue is important for a normal photoactivation pathway, formation of the active conformation and the exit of all-trans-retinal from the chromophore-binding pocket. PMID:23808485

  1. Conserved residues in the extracellular loops of short-wavelength cone visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hsuan; Sandberg, Daniel J; Babu, Kunnel R; Bubis, Jose; Surya, Arjun; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Zapata, Heidi J; Galan, Jhenny F; Sandberg, Megan N; Birge, Robert R; Knox, Barry E

    2011-08-16

    The role of the extracellular loop region of a short-wavelength sensitive pigment, Xenopus violet cone opsin, is investigated via computational modeling, mutagenesis, and spectroscopy. The computational models predict a complex H-bonding network that stabilizes and connects the EC2-EC3 loop and the N-terminus. Mutations that are predicted to disrupt the H-bonding network are shown to produce visual pigments that do not stably bind chromophore and exhibit properties of a misfolded protein. The potential role of a disulfide bond between two conserved Cys residues, Cys(105) in TM3 and Cys(182) in EC2, is necessary for proper folding and trafficking in VCOP. Lastly, certain residues in the EC2 loop are predicted to stabilize the formation of two antiparallel β-strands joined by a hairpin turn, which interact with the chromophore via H-bonding or van der Waals interactions. Mutations of conserved residues result in a decrease in the level of chromophore binding. These results demonstrate that the extracellular loops are crucial for the formation of this cone visual pigment. Moreover, there are significant differences in the structure and function of this region in VCOP compared to that in rhodopsin. PMID:21688771

  2. Short-wavelength ablation of polymers in the high-fluence regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberatore, Chiara; Mann, Klaus; Müller, Matthias; Pina, Ladislav; Juha, Libor; Vyšín, Ludek; Rocca, Jorge J.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    Short-wavelength ablation of poly(1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) (PPEES) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) radiation from plasma-based sources. The initial experiment was performed with a 10 Hz desktop capillary-discharge XUV laser lasing at 46.9 nm. The XUV laser beam was focused onto the sample by a spherical mirror coated with a Si/Sc multilayer. The same materials were irradiated with 13.5 nm radiation emitted by plasmas produced by focusing an optical laser beam onto a xenon gas-puff target. A Schwarzschild focusing optics coated with a Mo/Si multilayer was installed at the source to achieve energy densities exceeding 0.1 J cm-2 in the tight focus. The existing experimental system at the Laser Laboratorium Göttingen was upgraded by implementing a 1.2 J driving laser. An increase of the SXR fluence was secured by improving the alignment technique.

  3. Short-wavelength sensitive opsin (SWS1) as a new marker for vertebrate phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    van Hazel, Ilke; Santini, Francesco; Müller, Johannes; Chang, Belinda SW

    2006-01-01

    Background Vertebrate SWS1 visual pigments mediate visual transduction in response to light at short wavelengths. Due to their importance in vision, SWS1 genes have been isolated from a surprisingly wide range of vertebrates, including lampreys, teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The SWS1 genes exhibit many of the characteristics of genes typically targeted for phylogenetic analyses. This study investigates both the utility of SWS1 as a marker for inferring vertebrate phylogenetic relationships, and the characteristics of the gene that contribute to its phylogenetic utility. Results Phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate SWS1 genes produced topologies that were remarkably congruent with generally accepted hypotheses of vertebrate evolution at both higher and lower taxonomic levels. The few exceptions were generally associated with areas of poor taxonomic sampling, or relationships that have been difficult to resolve using other molecular markers. The SWS1 data set was characterized by a substantial amount of among-site rate variation, and a relatively unskewed substitution rate matrix, even when the data were partitioned into different codon sites and individual taxonomic groups. Although there were nucleotide biases in some groups at third positions, these biases were not convergent across different taxonomic groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that SWS1 may be a good marker for vertebrate phylogenetics due to the variable yet consistent patterns of sequence evolution exhibited across fairly wide taxonomic groups. This may result from constraints imposed by the functional role of SWS1 pigments in visual transduction. PMID:17107620

  4. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features. PMID:17073573

  5. High detectivity short-wavelength II-VI quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikumar, Arvind P. Gmachl, Claire F.; Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jesus, Joel De

    2014-08-11

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe-based short-wavelength photovoltaic Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The QCD operates in two spectral bands centered around 2.6 μm and 3.6 μm. Calibrated blackbody measurements yield a peak responsivity of 0.1 mA/W or 2400 V/W at 80 K, and a corresponding 300 K background radiation limited infrared performance detectivity (BLIP) of ∼2.5 × 10{sup 10 }cm √Hz/W. Comparison of background illuminated and dark current-voltage measurements demonstrates a BLIP temperature of 200 K. The device differential resistance-area product, decreases from about 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2} at 80 K to about 8000 Ω cm{sup 2} at 300 K, indicative of the ultra-low Johnson noise in the detectors.

  6. Short-wavelength gravity lineations and unusual flexure results at the Puka Puka volcanic ridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, Andrew M.

    1995-12-01

    Short-wavelength gravity lineations aligned parallel to the direction of absolute motion of the Pacific plate, and a newly discovered series of linear, elongate volcanic ridges in the south-central pacific Ocean are just two of the many geophysical and geochemical anomalies that have been observed in this area. These Puka Puka volcanic ridges can be traced for 2600 km along the trough of a major gravity lineation and stretch from close to the East Pacific Rise, in the east, to the Tuamotu Islands in the west. The ridges were the focus of a recent cruise to this area that collected high quality gravity and multi-beam swath bathymetry data, in addition to dredge samples that are suitable for radiometric age dating. A complete 2-D lithospheric flexure analysis of these new data reveals that each of the volcanic ridges is associated with an unusually low effective elastic plate thickness. Previous workers showed this region to be characterised by lower than expected elastic thickness values, which were interpreted in terms of both regional and more localised thermal anomalies in the oceanic lithosphere. The new flexure results obtained for the volcanic ridges in this study confirm these low values. Lithospheric stretching and small-scale convection models that have been put forward to explain the origin of the lineations and volcanic ridges have been re-examined in light of these new results but neither is found to satisfactorily explain all of the observations.

  7. Short-wavelength stability analysis of Hill's vortex with/without swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Y.; Hijiya, K.

    2010-07-01

    The stability of Hill's vortex with/without swirl is studied by the short-wavelength stability analysis or WKB analysis. It is shown that the classical Hill's spherical vortex is subjected not only to the Widnall instability but also to the curvature instability found for thin vortex rings and helical vortex tubes. A new "combined" mode of instability caused by the two instabilities is discovered. The magnitude of the exponential growth rate of the combined mode is similar with the curvature instability around the stagnation point; it exceeds the Widnall instability near the boundary. The effects of swirl on the instabilities are investigated using a family of solutions obtained by Moffatt ["The degree of knottedness of tangled vortex lines," J. Fluid Mech. 35, 117 (1969)]. As the swirl parameter α increases, a stable region appears around the stagnation point; the maxima of the growth rates decrease; the combined mode region disappears for α ≥3. As α increases further, however, the region of the generalized centrifugal instability emerges from the stagnation point.

  8. Wavelength and temperature dependence of continuous-wave laser absorptance in Kapton thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, William J.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.; Bailey, William F.; Walters, Craig T.

    2012-12-01

    Optical properties and laser damage characteristics of thin-film aluminized Kapton were investigated. Spectral absorptance of virgin and irradiated samples was measured from the Kapton side of multilayered insulation over 0.2 to 15 μm wavelengths at both room temperature and 150°C. The laser-damage parameters of penetration time and maximum temperature were then measured in a vacuum environment at laser wavelengths of 1.07 and 10.6 μm. Differences in damage behavior at these two wavelengths were observed due to differences in starting absorption properties at these wavelengths. During laser irradiation, the Kapton thin film was observed with a calibrated FLIR thermal imager in the 8 to 9.2 μm band to determine its temperature evolution. Spectral radiance throughout the mid- and long-wave infrared was also observed with a Fourier transform spectrometer, allowing temperature-dependent spectral emittance to be determined. Kapton emittance increased after the material heated past approximately 500°C, and continued to increase as it cooled posttest. This evolving temperature-dependent spectral emittance successfully predicts the increasing absorptance that led to shortened penetration times and increased heating rates for the 1.07 μm laser. For tests with constant absorptance and no material breakdown, a simplified one-dimensional thermal conduction and radiation model successfully predicts the temporally evolving temperature.

  9. Adaptive two-wave mixing wavelength demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor for monitoring dynamic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yi; Zhou, Yi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2005-05-01

    A two-wave mixing (TWM) wavelength demodulator using InP:Fe photorefractive crystal (PRC) in the C-band (1530-1570nm) is demonstrated. The system can be used as a wavelength demodulator for use with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to monitor dynamic strains. In this configuration, the FBG is illuminated with a broadband source, and any strain in the FBG is encoded as a wavelength shift of the light reflected by the FBG. The reflected light from the FBG is spilt into two unbalanced paths and both beams (pump and signal) mix in the PRC. Any wavelength shift of the reflected light results in an equivalent phase shift between the pump and signal beams as they travel unbalanced path lengths. Since TWM is an adaptive process, the two interfering beams are naturally in quadrature and remain in quadrature even in the presence of large quasi-static strains. We demonstrate that FBG demodulation using TWM has the ability to selectively monitor dynamic strains without the need for active compensation of large quasi-static strains that otherwise would cause the FBG sensor to drift. As TWM interferometers can be readily multiplexed at relatively low cost; the proposed technique can be used to demodulate signals from a network of FBG sensors for use in structural health monitoring.

  10. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser operation at 1319 and 1338 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G. C.; Lee, Y. D.; Zao, Y. D.; Xu, L. J.; Wang, J. B.; Chen, G. B.; Lu, J.

    2013-04-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) dual-wavelength operation of an Nd:YAG (YAG: yttrium aluminum garnet) laser at 1319 and 1338 nm. An output power of 2.47 W for the dual-wavelength operation was achieved at the incident pump power of 16.7 W. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1319 and 1338 nm was then realized in an LBO (lithium triborate) crystal to reach the red range. A maximum output power of 879 mW in the red spectral range at 664 nm has been achieved. The red output stability is better than 3.4%. The red beam quality M2 values are about 1.21 and 1.35 in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively.

  11. Spectral tuning in vertebrate short wavelength-sensitive 1 (SWS1) visual pigments: can wavelength sensitivity be inferred from sequence data?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Frances E; van Hazel, Ilke; Chang, Belinda S W

    2014-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the enormous diversity of visual pigment wavelength sensitivities found in nature have been the focus of many molecular evolutionary studies, with particular attention to the short wavelength-sensitive 1 (SWS1) visual pigments that mediate vision in the ultraviolet to violet range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Over a decade of study has revealed that the remarkable extension of SWS1 absorption maxima (λ max ) into the ultraviolet occurs through a deprotonation of the Schiff base linkage of the retinal chromophore, a mechanism unique to this visual pigment type. In studies of visual ecology, there has been mounting interest in inferring visual sensitivity at short wavelengths, given the importance of UV signaling in courtship displays and other behaviors. Since experimentally determining spectral sensitivities can be both challenging and time-consuming, alternative strategies such as estimating λ max based on amino acids at sites known to affect spectral tuning are becoming increasingly common. However, these estimates should be made with knowledge of the limitations inherent in these approaches. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on SWS1 site-directed mutagenesis spectral tuning studies, and discuss methodological caveats specific to the SWS1-type pigments. We focus particular attention on contrasting avian and mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning mechanisms, which are the best studied among vertebrates. We find that avian SWS1 visual pigment spectral tuning mechanisms are fairly consistent, and therefore more predictable in terms of wavelength absorption maxima, whereas mammalian pigments are not well suited to predictions of λ max from sequence data alone. PMID:24890094

  12. Multi-photon ionization of atoms in intense short-wavelength radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The unprecedented characteristics of XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have stimulated numerous investigations focusing on the detailed understanding of fundamental photon-matter interactions in atoms and molecules. In particular, the high intensities (up to 106 W/cm2) giving rise to non-linear phenomena in the short wavelength regime. The basic phenomenology involves the production of highly charged ions via electron emission to which both sequential and direct multi-photon absorption processes contribute. The detailed investigation of the role and relative weight of these processes under different conditions (wavelength, pulse duration, intensity) is the key element for a comprehensive understanding of the ionization dynamics. Here the results of recent investigations are presented, performed at the FELs in Hamburg (FLASH) and Trieste (FERMI) on atomic systems with electronic structures of increasing complexity (Ar, Ne and Xe). Mainly, electron spectroscopy is used to obtain quantitative information about the relevance of various multi-photon ionization processes. For the case of Ar, a variety of processes including above threshold ionization (ATI) from 3p and 3s valence shells, direct 2p two-photon ionization and resonant 2p-4p two-photon excitations were observed and their role was quantitatively determined comparing the experimental ionization yields to ab-initio calculations of the cross sections for the multi-photon processes. Using Ar as a benchmark to prove the reliability of the combined experimental and theoretical approach, the more complex and intriguing case of Xe was studied. Especially, the analysis of the two-photon ATI from the Xe 4d shell reveals new insight into the character of the 4d giant resonance, which was unresolved in the linear one-photon regime. Finally, the influence of intense XUV radiation to the relaxation dynamics of the Ne 2s-3p resonance was investigated by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, especially be observing

  13. An investigation of the modulation of capillary and short gravity waves in the open ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Shemdin, O. H.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the modulation of capillary and gravity waves by long ocean waves is described. A pressure transducer is used to obtain water surface displacements, and a high-response laser-optical system is used to detect short-wave slopes. Analytical techniques are developed to account for the orbital motion of long waves. The local mean squared wave slope is found to be maximum leeward of the long-wave crests. For the long waves studied here and for short waves from 1 cm to 1 m, the longer a short-wave component is, the more leeward its maximum tends to occur. Also, the shortest waves tend to modulate least. The modulation of short waves is found to be strong enough to be an important component of the synthetic aperture radar image formation mechanism for long ocean waves.

  14. A short-wavelength infrared emitting multimodal probe for non-invasive visualization of phagocyte cell migration in living mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Y; Komatsuzaki, A; Mori, Y; Ma, Q; Yoshioka, Y; Jin, T

    2014-11-28

    For the non-invasive visualization of cell migration in deep tissues, we synthesized a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) emitting multimodal probe that contains PbS/CdS quantum dots, rhodamine 6G and iron oxide nanoparticles. This probe enables multimodal (SWIR fluorescence/magnetic resonance) imaging of phagocyte cell migration in living mice. PMID:25296382

  15. Four-wave mixing stability in hybrid photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sévigny, Benoit; Vanvincq, Olivier; Valentin, Constance; Chen, Na; Quiquempois, Yves; Bouwmans, Géraud

    2013-12-16

    The four-wave mixing process in optical fibers is generally sensitive to dispersion uniformity along the fiber length. However, some specific phase matching conditions show increased robustness to longitudinal fluctuations in fiber dimensions, which affect the dispersion, even for signal and idler wavelengths far from the pump. In this paper, we present the method by which this point is found, how the fiber design characteristics impact on the stable point and demonstrate the stability through propagation simulations using the non-linear Schrödinger equation. PMID:24514659

  16. Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Christopher J.; Banner, Michael L.; Schultz, Howard; Corrada-Emmanuel, Andres; Wolff, Lawrence B.; Yalcin, Jacob

    2008-05-01

    We present a passive optical remote sensing technique for recovering shape information about a water surface, in the form of a two-dimensional slope map. The method, known as polarimetric slope sensing (PSS), uses the relationship between surface orientation and the change in polarization of reflected light to infer the instantaneous two-dimensional slope across the field-of-view of an imaging polarimeter. For unpolarized skylight, the polarization orientation and degree of linear polarization of the reflected skylight provide sufficient information to determine the local surface slope vectors. A controlled laboratory experiment was carried out in a wave tank with mechanically generated gravity waves. A second study was performed from a pier on the Hudson River, near Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. We demonstrated that the two-dimensional slope field of short gravity waves could be recovered accurately without interfering with the fluid dynamics of the air or water, and water surface features appear remarkably realistic. The combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the polarimetric camera gives a robust characterization of the fine-scale surface wave features that are intrinsic to wind-driven air-sea interaction processes.

  17. Image measurements of short-period gravity waves at equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.; Clark, S.; Takahashi, H.; Gobbi, D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1997-11-01

    A high-performance, all-sky imaging system has been used to obtain novel data on the morphology and dynamics of short-period (<1 hour) gravity waves at equatorial latitudes. Gravity waves imaged in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere were recorded in three nightglow emissions, the near-infrared OH emission, and the visible wavelength OI (557.7 nm) and Na (589.2 nm) emissions spanning the altitude range ˜80-100 km. The measurements were made from Alcantara, Brazil (2.3°S, 44.5°W), during the period August-October 1994 as part of the NASA/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais "Guara campaign". Over 50 wave events were imaged from which a statistical study of the characteristics of equatorial gravity waves has been performed. The data were found to divide naturally into two groups. The first group corresponded to extensive, freely propagating (or ducted) gravity waves with observed periods ranging from 3.7 to 36.6 min, while the second group consisted of waves of a much smaller scale and transient nature. The later group exhibited a bimodal distribution for the observed periods at 5.18±0.26 min and 4.32±0.15 min, close to the local Brunt-Vaisala period and the acoustic cutoff period, respectively. In comparison, the larger-scale waves exhibited a clear tendency for their horizontal wavelengths to increase almost linearly with observed period. This trend was particularly well defined around the equinox and can be represented by a power-law relationship of the form λh=(3.1±0.5)τob1.06±0.10, where λh is measured in kilometers and τob in minutes. This result is in very good agreement with previous radar and passive optical measurements but differs significantly from the relationship λh ∝ τ1.5ob inferred from recent lidar studies. The larger-scale waves were also found to exhibit strong anisotropy in their propagation headings with the dominant direction of motion toward the-NE-ENE suggesting a preponderance for wave generation over the South

  18. Photoresist outgassing: a potential Achilles heel for short-wavelength optical lithography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Roderick R.

    2004-05-01

    The outgassing of volatile organic compounds during photoresist exposure at short wavelengths (<200 nm) has in recent years become a cause for concern as a source for contamination of lithographic optics and has triggered a significant investment of resources to understand and address the problem. In this paper, we report on Lincoln Laboratory"s contribution to this industry-wide effort with results from two types of outgassing measurements aimed at providing a better understanding of the risk posed by this phenomenon. The first method is a quantitative measurement based on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and measures the outgassing by collecting the vapor sample over several minutes in order to enhance sensitivity. This first method cannot determine the outgassing time dependence over the duration of the exposure (~seconds). Our second method, based on laser desorption mass spectrometry, has been performed under UHV conditions to determine the time-dependence of photoresist outgassing and has shown that, for both 193- and 157-nm exposures, a majority of the total outgassed vapor is desorbed during the exposure time. The time dependence of the remaining amount that outgasses after exposure can be fit to a double exponential with characteristic time constants of ~0.5 and ~3 seconds, indicating that even in the limiting case of very short exposures (<<1 second), most material (>50%) would outgas within seconds. The implications of these findings are twofold. First, analytical methods used to measure outgassing that rely on long (>10 minute) sample collection and preconcentration steps must now assume that the measured product is liberated over a few-second time frame when converting the data to outgassing rates. This means that the peak transient outgassing rates for the few seconds during and immediately after exposure derived using this corrected method could be hundreds of times higher than previously reported, with values approaching as much as 1014

  19. Increasing robustness of indirect drive capsule designs against short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S W; Herrmann, M C; Dittrich, T R; Fetterman, A J; Marinak, M M; Munro, D; Pollaine, S M; Salmonson, J D; Strobel, G L; Suter, L J

    2004-11-12

    Target designs are described that are meant to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility. Simulations of recent indirect drive cryogenic capsule designs indicate dramatically reduced growth of short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities, resulting from two changes in the designs. First, better optimization results from systematic mapping of the ignition target performance over the parameter space of ablator and DT-ice thickness combinations, using techniques developed by one of us (Herrmann). After the space is mapped with one-dimensional simulations, exploration of it with two-dimensional simulations quantifies the dependence of instability growth on target dimensions. Low modes and high modes grow differently in different regions of the space, allowing a trade-off of the two regimes of growth. Significant improvement in high-mode stability can be achieved, relative to previous designs, with only insignificant increase in low-mode growth. This procedure produces capsule designs that, in simulations, tolerate several times the surface roughness that could be tolerated by capsules optimized by older more heuristic techniques. Another significant reduction in instability growth, by another factor of several, is achieved with ablators with 'graded dopants.' In this type of capsule the mid-Z dopant, which is needed in the ablator to minimize x-ray preheat at the ablator-ice interface, is optimally positioned within the ablator. A fabrication scenario for graded dopants already exists, using sputter coating to fabricate the ablator shell. We describe the systematics of these advances in capsule design, discuss the basis behind their improved performance, and summarize how this is affecting our plans for NIF ignition.

  20. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-04-15

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n{sub e} and the electron temperature T{sub e} profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO{sub 2} laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n{sub e} and T{sub e} were, respectively, about 2 x 10{sup 24} m{sup -3} and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n{sub e} at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  1. Dual-wavelength operation of continuous-wave and mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Monzon-Hernandez, D.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2012-06-01

    We study numerically and experimentally multiple-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped figure-eight fiber laser including a multiple-bandpass optical filter formed by two concatenated fiber tapers. Both continuous-wave and pulsed operations are considered. In the continuous-wave regime, stable long-term operation at multiple closely spaced wavelengths is only obtained if fine adjustments of the cavity losses are performed. Under these conditions, simultaneous lasing at up to four wavelengths separated by 1.5 nm was observed experimentally. Tunable single-wavelength operation over more than 20 nm is also observed in the continuous-wave regime. In the passive mode locking regime, numerical simulations indicate that mechanisms involving the filter losses and the nonlinear transmission characteristic of the NOLM contribute in principle to stabilize dual-wavelength operation, allowing less demanding cavity loss adjustments. In this regime, the problem of synchronization between the pulse trains generated at each wavelength adds an additional dimension to the problem. In presence of cavity dispersion, the pulses at each wavelength tend to be asynchronous if the wavelength separation is large, however they can be synchronous in the case of closely spaced wavelengths, if cross-phase modulation is able to compensate for the dispersion-induced walkoff. Experimentally, fundamental and 2nd-order harmonic mode locking was observed, characterized by the generation of noise-like pulses. Finally, a regime of multi-wavelength passive Q-switching was also observed. We believe that this work will be helpful to guide the design of multiple-wavelength fiber laser sources, which are attractive for a wide range of applications including Wavelength Division Multiplexing transmissions, signal processing and sensing.

  2. Short wavelength effects on the collisionless neoclassical polarization and residual zonal flow level

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yong; Catto, Peter J.

    2006-10-15

    Sheared zonal flow helps to reduce the turbulent transport caused by the ion temperature gradient mode. Rosenbluth and Hinton (R-H) calculated the residual zonal flow level for radial wavelengths that are much larger than the ion poloidal gyroradius. Their calculation is extended to treat arbitrary radial wavelengths. For the radial wavelengths that approach the ion poloidal gyroradius, but are much larger than the ion gyroradius, an analytical formula is obtained. For radial wavelengths that are comparable or shorter than the poloidal ion gyroradius and the ion gyroradius a numerical solution is provided. These small radial wavelength results are then extended into the electron temperature gradient regime, where the residual zonal flow level is large but ineffective in regulating the turbulence, indicating that the conventional R-H explanation that zonal flow regulates turbulence is incomplete.

  3. Wavelength conversion of 28 GBaud 16-QAM signals based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rhys; Spasojevic, Mina; Chagnon, Mathieu; Malekiha, Mahdi; Li, Jia; Plant, David V; Chen, Lawrence R

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate error-free wavelength conversion of 28 GBaud 16-QAM single polarization (112 Gb/s) signals based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion engineered silicon nanowire (SNW). Wavelength conversion covering the entire C-band is achieved using a single pump. We characterize the performance of the wavelength converter subsystem through the electrical signal to noise ratio penalty as well as the bit error rate of the converted signal as a function of input signal power. Moreover, we evaluate the degradation of the optical signal to noise ratio due to wavelength conversion in the SNW. PMID:24663730

  4. From individual spiking neurons to population behavior: Systematic elimination of short-wavelength spatial modes.

    PubMed

    Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Steyn-Ross, D A

    2016-02-01

    Mean-field models of the brain approximate spiking dynamics by assuming that each neuron responds to its neighbors via a naive spatial average that neglects local fluctuations and correlations in firing activity. In this paper we address this issue by introducing a rigorous formalism to enable spatial coarse-graining of spiking dynamics, scaling from the microscopic level of a single type 1 (integrator) neuron to a macroscopic assembly of spiking neurons that are interconnected by chemical synapses and nearest-neighbor gap junctions. Spiking behavior at the single-neuron scale ℓ≈10μm is described by Wilson's two-variable conductance-based equations [H. R. Wilson, J. Theor. Biol. 200, 375 (1999)], driven by fields of incoming neural activity from neighboring neurons. We map these equations to a coarser spatial resolution of grid length Bℓ, with B≫1 being the blocking ratio linking micro and macro scales. Our method systematically eliminates high-frequency (short-wavelength) spatial modes q(->) in favor of low-frequency spatial modes Q(->) using an adiabatic elimination procedure that has been shown to be equivalent to the path-integral coarse graining applied to renormalization group theory of critical phenomena. This bottom-up neural regridding allows us to track the percolation of synaptic and ion-channel noise from the single neuron up to the scale of macroscopic population-average variables. Anticipated applications of neural regridding include extraction of the current-to-firing-rate transfer function, investigation of fluctuation criticality near phase-transition tipping points, determination of spatial scaling laws for avalanche events, and prediction of the spatial extent of self-organized macrocolumnar structures. As a first-order exemplar of the method, we recover nonlinear corrections for a coarse-grained Wilson spiking neuron embedded in a network of identical diffusively coupled neurons whose chemical synapses have been disabled. Intriguingly

  5. From individual spiking neurons to population behavior: Systematic elimination of short-wavelength spatial modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Mean-field models of the brain approximate spiking dynamics by assuming that each neuron responds to its neighbors via a naive spatial average that neglects local fluctuations and correlations in firing activity. In this paper we address this issue by introducing a rigorous formalism to enable spatial coarse-graining of spiking dynamics, scaling from the microscopic level of a single type 1 (integrator) neuron to a macroscopic assembly of spiking neurons that are interconnected by chemical synapses and nearest-neighbor gap junctions. Spiking behavior at the single-neuron scale ℓ ≈10 μ m is described by Wilson's two-variable conductance-based equations [H. R. Wilson, J. Theor. Biol. 200, 375 (1999), 10.1006/jtbi.1999.1002], driven by fields of incoming neural activity from neighboring neurons. We map these equations to a coarser spatial resolution of grid length B ℓ , with B ≫1 being the blocking ratio linking micro and macro scales. Our method systematically eliminates high-frequency (short-wavelength) spatial modes q ⃗ in favor of low-frequency spatial modes Q ⃗ using an adiabatic elimination procedure that has been shown to be equivalent to the path-integral coarse graining applied to renormalization group theory of critical phenomena. This bottom-up neural regridding allows us to track the percolation of synaptic and ion-channel noise from the single neuron up to the scale of macroscopic population-average variables. Anticipated applications of neural regridding include extraction of the current-to-firing-rate transfer function, investigation of fluctuation criticality near phase-transition tipping points, determination of spatial scaling laws for avalanche events, and prediction of the spatial extent of self-organized macrocolumnar structures. As a first-order exemplar of the method, we recover nonlinear corrections for a coarse-grained Wilson spiking neuron embedded in a network of identical diffusively coupled neurons whose chemical synapses have

  6. Short monolithic dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode DBR phosphate fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lingyun; Hofmann, Peter; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N; Albert, Jacques

    2014-06-20

    We propose and demonstrate a 5-cm-long monolithic dual-wavelength single-longitudinal mode distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) all-phosphate fiber laser. Strong UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings are directly written in highly Er/Yb codoped phosphate fiber. The separation between gratings is selected as 1 cm to only excite two longitudinal modes in the DBR cavity. By exploiting the spatial hole burning effect and the polarization hole burning effect, stable narrow-linewidth dual-wavelength lasing emission with 38 pm wavelength spacing and a total emitted power of 2.8 mW is obtained from this DBR fiber laser. A microwave signal at 4.58 GHz is generated by the heterodyne detection of the dual-wavelength laser. PMID:24979414

  7. Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li Leo; Li, Xiankai; Sun, Jingjing; Ryoo, Seungyup; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2010-02-01

    Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed by targeted chromophores and generates a periodic thermal modulation. We report use of photothermal wave imaging to visualize nanoroses (taken up by macrophages via endocytosis) and lipids in atherosclerotic plaques. Two excitation wavelengths were selected to image nanoroses (800 nm) and lipids (1210 nm). Atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit abdominal artery was irradiated (800 nm and 1210 nm separately) at a frequency of 4 Hz to generate photothermal waves. The radiometric temperature at the tissue surface was recorded by an infrared (IR) camera over a 10 second time period at the frame rate of 25.6 Hz. Extraction of images (256 × 256 pixels) at various frequencies was performed by Fourier transform at each pixel. Frequency amplitude images were obtained corresponding to 800 nm and 1210 nm laser irradiation. Computed images suggest that the distributions of both nanorose and lipid can be identified in amplitude images at a frequency of 4 Hz. Nanoroses taken up by macrophages are distributed at the edges of lipid deposits. Observation of high concentration of nanoroses in atherosclerotic plaque confirms that nanoroses are present at locations associated with lipid deposits.

  8. [Measurement of Soil Total N Based on Portable Short Wave NIR Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-liang; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    portable short wave near-infrared spectral technology to predict soil total nitrogen and wavelengths selection could be very useful to reduce redundancy of spectra. PMID:27228747

  9. First Demonstration of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Technique for Short-Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne

    2010-08-25

    We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique which holds great promise for generation of high power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonic of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the EEHG technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.

  10. Design and operational characteristics of a compact relativistic electron beam generator for the excitation of short wavelength lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito, Y.; Yamagishi, A.; Inaba, H.

    1980-11-01

    A compact and simple high current relativistic electron beam (REB) generator for the excitation of lasers in the short wavelength region has been designed and constructed. The REB generator which includes a Tesla transformer-type high-voltage generator, a water pulse forming line, and a cold cathode electron gun, generates 250 keV, 15 kA, and 15 ns pulsed electron beams.

  11. Photonic crystal fibre enables short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with fura-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Gail; Riis, Erling

    2004-10-01

    We report on a novel and compact reliable laser source capable of short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy based on soliton self-frequency shift effects in photonic crystal fibre. We demonstrate the function of the system by performing two-photon microscopy of smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes from the rat pulmonary vein and Chinese hamster ovary cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2/AM.

  12. Design and initial performance evaluation of a portable short wave infrared spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark W.

    1992-01-01

    The design, initial calibration, and performance evaluations of a portable short wave infrared (SWIR) spectroradiometer are described. The spectroradiometer covers the range from 1.1 to 2.5 microns with a spectral resolution that may be varied from less than 10 nm to more than 100 nm. A single spectrum is acquired in about 2 sec. The SNR is about 230 at a wavelength of 2.2 microns for a Lambertian surface of 90-percent reflectance illuminated by the sun at normal incidence with 14.8-nm resolution, a 25 C background temperature, and no atmospheric attenuation. FOV-defining optics are coupled by a flexible fiber-optics bundle to the spectroradiometer, which consists of a concave holographic diffraction grating with a flat focal field imaged onto a 1024-element platinum silicide linear-array detector.

  13. Evidence for short-period acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunnenberg, M.; Kneer, F.; Hirzberger, J.

    2002-11-01

    Short-period acoustic waves are thought to supply the energy for the radiative losses of the non-magnetic chromosphere of the Sun and, in general, of late-type stars. Here, we present evidence for the existence of waves in the solar atmosphere with periods in the range of 50 s wavelengths near line center. The power in the short-period range is concentrated above intergranular spaces. We estimate an acoustic flux into the chromosphere of approximately 3*E6 erg cm-2 s-1, as needed for the chromospheric radiative losses.

  14. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P

    2008-01-21

    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of < 3 mK at 50 degrees C. The operation at shorter wavelengths than traditional thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of < 5 fW/cm(2). These results indicate that radiometers using short-wave infrared sensors could be constructed utilizing commercial glass optics with possible better performance and lower NETD than existing radiometers using cryogenically-cooled mid-infrared or thermal infrared detectors. PMID:18542168

  15. Expanding the dynamic range of short wave infrared (SWIR) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Marc; Stern, Mark C.

    2010-04-01

    Advances have been made in short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology to address the most demanding imaging and surveillance applications. Multiple techniques have been developed and deployed in Goodrich's SWIR indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cameras to optimize the dynamic range performance of standard, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. New developments have been implemented on multiple levels to give these cameras the unique ability to automatically compensate for changes in light levels over more than 5 orders of magnitude, while improving intra-scenic dynamic range. Features recently developed and implemented include a new Automatic Gain Control (AGC) algorithm, image flash suppression, and a proprietary image-enhancement algorithm with a simplified but powerful user command structure.

  16. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  17. Mixed solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave-short-wave system.

    PubMed

    Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2014-10-01

    We derive a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system as the evolution equation for propagation of N-dispersive waves in weak Kerr-type nonlinear medium in the small-amplitude limit. The mixed- (bright-dark) type soliton solutions of a particular (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent LSRI system, deduced from the general multicomponent higher-dimensional LSRI system, are obtained by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method. Particularly, we show that the solitons in the LSRI system with two short-wave components behave like scalar solitons. We point out that for an N-component LSRI system with N>3, if the bright solitons appear in at least two components, interesting collision behavior takes place, resulting in energy exchange among the bright solitons. However, the dark solitons undergo standard elastic collision accompanied by a position shift and a phase shift. Our analysis on the mixed bound solitons shows that the additional degree of freedom which arises due to the higher-dimensional nature of the system results in a wide range of parameters for which the soliton collision can take place. PMID:25375561

  18. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1x10{sup 13} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The Xe{sup +}-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p{sup 6} {sup 2}S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  19. Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, J. W.; Foxon, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The group III nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) represent an important trio of semiconductors because of their direct band gaps which span the range 1.95-6.2 eV, including the whole of the visible region and extending well out into the ultraviolet (UV) range. They form a complete series of ternary alloys which, in principle, makes available any band gap within this range and the fact that they also generate efficient luminescence has been the main driving force for their recent technological development. High brightness visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now commercially available, a development which has transformed the market for LED-based full colour displays and which has opened the way to many other applications, such as in traffic lights and efficient low voltage, flat panel white light sources. Continuously operating UV laser diodes have also been demonstrated in the laboratory, exciting tremendous interest for high-density optical storage systems, UV lithography and projection displays. In a remarkably short space of time, the nitrides have therefore caught up with and, in some ways, surpassed the wide band gap II-VI compounds (ZnCdSSe) as materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to review these developments and to provide essential background material in the form of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the nitrides, relevant to these applications. We have been guided by the fact that the devices so far available are based on the binary compound GaN (which is relatively well developed at the present time), together with the ternary alloys AlGaN and InGaN, containing modest amounts of Al or In. We therefore concentrate, to a considerable extent, on the properties of GaN, then introduce those of the alloys as appropriate, emphasizing their use in the formation of the heterostructures employed in devices. The nitrides crystallize preferentially in the hexagonal wurtzite structure and devices have so

  20. Analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data and extraction of ocean wave height and dominant wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    When the amplitude and timing biases are removed from the GEOS-3 Sample and Hold (S&H) gates, the mean return waveforms can be excellently fitted with a theoretical template which represents the convolution of: (1) the radar point target response; (2) the range noise (jitter) in the altimeter tracking loop; (3) the sea surface height distribution; and (4) the antenna pattern as a function of the range to mean sea level. Several techniques of varying complexity to remove the effect of the tracking loop jitter in computing the wave height are considered. They include: (1) realigning the S&H gates to their actual positions with respect to mean sea level before averaging; (2) using the observed standard deviation on the altitude measurement to remove the integrated effect of the tracking loop jitter, and (3) using a look-up table to correct for the expected value of range noise. Analysis of skewness in the GEOS return waveform demonstrates the potential of a satellite radar altimeter to determine the dominant wavelength of ocean waves.

  1. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G. C.; Li, Y. D.; Zhao, M.; Jin, G. Y.; Wang, J. B.

    2011-08-01

    A diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (CW) simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 1062 and 1331 nm in a single Nd:GGG was demonstrated. A total output power of 1.08 W at the two fundamental wavelengths was achieved at the incident pump power of 18.2 W. The optical-to-optical conversion is up to 5.9% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on CW simultaneous dual-wavelength operation of a diode pumped Nd:GGG laser. The article is published in the original.)

  2. Third harmonic generation in the short-wavelength UV range by a single plasmonic nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentiev, P. N.; Kuzin, A. A.; Afanasiev, A. E.; Balykin, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear optical interaction of laser radiation with nanostructures formed in gold and aluminium nanofilms has been experimentally studied. It is shown that, despite the high susceptibility χ3 of aluminium in comparison with gold, the third-harmonic generation efficiency at a wavelength of 260 nm is much higher for the nanostructures formed in a gold nanofilm because of the efficient excitation of a localised plasmon resonance at the fundamental frequency.

  3. Nearly lattice-matched short-wave infrared InGaAsBi detectors on InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Chen, X. Y.; Ma, Y. J.; Xi, S. P.; Du, B.; Li, Hsby.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the demonstration of a short-wave infrared detector nearly lattice matched to InP substrate using quaternary InGaAsBi as the absorption layer. The bismuth content of about 3.2% has red-shifted the 50% cut-off wavelength from about 1.6 μm to 2.1 μm at room temperature, indicating a bandgap reduction of about 180 meV due to bismuth incorporation. The detector shows an encouraging dark current density of 2.4 × 10-4 A/cm2 at bias voltage of -10 mV at 300 K. This work shows the promising potential of InP-based lattice-matched InGaAsBi detectors for short-wave infrared detection.

  4. Conductors, semiconductors, and insulators irradiated with short-wavelength free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywinski, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Jurek, M.; Nietubyc, R.; Pelka, J. B.; Juha, L.; Bittner, M.; Létal, V.; Vorlíček, V.; Andrejczuk, A.; Feldhaus, J.; Keitel, B.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Treusch, R.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2007-02-01

    The results of a study of irreversible changes induced at surfaces of metals, semiconductors, and insulators by extreme ultraviolet (λ<100nm) ultrashort pulses provided by TESLA Test Facility Free-Electron Laser, Phase 1 (TTF1 FEL) are reported and discussed. The laser was tuned at 86, 89, and 98nm during the experiments reported here. Energy spectra of ions ejected from the irradiated surfaces are also reported. Special attention is paid to the difference in the ablation behavior of (semi)conductors and insulators that we have observed. The difference is dramatic, while the absorption coefficients are similar for all materials at the TTF1 FEL wavelength.

  5. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  6. Mather-type dense plasma focus as a new optical pump for short-wavelength high-power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1984-04-01

    For the first time, a Mather-type dense plasma focus (MDPF) is successfully operated as an optical pump for lasers. Rhodamine-6G dye is optically pumped using the MDPF fluorescence, producing a laser pulse 1 ..mu..s in duration and more than 50 kW in output power. No optimization is attempted either of the laser cavity or of the lasing medium concentration and volume. A brief description of the experimental setup is presented, along with a summary and discussion of the results. The advantages of the present optical pump source and, in particular, their implications for the pumping of short-wavelength lasers are discussed.

  7. Demonstration of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Technique for Short-Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.

    2010-09-10

    We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique, which holds great promise for generation of high-power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonics of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.

  8. Optical property of Ce3+-doped lutetium lithium fluoride for the short-wavelength device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshihiko; Yamanoi, Kohei; Arita, Ren; Hori, Tatsuhiro; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Minami, Yuki; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    We report on the optical properties of Ce:LLF excited by the 61-nm wavelength emission of the SPring-8 compact self amplification of spontaneous emission source (SCSS) test accelerator, which is a prototype self-amplified stimulated emission (SASE)-type free electron laser (FEL) that emits extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. Ce:LLF fluorescence at 308 nm and 322 nm wavelength was observed using a streak camera. The temporal profile exhibited a 62.1-ns fast decay component and 8.63-ns slow decay component. This double exponential behavior is observed with EUV-FEL excitation and is due to the de-excitation process involving several relaxation steps because of the energetically long distance and intricate band structure between the excitation and emission states. The double exponential nature of fluorescence decay is not observable with low-energy excitation sources; hence, our results show the importance of novel light sources, such as the FEL, for the development and characterization of new materials.

  9. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun; Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong; Gao, Weiqing

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  10. Numerical modeling of extended short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmann, Andreu; Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (In1-xGaxAs) is an ideal material choice for short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging due to its low dark current and excellent collection efficiency. By increasing the indium composition from 53% to 83%, it is possible to decrease the energy gap from 0.74 eV to 0.47 eV and consequently increase the cutoff wavelength from 1.7 μm to 2.63 μm for extended short wavelength (ESWIR) sensing. In this work, we apply our well-established numerical modeling methodology to the ESWIR InGaAs system to determine the intrinsic performance of pixel detectors. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of different buffer/cap materials. To accomplish this, we have developed composition-dependent models for In1-xGaxAs, In1-xAlxAs, and InAs1-y Py. Using a Green's function formalism, we calculate the intrinsic recombination coefficients (Auger, radiative) to model the diffusion-limited behavior of the absorbing layer under ideal conditions. Our simulations indicate that, for a given total thickness of the buffer and absorbing layer, structures utilizing a linearly graded small-gap InGaAs buffer will produce two orders of magnitude more dark current than those with a wide gap, such as InAlAs or InAsP. Furthermore, when compared with experimental results for ESWIR photodiodes and arrays, we estimate that there is still a 1.5x magnitude of reduction in dark current before reaching diffusion-limited behavior.

  11. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M.; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R.; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  12. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively. PMID:25322220

  13. Material processing with ultra-short pulse lasers working in 2μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisiat, B.; Gaponov, D.; Gečys, P.; Lavoute, L.; Silva, M.; Hideur, A.; Ducros, N.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2015-03-01

    New wavelengths of laser radiation are of interest for material processing. Results of application of the all-fiber ultrashort pulsed laser emitting in 2 µm range, manufactured by Novae, are presented. Average output power was 4.35 W in a single-spatial-mode beam centered at the 1950 nm wavelength. Pulses duration was 40 ps, and laser operated at 4.2 MHz pulse repetition rate. This performance corresponded to 25 kW of pulse peak power and almost 1 µJ in pulse energy. Material processing was performed using three different focusing lenses (100, 30 and 18 mm) and mechanical stages for the workpiece translation. 2 µm laser radiation is strongly absorbed by some polymers. Swelling of PMMA surface was observed for scanning speed above 5 mm/s using the average power of 3.45 W focused with the 30 mm lens. When scanning speed was reduced below 4 mm/s, ablation of PMMA took place. The swelling of PMMA is a consequence of its melting due to absorbed laser power. Therefore, experiments on butt welding of PMMA and overlapping welding of PMMA with other polymers were performed. Stable joint was achieved for the butt welding of two PMMA blocks with thickness of 5 mm. The laser was used to cut a Kapton film on a paper carrier with the same set-up as previous. The cut width depended on the cutting speed and focusing optics. A perfect cut with a width of 11 µm was achieved at the translation speed of 60 mm/s.

  14. Feasibility study on a short-pulsed IR wavelength for effective calculus fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced lithotripsy has been used for a minimally-invasive surgery to treat kidney-stone disease associated with urinary obstruction. A short-pulsed Tm:YAG laser (λ = 2.01 µm) was developed to improve fragmentation efficiency and was evaluated with a Ho:YAG laser (λ = 2.12 μm) as to its ablation feature and mass removal rate. Application of a train of sub-microsecond pulses with a lower energy at a frequency of 500 Hz created multiple events of cavitation that accompanied strong acoustic transients. During Tm:YAG irradiation, both high light absorption and secondary photomechanical impacts readily fragmented the calculus into small pieces (< 3 mm) and removed them 130 times faster than photothermal Ho:YAG lithotripsy. The proposed short-pulsed Tm:YAG approach may be an effective lithotripter for treating calculus disease.

  15. Spectrally-isolated violet to blue wavelength generation by cascaded degenerate four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Xianting; Zhou, Guiyao; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Zhou, Xian; Wang, Liang; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2016-06-01

    Generation of spectrally-isolated wavelengths in the violet to blue region based on cascaded degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) is experimentally demonstrated for the first time in a tailor-made photonic crystal fiber, which has two adjacent zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) at 696 and 852 nm in the fundamental mode. The influences of the wavelength λp and the input average power Pav of the femtosecond pump pulses on the phase-matched frequency conversion process are studied. When femtosecond pump pulses at λp of 880, 870, and 860 nm and Pav of 500 mW are coupled into the normal dispersion region close to the second ZDW, the first anti-Stokes waves generated near the first ZDW act as a secondary pump for the next FWM process. The conversion efficiency ηas2 of the second anti-Stokes waves, which are generated at the violet to blue wavelengths of 430, 456, and 472 nm, are 4.8, 6.48, and 9.66%, for λp equalling 880, 870, and 860 nm, respectively. PMID:27244427

  16. Three-dimensional blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the effects of long-wavelength modesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Budde, A.; Krauland, C.; Marion, D. C.; Visco, A. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Miles, A. R.; Cooper, A. B. R.; Sorce, C.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N. C.; Killebrew, K. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Arnett, D.; Donajkowski, T.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes experiments exploring the three-dimensional (3D) Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a blast-wave-driven interface. This experiment is well scaled to the He/H interface during the explosion phase of SN1987A. In the experiments, ˜5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser was used to create a planar blast wave in a plastic disk, which is accelerated into a lower-density foam. These circumstances induce the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and, after the shock passes the interface, the system quickly becomes dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The plastic disk has an intentional pattern machined at the plastic/foam interface. This perturbation is 3D with a basic structure of two orthogonal sine waves with a wavelength of 71 μm and an amplitude of 2.5 μm. Additional long-wavelength modes with a wavelength of either 212 or 424 μm are added onto the single-mode pattern. The addition of the long-wavelength modes was motivated by the results of previous experiments where material penetrated unexpectedly to the shock front, perhaps due to an unintended structure. The current experiments and simulations were performed to explore the effects of this unintended structure; however, we were unable to reproduce the previous results.

  17. Three-dimensional blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the effects of long-wavelength modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Budde, A.; Krauland, C.; Marion, D. C.; Visco, A. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Miles, A. R.; Cooper, A. B. R.; Sorce, C.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N. C.; Killebrew, K. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Arnett, D.; Donajkowski, T.

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes experiments exploring the three-dimensional (3D) Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a blast-wave-driven interface. This experiment is well scaled to the He/H interface during the explosion phase of SN1987A. In the experiments, {approx}5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser was used to create a planar blast wave in a plastic disk, which is accelerated into a lower-density foam. These circumstances induce the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and, after the shock passes the interface, the system quickly becomes dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The plastic disk has an intentional pattern machined at the plastic/foam interface. This perturbation is 3D with a basic structure of two orthogonal sine waves with a wavelength of 71 {mu}m and an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Additional long-wavelength modes with a wavelength of either 212 or 424 {mu}m are added onto the single-mode pattern. The addition of the long-wavelength modes was motivated by the results of previous experiments where material penetrated unexpectedly to the shock front, perhaps due to an unintended structure. The current experiments and simulations were performed to explore the effects of this unintended structure; however, we were unable to reproduce the previous results.

  18. Measurements of Short Wavelength Plasma Fluctuations Using the DIII-D Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorris, J. R.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.

    2010-11-01

    The DIII-D Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic has been upgraded and used to measure turbulence in the outer plasma region (0.7 < r/a < 1) covering an operational range of 10 kHz through 10 MHz and 2-30 cm-1. A novel rotating mask has been used to measure turbulence as a function of propagation angle about the PCI chord. This technique provides localized measurements along the PCI chord for turbulence with k˜0, and an estimate of the turbulence k value otherwise. Long wavelength (|k|<˜12 cm-1) turbulence is localized to within the instrumental width of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) (r/a>˜0.9). Modes with finite (and theoretically unexpected) parallel wavenumber have been seen to propagate at angles as large as k/k ˜0.1-0.4. Due to the finite k, these modes cannot be localized with the present techniques. A theoretical explanation for these modes is lacking at the present time.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  20. Resonant condition for storage ring short wavelength FEL with power exceeding Renieri limit

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Wu, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of operating a storage ring FEL with resonant conditions providing for preservation of electron beam structure on an optical wave scale. We suggest tuning the storage ring betatron and synchrotron tunes on one of the high (N-th) order resonances to compensate dynamic diffusion of optical phase. This mode of operation does not require isochronicity of the ring lattice. In these conditions optical phase will be restored after N turns around the ring and stochastic conditions used in the derivation of Renieri limit are no longer applicable. We discuss the influence of high order terms in electron motion, RF frequency stability, and synchrotron radiation effects on preservation of optical phase.

  1. A tunable dual-wavelength pump source based on simulated polariton scattering for terahertz-wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Jianquan; Li, Enbang

    2013-11-01

    We propose a dual-wavelength pump source by utilizing stimulated polariton scattering in a LiNbO3 crystal. The residual pump and the generated tunable Stokes waves can be combined to generate THz-wave generation via difference frequency generation (DFG). With a pump energy of 49 mJ, Stokes waves with a tuning range from 1067.8 to 1074 nm have been generated, and an output energy of up to 14.9 mJ at 1070 nm has been achieved with a conversion efficiency of 21.7%. A sum frequency generation experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme for THz-wave DFG.

  2. Localized measurement of short wavelength plasma fluctuations with the DIII-D phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Dorris, J. R.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.

    2009-02-15

    A novel rotating mask system has been designed and implemented on the DIII-D phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to produce the first spatially localized PCI measurements of a tokamak plasma. The localization technique makes use of the variation in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the viewing chord as a function of chord height. This new capability provides measurements in the range of 2wave numbers up to 40 cm{sup -1} to probe electron scale turbulence in the plasma core.

  3. Localized measurement of short wavelength plasma fluctuations with the DIII-D phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorris, J. R.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.

    2009-02-01

    A novel rotating mask system has been designed and implemented on the DIII-D phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to produce the first spatially localized PCI measurements of a tokamak plasma. The localization technique makes use of the variation in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the viewing chord as a function of chord height. This new capability provides measurements in the range of 2wave numbers up to 40 cm-1 to probe electron scale turbulence in the plasma core.

  4. Glacial modifications of short-wavelength topography and potential feedbacks on the denudation of a deglaciated mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Kober, Florian; Kissling, Eduard; Willett, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Distinct erosional landforms in the European Alps and other mid- to high-latitude mountain belts highlight the importance of glacial erosion in shaping mountain topography. Here we focus on the glacially induced modifications to the short-wavelength topography of the European Central Alps in an attempt to characterize the impact of glacial erosion on topography and to highlight potential feedback mechanisms on the denudation of the deglaciated mountain range. Glacial induced changes to the short-wavelength topography were analyzed by measuring the variations of drainage density and hillslope relief across the range. Variations of denudation rates were analyzed by compiling catchment-averaged concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be from existing studies covering Alpine and Foreland basins. Our results underline the importance of the LGM ELA elevation (i.e. the Equilibrium Line Altitude at the Late Glacial Maximum) as an important limit for the destruction of short-wavelength topography: The cumulative impact of glacial erosion above the LGM ELA has progressively decreased (i) drainage density, (ii) channel integration and (iii) commensurately increased hillslopes length (or hillslope relief). Exceptions from this trend are the highest and steepest peaks and ridges, nunataks even during the LGM. Alpine catchments in the orogen parts below this limit (i.e. Alpine foothills) lack strong modifications by glaciers. Here, glacial erosion is largely restricted to glacial troughs. There is also a statistically significant correlation between drainage density (or hillslope length) and catchment-wide denudation rates. The correlation does not define a single-valued function; rather there are two populations above and below the LGM ELA, one with a positive correlation for low-elevation, fluvially-dominated landscapes and a second for high-elevation, glacially-eroded basins in which this correlation is negative. We speculate that the commensurate lengthening of hillslopes increase

  5. Two-dimensional radiation and scattering at short wave length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, W. S.; Park, J. M.; Eversman, W.

    1990-01-01

    In the present investigation of radiation and scattering by objects when the wavelengths are much smaller than the characteristic dimensions of the radiator or scatterer, the boundary-element method is used to obtain computational accuracy and efficiency. The approach employed for wavelengths less than 5 percent of object characteristic dimensions involves cubic elements, approximate polynomial and asymptotic evaluations of the fundamental solution, and a tailoring of the order of the Gaussian quadrature according to the local demands dictated by the distance between sending and receiving points. The method addresses the propagation of low-frequency sound over large terrain features.

  6. Simultaneous three-wavelength continuous wave laser at 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm in Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yanfei; Zhao, Lianshui; Zhai, Pei; Xia, Jing; Fu, Xihong; Li, Shutao

    2013-01-01

    A continuous-wave (cw) diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser that generates simultaneous laser at the wavelengths 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm is demonstrated. The optimum oscillation condition for the simultaneous three-wavelength operation has been derived. Using the separation of the three output couplers, we obtained the maximum output powers of 0.24 W at 946 nm, 1.07 W at 1319 nm and 1.88 W at 1064 nm at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W. A total output power of 3.19 W for the three-wavelength was achieved at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W with optical conversion efficiency of 28.5%.

  7. Wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced polarization crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Ming; Wan, Qiuzhen; Zheng, Zhiwei

    2016-06-01

    We investigated wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. We found that the converted signals endured crosstalk among the pol-muxed channels. We also proposed and demonstrated a wavelength conversion scheme with polarization diversity technique. By utilizing the technique, the converted polarization multiplexing signal can be received without crosstalk. In addition, the performance of the proposed system is numerically analyzed with respect to the bit error rate of the converted signal, different frequency spacing between signal and pump and modulated data rate. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme may be a promising method to realize transparent wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signals.

  8. Graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device for four-wave mixing based tunable wavelength conversion of QPSK signal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using such graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device, we experimentally demonstrate tunable wavelength conversion of a 10 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal by exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) progress in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for tunable QPSK wavelength conversion are less than 2.2 dB at a BER of 1 × 10(-3). PMID:26480130

  9. Effect of pump wave reflections on the excitation of a dual-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, M. Yu.; Morozov, Yu. A. Popov, V. V.

    2009-03-15

    The effect of pump wave reflections on the carrier generation rate and uniformity of carrier population in quantum wells (QWs) of a dual-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser has been numerically analyzed. The laser's active region has been described within a mathematical model allowing any number of QWs and arbitrary distribution of carrier generation rate. It is shown that the optimal arrangement of blocking layers in the active region of a dual-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser allows one to obtain a very uniform QW population. It is established that pump wave reflections significantly affect the local carrier generation rate and, therefore, the distribution of excited carriers in the laser structure.

  10. Ways and peculiarities of submillimeter wavelength detection with short-channel field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, M. L. Panin, A. N.; Orlov, L. K.

    2009-06-15

    The detection properties of some short-channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been analyzed using the steady-state output characteristics of these devices. The calculated dependences of voltage-power sensitivity on applied voltage are compared with the corresponding curves obtained from high-frequency measurements. It is shown that the nonmonotonic dependence of the FET photosensitivity on gate voltage that is observed in the frequency range of 400-750 GHz is not related to resonant excitation of 2D plasmons in the subgate plasma but is due to the change in the distribution of stationary fields in the structure and, as a result, to the change in the efficiency of nonresonant nonlinearity procedures in the transistor's electron subsystem with an increase in the gate-channel voltage. This conclusion is confirmed by analysis of the frequency dependences of photoresponse in the range under consideration, which do not exhibit resonant behavior at the frequencies corresponding to the peaks in the curves measured at a fixed frequency and different gate voltages.

  11. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Holmlund, Christer; Ojanen, Harri J.; Näsilä, Antti; Saari, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a spectral imager for short-wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength range. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by a commercial InGaAs Camera. The FPI consists of two dielectric coated mirrors separated by a tunable air gap. Tuning of the air gap tunes also transmitted wavelength and therefore FPI acts as a tunable band bass filter. The FPI is piezo-actuated and it uses three piezo-actuators in a closed capacitive feedback loop for air gap tuning. The FPI has multiple order transmission bands, which limit free spectral range. Therefore spectral imager contains two FPI in a stack, to make possible to cover spectral range of 1000 - 1700 nm. However, in the first tests imager was used with one FPI and spectral range was limited to 1100-1600 nm. The spectral resolution of the imager is approximately 15 nm (FWHM). Field of view (FOV) across the flight direction is 30 deg. Imaging resolution of the spectral imager is 256 x 320 pixels. The focal length of the optics is 12 mm and F-number is 3.2. This imager was tested in summer 2014 in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and therefore a size and a mass of the imager were critical. Total mass of the imager is approximately 1200 grams. In test campaign the spectral imager will be used for forest and agricultural imaging. In future, because results of the UAV test flights are promising, this technology can be applied to satellite applications also.

  12. Non-relativistic particle higher-order harmonic radiation based short-wavelength laser and the operation stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Mu-Ying; He, Wei; Shao, Ming-Zhu; Luo, Shiyu

    2011-07-01

    Under classical mechanics, the general equation of particle motion in the periodic field is derived. In the dampless case, the existence possibility of the higher-order harmonic radiation is explored by using Bessel function expansion of a generalized trigonometrical function and the multi-scale method. In the damping case, the critical properties and a chaotic behavior are discussed by the Melnikov method. The results show that the use of a higher-order harmonic radiation of non-relativistic particles as a short-wavelength laser source is perfectly possible, and the system's critical condition is related to its parameters. Only by adjusting parameters suitablely, the stable higher-order harmonic radiation with bigger intensity can be obtained.

  13. Patrol of the short wavelength activity and flares of Sun as star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, I.; Avakyan, S.; Leonov, N.; Serova, A.; Voronin, N.

    Monitoring of the spectral range which most affects solar-terrestrial relationship - soft X-ray and extreme UV-radiations allows to solve ? problem of solar activity influence on all aspects of the Sun - Earth ties and to select the most important precursors of solar flares and the solar events related with a flare (such as proton events, high-velocity plasma streams in the solar wind, shock waves, coronal mass ejection and, the most important, the beginning of principal magnetic storms). Solar activity is constantly monitored at present (in the USA) only in two sections of the spectrum of ionizing radiation: <0.8 nm and >115 (119) nm. However, so far there has been no monitoring of the flux in the most geoeffective region of the spectrum (0.8-115 nm) from the entire disk of the sun; this region completely monitors the main part of the ionosphere of the earth and the ionosphere of the other planets of the solar system, including the formation and status of the main ionospheric maxima. This occurs solely because of technical and methodological difficulties in performing the measurements and calibration in this spectral range on spacecraft, because it is necessity to use only windowless optics. At the present the solar the optical - electronic equipment (OEE) is testing and there are plans to launch OEE of Space Solar Patrol (SSP) consisting of solar radiometers and spectrometers at the Russian Module of the International Space Station. So the solving the problem of the permanent monitoring-patrol of ionizing radiation from the full disk of the Sun appears in the main tasks of fundamental scientific studies in space. The results of this monitoring can be contribution in development of simultaneous studies in several sciences, such as: - solar astrophysics (state of all solar atmospheric regions), - meteorology, physics of atmosphere (the influence of solar activity on global changes, climate and weather including the effects of atmo s pheric electricity), - aeronomy

  14. Intersubband transitions in nonpolar GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructures in the short- and mid-wavelength infrared regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, C. B.; Beeler, M.; Ajay, A.; Lähnemann, J.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Monroy, E.; Bougerol, C.

    2015-07-07

    This paper assesses nonpolar m- and a-plane GaN/Al(Ga)N multi-quantum-wells grown on bulk GaN for intersubband optoelectronics in the short- and mid-wavelength infrared ranges. The characterization results are compared to those for reference samples grown on the polar c-plane, and are verified by self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations. The best results in terms of mosaicity, surface roughness, photoluminescence linewidth and intensity, as well as intersubband absorption are obtained from m-plane structures, which display room-temperature intersubband absorption in the range from 1.5 to 2.9 μm. Based on these results, a series of m-plane GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells were designed to determine the accessible spectral range in the mid-infrared. These samples exhibit tunable room-temperature intersubband absorption from 4.0 to 5.8 μm, the long-wavelength limit being set by the absorption associated with the second order of the Reststrahlen band in the GaN substrates.

  15. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  16. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  17. Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wook Shin, Hyun; Jun Lee, Sang; Gun Kim, Doo; Bae, Myung-Ho; Heo, Jaeyeong; Jin Choi, Kyoung; Jun Choi, Won; Choe, Jeong-woo; Cheol Shin, Jae

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional crystal growth enables the epitaxial integration of III-V compound semiconductors onto a silicon (Si) substrate despite significant lattice mismatch. Here, we report a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1.4–3 μm) photodetector that employs InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on Si. The wafer-scale epitaxial InAs NWs form on the Si substrate without a metal catalyst or pattern assistance; thus, the growth is free of metal-atom-induced contaminations, and is also cost-effective. InAs NW arrays with an average height of 50 μm provide excellent anti-reflective and light trapping properties over a wide wavelength range. The photodetector exhibits a peak detectivity of 1.9 × 108  cm·Hz1/2/W for the SWIR band at 77 K and operates at temperatures as high as 220 K. The SWIR photodetector on the Si platform demonstrated in this study is promising for future low-cost optical sensors and Si photonics. PMID:26035286

  18. Short-wavelength, mid- and far-infrared intersubband absorption in nonpolar GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Caroline B.; Beeler, Mark; Ajay, Akhil; Lähnemann, Jonas; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Bougerol, Catherine; Schörmann, Jörg; Eickhoff, Martin; Monroy, Eva

    2016-05-01

    This paper assesses nonpolar m-oriented GaN:Si/Al(Ga)N heterostructures grown on free-standing GaN for intersubband optoelectronics in the short-wavelength, mid- and far-infrared ranges. Characterization results are compared with reference c-plane samples and interpreted by correlation with self-consistent Schrödinger–Poisson calculations. In the near- and mid-infrared regions, we demonstrate m-GaN/Al(Ga)N multi-quantum-wells exhibiting room-temperature intersubband absorption tunable in the range of 1.5–5.8 µm (827–214 meV), the long wavelength limit being set by the second order of the Reststrahlen band in the GaN substrates. Extending the study to the far-infrared region, low-temperature intersubband transitions in the 1.5–9 THz range (6.3–37.4 meV) are observed in larger m-plane GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells, covering most of the 7–10 THz band forbidden to GaAs-based technologies.

  19. Intersubband transitions in nonpolar GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructures in the short- and mid-wavelength infrared regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. B.; Beeler, M.; Ajay, A.; Lähnemann, J.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bougerol, C.; Monroy, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper assesses nonpolar m- and a-plane GaN/Al(Ga)N multi-quantum-wells grown on bulk GaN for intersubband optoelectronics in the short- and mid-wavelength infrared ranges. The characterization results are compared to those for reference samples grown on the polar c-plane, and are verified by self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations. The best results in terms of mosaicity, surface roughness, photoluminescence linewidth and intensity, as well as intersubband absorption are obtained from m-plane structures, which display room-temperature intersubband absorption in the range from 1.5 to 2.9 μm. Based on these results, a series of m-plane GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells were designed to determine the accessible spectral range in the mid-infrared. These samples exhibit tunable room-temperature intersubband absorption from 4.0 to 5.8 μm, the long-wavelength limit being set by the absorption associated with the second order of the Reststrahlen band in the GaN substrates.

  20. Anodic fluoride passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice for short-wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li Xue; Sun, Wei Guo; Lv, Yan Qiu; Li, Mo; Ding, Jia Xin; Si, Jun Jie

    2015-02-01

    One of the major challenges of antimonide-based devices arises owing to the large number of surface states generated during fabrication processes. Surface passivation and subsequent capping of the surfaces are absolutely essential for any practical applicability of this material system. In this paper, we proposed a new passivation method (zinc sulfide coating after anodic fluoride) for InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared detectors. InAs/GaSb superlattice short-wavelength infrared materials were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb (100) substrates. A GaSb buffer layer, which can decrease the occurrence of defects with similar pyramidal structure, was grown for optimized superlattice growth condition. High resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that the period of the superlattice corresponding to fourth satellite peak was 39.77 Å. The atomic force microscopy images show the roughness was below 1.7 nm. The result of photoresponse spectra shows that the cutoff wavelength was 3.05 μm at 300 K.

  1. Anodic fluoride passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice for short-wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li Xue; Sun, Wei Guo; Lv, Yan Qiu; Li, Mo; Ding, Jia Xin; Si, Jun Jie

    2014-09-01

    One of the major challenges of antimonide-based devices arises owing to the large number of surface states generated during fabrication processes. Surface passivation and subsequent capping of the surfaces are absolutely essential for any practical applicability of this material system. In this paper, we proposed a new passivation method (zinc sulfide coating after anodic fluoride) for InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared detectors. InAs/GaSb superlattice short-wavelength infrared materials were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb (100) substrates. A GaSb buffer layer, which can decrease the occurrence of defects with similar pyramidal structure, was grown for optimized superlattice growth condition. High resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that the period of the superlattice corresponding to fourth satellite peak was 39.77 Å. The atomic force microscopy images show the roughness was below 1.7 nm. The result of photoresponse spectra shows that the cutoff wavelength was 3.05 μm at 300 K.

  2. Extraordinary transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength slot arrays mediated by spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Xia, Song; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional gratings consisting of sub-wavelength metallic slot arrays have been widely applied in the design of novel devices due to their polarization-selective characteristics. When the incident electric field is polarized along the slot direction, the slot arrays are opaque, behaving like a metal surface. Here we propose a scheme of making slot arrays transparent for electromagnetic (EM) waves, which is achieved by the incorporation of corrugated metal strip arrays. Incident waves are first converted into spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) propagating along the strips. Since SSPPs confine EM fields in sub-wavelength scales, EM waves can penetrate through the sub-wavelength slots. High transmission was thus obtained, with an efficiency as high as 95%. Moreover, position and bandwidth of the transmission band can be tailored by adjusting the groove depth and the slot width, respectively. It is expected that the design may find potential applications in the multifunctional devices with frequency- and polarization-selective features.

  3. Stability of periodic waves generated by long-wavelength instabilities in isotropic and anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Doron E.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.

    1999-08-01

    We consider spontaneous generation of long waves in the presence of a conservation law in both cases of isotropic systems (e.g., Bénard-Marangoni waves) and anisotropic systems (e.g., waves in a film on an inclined plane). We found that near the instability threshold the problem is governed by the dissipation-modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in the former case and by the anisotropic dissipation-modified Korteweg-de Vries equation in the latter case. In frames of the derived 2+1-dimensional amplitude equations, we investigate the stability of one-dimensional waves. In isotropic systems the one-dimensional waves turned out to be always unstable with respect to a long-wave transverse modulation of the front. In anisotropic systems, only the one-dimensional periodic waves moving in the most preferred direction are found to be stable. Any deviation from this direction leads to instability of such an oblique wave.

  4. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qingbo; Wang, Jinming; Lin, Guannan; Suo, Hui; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp.) in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C). And an r2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry. PMID:22649750

  5. Short-wave near-infrared spectrometer for alcohol determination and temperature correction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qingbo; Wang, Jinming; Lin, Guannan; Suo, Hui; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp.) in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C). And an r(2) better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry. PMID:22649750

  6. PARAMETRIC INSTABILITY OF WHISTLER WAVES IN THE ELECTRON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Lu, J. Y. E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.c

    2010-05-01

    Using an electron magnetohydrodynamic model, we investigate the parametric decay among three whistler waves. A nonlinear equation to describe both linear and nonlinear properties of whistler waves is derived. Then we discuss the growth rate of the parametric decay of whistler waves in the long-wavelength region and show that the growth rate for two reverse decay waves is larger than that for two decay waves in the same direction. The nonlinear interaction among the long-wavelength and short-wavelength waves is also studied in this paper. This wave-wave interaction implies that long-wavelength waves can be decayed to short-wavelength waves and then dissipate their energy in the short-wavelength region. The possibility of applying our results to account for the generation of sunward propagating whistler waves is also discussed.

  7. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  8. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  9. Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Measurements of Galaxies in Different Wavelengths of Light to Investigate a Prediction of Density Wave Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Imani, Hamed; Davis, Benjamin L.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Spiral structure in disk galaxies has been an important study of astronomy for decades. In understanding this structure one of the major parameters is the pitch angle of spiral arms. The density wave theory was proposed by C.Lin and F.Shu in the mid-1960s to explain the spiral arm structure of spiral galaxies [1]. A prediction of this theory is that the pitch angle of spiral arms for galaxies with blue-light wavelength images should be smaller than for infrared-light, so we have tighter spiral arms in blue band images. Young (blue) stars in arms of the galaxies move head of the old (red) stellar populations, clouds and dust. This implies that blue stars should exhibit tighter arms. In ref [2], E.M Garcia et al (2014) investigate the behavior of the pitch angle of spiral arms depending on optical wavelength. They worked on five galaxies and their images band-pass wavelength are in the optical range and their results show that just three of those five galaxies are consistent with density wave theory.In this research, we worked with a bigger samples and for each galaxy we used an optical wavelength image (B-Band: 445 nm) and another image from the Spitzer Space Telescope in a deep infrared range (Infrared: 8.0 μm) and we measured the pitch angle with the 2DFFT code [3]. Our results show that for optical range images we have smaller pitch angle compared to the infrared range and all of our measurements support with the density wave theory. Our results for 42 NGC galaxies show that spiral arms for images with optical range wavelength are clearly tighter typically by a few degrees than spiral arms in infrared range wavelength.Reference:[1]. Bertin, G. and Lin, C. (1996), MIT Press[2]. E.M Garcia et al, 2014 ApJ 793 L19[3]. Benjamin L. Davis et al. 2012 ApJS 199 33

  10. Digital Audio Broadcasting in the Short Wave Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1998-01-01

    For many decades the Short Wae broadcasting service has used high power, double-sideband AM signals to reach audiences far and wide. While audio quality was usually not very high, inexpensive receivers could be used to tune into broadcasts fro distant countries.

  11. Design and construction of a short-wave infrared 3.3X continuous zoom lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Craig; Goodman, Tim; Addiego, Chris; Mifsud, Steve

    2010-08-01

    We present the definition, design, and construction of a 3.3X continuous-zoom short-wave infrared (SWIR) telephoto lens. Compared to visible and mid-wave infrared lenses, defining the appropriate lens requirements of short-wave lenses have some different trade-offs in terms of balancing radiometry and optimum focal plane sampling. In addition, the design process of optimizing a visible zoom design form of given first-order properties to work in the SWIR band reveals some challenges in glass selection and subsequent aberration balancing. A comparison of the actual measured MTF performance of a prototype lens shows reasonable performance compared to the design.

  12. Genetic evidence for the ancestral loss of short-wavelength-sensitive cone pigments in mysticete and odontocete cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, D H; Dizon, A

    2003-01-01

    All mammals ancestrally possessed two types of cone pigments, an arrangement that persists in nearly all contemporary species. However, the absence of one of these cone types, the short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) cone, has recently been established in several delphinoid cetacean species, indicating that the loss of this pigment type may be widespread among cetaceans. To evaluate the functional condition of SWS cones in cetaceans, partial SWS cone-opsin gene sequences were obtained from nuclear DNA for 16 species representing 12 out of the 14 extant mysticete (baleen) and odontocete (toothed) families. For all these species one or more mutations were identified that indicate that their SWS cone-opsin genes are pseudogenes and thus do not code for functional visual pigment proteins. Parsimonious interpretation of the distribution of some of these mis-sense mutations indicates that the conversion of cetacean SWS coneopsin genes to pseudogenes probably occurred before the divergences of the mysticete and odontocete suborders. Thus, in the absence of dramatic homoplasy, all modern cetaceans lack functional SWS cone visual pigments and, by extension, the visual capacities that such pigments typically support. PMID:12713740

  13. Use of radiation from a liner source to pump an Al-Mg short-wavelength laser

    SciTech Connect

    Baksht, R.B.; Datsko, I.M. Kokshenev, V.A.; Luchinskii, A.V.; Loskutov, V.V.; Oreshkin, V.I.; Russkikh, A.G.; Koshevoi, M.O.; Rupasov, A.A.; Fedin, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the radiation from a plasma column produced by compression of an Al liner in a device with an inductive energy store and the GIT-4 plasma current-breaker, carried out for the purpose of using this radiation to photopump an Al-Mg short-wavelength laser. The experiments used a spectrograph with a transmission diffraction grating which made possible spectral sampling in the range 10-120 {angstrom}. Analysis of the spectra revealed that the distribution of the radiation intensity parallel to the plasma column was quite nonuniform; up to 50% of the entire radiation power goes into hot spots. The radiation power integrated over the spectrum was found to be (4-6){center_dot}10{sup 10} W/cm for a current of up to 1.5 MA and the power in the pumping line was up to 10{sup 9} W/cm. The spectral properties of the radiation agree satisfactorily with the calculated ones. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Recruitment of Rod Photoreceptors from Short-Wavelength-Sensitive Cones during the Evolution of Nocturnal Vision in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Woong; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Oel, Adam Phillip; Brooks, Matthew John; Jia, Li; Plachetzki, David Charles; Li, Wei; Allison, William Ted; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-06-20

    Vertebrate ancestors had only cone-like photoreceptors. The duplex retina evolved in jawless vertebrates with the advent of highly photosensitive rod-like photoreceptors. Despite cones being the arbiters of high-resolution color vision, rods emerged as the dominant photoreceptor in mammals during a nocturnal phase early in their evolution. We investigated the evolutionary and developmental origins of rods in two divergent vertebrate retinas. In mice, we discovered genetic and epigenetic vestiges of short-wavelength cones in developing rods, and cell-lineage tracing validated the genesis of rods from S cones. Curiously, rods did not derive from S cones in zebrafish. Our study illuminates several questions regarding the evolution of duplex retina and supports the hypothesis that, in mammals, the S-cone lineage was recruited via the Maf-family transcription factor NRL to augment rod photoreceptors. We propose that this developmental mechanism allowed the adaptive exploitation of scotopic niches during the nocturnal bottleneck early in mammalian evolution. PMID:27326930

  15. Characterization of Low Noise TES Detectors Fabricated by D-RIE Process for SAFARI Short-Wavelength Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Suzuki, T.; Hijmering, R. A.; Ridder, M. L.; Lindeman, M. A.; Gao, J.-R.; Hoevers, H.

    2014-08-01

    SRON is developing TES detectors based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN membrane for the short-wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA mission. We have recently replaced the wet KOH etching of the Si substrate by deep reactive ion etching. The new process enables us to fabricate the detectors on the substrate and release the membrane at the very last step. Therefore the production of SAFARI large arrays (4343) on thin SiN membrane (250 nm) is feasible. It also makes it possible to realize narrow supporting SiN legs of 1 m, which are needed to meet SAFARI NEP requirements. Here we report the current-voltage characteristics, noise performance and impedance measurement of these devices. The measured results are then compared with the distributed leg model that takes into account the thermal fluctuation noise due to the SiN legs. We measured a dark NEP of 0.7 aW/, which is 1.6 times higher than the theoretically expected phonon noise.

  16. Improved methods for detecting gravitational waves associated with short gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A. R.; Biwer, C.; Fairhurst, S.; Harry, I. W.; Macdonald, E.; Macleod, D.; Predoi, V.

    2014-12-01

    In the era of second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) will be among the most promising astrophysical events for joint electromagnetic and gravitational wave observation. A targeted, coherent search for gravitational wave compact binary merger signals in coincidence with short GRBs was developed and used to analyze data from the first generation LIGO and Virgo instruments. In this paper, we present improvements to this search that enhance our ability to detect gravitational wave counterparts to short GRBs. Specifically, we introduce an improved method for estimating the gravitational wave background to obtain the event significance required to make detections; implement a method of tiling extended sky regions, as required when searching for signals associated to poorly localized GRBs from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor or the InterPlanetary Network; and incorporate astrophysical knowledge about the beaming of GRB emission to restrict the search parameter space. We describe the implementation of these enhancements and demonstrate how they improve the ability to observe binary merger gravitational wave signals associated with short GRBs. A targeted, coherent GRB search provides a 25% increase in distance sensitivity, or a doubling of the event rate, for well-localized GRBs when compared with a nontargeted, coincident analysis.

  17. Integro-differential modeling of ICRH wave propagation and damping at arbitrary cyclotron harmonics and wavelengths in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.

    2014-02-12

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating scenarios creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses ongoing work to extend the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [D. Van Eester and R. Koch, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 40 (1998) 1949] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response. Adopting a philosophy originally due to Kaufman [A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Fluids 15 (1972) 1063], the relevant dielectric response in the Galerkin formalism is written in a form where the electric field and the test function vector appear symmetrically, which yields a power balance equation that guarantees non-negative absorption for any wave type for Maxwellian plasmas. Moreover, this choice of independent variable yields intuitive expressions that can directly be linked to the corresponding expressions in the RF diffusion operator. It also guarantees that a positive definite power transfer from waves to particles is ensured for any of the wave modes in a plasma in which all populations have a Maxwellian distribution, as is expected from first principles. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach that retains all finite Larmor radius effects [D. Van Eester and E. Lerche, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013) 055008] is proposed.

  18. Integro-differential modeling of ICRH wave propagation and damping at arbitrary cyclotron harmonics and wavelengths in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.

    2014-02-01

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating scenarios creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses ongoing work to extend the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [D. Van Eester & R. Koch, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 40 (1998) 1949] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response. Adopting a philosophy originally due to Kaufman [A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Fluids 15 (1972) 1063], the relevant dielectric response in the Galerkin formalism is written in a form where the electric field and the test function vector appear symmetrically, which yields a power balance equation that guarantees non-negative absorption for any wave type for Maxwellian plasmas. Moreover, this choice of independent variable yields intuitive expressions that can directly be linked to the corresponding expressions in the RF diffusion operator. It also guarantees that a positive definite power transfer from waves to particles is ensured for any of the wave modes in a plasma in which all populations have a Maxwellian distribution, as is expected from first principles. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach that retains all finite Larmor radius effects [D. Van Eester & E. Lerche, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013) 055008] is proposed.

  19. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J.; Jain, M.; Wicks, G.; Hossain, K.; Golding, T.; McEwan, K.; Howle, C.

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  20. Study of a Continuous Microwave Discharge in Two Crossed Wave Beams of the Millimeter Wavelength Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikharev, A. L.; Gorbachev, A. M.; Radischev, D. B.; Chernov, V. V.; Kozlov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of studying a microwave discharge produced by continuous-wave gyrotron radiation with a frequency of 30 GHz in a mixture of argon and hydrogen with an admixture of methane in the region of crossing of two wave beams. The discharge wave maintained over a substrate and had the form of a thin plasma layer. The gas temperature and electron density in the plasma were measured by the methods of optical spectroscopy of radiation. Features of determining Stark broadening of spectral lines of atomic hydrogen at a relatively low (of about 1013 cm-3) electron density are discussed. Dependences of the electron density and gas temperature on the pressure and gas composition, as well as the power of the incident microwave radiation are presented. The prospects of using the discharge under consideration for plasmochemical deposition of diamond films from the gaseous phase are considered.

  1. Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Jun; Xu, Weiming; He, Zhiping; Qian, Liqun; Shu, Rong

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a high power linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) fiber laser with master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration, which is specially designed for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements. Two single longitudinal mode laser diodes working at 1550.12 and 1554.13 nm are employed as the seeds of the fiber MOPA. The wavelengths of the seeds are externally modulated by two acousto-optic frequency shifters (AOFSes) with a symmetrical sawtooth wave from 330–460 MHz in the frequency domain. The modulation periodicities for the two seeds are 26 and 26.3 μs, respectively, by which the distance ambiguity can be eliminated and therefore the detection range can be extended to a great extent. The seeds are then amplified independently to reduce their power differences during frequency modulation. After being coupled and boosted with three successive fiber amplifiers, an output power of 12.1 W is recorded from the FMCW laser with a power instability   <0.14% over 1.5 h. The measured PER and full divergence angle of the laser are  >18 dB and  <25 μrad, respectively, indicating its excellent performance for field measurements.

  2. A Simple Technique for Controlling the Görtler Vortex Wavelength in Hypersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hajime; Honda, Hirokazu

    This paper describes results of an exploratory study to investigate the capability of a passive approach for controlling the characteristic spanwise length of Görtler vortices generated in hypersonic flows: a serrated leading edge. Heat transfer, pressure measurements, encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystal, schlieren and glow spark visualizations were conducted with a flat plate/ramp model whose leading edge had a triangular wave shape in a gun tunnel at Mach number 10. Effect of wavelength Λ of the triangular waves on downstream flows was studied. Aerodynamic heating patterns observed with the liquid crystal confirmed that the vortex wavelength was equal to Λ. This was also supported by the spark results that filamentary bright lines perpendicular to an installed line-anode parallel to the spanwise direction at the ramp surface emerged at intervals of Λ. Phase lag was observed only between heat transfer data measured in the spanwise direction, which suggests that the vortex structure existed in the reattaching boundary layers. Pressure distribution in the streamwise direction was similar among all of the Λ tested. In contrast, the heat transfer data points exhibited a large scatter and the peak heating value for the finite Λ was somewhat larger than that for the infinite Λ. Schlieren results indicated that the appropriate Λ can mitigate flow separation.

  3. [The impact of ZnS/CdS composite window layer on the quantun efficiency of CdTe solar cell in short wavelength].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-xiang; Feng, Liang-huan; Wang, Wen-wu; Xu, Hang; Wu, Li-li; Zhang, Jing-quan; Li, Wei; Zeng, Guang-gen

    2015-02-01

    ZnS/CdS composite window layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering method and then applied to CdTe solar cell. The morphology and structure of films were measured. The data of I-V in light and the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with different window layers were also measured. The effect of ZnS films prepared in different conditions on the performance of CdTe solar cells was researched. The effects of both CdS thickness and ZnS/CdS composite layer on the transmission in short wavelength were studied. Particularly, the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer was measured. The results show as follows. With the thickness of CdS window layer reducing from 100 to 50 nm, the transmission increase 18.3% averagely in short wavelength and the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells increase 27.6% averagely. The grain size of ZnS prepared in 250 degrees C is smaller than prepared at room temperature. The performance of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer is much better if ZnS deposited at 250 degrees C. This indicates grain size has some effect on the electron transportation. When the CdS holds the same thickness, the transmission of ZnS/CdS window layer was improved about 2% in short wavelength compared with CdS window layer. The quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer was also improved about 2% in short wavelength compared with that based on CdS window layer. These indicate ZnS/CdS composite window layer can increase the photon transmission in short wavelength so that more photons can be absorbed by the absorbent layer of CdTe solar cells. PMID:25970885

  4. Flecks in Recessive Stargardt Disease: Short-Wavelength Autofluorescence, Near-Infrared Autofluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Janet R.; Marsiglia, Marcela; Allikmets, Rando; Tsang, Stephen; Lee, Winston; Duncker, Tobias; Zernant, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the incongruous observation whereby flecks in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) can exhibit increased short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) that originates from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lipofuscin, while near-infrared AF (NIR-AF), emitted primarily from RPE melanin, is usually reduced or absent at fleck positions. Methods Flecks in SW- and NIR-AF images and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were studied in 19 STGD1 patients carrying disease-causing ABCA4 mutations. Fleck spatial distribution and progression were recorded in serial AF images. Results Flecks observed in SW-AF images typically colocalized with darkened foci in NIR-AF images; the NIR-AF profiles were larger. The decreased NIR-AF signal from flecks preceded apparent changes in SW-AF. Spatiotemporal changes in fleck distribution usually progressed centrifugally, but in one case centripetal expansion was observed. Flecks in SW-AF images corresponded to hyperreflective deposits that progressively traversed photoreceptor-attributable bands in SD-OCT images. Outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness negatively correlated with expansion of flecks from outer to inner retina. Conclusions In the healthy retina, RPE lipofuscin fluorophores form in photoreceptor cells but are transferred to RPE; thus the SW-AF signal from photoreceptor cells is negligible. In STGD1, NIR-AF imaging reveals that flecks are predominantly hypofluorescent and larger and that NIR-AF darkening occurs prior to heightened SW-AF signal. These observations indicate that RPE cells associated with flecks in STGD1 are considerably changed or lost. Spectral-domain OCT findings are indicative of ongoing photoreceptor cell degeneration. The bright SW-AF signal of flecks likely originates from augmented lipofuscin formation in degenerating photoreceptor cells impaired by the failure of RPE. PMID:26230768

  5. VARIABILITY IN SHORT WAVELENGTH AUTOMATED PERIMETRY AMONG PERI- OR POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN: A DEPENDENCE ON PHYTOESTROGEN CONSUMPTION?

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Alvin; Demirel, Shaban

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the hill of vision for Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry (SWAP) is shallower for women who consume phytoestrogen-rich foods than for women who do not. Methods Visual field data were compared for two groups of healthy amenorrheic women 48-69 years-old with normal vision and not using hormone replacement: (1) 24 subjects who reported consuming soy and/or flax products and (2) 20 subjects who reported not consuming these products. Two types of 24-2 visual fields were measured: (1) Full Threshold SWAP, and (2) a white-on-white (W/W) field obtained using a Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA Standard). Results The reduction of SWAP sensitivity from the center of the field [4 loci, mean eccentricity = 4.2°] to the periphery [20 loci, mean eccentricity = 21.9°] was less for soy/flax consumers than for non-consumers, both with age-referencing (mean difference = 1.7 dB, p = .018) and without (p = .012). Corresponding distinctions existed for the SWAP – W/W difference, and there was minimal effect for W/W fields alone. The peripheral age-referenced SWAP sensitivities averaged 2.5 dB higher for consumers than non-consumers (p = .022). Conclusion The between-group distinctions are consistent with the possibility (derived from the women’s health literature) that phytoestrogens may counteract a decline of SWS-cone-mediated response among post-menopausal women. These results suggest another potential application for SWAP outside its original intended purpose as a glaucoma test. Future studies should assess whether phytoestrogen consumption is most beneficial for women who are sufficiently young and/or not too far beyond menopause. PMID:19958290

  6. Serine 85 in transmembrane helix 2 of short-wavelength visual pigments interacts with the retinylidene Schiff base counterion.

    PubMed

    Dukkipati, A; Vought, B W; Singh, D; Birge, R R; Knox, B E

    2001-12-18

    Short-wavelength cone visual pigments (SWS1) are responsible for detecting light from 350 to 430 nm. Models of this class of pigment suggest that TM2 has extensive contacts with the retinal binding pocket and stabilizes interhelical interactions. The role of TM2 in the structure-function of the Xenopus SWS1 (VCOP, lambda(max) = 427 nm) pigment was studied by replacement of the helix with that of bovine rhodopsin and also by mutagenesis of highly conserved residues. The TM2 chimera and G78D, F79L, M81E, P88T, V89S, and F90V mutants did not produce any significant spectral shift of the dark state or their primary photointermediate formed upon illumination at cryogenic temperatures. The mutant G77R (responsible for human tritanopia) was completely defective in folding, while C82A and F87T bound retinal at reduced levels. The position S85 was crucial for obtaining the appropriate spectroscopic properties of VCOP. S85A and S85T did not bind retinal. S85D bound retinal and had a wild-type dark state at room temperature and a red-shifted dark state at 45 K and formed an altered primary photointermediate. S85C absorbed maximally at 390 nm at neutral pH and at 365 nm at pH >7.5. The S85C dark state was red shifted by 20 nm at 45 K and formed an altered primary photointermediate. These data suggest that S85 is involved in a hydrogen bond with the protonated retinylidene Schiff base counterion in both the dark state and the primary photointermediate. PMID:11735392

  7. Comparison of Standard Automated Perimetry, Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry, and Frequency-Doubling Technology Perimetry to Monitor Glaucoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongrong; Wang, Chenkun; Gu, Yangshun; Racette, Lyne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detection of progression is paramount to the clinical management of glaucoma. Our goal is to compare the performance of standard automated perimetry (SAP), short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), and frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in monitoring glaucoma progression. Longitudinal data of paired SAP, SWAP, and FDT from 113 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study or the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study were included. Data from all tests were expressed in comparable units by converting the sensitivity from decibels to unitless contrast sensitivity and by expressing sensitivity values in percent of mean normal based on an independent dataset of 207 healthy eyes with aging deterioration taken into consideration. Pointwise linear regression analysis was performed and 3 criteria (conservative, moderate, and liberal) were used to define progression and improvement. Global mean sensitivity (MS) was fitted with linear mixed models. No statistically significant difference in the proportion of progressing and improving eyes was observed across tests using the conservative criterion. Fewer eyes showed improvement on SAP compared to SWAP and FDT using the moderate criterion; and FDT detected less progressing eyes than SAP and SWAP using the liberal criterion. The agreement between these test types was poor. The linear mixed model showed a progressing trend of global MS overtime for SAP and SWAP, but not for FDT. The baseline estimate of SWAP MS was significantly lower than SAP MS by 21.59% of mean normal. FDT showed comparable estimation of baseline MS with SAP. SWAP and FDT do not appear to have significant benefits over SAP in monitoring glaucoma progression. SAP, SWAP, and FDT may, however, detect progression in different glaucoma eyes. PMID:26886602

  8. Human phase response curve to a single 6.5 h pulse of short-wavelength light

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, Melanie; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Brainard, George C; Khalsa, Sat-Bir S; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    The photic resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker depends on the timing of exposure, and the direction and magnitude of the resulting shift is described by a phase response curve (PRC). Previous PRCs in humans have utilized high-intensity polychromatic white light. Given that the circadian photoreception system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength visible light, the aim of the current study was to construct a PRC to blue (480 nm) light and compare it to a 10,000 lux white light PRC constructed previously using a similar protocol. Eighteen young healthy participants (18–30 years) were studied for 9–10 days in a time-free environment. The protocol included three baseline days followed by a constant routine (CR) to assess initial circadian phase. Following this CR, participants were exposed to a 6.5 h 480 nm light exposure (11.8 μW cm−2, 11.2 lux) following mydriasis via a modified Ganzfeld dome. A second CR was conducted following the light exposure to re-assess circadian phase. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between CRs. Exposure to 6.5 h of 480 nm light resets the circadian pacemaker according to a conventional type 1 PRC with fitted maximum delays and advances of −2.6 h and 1.3 h, respectively. The 480 nm PRC induced ∼75% of the response of the 10,000 lux white light PRC. These results may contribute to a re-evaluation of dosing guidelines for clinical light therapy and the use of light as a fatigue countermeasure. PMID:23090946

  9. Statistical characterization of short wind waves from stereo images of the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Alexey; Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Hauser, Danièle; Guérin, Charles-Antoine

    2013-04-01

    We propose a methodology to extract short-scale statistical characteristics of the sea surface topography by means of stereo image reconstruction. The possibilities and limitations of the technique are discussed and tested on a data set acquired from an oceanographic platform at the Black Sea. The analysis shows that reconstruction of the topography based on stereo method is an efficient way to derive non-trivial statistical properties of surface short- and intermediate-waves (say from 1 centimer to 1 meter). Most technical issues pertaining to this type of datasets (limited range of scales, lacunarity of data or irregular sampling) can be partially overcome by appropriate processing of the available points. The proposed technique also allows one to avoid linear interpolation which dramatically corrupts properties of retrieved surfaces. The processing technique imposes that the field of elevation be polynomially detrended, which has the effect of filtering out the large scales. Hence the statistical analysis can only address the small-scale components of the sea surface. The precise cut-off wavelength, which is approximatively half the patch size, can be obtained by applying a high-pass frequency filter on the reference gauge time records. The results obtained for the one- and two-points statistics of small-scale elevations are shown consistent, at least in order of magnitude, with the corresponding gauge measurements as well as other experimental measurements available in the literature. The calculation of the structure functions provides a powerful tool to investigate spectral and statistical properties of the field of elevations. Experimental parametrization of the third-order structure function, the so-called skewness function, is one of the most important and original outcomes of this study. This function is of primary importance in analytical scattering models from the sea surface and was up to now unavailable in field conditions. Due to the lack of precise

  10. External excitation of a short-wavelength fluctuation in the Alcator C-Mod edge plasma and its relationship to the quasi-coherent mode

    SciTech Connect

    Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Burke, W.; Davis, E.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E.; Parkin, W.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, J.; Vieira, R.; Wolfe, S.

    2014-05-15

    A novel “Shoelace” antenna has been used to inductively excite a short-wavelength edge fluctuation in a tokamak boundary layer for the first time. The principal design parameters, k{sub ⊥}=1.5±0.1 cm{sup −1} and 45wave number and propagation direction as the QCM, and is resonant at the QCM frequency, suggest the antenna may couple to this mode, which we have shown elsewhere to be predominantly drift-mode-like [B. LaBombard et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056108 (2014)].

  11. Study of optical output couplers for submillimeter wavelength backward-wave oscillators (BWO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Stankiewicz, Norbert; Podany, Mark

    1988-01-01

    The machining of slow wave structures for high frequency backward-wave oscillators (BWO) is extremely difficult beyond 1 THz. Recently a microfabrication technique using photolithography and ion-beam assisted etching has been used to construct a prototype BWO operating at 200 to 265 GHz. The output coupler for such tubes remains a problem. Waveguides do not exist or are very lossy at the frequencies of interest (300 to 2000 GHz). This paper discusses several scaled experiments of optical output couplers for submillimeter BWOs. Various designs of planar antennas (Vivaldi horns) and lens-feed systems (Hyperhemispherical lens) were constructed and tested between 20 and 100 GHz using a spectrum analyzer. The lens system was also tested at 337 GHz using a CO2 pumped FIR laser.

  12. Large-scale gravity wave influences on the propagation of short-period gravity waves to higher altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, K.; Fritts, D. C.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Williams, B. P.; Criddle, N.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the impacts of large-scale gravity waves (periods of multiple hours) on propagation environments for smaller-scale gravity waves (periods less than an hour). Large-scale gravity waves account for wind and temperature perturbations that can modulate the large-scale flow and either enhance or suppress the propagation of short-period waves to higher altitudes, thus also modulating their vertical transport of momentum. Specific cases are discussed using data from the DEEPWAVE mission, which took place from Christchurch, New Zealand in June and July 2014. The measurements used in this investigation utilize sodium and Rayleigh lidars that were aboard the NSF Gulfstream V research aircraft, as well as temperatures from Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mappers (AMTMs) aboard the aircraft and stationed at the Lauder research station in New Zealand. The AMTM allows for temperatures to be derived from hydroxyl layer emissions. The Rayleigh lidar allows for temperatures to be measured vertically from ~25-50km. The sodium lidar allows for sodium density perturbations to be measured from ~80-100km. The combination of these instruments allows for more complete assessments of large-scale wave activity (hundreds of km) as well as smaller scale wave events (<100 km). The temperature measurements from both the lidars and AMTMs allow for the phase of the gravity waves at given locations and times to be determined. An example of an event is given in the attached keogram figure for June 21-22, 2014 from the Lauder AMTM. This night shows a gravity wave that appears to be propagating from ~10:00-12:30 UT in a distinct phase of a larger scale wave with a period in the range of 4-6 hours. Using case studies such as this, we aim to further understand the influences of such dynamics in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  13. Cylindrical vector beam generation in fiber with mode selectivity and wavelength tunability over broadband by acoustic flexural wave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-05-16

    Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE11 mode to TM01 and TE01 modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11x→TM01 and HE11y→TE01 for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands. PMID:27409861

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Scattering from an Array of Irregularities Comparable with a Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankin, Sergey S.; Suchkov, Sergey G.; Shatrova, Iuliia A.; Suchkov, Dmitry S.; Komkov, Sergey V.; Pilovets, Aleksey A.; Nikitov, Sergey A.

    The properly defined reflection, transmission and scattering coefficients were numerically evaluated as functions of the reflector's thickness, from infinitively small to comparable with wavelength. It was shown that these dependencies for projections are quasi-periodic and related to excitation of Eigen resonance modes in array of reflectors. In contrast to projections scattering from deep grooves does not have periodic behavior and with the depth's growth SAW scattering into volume increases while reflection coefficient doesn't reach more than 40%. The calculation of the 2D pattern of the scattered fields makes it possible to estimate the reflecting structures efficiency and clearly shows the range of the parameters for which an intensive SAW-energy radiation into the bulk occurs.

  15. Effects of a chronic reduction of short-wavelength light input on melatonin and sleep patterns in humans: evidence for adaptation.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marina C; Beersma, Domien G M; Bollen, Pauline; van der Linden, Matthijs L; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2014-06-01

    Light is an important environmental stimulus for the entrainment of the circadian clock and for increasing alertness. The intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina play an important role in transferring this light information to the circadian system and they are elicited in particular by short-wavelength light. Exposure to short wavelengths is reduced, for instance, in elderly people due to yellowing of the ocular lenses. This reduction may be involved in the disrupted circadian rhythms observed in aged subjects. Here, we tested the effects of reduced blue light exposure in young healthy subjects (n = 15) by using soft orange contact lenses (SOCL). We showed (as expected) that a reduction in the melatonin suppressing effect of light is observed when subjects wear the SOCL. However, after chronic exposure to reduced (short wavelength) light for two consecutive weeks we observed an increase in sensitivity of the melatonin suppression response. The response normalized as if it took place under a polychromatic light pulse. No differences were found in the dim light melatonin onset or in the amplitude of the melatonin rhythms after chronic reduced blue light exposure. The effects on sleep parameters were limited. Our results demonstrate that the non-visual light system of healthy young subjects is capable of adapting to changes in the spectral composition of environmental light exposure. The present results emphasize the importance of considering not only the short-term effects of changes in environmental light characteristics. PMID:24597610

  16. Measurements of plasma-wave generation using a short-pulse high-intensity laser beat wave

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.; Najmudin, Z.; Wei, M.S.; Marle, C.; Kingham, R.J.; Krushelnick, K.; Dangor, A.E.; Clarke, R.J.; Poulter, M. J.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Hawkes, S.; Neely, D.; Collier, J.L.; Danson, C.N.; Fritzler, S.; Malka, V.

    2006-01-15

    Experiments to examine the generation of relativistic plasma waves via a high-intensity short-pulse beat-wave scheme are described in detail. The pulse stretcher of the Vulcan chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system was modified to produce two frequency, 3 ps pulses focusable to intensities up to 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. Short high-intensity pulses were used to avoid limitations to the plasma-wave amplitude due to the modulational instability. Two experiments were undertaken, at 3 and 10 TW, with the generation of plasma waves diagnosed by measuring the sidebands produced in the spectrum of the forward scattered beam. A resonance in the sideband signal was observed for an initial plasma density higher than expected for the given beat frequency. This resonance shift can be attributed to transverse ponderomotive expulsion of plasma electrons from the laser focal region. A monotonically increasing background was also observed, which was due to nonresonant cross-phase modulation.

  17. A temperature inversion in WASP-33b? Large Binocular Telescope occultation data confirm significant thermal flux at short wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Essen, C.; Mallonn, M.; Albrecht, S.; Antoci, V.; Smith, A. M. S.; Dreizler, S.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    We observed a secondary eclipse of WASP-33 b quasi-simultaneously in the optical (~0.55 μm) and the near-infrared (~1.05 μm) using the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope. WASP-33 is a δ Scuti star pulsating with periods comparable to the eclipse duration, making the determination of the eclipse depth challenging. We use previously determined oscillation frequencies to model and remove the pulsation signal from the light curves, isolating the secondary eclipse. The determined eclipse depth is ΔF = 1.03 ± 0.34 parts per thousand, corresponding to a brightness temperature of TB = 3398 ± 302 K. Combining previously published data with our new measurement we find the equilibrium temperature of WASP-33 b to be TB = 3358 ± 165 K. We compare all existing eclipse data to a blackbody spectrum, to a carbon-rich non-inverted model and to a solar composition model with an inverted temperature structure. We find that current available data on WASP-33 b's atmosphere can be best represented by a simple blackbody emission, without the need for more sophisticated atmospheric models with temperature inversions. Although our data cannot rule out models with or without a temperature inversion, they do confirm a high brightness temperature for the planet at short wavelengths. WASP-33 b is one of the hottest exoplanets known till date, and its equilibrium temperature is consistent with rapid reradiation of the absorbed stellar light and a low albedo. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of

  18. Performance analysis of incoherent multi-wavelength OCDMA systems under the impact of four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ngoc T; Pham, Anh T

    2010-05-10

    In this paper, we comprehensively analyze the impact of four wave mixing (FWM) on the performance of incoherent multi-wavelength optical code-division multiple-access (MW-OCDMA) systems. We also consider many other interferences and noises, including multiple access interference, optical beating interference, and receiver noise, in the analysis. From the numerical results, we can find the power ranges of different MW-OCDMA systems, in which the impact of FWM is dominant and consequently results in an increase in the bit-error rate of the systems. We also find that the impact of FWM becomes more severe when the frequency spacing is small and/or dispersion-shifted fiber is used. In addition, we quantitatively discuss the impact of FWM on the number of supportable users and power penalty in the MW-OCDMA systems. PMID:20588844

  19. Radio-over-fiber system with tunable millimeter-wave generation and wavelength reuse for uplink connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chan; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Lin, Heng; Liu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate a radio-over-fiber system to generate an optical millimeter wave (MMW) and realize wavelength reuse for an uplink connection. A tunable optical comb generated by a single Fabry-Perot laser serves as the optical source. The central carrier is separated by an optical circulator cascaded with a fiber Bragg grating. For the downlink, the unmodulated central carrier is coupled with one subcarrier, which has been modulated with 2.5-Gb/s data. Then, different MMWs can be generated by choosing different subcarriers. While for the uplink, the same central carrier is reused for an uplink connection with 1.25-Gb/s data. In the scheme, a 60-GHz MMW is obtained and the bidirectional data are simultaneously transmitted over 60-km transmission with <0.5-dB power penalty. This system shows a simple cost-efficient configuration and good performance over long-distance delivery.

  20. Dispersion relations of short surface gravity waves over vertically sheared currents from stereo-video measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peureux, Charles; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    The stereo-video reconstuction method [Leckler et al. 2015] allows now for the full reconstruction of 3D frequency-wavenumber spectra of short waves. A new field campaign in 2013 on the Katsiveli platform (Black Sea) provided such spectra in various wind and waves conditions, and particularly a stormy event, after which very mature waves had been generated. The short waves energies are found to be mostly located around a dispersion relation of the form, () ° ----------- ω ⃗k = gktanh(kH)+ ⃗kṡ ⃗Ueff The effective advection velocity [Kirby and Chen 1989] ⃗Ueff(k) integrates contributions from both the Stokes drift and quasi-eulerian current [Groeneweg and Klopman 1998]. We find that the effective drift velocity has a very weak wavenumber dependancy, as a result the eulerian current must be vertically sheared. This shear is relevant to the breaking of small scale waves [Banner and Phillips 1974]. It is possible that in field conditions the wind drift is much less important than in the laboratory. Bibliography Banner, M. L. and Phillips, O. M., On the incipient breaking of small scale waves, J. Fluid Mech., 1974, 65, 647. Groeneweg, J. and Klopman, G., Changes of the mean velocity profiles in the combined wave-current motion described in a GLM formulation, J. Fluid Mech., 1998, 370, 271-296. Kirby, J. T. and Chen, T. M., Surface waves on vertically sheared flows : Approximate dispersion relations, J. Geophys. Res., 1989, 94, 1013. Leckler, F., Ardhuin, F., Peureux, C.,Benetazzo, A., Bergamasco, F. and Dulov, V., Analysis and interpretation of frequency-wavenumber spectra of young wind-waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2015, 45, 2484-2496.

  1. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  2. Short- and long-wavelength-sensitive opsins are involved in photoreception both in the retina and throughout the central nervous system of crayfish.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Alexandra C N; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-12-01

    Crayfish have two classes of photoreceptors in the retinas of their reflecting superposition eyes. Long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, comprised of microvilli from R1-7 cells, make up the main rhabdoms. Eighth retinular cells, located distal to the main rhabdoms, house short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors. While the opsin involved in long-wavelength sensitivity has long been known, we present the first description of the short-wavelength-sensitive opsin in the retina of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The expression patterns of these SWS and LWS opsin proteins in the retina are consistent with the previously described locations of SWS and LWS receptors. Crayfish also have a well-characterized extraocular photoreceptor, called the caudal photoreceptor, located in the sixth abdominal ganglion. To search for retinal opsins in the caudal photoreceptor (and elsewhere in the CNS), we used RT-PCR and immunohistochemical labeling. We found both SWS and LWS opsin transcripts not only in the sixth abdominal ganglion, but also in all ganglia of the nerve cord. Immunolabeling shows that both opsins are expressed in nerve fibers that extend from the brain through the entire length of the CNS. Thus, the same two photopigments are used both for vision in the retina and for extraocular functions throughout the CNS of crayfish. PMID:26445969

  3. Enhancing the photo-currents of CdTe thin-film solar cells in both short and long wavelength regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-11-01

    The recent increases in the record efficiency of CdTe thin-film solar cell technology largely benefited from enhancements in short circuit current densities (JSC) in the short-wavelength regions by reducing the thicknesses of CdS window layers. Here, we report that the JSC can be enhanced in both short and long wavelength regions by using CdSe as the window layer. Comparing to CdS, CdSe has a higher solubility in CdTe, resulting in stronger interdiffusion at the CdSe/CdTe interface and the formation of CdTe1-xSex alloys with high x values. Due to bowing effects, the CdTe1-xSex alloys exhibit narrower band gaps than CdTe, enhancing the JSC in the CdTe-based solar cells for long-wavelengths. We further report that the use of combined CdS/CdSe window layers can realize high open circuit voltages and maintain the JSC enhancements. Our results suggest a viable approach to improve the performance of CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  4. Numerical and experimental studies of delamination detection in short fiber reinforced composites using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present aspects of Lamb wave propagation in randomly oriented short fiber reinforce composites with delamination. Prediction of elastic constants is based on mechanics of composites, rule of mixture and total mass balance tailored to the spectral element mesh composed of 3D brick elements. Piezoelectric excitation as well as glue layer are taken into account. Complex full wave field includes multiple reflections at short fibers. This wave pattern is also obtained by the use of laser vibrometry confirming good quality of the model. Further studies are related to symmetrical and non-symmetrical delamination in respect to the thickness of the composite plate. Square delamination of the side length 10 mm is investigated. It has been found that reflections from delamination are mostly superimposed with reflections coming from short fibers. Hence, delamination detection by direct analysis of wave propagation pattern on the surface of the plate is ineffective. However, adaptive wavenumber filtering method overcome these difficulties and enables not only to detect the delamination but also is helpful for delamination size estimation. Moreover, the method is more effective if the full wavefield measurements are acquired on the surface of the plate which is closer to the delamination.

  5. Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 wave function in 206Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.

    2015-09-01

    The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model wave function of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 wave functions of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model wave function, more accurate measurements are required.

  6. Shear wave velocity and attenuation structure for the shallow crust of the southern Korean peninsula from short period Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Heeok; Jang, Yong-seok; Lee, Jung Mo; Moon, Wooil M.; Baag, Chang-Eob; Kim, Ki Young; Jo, Bong Gon

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the short period Rayleigh waves from the first crustal-scale seismic refraction experiment in the Korean peninsula, KCRUST2002, to determine the shear wave velocity and attenuation structure of the uppermost 1 km of the crust in different tectonic zones of the Korean peninsula and to examine if this can be related to the surface geology of the study area. The experiment was conducted with two large explosive sources along a 300-km long profile in 2002. The seismic traces, recorded on 170 vertical-component, 2-Hz portable seismometers, show distinct Rayleigh waves in the period range between 0.2 s and 1.2 s, which are easily recognizable up to 30-60 km from the sources. The seismic profiles, which traverse three tectonic regions (Gyeonggi massif, Okcheon fold belt and Yeongnam massif), were divided into five subsections based on tectonic boundaries as well as lithology. Group and phase velocities for the five subsections obtained by a continuous wavelet transform method and a slant stack method, respectively, were inverted for the shear wave models. We obtained shear wave velocity models up to a depth of 1.0 km. Overall, the shear wave velocity of the Okcheon fold belt is lower than that of the Gyeonggi and Yeongnam massifs by ˜ 0.4 km/s in the shallowmost 0.2 km and by 0.2 km/s at depths below 0.2 km. Attenuation coefficients, determined from the decay of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, were used to obtain the shear wave attenuation structures for three subsections (one for each of the three different tectonic regions). We obtained an average value of Qβ- 1 in the upper 0.5 km for each subsection. Qβ- 1 for the Okcheon fold belt (˜ 0.026) is approximately three times larger than Qβ- 1 for the massif areas (˜ 0.008). The low shear wave velocity in the Okcheon fold belt is consistent with the high attenuation in this region.

  7. Approximate entropy analysis of short-term HFECG based on wave mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xinbao; Xu, Yinlin; Wang, Jun; Ma, Xiaofei

    2005-02-01

    An improved approximate entropy (ApEn) algorithm based on wave mode is proposed by analyzing and modifying ApEn, so that the irregular analysis can be applied to analyze the short-term series, which contain a great deal of detailed information and fluctuate slowly but in a wide range, such as high-frequency electrocardiogram (HFECG). By analyzing the complexity of HFECG, a conclusion can be drawn that ApEn algorithm based on wave mode can obviously distinguish heart diseases from the healthy group. Therefore, it is of significance for diagnosing myocardial infarction in time.

  8. Observationally constraining gravitational wave emission from short gamma-ray burst remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Paul D.; Glampedakis, Kostas

    2016-05-01

    Observations of short gamma-ray bursts indicate ongoing energy injection following the prompt emission, with the most likely candidate being the birth of a rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron star. We utilize X-ray observations of the burst remnant to constrain properties of the nascent neutron star, including its magnetic field-induced ellipticity and the saturation amplitude of various oscillation modes. Moreover, we derive strict upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from these objects by looking only at the X-ray light curve, showing the burst remnants are unlikely to be detected in the near future using ground-based gravitational wave interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO.

  9. A Unified Directional Spectrum for Long and Short Wind-Driven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfouhaily, T.; Chapron, B.; Katsaros, K.; Vandemark, D.

    1997-01-01

    Review of several recent ocean surface wave models finds that while comprehensive in many regards, these spectral models do not satisfy certain additional, but fundamental, criteria. We propose that these criteria include the ability to properly describe diverse fetch conditions and to provide agreement with in situ observations of Cox and Munk [1954] and Jiihne and Riemer [1990] and Hara et al. [1994] data in the high-wavenumber regime. Moreover, we find numerous analytically undesirable aspects such as discontinuities across wavenumber limits, nonphysical tuning or adjustment parameters, and noncentrosymmetric directional spreading functions. This paper describes a two-dimensional wavenumber spectrum valid over all wavenumbers and analytically amenable to usage in electromagnetic models. The two regime model is formulated based on the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) in the long-wave regime and on the work of Phillips [1985] and Kitaigorodskii [1973] at the high wavenumbers. The omnidirectional and wind-dependent spectrum is constructed to agree with past and recent observations including the criteria mentioned above. The key feature of this model is the similarity of description for the high- and low-wavenumber regimes; both forms are posed to stress that the air-sea interaction process of friction between wind and waves (i.e., generalized wave age, u/c) is occurring at all wavelengths simultaneously. This wave age parameterization is the unifying feature of the spectrum. The spectrum's directional spreading function is symmetric about the wind direction and has both wavenumber and wind speed dependence. A ratio method is described that enables comparison of this spreading function with previous noncentrosymmetric forms. Radar data are purposefully excluded from this spectral development. Finally, a test of the spectrum is made by deriving roughness length using the boundary layer model of Kitaigorodskii. Our inference of drag coefficient versus wind speed

  10. Search for gravitational waves associated with the InterPlanetary Network short gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi, V.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Hurley, Kevin; IPN Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    We outline the scientific motivation behind a search for gravitational waves associated with short gamma ray bursts detected by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) during LIGO's fifth science run and Virgo's first science run. The InterPlanetary Network localisation of short gamma ray bursts is limited to extended error boxes of different shapes and sizes and a search on these error boxes poses a series of challenges for data analysis. We will discuss these challenges and outline the methods to optimise the search over these error boxes.

  11. Termination of spiral wave breakup in a Fitzhugh-Nagumo model via short and long duration stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard A.

    2002-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in a variety of nonlinear biological and physical systems. Spiral waves are found in excitable and oscillatory systems and can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves (a process called "spiral wave breakup"). In the heart, spiral wave breakup is thought to be the underlying mechanism of cardiac fibrillation. The spatiotemporal complexity of multiple unstable spiral waves is difficult to control or terminate. Here, the mechanisms of the termination of spiral wave breakup in response to global stimulation are investigated. A modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model was used to represent cellular kinetics to study the role of the fast (activation) and slow (recovery) variables. This simplified model allows a theoretical analysis of the termination of spiral wave breakup via both short and long duration pulses. Simulations were carried out in both two-dimensional sheets and in a three-dimensional geometry of the heart ventricles. The short duration pulses affected only the fast variable and acted to reset wave propagation. Monophasic pulses excited tissue ahead of the wave front thus reducing the amount of excitable tissue. Biphasic shocks did the same, but they also acted to generate new wave fronts from the pre-existing wave tails by making some active regions excitable. Thus, if the short duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to fill in excitable tissue via propagating wave fronts and terminated all activity. The long duration wave forms were selected such that they had a frequency spectrum similar to that of the pseudoelectrocardiograms recorded during fibrillation. These long duration wave forms affected both the recovery and activation variables, and the mechanism of unstable multiple spiral wave termination was different compared to the short duration wave forms. If the long duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to alter the "state" (i.e., combination of fast and slow

  12. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full

  13. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  14. Investigation of a terahertz-wave parametric oscillator using LiTaO3 with the pump-wavelength tuning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Bai, Xianpeng; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the performance of a terahertz parametric oscillator (TPO) using LiTaO3 (LT) with the pump-wavelength tuning method. The frequency tuning accuracy of the LT-TPO is potentially superior to that of a TPO using LiNbO3 (LN) under the same conditions. The variation of the radiation angle of THz waves coupled from the Si prism of the LT-TPO is up to about 20° lower than that for the LN-TPO for a pump-wavelength tuning range of 0.4-1.6 μm. Although the THz-wave parametric gain characteristics of LiTaO3 are somewhat unsatisfactory compared with those of LiNbO3, the LT-TPO with pump-wavelength tuning can still show potential for high-performance operation, with the excellent optical properties of the LiTaO3.

  15. Identification of extreme precipitation threat across midlatitude regions based on short-wave circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Yu; Davies, Robert E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    2013-10-01

    most severe thunderstorms, producing extreme precipitation, occur over subtropical and midlatitude regions. Atmospheric conditions conducive to organized, intense thunderstorms commonly involve the coupling of a low-level jet (LLJ) with a synoptic short wave. The midlatitude synoptic activity is frequently modulated by the circumglobal teleconnection (CGT), in which meridional gradients of the jet stream act as a guide for short Rossby waves. Previous research has linked extreme precipitation events with either the CGT or the LLJ but has not linked the two circulation features together. In this study, a circulation-based index was developed by combining (a) the degree of the CGT and LLJ coupling, (b) the extent to which this CGT-LLJ coupling connects to regional precipitation and (c) the spatial correspondence with the CGT (short wave) trending pattern over the recent 32 years (1979-2010). Four modern-era global reanalyses, in conjunction with four gridded precipitation data sets, were utilized to minimize spurious trends. The results are suggestive of a link between the CGT/LLJ trends and several recent extreme precipitation events, including those leading to the 2008 Midwest flood in U.S., the 2011 tornado outbreaks in southeastern U.S., the 2010 Queensland flood in northeastern Australia, and to the opposite side the 2012 central U.S. drought. Moreover, an analysis of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models from the historical experiments points to the role of greenhouse gases in forming the CGT trends during the warm season.

  16. Characteristics of short-crested waves and currents behind offshore man-made island type power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeno, Masaaki; Kajima, Ryoichi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the diffracted waves with breaking and the nearshore currents caused by short-crested waves, behind a man-made island, on which nuclear power plants are constructed. Firstly, hydraulic model tests with a multi-directional wave maker were performed. Effects of the irregularity and directional spreading of waves, and the effects of cooling water intake flow on diffracted waves and nearshore currents behind a man-made island, were investigated experimentally. Secondly, a numerical model was developed to simulate deformation of multi-directional irregular waves and nearshore currents. The validity of the numerical model was verified through comparison with the experimental results.

  17. Improved performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells by both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zu-Liang; Wang, Yong-Sheng; He, Da-Wei; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells was improved by anode modification using spin-coated Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin films. The modification of the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the PE-DOT:PSS layer resulted in a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.99% compared to 2.66% for the reference device, which was due to the increase in the short-circuit current density (Jsc). The PCE improvement could be attributed to the short-wavelength energy utilization and the optimized morphology of the active layers. Tb(aca)3phen with its strong down-conversion luminescence properties is suitable for the P3HT:PCBM blend active layer, and the absorption region of the ternary blend films is extended into the near ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the crystallization and the surface morphology of P3HT:PCBM films were improved with the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film. The ultraviolent—visible absorption spectra, atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the films were investigated. Both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen in P3HT:PCBM solar cells led to about a 12% PCE increase.

  18. Testing gravitational parity violation with coincident gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Yunes, Nicolas; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Owen, Benjamin J.; Alexander, Stephon

    2010-09-15

    Gravitational parity violation is a possibility motivated by particle physics, string theory, and loop quantum gravity. One effect of it is amplitude birefringence of gravitational waves, whereby left and right circularly polarized waves propagate at the same speed but with different amplitude evolution. Here we propose a test of this effect through coincident observations of gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts from binary mergers involving neutron stars. Such gravitational waves are highly left or right circularly polarized due to the geometry of the merger. Using localization information from the gamma-ray burst, ground-based gravitational wave detectors can measure the distance to the source with reasonable accuracy. An electromagnetic determination of the redshift from an afterglow or host galaxy yields an independent measure of this distance. Gravitational parity violation would manifest itself as a discrepancy between these two distance measurements. We exemplify such a test by considering one specific effective theory that leads to such gravitational parity violation, Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and all-sky gamma-ray telescopes can be sensitive to the propagating sector of Chern-Simons gravitational parity violation to a level roughly 2 orders of magnitude better than current stationary constraints from the LAGEOS satellites.

  19. Near Bed Turbulent Coherent Structures and Sea Bed Evolution Due to Long and Short Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, E.; Foster, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of long and short waves on the generation and evolution of near bed turbulent coherent structures and the sea floor geometry has remained an important but often poorly resolved parameterization within tsunami and wave propagation models. A laboratory study to examine the near bed turbulent evolution and sediment bed response was conducted at near field scale. Two-dimensional observations of the flow field were obtained with a submerged Particle Imaging Velocimetry system looking at a 9 cm by 17 cm region just above a movable ripple sand bed subjected to forcing caused by free-surface gravity waves with 30 cm wave height and a 4 second period. Robust particle tracking techniques and high resolution cameras allowed for millimeter scale resolution of the velocity field and sea floor evolution. Periods of high suspension were concomitant with high near-bed velocities as observed with a high resolution acoustic Doppler profiler. The growth of the boundary layer was particularly observable during the longer duration offshore directed flow. The vortex is created during flow reversal in the ripple trough, growing to roughly the height of the ripple. The coherent structure is ejected during the subsequent half wave cycle and sheared apart at the peak of the onshore directed flow. The high shear associated with the vortices are correlated to sediment suspension and subsequent sediment transport resulting in an onshore migration rate of 1.5 mm/min.

  20. Large-amplitude, short-wave peristalsis and its implications for transport.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Lindsay; Miller, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Valveless, tubular pumps are widespread in the animal kingdom, but the mechanism by which these pumps generate fluid flow is often in dispute. Where the pumping mechanism of many organs was once described as peristalsis, other mechanisms, such as dynamic suction pumping, have been suggested as possible alternative mechanisms. Peristalsis is often evaluated using criteria established in a technical definition for mechanical pumps, but this definition is based on a small-amplitude, long-wave approximation which biological pumps often violate. In this study, we use a direct numerical simulation of large-amplitude, short-wave peristalsis to investigate the relationships between fluid flow, compression frequency, compression wave speed, and tube occlusion. We also explore how the flows produced differ from the criteria outlined in the technical definition of peristalsis. We find that many of the technical criteria are violated by our model: Fluid flow speeds produced by peristalsis are greater than the speeds of the compression wave; fluid flow is pulsatile; and flow speed have a nonlinear relationship with compression frequency when compression wave speed is held constant. We suggest that the technical definition is inappropriate for evaluating peristalsis as a pumping mechanism for biological pumps because they too frequently violate the assumptions inherent in these criteria. Instead, we recommend that a simpler, more inclusive definition be used for assessing peristalsis as a pumping mechanism based on the presence of non-stationary compression sites that propagate unidirectionally along a tube without the need for a structurally fixed flow direction. PMID:26239381

  1. Losses of functional opsin genes, short-wavelength cone photopigments, and color vision--a significant trend in the evolution of mammalian vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2013-03-01

    All mammalian cone photopigments are derived from the operation of representatives from two opsin gene families (SWS1 and LWS in marsupial and eutherian mammals; SWS2 and LWS in monotremes), a process that produces cone pigments with respective peak sensitivities in the short and middle-to-long wavelengths. With the exception of a number of primate taxa, the modal pattern for mammals is to have two types of cone photopigment, one drawn from each of the gene families. In recent years, it has been discovered that the SWS1 opsin genes of a widely divergent collection of eutherian mammals have accumulated mutational changes that render them nonfunctional. This alteration reduces the retinal complements of these species to a single cone type, thus rendering ordinary color vision impossible. At present, several dozen species from five mammalian orders have been identified as falling into this category, but the total number of mammalian species that have lost short-wavelength cones in this way is certain to be much larger, perhaps reaching as high as 10% of all species. A number of circumstances that might be used to explain this widespread cone loss can be identified. Among these, the single consistent fact is that the species so affected are nocturnal or, if they are not technically nocturnal, they at least feature retinal organizations that are typically associated with that lifestyle. At the same time, however, there are many nocturnal mammals that retain functional short-wavelength cones. Nocturnality thus appears to set the stage for loss of functional SWS1 opsin genes in mammals, but it cannot be the sole circumstance. PMID:23286388

  2. Reactions of N/sub 2/(A/sup 3/SIGMA/sub u//sup +/) and candidates for short wavelength lasers, March 1, 1984-February 28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Setser, D.W.

    1987-12-07

    There are several potential schemes for efficiently generating high concentrations of the first electronically excited state of nitrogen, N/sub 2/(A/sup 3/..sigma../sub u//sup +/, 6.2 eV) by either chemical or electrical pumping. The goal of this proposal is to study ways of utilizing the energy of the N/sub 2/(A) molecules for developing efficient, short wavelength gas lasers. Such lasers are of potential interest for laser fusion. The authors report both excitation-transfer and dissociative excitation-transfer reactions of N/sub 2/(A) that yield electronically-excited diatomic molecules as products. 25 refs.

  3. Realization of quantum dot-based polarized white LEDs using short-wavelength pass dichroic filters and reflective polarizer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su Ji; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This study introduces quantum dot (QD)-based polarized white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) combined with a shortwavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions, and a reflective polarizer film (RPF)-sandwiched AgIn5S8-ZnS QD layer using an electrospray (e-spray) method. The AgIn5S8-ZnS QDs are good candidates for W-LEDs because of their broad emission band (~100 nm) from the donoracceptor emission. The yellow emitting AgIn5S8-ZnS QDs are synthesized using a colloidal hot injection method and mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for e-spray coating on glass. Furthermore, SPDFs are used instead of glass substrates to enhance the yellow emission from the QD layer. To create the polarized light, the RPF is fabricated on QD-coated glass and SPDFs. To create white light, a blue LED chip (λmax = 450 nm) is used as the blue light source and an excitation source for the yellow QD film with an applied current of 60 mA. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity with an angular orientation of the polarizer is measured as a function of the polarizer-rotating angle from -90° to 90° at 10° intervals.

  4. Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection.

    PubMed

    Conley, Benjamin R; Mosleh, Aboozar; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Du, Wei; Soref, Richard A; Sun, Greg; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John; Naseem, Hameed A; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2014-06-30

    The GeSn direct gap material system, with Si complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility, presents a promising solution for direct incorporation of focal plane arrays with short wave infrared detection on Si. A temperature dependence study of GeSn photoconductors with 0.9, 3.2, and 7.0% Sn was conducted using both electrical and optical characterizations from 300 to 77 K. The GeSn layers were grown on Si substrates using a commercially available chemical vapor deposition reactor in a Si CMOS compatible process. Carrier activation energies due to ionization and trap states are extracted from the temperature dependent dark I-V characteristics. The temperature dependent spectral response of each photoconductor was measured, and a maximum long wavelength response to 2.1 μm was observed for the 7.0% Sn sample. The DC responsivity measured at 1.55 μm showed around two orders of magnitude improvement at reduced temperatures for all samples compared to room temperature measurements. The noise current and temperature dependent specific detectivity (D*) were also measured for each sample at 1.55 μm, and a maximum D* value of 1 × 10(9) cm·√Hz/W was observed at 77 K. PMID:24977823

  5. Field trial of active remote sensing using a high-power short-wave infrared supercontinuum laser.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Vinay V; Shi, Zhennan; Islam, Mohammed N; Ke, Kevin; Kalinchenko, Galina; Freeman, Michael J; Ifarraguerri, Agustin; Meola, Joseph; Absi, Anthony; Leonard, James; Zadnik, Jerome A; Szalkowski, Anthony S; Boer, Gregory J

    2013-09-20

    Field trial results of a 5 W all-fiber broadband supercontinuum (SC) laser covering the short-wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength bands from ~1.55 to 2.35 μm are presented. The SC laser is kept on a 12 story tower at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base and propagated through the atmosphere to a target 1.6 km away. Beam quality of the SC laser after propagating through 1.6 km is studied using a SWIR camera and show a near diffraction limited beam with an M(2) value of <1.3. The SC laser is used as the illumination source to perform spectral reflectance measurements of various samples at 1.6 km, and the results are seen to be in good agreement with in-lab measurements using a conventional lamp source. Spectral stability measurements are performed after atmospheric propagation through 1.6 km and show a relative variability of ~4%-8% across the spectrum depending on the atmospheric turbulence effects. Spectral stability measurements are also performed in-lab and show a relative variability of <0.6% across the spectrum. PMID:24085183

  6. Design, simulation and test of silicon immersed gratings: key to compact spectrometers in the short-wave infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Amerongen, Aaldert H.; Tol, Paul J. J.; Coppens, Tonny H. M.; Schuurhof, Ruud; Laubert, Phillip P.; Ruijter, Jos; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present results of our integrated approach to the development of novel diffraction gratings. At SRON we manufacture prism-shaped silicon immersed gratings. Diffraction takes place inside the high-refractive index medium, boosting the resolving power and the angular dispersion. This enables highly compact spectrometer designs. We are continuously improving the cycle of design, simulation and test to create custom gratings for space and ground-based spectroscopic applications in the short-wave infrared wavelength range. Applications are space-based monitoring of greenhouse and pollution gases in the Earth atmosphere and ground-based SWIR spectroscopy for, a.o., characterization of exo-planet atmospheres [1]. We make gratings by etching V-shaped grooves in mono-crystalline silicon. The groove facets are aligned with the crystal lattice yielding a smooth and highly deterministic groove shape. This enables us to predict the polarized efficiency performance accurately by simulation. Feeding back manufacturing tolerances from our production process, we can also determine reliable error bars for the predicted performance. Combining the simulated values for polarized efficiency with ray-tracing, we can optimize the shape of the grating prism to eliminate unwanted internal reflections. In this contribution we present the architecture of our design and simulation platform as well as a description of test setups and typical results.

  7. Diode-pumped continuous-wave dual-wavelength c-cut Pr³⁺:LiYF₄ laser at 696 and 719  nm.

    PubMed

    Luo, Saiyu; Xu, Bin; Cui, Shengwei; Chen, Han; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Huiying

    2015-12-01

    A continuous-wave, InGaN-LD-pumped dual-wavelength laser is demonstrated with simultaneous emission at 696 (3P03F(→)3) and 719 nm (3P03F(→)4) using a c-cut Pr(3+):LiYF4, for the first time to our knowledge. Maximum output power of 102 mW at these two wavelengths is achieved with slope efficiency of about 15.6% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The beam propagation factors in x and y directions are measured to be 1.50 and 1.32, respectively. PMID:26836659

  8. Short-wavelength stimulated raman scattering in a silica fiber pumped by an XeBr excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mizunami, T.; Takagi, K.

    1989-08-01

    A UV-grade silica optical fiber was pumped by a 281.8 nm XeBr excimer laser. The first Stokes spectrum was observed at 285 nm. The spectral width was one half of that of the spontaneous Raman spectrum. A numerical analysis of stimulated Raman scattering which includes two-photon absorption loss is presented. The Raman-gain coefficient was determined by the analysis of observed nonlinearity in Stokes output and was found to be 1.8 x 10/sup -5/ cm/MW. It was also shown that two-photon absorption is a more important loss factor than linear attenuation. The shortest limit of wavelength for amplification by stimulated Raman scattering is also discussed.

  9. ERS-1 and Seasat scatterometer measurements of ocean winds: Model functions and the directional distribution of short waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freilich, Michael H.; Dunbar, R. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Calculation of accurate vector winds from scatterometers requires knowledge of the relationship between backscatter cross-section and the geophysical variable of interest. As the detailed dynamics of wind generation of centimetric waves and radar-sea surface scattering at moderate incidence angles are not well known, empirical scatterometer model functions relating backscatter to winds must be developed. Less well appreciated is the fact that, given an accurate model function and some knowledge of the dominant scattering mechanisms, significant information on the amplitudes and directional distributions of centimetric roughness elements on the sea surface can be inferred. accurate scatterometer model functions can thus be used to investigate wind generation of short waves under realistic conditions. The present investigation involves developing an empirical model function for the C-band (5.3 GHz) ERS-1 scatterometer and comparing Ku-band model functions with the C-band model to infer information on the two-dimensional spectrum of centimetric roughness elements in the ocean. The C-band model function development is based on collocations of global backscatter measurements with operational surface analyses produced by meteorological agencies. Strengths and limitations of the method are discussed, and the resulting model function is validated in part through comparison with the actual distributions of backscatter cross-section triplets. Details of the directional modulation as well as the wind speed sensitivity at C-band are investigated. Analysis of persistent outliers in the data is used to infer the magnitudes of non-wind effects (such as atmospheric stratification, swell, etc.). The ERS-1 C-band instrument and the Seasat Ku-band (14.6 GHz) scatterometer both imaged waves of approximately 3.4 cm wavelength assuming that Bragg scattering is the dominant mechanism. Comparisons of the C-band and Ku-band model functions are used both to test the validity of the

  10. Extended short-wavelength spectral response of organic/(silver nanoparticles/Si nanoholes nanocomposite films) hybrid solar cells due to localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixin; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Wengping; Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Jun; Su, Weining; Yu, Yao; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, we investigated spectral and opto-electronic conversion properties of the inorganic/organic hybrid cells by using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films, which were fabricated by the modified metal-assisted electroless etching (EE) method. It was found that the optical absorption spectra of the films with AgNPs demonstrate a clear peak and show the enhancement of total absorption at the short wavelength. The results of current-voltage (I-V) measurements show that solar cells with AgNPs exhibit an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2-3, in comparison with those of the samples without AgNPs. Moreover, higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) values in AgNPs-decorated solar cells were confirmed in the short-wavelength spectral region (400-700 nm), which were essential to achieve high-performance photovoltaic cells. We thought these were mainly attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects and increased light scattering of AgNPs.

  11. Short-wavelength infrared (1.3-2.6 μm) observations of the nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblom, L.A.; Britt, D.T.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Kirk, R.L.; Owen, T.C.; Yelle, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two minutes before closest approach of Deep Space 1 to Comet 19P/Borrelly, a long exposure was made with the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. The observation yielded 46 spectra covering 1.3–2.6 μm; the footprint of each spectrum was ∼160 m × width of the nucleus. Borrelly's highly variegated and extremely dark 8-km-long nucleus exhibits a strong red slope in its short-wavelength infrared reflection spectrum. This slope is equivalent to J–K and H–K colors of ∼0.82 and ∼0.43, respectively. Between 2.3–2.6 μm thermal emission is clearly detectable in most of the spectra. These data show the nucleus surface to be hot and dry; no trace of H2O ice was detected. The surface temperature ranged continuously across the nucleus from ⩽300 K near the terminator to a maximum of ∼340 K, the expected sub-solar equilibrium temperature for a slowly rotating body. A single absorption band at ∼2.39 μm is quite evident in all of the spectra and resembles features seen in nitrogen-bearing organic molecules that are reasonable candidates for compositional components of cometary nuclei. However as of yet the source of this band is unknown.

  12. In-depth plasma-wave heating of dense plasma irradiated by short laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, M; Hill, E G; Evans, R G; Rose, S J; Rozmus, W

    2014-12-19

    We investigate the mechanism by which relativistic electron bunches created at the surface of a target irradiated by a very short and intense laser pulse transfer energy to the deeper parts of the target. In existing theories, the dominant heating mechanism is that of resistive heating by the neutralizing return current. In addition to this, we find that large amplitude plasma waves are induced in the plasma in the wake of relativistic electron bunches. The subsequent collisional damping of these waves represents a source of heating that can exceed the resistive heating rate. As a result, solid targets heat significantly faster than has been previously considered. A new hybrid model, capable of reproducing these results, is described. PMID:25554889

  13. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Minako

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Methods Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23–43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20–49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. Results The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the baseline starting VA (P > 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P < 0.05), while there were no significant changes with and without the glasses in the control group (P > 0.05), Conclusions Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE. PMID:27045760

  14. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for InxGa1-xAs grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging for thermal analysis and remote gas sensing in the short wave infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, M.; Bianco, P.; Zucco, M.

    2012-07-01

    A novel hyperspectral imaging device based on Fourier transform analysis applied to a low finesse scanning Fabry-Pérot (F-P) interferometer has been demonstrated in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region. The technique allows the realization of a lightweight and compact instrument yet allowing much faster and/or better quality hyperspectral images with respect to classical instruments based on a dispersive means or on a tunable band-pass filter. The potentialities in spectroscopic applications like remote gas sensing are presented as well as accurate thermal imaging capabilities.

  16. Electron acceleration in relativistic plasma waves generated by a single frequency short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, C.A.; Darrow, C.B.; Decker, C.D.; Mori, W.B.; Tzeng, K.C., Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C.

    1995-04-27

    Experimental evidence for the acceleration of electrons in a relativistic plasma wave generated by Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) of a single-frequency short pulse laser are presented. A 1.053 {mu}m, 600 fsec, 5 TW laser was focused into a gas jet with a peak intensity of 8{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. At a plasma density of 2{times}10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}, 2 MeV electrons were detected and their appearance was correlated with the anti-Stokes laser sideband generated by SRS-F. The results are in good agreement with 2-D PIC simulations. The use of short pulse lasers for making ultra-high gradient accelerators is explored.

  17. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-28

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, d{sub m}, affects both q{sub dip} and q{sub peak} of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the q{sub dip} of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized q{sub peak} ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  18. Advanced short-wavelength infrared range-gated imaging for ground applications in monostatic and bistatic configurations.

    PubMed

    Repasi, Endre; Lutzmann, Peter; Steinvall, Ove; Elmqvist, Magnus; Göhler, Benjamin; Anstett, Gregor

    2009-11-01

    Some advanced concepts for gated viewing are presented, including spectral diversity illumination techniques, non-line-of-sight imaging, indirect scene illumination, and in particular setups in bistatic configurations. By using a multiple-wavelength illumination source target speckles could be substantially reduced, leading to an improved image quality and enhanced range accuracy. In non-line-of-sight imaging experiments we observed the scenery through the reflections in a window plane. The scene was illuminated indirectly as well by a diffuse reflection of the laser beam at different nearby objects. In this setup several targets could be spotted, which, e.g., offers the capability to look around the corner in urban situations. In the presented measuring campaigns the advantages of bistatic setups in comparison with common monostatic configurations are discussed. The appearance of shadows or local contrast enhancements as well as the mitigation of retroreflections supports the human observer in interpreting the scene. Furthermore a bistatic configuration contributes to a reduced dazzling risk and to observer convertness. PMID:19881663

  19. Short period wave generation in Moss Landing Harbor caused by offshore landslides induced by the Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner-Taggart, J.M.; Barminski, R.F. Jr. )

    1991-07-01

    Short period waves were observed in the Moss Landing Harbor approximately 2 minutes after the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Offshore submarine landslides in the region of wave generation was noted by scuba divers and recorded by side scanning sonographs, fathometer records and ROV video footage taken in the area after the quake. These waves are believed to have been generated by offshore submarine landslides along the canyon walls of the Monterey Canyon directly offshore of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.

  20. Nd:(Gd0.3Y0.7)2SiO5 crystal: A novel efficient dual-wavelength continuous-wave medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Di, Juqing; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Efficient dual-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:(Gd0.3Y0.7)2SiO5 crystal were investigated for the first time to our knowledge. Maximum CW output power of 2.3 W was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 4.6 W, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 55%. Dual-wavelength CW laser with respective wavelengths around 1074 nm and 1078 nm were achieved. With Cr4+:YAG as the saturable absorber, passive Q-switched performance was obtained. The slope efficiency of passively Q-switched operation was 45%. The shortest pulse width, the corresponding pulse energy and peak power were calculated to be 13.1 ns, 50.2 μJ and 3.8 kW, respectively.

  1. Simultaneous multichannel wavelength multicasting and XOR logic gate multicasting for three DPSK signals based on four-wave mixing in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Lu, Guo-Wei; Sakamoto, Takahide; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Wang, Danshi; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongxiang; Zhang, Min; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous multichannel wavelength multicasting (MWM) and exclusive-OR logic gate multicasting (XOR-LGM) for three 10Gbps non-return-to-zero differential phase-shift-keying (NRZ-DPSK) signals in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) by exploiting the four-wave mixing (FWM) process. No additional pump is needed in the scheme. Through the interaction of the input three 10Gbps DPSK signal lights in QD-SOA, each channel is successfully multicasted to three wavelengths (1-to-3 for each), totally 3-to-9 MWM, and at the same time, three-output XOR-LGM is obtained at three different wavelengths. All the new generated channels are with a power penalty less than 1.2dB at a BER of 10(-9). Degenerate and non-degenerate FWM components are fully used in the experiment for data and logic multicasting. PMID:25606876

  2. Does one hour of bright or short-wavelength filtered tablet screenlight have a meaningful effect on adolescents' pre-bedtime alertness, sleep, and daytime functioning?

    PubMed

    Heath, Melanie; Sutherland, Cate; Bartel, Kate; Gradisar, Michael; Williamson, Paul; Lovato, Nicole; Micic, Gorica

    2014-05-01

    Electronic media use is prevalent among adolescent populations, as is the frequency of sleeplessness. One mechanism proposed for technology affecting adolescents' sleep is the alerting effects from bright screens. Two explanations are provided. First, screens emit significant amounts of short-wavelength light (i.e. blue), which produces acute alertness and alters sleep timing. Second, later chronotypes are hypothesised to be hypersensitive to evening light. This study analysed the pre-sleep alertness (GO/NOGO task speed, accuracy; subjective sleepiness), sleep (sleep diary, polysomnography), and morning functioning of 16 healthy adolescents (M = 17.4 ± 1.9 yrs, 56% f) who used a bright tablet screen (80 lux), dim screen (1 lux) and a filtered short-wavelength screen (f.lux; 50 lux) for 1 hr before their usual bedtime in a within-subjects protocol. Chronotype was analysed as a continuous between-subjects factor; however, no significant interactions occurred. Significant effects occurred between bright and dim screens for GO/NOGO speed and accuracy. However, the magnitude of these differences was small (e.g. GO/NOGO speed = 23 ms, accuracy = 13%), suggesting minimal clinical significance. No significant effects were found for sleep onset latency, slow-rolling eye movements, or the number of SWS and REM minutes in the first two sleep cycles. Future independent studies are needed to test short (1 hr) vs longer (>2 hrs) screen usage to provide evidence for safe-to-harmful levels of screenlight exposure before adolescents' usual bedtime. PMID:24397302

  3. Photonic generation of chirped microwave and millimeter wave pulses based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping in silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lawrence R.

    2016-08-01

    We provide an overview of photonic generation of chirped microwave and millimeter wave pulses based on optical spectral shaping followed by wavelength-to-time mapping. We summarize results obtained using bulk optic/benchtop and all-fiber spectral shapers, and discuss recent developments on integrated versions in silicon photonics. In particular, we describe devices based on microring resonators and present new results obtained using integrated spectral shapers incorporating chirped Bragg gratings.

  4. Miniature Fourier transform spectrometer based on wavelength dependence of half-wave voltage of a LiNbO₃ waveguide interferometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2014-07-01

    A simple and reliable spectrum-retrieval method was proposed for the development of miniature stationary Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers based on a LiNbO₃ (LN) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator. The method takes into account the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength difference (OPD) and allows us to use a nonlinear voltage ramp to modulate the OPD. The method is based on the dispersion of the half-wave voltage, which was measured to be a monotonous polynomial function of the wavelength for the LN waveguide MZI used. With the measured dispersion of the half-wave voltage, the OPD, as a linear function of the modulating voltage, can be accurately determined at each wavelength in the near-infrared region in which the MZI used is a single-mode device. A prototype FT spectrometer was prepared using a LN waveguide MZI modulator based on the above method. The experimental results demonstrated that the spectrometer can be used for accurate determination of the laser wavelength and for liquid absorptiometry. PMID:24978772

  5. Gravitational waves versus X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allows us to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short GRB.

  6. Developing a Short-Period, Fundamental-Mode Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation Model for Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    We are developing a 2D, short-period (12 - 22 s), fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave attenuation model for Asia. This model can be used to invert for a 3D attenuation model of the Earth's crust and upper mantle as well as to implement more accurate path corrections in regional surface-wave magnitude calculations. The prerequisite for developing a reliable Rayleigh-wave attenuation model is the availability of accurate fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave amplitude measurements. Fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave amplitudes could be contaminated by a variety of sources such as multipathing, focusing and defocusing, body wave, higher-mode surface wave, and other noise sources. These contaminations must be reduced to the largest extent possible. To achieve this, we designed a procedure by taking advantage of certain Rayleigh-wave characteristics, such as dispersion and elliptical particle motion, for accurate amplitude measurements. We first analyze the dispersion of the surface-wave data using a spectrogram. Based on the characteristics of the data dispersion, we design a phase-matched filter by using either a manually picked dispersion curve, or a group-velocity-model predicted dispersion curve, or the dispersion of the data, and apply the filter to the seismogram. Intelligent filtering of the seismogram and windowing of the resulting cross-correlation based on the spectrogram analysis and the comparison between the phase-match filtered data spectrum, the raw-data spectrum and the theoretical source spectrum effectively reduces amplitude contaminations and results in reliable amplitude measurements in many cases. We implemented these measuring techniques in a graphic-user-interface tool called Surface Wave Amplitude Measurement Tool (SWAMTOOL). Using the tool, we collected and processed waveform data for 200 earthquakes occurring throughout 2003-2006 inside and around Eurasia. The records from 135 broadband stations were used. After obtaining the Rayleigh-wave amplitude

  7. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  8. Variety identification of brown sugar using short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiqing; Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2007-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with the characteristics of high speed, non-destructiveness, high precision and reliable detection data, etc. is a pollution-free, rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis method. A new approach for variety discrimination of brown sugars using short-wave NIR spectroscopy (800-1050nm) was developed in this work. The relationship between the absorbance spectra and brown sugar varieties was established. The spectral data were compressed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting features can be visualized in principal component (PC) space, which can lead to discovery of structures correlative with the different class of spectral samples. It appears to provide a reasonable variety clustering of brown sugars. The 2-D PCs plot obtained using the first two PCs can be used for the pattern recognition. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was applied to solve the multivariate calibration problems in a relatively fast way. The work has shown that short-wave NIR spectroscopy technique is available for the brand identification of brown sugar, and LS-SVM has the better identification ability than PLS when the calibration set is small.

  9. Design and development of wafer-level short wave infrared micro-camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Richwine, Robert A.; Pethuraja, Gopal; Puri, Yash R.; Lee, Je-Ung; Haldar, Pradeep; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2013-06-01

    Low cost IR Sensors are needed for a variety of Defense and Commercial Applications as low cost imagers for various Army and Marine missions. SiGe based IR Focal Planes offers a low cost alternative for developing wafer-level shortwave infrared micro-camera that will not require any cooling and can operate in the Visible-NIR band. The attractive features of SiGe based IRFPA's will take advantage of Silicon based technology, that promises small feature size and compatibility with the low power silicon CMOS circuits for signal processing. SiGe technology offers a low cost alternative for developing Visible-NIR sensors that will not require any cooling and can operate from 0.4- 1.7 microns. The attractive features of SiGe based IRFPA's will take advantage of Silicon based technology that can be processed on 12-inch silicon substrates, that can promise small feature size and compatibility with the Silicon CMOS circuit for signal processing. In this paper, we will discuss the design and development of Wafer-Level Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Micro-Camera. We will discuss manufacturing approaches and sensor configurations for short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) that significantly reduce the cost of SWIR FPA packaging, optics and integration into micro-systems.

  10. Short-wavelength turbulence in the solar wind: Linear theory of whistler and kinetic Alfvén fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, S. Peter; Smith, Charles W.

    2009-12-01

    There is a debate as to the identity of the fluctuations which constitute the relatively high-frequency plasma turbulence observed in the solar wind. One school holds that these modes are kinetic Alfvén waves, whereas another opinion is that they are whistler modes. Here linear kinetic theory for electromagnetic fluctuations in homogeneous, collisionless, magnetized plasmas is used to compute two dimensionless transport ratios, the electron compressibility Ce and the magnetic compressibility C$\\parallel$ for these two modes. The former is a measure of the amplitude of density fluctuations, and the latter indicates the relative energy in magnetic fluctuations in the component parallel to the background magnetic field Bo. For βe $\\ll$ 1, [C$\\parallel$]Alfven $\\ll$ [C$\\parallel$]whistler, and the latter quantity is of order 0.5 at whistler propagation strongly oblique to Bo. Such values of C$\\parallel$ are sometimes measured at relatively high frequencies and βe $\\ll$ 1 in the solar wind; thus, it is concluded that such observations correspond to whistler mode turbulence. But other solar wind observations indicate that kinetic Alfvén fluctuations also contribute to relatively high-frequency solar wind turbulence.

  11. Resonant interaction between a localized fast wave and a slow wave with constant asymptotic amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2009-11-15

    An integrable Yajima-Oikawa system is solved in the case of a finite density, which corresponds to a slowly varying (long-wavelength) wave with finite amplitude at infinity and a localized fast-oscillating (short-wavelength) wave. Application of the results to spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and other physical systems is discussed.

  12. Influence of tropical F region in ionosphere on propagation of short radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiytsev, O. P.; Savchenko, P. P.

    1985-05-01

    Tropical ionospheric waveguides in the presence of stratification of the electron concentration maximum were studied. Under these conditions a specific form of vertical electron concentration profile is formed which to a great extent determines the nature and conditions of propagation of short radio waves in the low latitudes. The phase trajectories were computed for a spherically stratified ionosphere. Three approaches for description of the ionospheric waveguide were used: comparative, temporal, latitudinal. Examples of computations are given which show that in a wide spatial-temporal range in the tropical ionosphere there is an additional ionospheric waveguide in which radio waves can be propagated along ricochetting trajectories. At identical time there can be three types of phases trajectories or three types of adjacent channels, each of which is characterized by a definite working frequency and definite conditions for the propagation of radio waves in it. The computations presented give a qualitative representation of the influence of stratification of the electron concentration on the formation, dynamics and degeneration of the additional ionospheric waveguides in the tropical latitudes.

  13. An analysis of short pulse and dual frequency radar techniques for measuring ocean wave spectra from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning beam microwave radars were used to measure ocean wave directional spectra from satellites. In principle, surface wave spectral resolution in wave number can be obtained using either short pulse (SP) or dual frequency (DF) techniques; in either case, directional resolution obtains naturally as a consequence of a Bragg-like wave front matching. A four frequency moment characterization of backscatter from the near vertical using physical optics in the high frequency limit was applied to an analysis of the SP and DF measurement techniques. The intrinsic electromagnetic modulation spectrum was to the first order in wave steepness proportional to the large wave directional slope spectrum. Harmonic distortion was small and was a minimum near 10 deg incidence. NonGaussian wave statistics can have an effect comparable to that in the second order of scattering from a normally distributed sea surface. The SP technique is superior to the DF technique in terms of measurement signal to noise ratio and contrast ratio.

  14. Propagation of short period (10-40 min) atmospheric gravity waves from troposphere to mesosphere over Gadanki, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2015-09-01

    The Indian MST radar at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) has been utilised to conduct a detailed study of the close coupling between the troposphere and the mesosphere through the vertically propagating atmospheric gravity waves. For this purpose two cases from a special campaign dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the fluctuations in the UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and in the mesosphere during 2001 and one case from a follow up observation in 2002 have been investigated. By using both the FFT and wavelet techniques, the near simultaneous tropospheric and mesospheric data of radar return signal strengths and tropospheric wind fields are analysed. The signatures of relatively high frequency gravity waves with periods between ~10 and 40 min have been clearly traced as propagating waves from the tropospheric turbulent layer heights (~8-18 km) to the lower mesospheric heights (65-80 km). Significant peak correlation coefficients of 0.56 and 0.45 have been found between the SNR time series of pairs of troposphere and mesosphere levels indicating the propagation of high speed gravity waves. The time series of wavelet spectra determined for the tropospheric SNR/zonal winds and the mesospheric SNR show that the detectability of the gravity waves increases at mesospheric heights. It is shown that the continuous SNR values received from the mesosphere can be used as an effective parameter for studies featuring mesospheric wave dynamics. Based on the observed values of vertical wavelengths and wave amplitudes, the horizontal wavelengths, wave phase and group velocities have been estimated for different wave periods. These results have implications on monitoring of the ubiquitous atmospheric gravity waves generated mainly by the tropospheric weather system of the tropical region from their imprint on the mesospheric turbulence structures.

  15. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  16. Short wavelength turbulence generated by shear in the quiescent H-mode edge on DIII–D

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J.; Burrell, K. H.

    2014-06-15

    A region of turbulence with large radial wavenumber (k{sub r}ρ{sub s}>1) is found in the high-shear portion of the plasma edge in Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) on DIII–D using the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic. At its peak outside the minimum of the E{sub r} well, the turbulence exhibits large amplitude n{sup ~}/n∼40%, with large radial wavenumber |k{sup ¯}{sub r}/k{sup ¯}{sub θ}|∼11 and short radial correlation length L{sub r}/ρ{sub i}∼0.2. The turbulence inside the E{sub r} well minimum is characterized by the opposite sign in radial wavenumber from that of turbulence outside the minimum, consistent with the expected effects of velocity shear. The PCI diagnostic provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations, so data are taken during a scan of plasma position at constant parameters to allow the PCI to sample a range in k{sub r}/k{sub θ}. Analysis of the Doppler shift and plasma geometry allows the turbulence to be localized to a narrow region 3 mm inside the last closed flux surface, outside the minimum of the E{sub r} well. The turbulence amplitude and radial wavenumber and correlation length are determined by fitting the PCI results with a simple non-isotropic turbulence model with two regions of turbulence. These PCI observations, made in QH-mode, are qualitatively similar to those made in standard edge localized modes (ELM)-free H-mode and between ELMs, suggesting a similar role for large k{sub r} turbulence there.

  17. Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared Spectroscopy on Rovers: Why We Need it on Mars and What We Need to do on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    The next stage of Mars exploration will include the use of rovers to seek out specific mineralogies. Understanding the mineralogical diversity of the locale will be used to determining which targets should be investigated with the full suite of in situ capability on the rover. Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared (VSWIR) spectroscopy is critical in evaluating the mineralogical diversity and to validate the global remote sensing data sets to be collected by Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, spectroscopy on mobile platforms present challenges in both the design of instruments and in the efficient operation of the instrument and mission. Field-testing and validation on Earth can be used to develop instrument requirements analysis tools needed for used on Mars.

  18. Modeling the influence of short wavelength defects in a railway track on the dynamic behavior of the Non-Suspended Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakos, Konstantinos

    2016-02-01

    The motion of a railway vehicle on the rail running table, that is the area of the rail-head where the wheel is rolling, is a forced oscillation with a forcing excitation (track defects), and damping expressed by a random function. In the case of the Non-Suspended Masses the forces resulting from the excitation of short wavelength are large and have great effect on the rolling of the wheel. The track, is simulated as an elastic means with damping. In this paper the second order differential equation is presented for the case of a railway vehicle rolling on a railway track and its solution is presented for the Non-Suspended Masses of the vehicle. Furthermore the influence of the depth of the defect is examined and a sensitivity analysis of the influence of the Non-Suspended Masses and the track defects on the Acting loads is performed.

  19. Short range structure of hadron and nuclear wave functions at high x

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, P.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    We discuss the short-range structure of hadronic and nuclear wave functions expected in QCD. In addition to the extrinsic'' contributions associated with radiation from single partons, there is an intrinsic'' hardness of the high-mass fluctuations of the wave function due to the spatial overlap of two or more partons. We argue that intrinsically-hard partons, having large mass and/or large transverse momentum, will dominate in the region of large Feynman x{sub F}. Their rescattering in nuclear targets is expected to be larger than for extrinsically-hard partons, leading to a suppressed production cross section for hadrons scattering on heavy nuclei. Experimental evidence for this exists for open chars. J/{psi}, and {gamma} production at large x{sub F}. The effects of intrinsic hardness may be particularly striking in nuclear wave functions, where the overlap of partons belonging to different nucleons can give rise to cumulative (x > 1) phenomena. The data on backward cumulative particle production from nuclei supports the existence of an intrinsically-hard component in nuclear wave functions. Partons at large x{sub F} may also be associated with the enhanced subthreshold production of particles observed in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We discuss the evidence for anomalies in the large angle pp {yields} pp cross section near the charm threshold. Arguments are presented that chromium states may bind to nuclei through the QCD Van der Waals force. This would lead to a striking signal in charm production near threshold. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2011-06-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength IR (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7 °C. In addition, we have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640×512 readout integrated integrated circuits to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 μm at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0 °C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling. In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, and provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  1. Short wavelength magnetic anomalies in the Indian and Pacific Oceans after the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (40-83 Ma).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Dyment, J.; Gallet, Y.; Hulot, G.

    2004-12-01

    Temporal variations of the magnetic field of the Earth span a large spectrum of timescales : from year to hundred of millions of years (from secular variation to variations of the magnetic reversals frequency). Many questions remain unsolved, particularly about the long term evolution of the intensity of the magnetic field and about a possible link between secular variation and the magnetic reversals frequency. Study of marine magnetic measurements may complement measurements of the remanent magnetisation acquired on volcanic rocks or sediments in order to recover the long term evolution of the intensity of the magnetic field. Indeed, the magmatic oceanic crust is a good recorder of the magnetic reversals but also of the variations of the intensity of the magnetic field. The goal of this study is to use marine magnetic anomaly profiles to estimate fluctuations of the magnetic field for a period when the reversal rate was low (40-83 Ma) and to compare it with the last millions of years which are characterised by a high reversals frequency. Many sea-surface magnetic profiles are available. Magnetic anomalies are of two origins : the variations of the magnetic field during the cooling of the oceanic crust and local effects due to the structure of the lithosphere. In order to discriminate between the paleovariations of the magnetic field (the signal) and the local effects (the noise), the study deals with different regions of the Earth. The Indian and Pacific Oceans exhibit fast spreading rates during the period investigated and insure better resolution. In each study area, selected profiles are reduced to the pole, stretched with the help of the main magnetic anomalies (due to reversals) and stacked in order to increase the signal to noise ratio. Preliminary results reveals systematic micro-anomalies which correspond to variations of the magnetic dipole intensity or short polarity intervals. Over the 40 Ma period investigated, we observed the same micro-anomalies than

  2. The effect of a short wavelength mode on the evolution of a long wavelength perturbation driven by a strong blast wave

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, A R; Edwards, M; Blue, B; Hansen, J F; Robey, H F; Drake, R P; Kuranz, C; Leibrandt, D R

    2004-03-16

    Shock-accelerated material interfaces are potentially unstable to both the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Shear that develops along with these instabilities in turn drives the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. When driven by strong shocks, the evolution and interaction of these instabilities is further complicated by compressibility effects. In this paper, we present a computational study of the formation of jets at strongly driven hydrodynamically unstable interfaces, and the interaction of these jets with one another and with developing spikes and bubbles. This provides a nonlinear spike-spike and spike-bubble interaction mechanism that can have a significant impact on the large-scale characteristics of the mixing layer. These interactions result in sensitivity to the initial perturbation spectrum, including the relative phases of the various modes, that persists long into the nonlinear phase of instability evolution. We describe implications for instability growth rates, the bubble merger process, and the degree of mix in the layer. Finally, we consider results from relevant deceleration RT experiments, performed on OMEGA, to demonstrate some of these effects.

  3. Geometrical measurement of cardiac wavelength in reaction-diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, Marie; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of reentrant arrhythmias often consists in multiple wavelets propagating throughout an excitable medium. An arrhythmia can be sustained only if these reentrant waves have a sufficiently short wavelength defined as the distance traveled by the excitation wave during its refractory period. In a uniform medium, wavelength may be estimated as the product of propagation velocity and refractory period (electrophysiological wavelength). In order to accurately measure wavelength in more general substrates relevant to atrial arrhythmias (heterogeneous and anisotropic), we developed a mathematical framework to define geometrical wavelength at each time instant based on the length of streamlines following the propagation velocity field within refractory regions. Two computational methods were implemented: a Lagrangian approach in which a set of streamlines were integrated, and an Eulerian approach in which wavelength was the solution of a partial differential equation. These methods were compared in 1D/2D tissues and in a model of the left atrium. An advantage of geometrical definition of wavelength is that the wavelength of a wavelet can be tracked over time with high temporal resolution and smaller temporal variability in an anisotropic and heterogeneous medium. The results showed that the average electrophysiological wavelength was consistent with geometrical measurements of wavelength. Wavelets were however often shorter than the electrophysiological wavelength due to interactions with boundaries and other wavelets. These tools may help to assess more accurately the relation between substrate properties and wavelet dynamics in computer models.

  4. Geometrical measurement of cardiac wavelength in reaction-diffusion models.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, Marie; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of reentrant arrhythmias often consists in multiple wavelets propagating throughout an excitable medium. An arrhythmia can be sustained only if these reentrant waves have a sufficiently short wavelength defined as the distance traveled by the excitation wave during its refractory period. In a uniform medium, wavelength may be estimated as the product of propagation velocity and refractory period (electrophysiological wavelength). In order to accurately measure wavelength in more general substrates relevant to atrial arrhythmias (heterogeneous and anisotropic), we developed a mathematical framework to define geometrical wavelength at each time instant based on the length of streamlines following the propagation velocity field within refractory regions. Two computational methods were implemented: a Lagrangian approach in which a set of streamlines were integrated, and an Eulerian approach in which wavelength was the solution of a partial differential equation. These methods were compared in 1D/2D tissues and in a model of the left atrium. An advantage of geometrical definition of wavelength is that the wavelength of a wavelet can be tracked over time with high temporal resolution and smaller temporal variability in an anisotropic and heterogeneous medium. The results showed that the average electrophysiological wavelength was consistent with geometrical measurements of wavelength. Wavelets were however often shorter than the electrophysiological wavelength due to interactions with boundaries and other wavelets. These tools may help to assess more accurately the relation between substrate properties and wavelet dynamics in computer models. PMID:25273213

  5. Short Wavelength Electromagnetic Perturbations Excited Near the Solar Probe Plus Spacecraft in the Inner Heliosphere: 2.5D Hybrid Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    A 2.5D numerical plasma model of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC) is presented. These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model derived from the SW-interaction with the spacecraft (SC), which could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board the SC in the inner heliosphere. Compression waves and electric field jumps with amplitudes of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. A strong polarization electric field was also observed in the wing of the plasma wake. However, 2.5D hybrid modeling did not show excitation of whistler/Alfven waves in the upstream connected with the bidirectional current closure that was observed in short-time 3D modeling SPPSC and near a tether in the ionosphere. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements planned for the future Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission. The results of modeling electromagnetic field perturbations in the SW due to shot noise in absence of SPPSC are also discussed.

  6. Ultrahigh-brightness, spectrally-flat, short-wave infrared supercontinuum source for long-range atmospheric applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Zhu, Rongzhen; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Tian; Chen, Shengping; Hou, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Fiber based supercontinuum (SC) sources with output spectra covering the infrared atmospheric window are very useful in long-range atmospheric applications. It is proven that silica fibers can support the generation of broadband SC sources ranging from the visible to the short-wave infrared region. In this paper, we present the generation of an ultrahigh-brightness spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm SC source in a cladding pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) numerically and experimentally. The underlying physical mechanisms behind the SC generation process are investigated firstly with a numerical model which includes the fiber gain and loss, the dispersive and nonlinear effects. Simulation results show that abundant soliton pulses are generated in the TDFA, and they are shifted towards the long wavelength side very quickly with the nonlinearity of Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), and eventually the Raman SSFS process is halted due to the silica fiber's infrared loss. A spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm SC source could be generated as the result of the spectral superposition of these abundant soliton pulses. These simulation results correspond qualitatively well to the following experimental results. Then, in the experiment, a cladding pumped large-mode-area TDFA is built for pursuing a high-power 2-2.5 μm SC source. By enhancing the pump strength, the output SC spectrum broadens to the long wavelength side gradually. At the highest pump power, the obtained SC source has a maximum average power of 203.4 W with a power conversion efficiency of 38.7%. It has a 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 545 nm ranging from 1990 to 2535 nm, indicating a power spectral density in excess of 370 mW/nm. Meanwhile, the output SC source has a good beam profile. This SC source, to the best of our knowledge, is the brightest spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm light source ever reported. It will be highly desirable in a lot of long-range atmospheric applications, such as broad-spectrum LIDAR, free

  7. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  8. Multi-wavelength Yb:YAG/Nd3+:YVO4 continuous-wave microchip Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Dong, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Jie; Ueda, Ken-Ichi; Kaminskii, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    Multi-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) Raman lasers in a laser diode pumped Yb:YAG/Nd3+:YVO4 microchip Raman laser have been demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge. The multi-wavelength laser of the first Stokes radiation around 1.08 μm has been achieved with a Raman shift of 261  cm-1 for a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal corresponding to the fundamental wavelength at 1.05 μm. Multi-wavelength laser operation simultaneously around 1.05 and 1.08 μm has been achieved under the incident pump power between 1.5 and 1.7 W. Multi-wavelength Raman laser with frequency separation of 1 THz around 1.08 μm has been obtained when the incident pump power is higher than 1.7 W. The maximum Raman laser output power of 260 mW at 1.08 μm is obtained and the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 4.2%. Elliptically polarized fundamental laser and linearly polarized Raman laser were observed in an Yb:YAG/Nd:YVO4 CW microchip Raman laser. The experimental results of linearly polarized, multi-wavelength Yb:YAG/Nd:YVO4 CW microchip Raman laser with adjustable frequency separation provide a novel approach for developing potential compact laser sources for Terahertz generation. PMID:27472618

  9. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  10. Comparison between millimetre waves and infra-red for short-range surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniss, P.

    The system characteristics of short-range surveillance by millimeter waves and by infrared are described and contrasted. The basic advantages of IR are its passivity, day and night detection ranges of at least 5-10 km on aircraft targets, the elimination of mutual interference problems, and typical angular accuracy of 1 mR resolution in two planes. Some of the disadvantages are that no range or velocity is intrinsically available, that the performance depends on weather conditions, and that a considerable burden is placed on the data processing system in trying to reject all signals except the target. In some ways, the pros and cons of mm radar are the antithesis of those for IR. A hybrid system combining both systems is deemed a very attractive possibility.

  11. Tumor Selective Hyperthermia Induced by Short-Wave Capacitively-Coupled RF Electric-Fields

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Corr, Stuart J.; Palalon, Flavio; Curley, Steven A.; Koshkina, Nadezhda V.

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in developing high-intensity short wave capacitively-coupled radiofrequency (RF) electric-fields for nanoparticle-mediated tumor-targeted hyperthermia. However, the direct thermal effects of such high-intensity electric-fields (13.56 MHZ, 600 W) on normal and tumor tissues are not completely understood. In this study, we investigate the heating behavior and dielectric properties of normal mouse tissues and orthotopically-implanted human hepatocellular and pancreatic carcinoma xenografts. We note tumor-selective hyperthermia (relative to normal mouse tissues) in implanted xenografts that can be explained on the basis of differential dielectric properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that repeated RF exposure of tumor-bearing mice can result in significant anti-tumor effects compared to control groups without detectable harm to normal mouse tissues. PMID:23861912

  12. Growth of InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices for high-resolution mid-wavelength infrared focal plane array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, M.; Schmitz, J.; Rehm, R.; Kopta, S.; Fuchs, F.; Fleißner, J.; Cabanski, W.; Ziegler, J.

    2005-05-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SLs) with a broken gap type-II band alignment are investigated for the fabrication of photovoltaic pin-photodetectors on GaSb substrates. The structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using valved cracker cells for arsenic and antimony. Effective bandgap and strain in the SL were adjusted by varying the thickness of the InAs and GaSb layers in the SL and the controlled formation of InSb-like or GaAs-like bonds at the interfaces. MBE growth conditions were investigated and optimized in order to achieve good morphological, electrical and optical properties. IR-photodiodes with a cut-off wavelength of 5.4 μm reveal quantum efficiencies around 30% and detectivity values exceeding 10 13 Jones at 77 K. A focal plane array camera with 256×256 detector elements and 40 μm pitch based on InAs/GaSb short-period SLs was fabricated for the first time. The camera system reveals an excellent thermal resolution with a noise equivalent temperature difference below 12 mK for an integration time of 5 ms using f/2 optics. The detector performance, comparable with state of the art mercury-cadmium-telluride IR detectors, makes this material system very interesting for the fabrication of advanced thermal imaging systems.

  13. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    García-Chocano, Victor M.; López-Rios, Tomás; Krokhin, Arkadii; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2011-12-23

    Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in amore » channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.« less

  14. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    SciTech Connect

    García-Chocano, Victor M.; López-Rios, Tomás; Krokhin, Arkadii; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2011-12-23

    Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  15. Travelling-wave single-photon detectors integrated with diamond photonic circuits: operation at visible and telecom wavelengths with a timing jitter down to 23 ps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Patrik; Vetter, Andreas; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Nebel, Christoph; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of travelling-wave superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with polycrystalline diamond photonic circuits. We analyze their performance both in the near-infrared wavelength regime around 1600 nm and at 765 nm. Near-IR detection is important for compatibility with the telecommunication infrastructure, while operation in the visible wavelength range is relevant for compatibility with the emission line of silicon vacancy centers in diamond which can be used as efficient single-photon sources. Our detectors feature high critical currents (up to 31 μA) and high performance in terms of efficiency (up to 74% at 765 nm), noise-equivalent power (down to 4.4×10-19 W/Hz1/2 at 765 nm) and timing jitter (down to 23 ps).

  16. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of lateral current injection wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Shinji; Takeda, Koji; Sato, Tomonari; Notomi, Masaya; Shinya, Akihiko; Nozaki, Kengo; Taniyama, Hideaki; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki

    2012-02-13

    We have developed a wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser using lateral p-i-n structure. Zn diffusion and Si ion implantation are used for p- and n-type doping. Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing behavior is clearly observed from the injection current dependence of the output power, 3dB-bandwidth of the peak, and lasing wavelength. The threshold current is 390 μA and the estimated effective threshold current is 9.4 μA. The output power in output waveguide is 1.82 μW for a 2.0-mA current injection. These results indicate that the embedded active-region structure effectively reduce the thermal resistance. Ultrasmall electrically driven lasers are an important step towards on-chip photonic network applications. PMID:22418134

  17. Improved multiple-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser assisted by four-wave mixing with a micro-air cavity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejiao; Ren, Liyong; Lin, Xiao; Ju, Haijuan; Chen, Nana; Liang, Jian; Ren, Kaili; Xu, Yiping

    2015-11-20

    In this paper, a multiple-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) with enhanced performance is presented. This is attributed to the improved Fresnel reflection, thus strengthening four-wave mixing in the fiber laser cavity due to the insertion of a micro-air cavity. As a result, compared with the conventional MBRFL without a micro-air cavity, the thresholds of Brillouin Stokes (BS) lines are observed to be reduced, and more BS lines can be generated. In the experiment, a MBRFL having 40 BS lines is achieved with good stability on laser wavelengths and output power. In view of the fact that more BS lines can be established with a simple scheme and low pump power, our MBRFL promises to be employed as a multiwavelength source for optical communication. PMID:26836558

  18. Ultra-short electron bunches by Velocity Bunching as required for plasma wave accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2014-03-01

    The generation of ultra-short bunches is nowadays a critical requirement for plasma wave accelerators, on which many laboratories world-wide are investigating or are close to starting with experimental activities. This requirement is true for both: external injection into "laser wake field accelerators", where injected beams need lengths around or shorter than 10 fs; and the "plasma wake field accelerators", where the wake field intensity scales like the driver bunch charge over the square of the rms bunch length (Qb / σz2). This work presents beam dynamic simulations, which show how to use the Velocity Bunching (VB) technique to obtain ultra-short bunches. The VB technique is applied to small bunch charges (0.5-15 pc) and it is driven with a proper control of the bunch density versus the bunch energy gain, which permits one to control the transverse beam emittance, the bunch length and the correlated longitudinal energy spread, in a peculiar manner. The compression optimizations by VB, shown in this work, are obtained using a layout very similar to SPARC's Linac one, which is a Linac designed to maximize VB performances.

  19. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  20. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  1. Reflection of electromagnetic plane waves in a long-wavelength approximation from a multilayer system of anisotropic transparent films on absorbing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.

    The propagation of s- and p-polarised electromagnetic plane waves in a N-layer system of anisotropic films on isotropic and homogeneous absorbing substrate is investigated in the long-wavelength limit. The analytical expressions are obtained for the reflection (transmission) coefficients and ellipsometric angles of an anisotropic multilayer system. All analytical results are correlated with the numerical solution of the reflection problem on the basis of rigorous electromagnetic theory for anisotropic layered systemsE The possibilities of using obtained approximate formulae for resolving the inverse problem for ultrathin anisotropic dielectric films upon absorbing substrates are discussed.

  2. Reflection of electromagnetic plane waves in a long-wavelength approximation from a multilayer system of anisotropic transparent films on non-absorbing isotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.

    2010-07-01

    The reflection of s- and p-polarised electromagnetic plane waves from an N-layer system of anisotropic dielectric films upon transparent homogeneous substrate is investigated in the long-wavelength approximation. The analytical expressions are obtained for the amplitude reflection (transmission) coefficients, reflectances (transmittances), and ellipsometric angles of an anisotropic multilayer thin-film system. All analytical results are in agreement with the numerical solution of the reflection problem for anisotropic stratified medium. The possibilities of using obtained expressions for resolving the inverse problem for ultrathin anisotropic films upon isotropic substrates are discussed.

  3. A New Charge Transporting Host Material for Short Wavelength Organic Electrophosphorescence: 2,7–Bis(diphenylphosphine oxide)–9,9–dimethylfluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-05-01

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a new charge transporting host material for short wavelength phosphor-doped organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) based on 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphine oxide)-9,9-dimethylfluorene (PO6). The P=O moiety is used as a point of saturation between the fluorene bridge and outer phenyl groups so that the triplet exciton energy of PO6 is 2.72 eV, similar to that of a dibromo substituted fluorene, but it is more amenable to vacuum sublimation and has good film forming properties. Computational analysis (B3LYP/6-31G*) predicts the HOMO and LUMO energies of PO6 to be lower by 1.5 eV and 0.59 eV, respectively, compared to a similar diphenylamino substituted derivative. In a simple bilayer OLED device, PO6 exhibits structured UV electroluminescence (EL) at a peak wavelength of 335 nm and structured lower energy emission with peaks at 380 nm and 397 nm, similar to the solid film and crystalline solid photoluminescence spectra. The longer wavelength peaks are attributed to aggregate formation via strong intermolecular interactions (P-O---H-C and edge-to-face C-H---??contacts?) and longer range electrostatic interactions between P=O moieties leading to ordered regions in the film. Devices incorporating PO6 as the host material doped with iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2.)picolinate (FIrpic) exhibited sky blue emission with peak external quantum efficiency (?ext,max) of 8.1 % and luminous power efficiency (?p,max) of 25.3 lm/W. At a brightness of 800 cd/m2, generally considered to be sufficient for lighting applications, the ?ext and ?p are 6.7 % and 11.8 lm/W and the operating voltage is 5.6 V, which is significantly lower than has been demonstrated previously using this dopant.

  4. Comparison of photonic integrated circuits for millimeter-wave signal generation between dual-wavelength sources for optical heterodyning and pulsed mode-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Gordon, Carlos; Guzman, Robinson; Leijtens, Xaveer; Van Dijk, Frédéric; Kervella, Gaël.; Fice, Martyn J.; Balakier, Katarzyna; Renaud, Cyril C.

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of two different Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) structures for continuous-wave generation of millimeter-wave (MMW) signals is presented, each using a different approach. One approach is optical heterodyning, using an integrated dual-wavelength laser source based on Arrayed Waveguide Grating. The other is based on ModeLocked Laser Diodes (MLLDs). A novel building block -Multimode Interference Reflectors (MIRs) - is used to integrate on-chip both structures, without need of cleaved facets to define the laser cavity. This fact enables us to locate any of these structures at any location within the photonic chip. As will be shown, the MLLD structure provides a simple source for low frequencies. Higher frequencies are easier to achieve by optical heterodyne. Both types of structures have been fabricated on a generic foundry in a commercial MPW PIC technology.

  5. Multi-soliton, multi-breather and higher order rogue wave solutions to the complex short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Liming; Feng, Bao-Feng; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the general analytic solutions to the complex short pulse (CSP) equation including soliton, breather and rogue wave solutions. With the aid of a generalized Darboux transformation, we construct the N-bright soliton solution in a compact determinant form, the N-breather solution including the Akhmediev breather and a general higher order rogue wave solution. The first and second order rogue wave solutions are given explicitly and analyzed. The asymptotic analysis is performed rigorously for both the N-soliton and the N-breather solutions. All three forms of the analytical solutions admit either smoothed-, cusped- or looped-type ones for the CSP equation depending on the parameters. It is noted that, due to the reciprocal (hodograph) transformation, the rogue wave solution to the CSP equation can be a smoothed, cusponed or a looped one, which is different from the rogue wave solution found so far.

  6. Gravitational wave signal of the short rise fling of galactic runaway pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J; Bonilla Quintero, Carlos A E-mail: gravitaxion@gmail.com

    2008-11-15

    Determination of pulsar parallaxes and proper motions addresses fundamental astrophysical open issues. Here, after scrutinizing the ATNF Catalog searching for pulsar distances and proper motions, we verify that for an ATNF sample of 212 galactic runaway pulsars (RAPs), which currently run across the Galaxy at very high speed and undergo large displacements, some gravitational wave (GW) signals produced by such present accelerations appear to be detectable after calibration against the Advanced LIGO (LIGO II). Motivated by this insight, we address the issue of the pulsar kick at birth, or the short rise fling from a supernova explosion, by adapting the theory for emission of GW by ultrarelativistic sources in this case in which the Lorentz factor is {gamma}{approx}1. We show that during the short rise fling each runaway pulsar (RAP) generates a GW signal with characteristic amplitude and frequency that makes it detectable by current GW interferometers. For a realistic analysis, an efficiency parameter is introduced to quantify the expenditure of the rise fling kinetic energy, which is estimated from the linear momentum conservation law applied to the supernova explosion that kicks out the pulsar. The remaining energy is supposed to be used to make the star spin. Thus, a comparison with the spin of ATNF pulsars having velocities in the range 400-500 km s{sup -1} is performed. The resulting difference suggests that other mechanisms (like differential rotation, magnetic breaking or magneto-rotational instability) should dissipate part of that energy to produce the observed pulsar spin periods. Meanwhile, the kick phenomenon may also occur in globular and open star clusters at the formation or disruption of very short period compact binary systems wherein abrupt velocity and acceleration similar to those given to RAPs during the short rise fling can be imparted to each orbital partner. To better analyze these cases, pulsar astrometry from micro-to nano-arcsec scales

  7. Gravitational wave signal of the short rise fling of galactic runaway pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.; Bonilla Quintero, Carlos A.

    2008-11-01

    Determination of pulsar parallaxes and proper motions addresses fundamental astrophysical open issues. Here, after scrutinizing the ATNF Catalog searching for pulsar distances and proper motions, we verify that for an ATNF sample of 212 galactic runaway pulsars (RAPs), which currently run across the Galaxy at very high speed and undergo large displacements, some gravitational wave (GW) signals produced by such present accelerations appear to be detectable after calibration against the Advanced LIGO (LIGO II). Motivated by this insight, we address the issue of the pulsar kick at birth, or the short rise fling from a supernova explosion, by adapting the theory for emission of GW by ultrarelativistic sources in this case in which the Lorentz factor is γ~1. We show that during the short rise fling each runaway pulsar (RAP) generates a GW signal with characteristic amplitude and frequency that makes it detectable by current GW interferometers. For a realistic analysis, an efficiency parameter is introduced to quantify the expenditure of the rise fling kinetic energy, which is estimated from the linear momentum conservation law applied to the supernova explosion that kicks out the pulsar. The remaining energy is supposed to be used to make the star spin. Thus, a comparison with the spin of ATNF pulsars having velocities in the range 400-500 km s-1 is performed. The resulting difference suggests that other mechanisms (like differential rotation, magnetic breaking or magneto-rotational instability) should dissipate part of that energy to produce the observed pulsar spin periods. Meanwhile, the kick phenomenon may also occur in globular and open star clusters at the formation or disruption of very short period compact binary systems wherein abrupt velocity and acceleration similar to those given to RAPs during the short rise fling can be imparted to each orbital partner. To better analyze these cases, pulsar astrometry from micro-to nano-arcsec scales might be of great

  8. High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Efficiency Enhancemen and Current Drive at Longer Wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hosea, R. E. Bell, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillips, G. Taylor, E. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, E.F. Jaeger, P.M. Ryan, J. Wilgen, H. Yuh, F. Levinton, S. Sabbagh, K. Tritz, J. Parker, P.T. Bonoli, R. Harvey, and the NSTX Team

    2008-01-14

    High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive (CD) are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 (2001)] for supporting startup and sustainment of the ST plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency (η) from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna (strap-to-strap φ = -90o, kφ = -8 m-1) by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 kG to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation (nonset ∝ ΒΦ× k|| 2/w) away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. RF waves propagating close to the wall at lower BΦ and k|| can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability (PDI) and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations

  9. High harmonic fast wave heating efficiency enhancement and current drive at longer wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E.; Wilson, J. R.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Wilgen, J.; Yuh, H.; Levinton, F.; Sabbagh, S.; Tritz, K.; Parker, J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Harvey, R.

    2008-05-15

    High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive (CD) are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 (2001)] for supporting startup and sustainment of the spherical torus plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency ({eta}) from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna (strap-to-strap {phi}=-90 deg., k{sub {phi}}=-8 m{sup -1}) by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation (n{sub onset}{proportional_to}Bxk{sub parallel}{sup 2}/{omega}) away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. Radio frequency (RF) waves propagating close to the wall at lower B and k{sub parallel} can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability (PDI) and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations.

  10. High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Efficiency Enhancement and Current Drive at Longer Wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B; Phillips, Cynthia; Taylor, G.; Valeo, Dr Ernest; Wilson, J. R.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Ryan, Philip Michael; Wilgen, John B; Yuh, H.; Levinton, F.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Tritz, K.; Parker, J.; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive CD are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 2001 for supporting startup and sustainment of the spherical torus plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna strap-to-strap = 90 , k= 8 m 1 by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation nonsetBk 2 / away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. Radio frequency RF waves propagating close to the wall at lower B and k can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability PDI and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations.

  11. Methane Retrievals in the Thermal and Short-Wave Infrared from IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, D.; Siddans, R.; Kerridge, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    RAL has developed an optimal estimation scheme to retrieve global height-resolved information on methane from IASI measurements in the thermal infrared (7.9 micron) band. The use of IASI thermal infrared observations produces methane data at relatively high spatial resolution, both day and night, over land and ocean. The retrieval scheme extracts two independent pieces of information on the profile, with sensitivity extending into the lower troposphere. Column-averaged mixing ratios are derived from the retrieved profile with a precision of 20-40 ppbv. The retrieval scheme has been extensively validated and shown to perform well in comparison with column-averages from both ground-based observations (TCCON) and from the satellite short-wave infrared sounder GOSAT; a paper is currently in preparation (R.Siddans et al., 'Global height-resolved methane retrievals from IASI'). A limitation of thermal infrared retrievals is that sensitivity to the boundary layer is low compared to short-wave infrared sounders. However, IASI also measures methane lines in the 3.7 micron spectral range, where there is significant solar contribution in the daytime over land. Utilising this spectral region therefore has the potential to increase IASI sensitivity to methane in the boundary layer, although the 3.7 micron band has yet to be exploited due to the complexity of modelling both solar and thermal contributions to the measurements and the relatively high noise level of IASI in this spectral region. A continuous series of observations are planned by IASI on MetOp-A, -B and -C, followed by IASI-NG on MetOp-SG, covering the period from 2007-2040. Here we present 7 years of global methane retrievals from IASI MetOp-A thermal infrared data, spanning the period 2007-2013, along with validation and model comparison results. We also present early findings from an investigation into the potential of adding information on near-surface methane by exploiting the 3.7 micron band.

  12. A novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Ning; You, Bo; Xiao, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Intelligent on-line detection of cable quality is a crucial issue in optic cable factory, and defects on the surface of optic cable can dramatically depress cable grade. Manual inspection in optic cable quality cannot catch up with the development of optic cable industry due to its low detection efficiency and huge human cost. Therefore, real-time is highly demanded by industry in order to replace the subjective and repetitive process of manual inspection. For this reason, automatic cable defect inspection has been a trend. In this paper, a novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance is presented. The special condition of short-wave infrared cannot only provide illumination compensation for the weak illumination environment, but also can avoid the problem of exposure when using visible light illuminance, which affects the accuracy of inspection algorithm. A series of image processing algorithms are set up to analyze cable image for the verification of real-time and veracity of the detection method. Unlike some existing detection algorithms which concentrate on the characteristics of defects with an active search way, the proposed method removes the non-defective areas of the image passively at the same time of image processing, which reduces a large amount of computation. OTSU algorithm is used to convert the gray image to the binary image. Furthermore, a threshold window is designed to eliminate the fake defects, and the threshold represents the considered minimum size of defects ε . Besides, a new regional suppression method is proposed to deal with the edge burrs of the cable, which shows the superior performance compared with that of Open-Close operation of mathematical morphological in the boundary processing. Experimental results of 10,000 samples show that the rates of miss detection and false detection are 2.35% and 0.78% respectively when ε equals to 0.5 mm, and the average processing period of one frame

  13. Analysis of the short wavelength-sensitive ("blue") cone mosaic in the primate retina: comparison of New World and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martin, P R; Grünert, U

    1999-03-29

    The distribution of short wavelength-sensitive (SWS or "blue") cone photoreceptors was compared in primates with dichromatic ("red-green colour blind") and trichromatic colour vision. We compared a New World species, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), with an Old World species, the macaque monkey (Macaca nemestrina). The SWS cones were identified by their immunoreactivity to an antiserum against the human SWS cone opsin. A single retina from a male capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) also was studied. The SWS cones make up less than 10% of all cone photoreceptors throughout the retina of all animals studied. In marmoset, the peak spatial density of SWS cones is close to 10,000/mm2 at the foveola. In macaque, the peak spatial density of SWS cones, close to 6,000/mm2, is at the fovea, but SWS cones are absent within 50 microm of the centre of the foveola. In both species, the density of SWS cones is higher on the nasal retinal axis than at corresponding eccentricities on the other retinal axes. The SWS cones in macaque are arranged in a semiregular array, but they are distributed randomly in marmoset. There is no difference in the spatial density or local arrangement of SWS cones between dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. The results suggest that the SWS cone photoreceptor system is subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints than those that have led to the formation of the red-green photoreceptor systems in primate vision. PMID:10100889

  14. Experimental investigation of a diode-pumped powerful continuous-wave dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 946 and 938.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Yu, X.; Yan, R. P.; Li, X. D.; Li, D. J.; Yang, G. L.; Xie, J. J.; Guo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave (cw) dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 946 and 938.6 nm is reported. By using an end-pumped structure, comparative experiments indicate that a 5 mm-length Nd:YAG crystal with a Nd3+-doping concentration of 0.3 at.% is favorable for high-power laser operation, and the optimal transmissivity of the output coupler is 9%. As a result, a maximum output power of 17.2 W for a dual-wavelength laser at 946 and 938.6 nm is obtained at an incident pump power of 75.9 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 26.5%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a quasi-three-level dual-wavelength laser using a conventional Nd:YAG crystal achieved to date. By using a traveling knife-edge method, the beam quality factor and far-field divergence angle at 17 W power level are estimated to be 4.0 and 6.13 mrad, respectively.

  15. Remote beating of parallel or orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength optical carriers for 5G millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber link.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Yung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-08-01

    A novel millimeter-wave radio over fiber (MMW-RoF) link at carrier frequency of 35-GHz is proposed with the use of remotely beating MMW generation from reference master and injected slave colorless laser diode (LD) carriers at orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength injection-locking. The slave colorless LD supports lasing one of the dual-wavelength master modes with orthogonal polarizations, which facilitates the single-mode direct modulation of the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data. Such an injected single-carrier encoding and coupled dual-carrier transmission with orthogonal polarization effectively suppresses the cross-heterodyne mode-beating intensity noise, the nonlinear modulation (NLM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) sidemodes during injection locking and fiber transmission. In 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) based wireline system, the dual-carrier under single-mode encoding provides baseband 24-Gbit/s 64-QAM OFDM transmission with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 8.8%, a bit error rate (BER) of 3.7 × 10-3, a power penalty of <1.5 dB. After remotely self-beating for wireless transmission, the beat MMW carrier at 35 GHz can deliver the passband 16-QAM OFDM at 4 Gbit/s to show corresponding EVM and BER of 15.5% and 1.4 × 10-3, respectively, after 25-km SMF and 1.6-m free-space transmission. PMID:27505734

  16. High-energy neutrinos from the gravitational wave event GW150914 possibly associated with a short gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur; Gupta, Nayantara; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-energy neutrinos (HEN) and gravitational waves (GW) can probe astrophysical sources in addition to electromagnetic observations. Multimessenger studies can reveal the nature of the sources, which may not be discerned from one type of signal alone. We discuss HEN emission in connection with the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory event GW150914, which could be associated with a short gamma-ray burst detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor 0.4 s after the GW event and within localization uncertainty of the GW event. We calculate HEN flux from this short gamma-ray burst, GW150914-GBM, and show that nondetection of a high-energy starting event by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can constrain the total isotropic-equivalent jet energy of this short burst to be less than 3 ×1052 erg .

  17. Study of degenerate four-wave mixing in germanium and rhenate-doped potassium chloride at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.E.

    1982-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) by three different mechanisms are presented. These are the nonlinear index of refraction of a lossless, Kerr-like medium, the saturable absorption of a resonant optical transition, and the formation of a free-carrier grating.

  18. A short-wave infrared otoscope for middle ear disease diagnostics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Jessica A.; Valdez, Tulio; Bruns, Oliver; Bawendi, Moungi

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media, a range of inflammatory conditions of the middle ear, is the second most common illness diagnosed in children. However, the diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in pediatric patients. Otitis media is commonly over-diagnosed and over-treated and has been identified as one of the primary factors in increased antibiotic resistance. We describe the development of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) otoscope for objective middle ear effusion diagnosis. The SWIR otoscope can unambiguously detect the presence of middle ear fluid based on its strong light absorption in the SWIR. This absorption causes a stark, visual contrast between the presence and absence of fluid behind the tympanic membrane. Additionally, when there is no middle ear fluid, the deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows the SWIR otoscope to better visualize middle ear anatomy through the tympanic membrane than is possible with visible light. We demonstrate that in healthy, adult human ears, SWIR otoscopy can image a range of middle ear anatomy, including landmarks of the entire ossicular chain, the promontory, the round window niche, and the chorda tympani. We suggest that SWIR otoscopy can provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy in the diagnosis of middle ear effusions, otitis media, and other maladies of the middle ear.

  19. Emerging liquid crystal waveguide technology for low SWaP active short-wave infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sean D.; Uyeno, Gerald P.; Lynch, Ted; Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Pino, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Raytheon's innovative active short wave infrared (SWIR) imager uses Vescent Photonic's emerging liquid crystal waveguide (LCWG) technology to continuously steer the illumination laser beam over the imager field of view (FOV). This approach instantly illuminates a very small fraction of the FOV, which significantly reduces the laser power compared to flash illumination. This reduced laser power directly leads to a reduction in the size, weight and power (SWaP) of the laser. The reduction in laser power reduces the input power and thermal rejection, which leads to additional reduction in the SWaP of the power supplies and thermal control. The high-speed steering capability of the LCWG enables the imager's SWaP reduction. The SWaP reduction is possible using either global or rolling shutter detectors. In both cases, the LCWG steers the laser beam over the entire FOV while the detector is integrating. For a rolling shutter detector, the LCWG synchronizes the steering with the rolling shutter to illuminate only regions currently integrating. Raytheon's approach enables low SWaP active SWIR imagers without compromising image quality. This paper presents the results of Raytheon's active SWIR imager demonstration including steering control and synchronization with the detector integration.

  20. Prospects for Joint Gravitational Wave and Short Gamma-Ray Burst Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J.; Evans, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Harry, I. W.; Macdonald, E.; Macleod, D.; Sutton, P. J.; Williamson, A. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed evaluation of the expected rate of joint gravitational-wave (GW) and short gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations over the coming years. We begin by evaluating the improvement in distance sensitivity of the GW search that arises from using the GRB observation to restrict the time and sky location of the source. We argue that this gives a 25% increase in sensitivity when compared to an all-sky, all-time search, corresponding to more than double the number of detectable GW signals associated with GRBs. Using this, we present the expected rate of joint observations with the advanced LIGO and Virgo instruments, taking into account the expected evolution of the GW detector network. We show that in the early advanced GW detector observing runs, from 2015 to 2017, there is only a small chance of a joint observation. However, as the detectors approach their design sensitivities, there is a good chance of joint observations, provided wide field GRB satellites, such as Fermi and the Inter planetary Network, continue operation. The rate will also depend critically upon the nature of the progenitor, with neutron star-black hole systems observable to greater distances than double neutron star systems. The relative rate of binary mergers and GRBs will depend upon the jet opening angle of GRBs. Consequently, joint observations, as well as accurate measurement of both the GRB rate and binary merger rates, will allow for an improved estimation of the opening angle of GRBs.

  1. Determining the composition of ammonia/water mixtures using short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barba, M Isabel; Salavera, Daniel; Larrechi, M Soledad; Coronas, Alberto

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a methodology based on short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the ammonia content of ammonia/water mixtures with ammonia mass fraction in the range 0.35-0.65. Establishing this methodology meant modeling the relationship between the pressure bar (15-25)bar, temperature (20-50)°C and composition of the ammonia-water in the mixture (0.35-0.65 in ammonia mass fraction) with absorbance at 1033nm. The experiments were designed to optimize experimental work. A 2(3) factorial design+3 center points was used to establish and analyze the significance of the variables in the absorbance using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A linear model for absorbance was obtained using the least squares method. The trueness of the results versus the values obtained was assessed using a reference method; density measurement was chosen for this study. The accuracy of the results in terms of root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) was 3.7%. The methodology proposed represents a fast alternative for the "in-situ" measurement of the ammonia composition of ammonia-water mixtures in absorption refrigeration systems. PMID:26592584

  2. Apparatus of short baseline centrimetric wave radiointerferometer with cable communication lines for astrophysical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseyev, V. A.; Kryukov, A. Y.; Lipatov, B. N.; Sizov, A. S.

    1984-09-01

    Using the very-long-baseline astrometric radiointerferometer at the Scientific-Research Institute of Radiophysics as a model and reference, a short-baseline decimetric-wave radiointerferometer with scale communication lines between antennas was developed and designed for measuring the modulus of the visibility function of radioemission sources. Operation of this radiointerferometer was checked first in the laboratory and then in the field against several extraterrestrial radioemission sources (3C 273, Cygnus-A). Although the peak of the interferometer response curve is generally a function of delay time and interference frequency, here the correlational envelope of received radioemission represents the radiation pattern with respect to time delay and is such that it increases the noise immunity of the system by suppressing wideband correlational noise at the instant of observation. Fourier analysis of interference fluctuations with high spectral resolution in real time does, furthermore, facilitate discrimination of the useful signal from correlational noise. It is also possible here to attain very long periods of coherent pickup, necessary for measurement of power fluxes from sources which are regarded as point sources relative to the baseline.

  3. Analytical modeling and numerical simulation of the short-wave infrared electron-injection detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassaghi, Yashar; Fathipour, Vala; Fathipour, Morteza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes comprehensive analytical and simulation models for the design and optimization of the electron-injection based detectors. The electron-injection detectors evaluated here operate in the short-wave infrared range and utilize a type-II band alignment in InP/GaAsSb/InGaAs material system. The unique geometry of detectors along with an inherent negative-feedback mechanism in the device allows for achieving high internal avalanche-free amplifications without any excess noise. Physics-based closed-form analytical models are derived for the detector rise time and dark current. Our optical gain model takes into account the drop in the optical gain at high optical power levels. Furthermore, numerical simulation studies of the electrical characteristics of the device show good agreement with our analytical models as well experimental data. Performance comparison between devices with different injector sizes shows that enhancement in the gain and speed is anticipated by reducing the injector size. Sensitivity analysis for the key detector parameters shows the relative importance of each parameter. The results of this study may provide useful information and guidelines for development of future electron-injection based detectors as well as other heterojunction photodetectors.

  4. Continuous Wave Spectroscopy with Diffusion Theory for Quantification of Optical Properties: Comparison Between Multi-distance and Multi-wavelength Data Fitting Methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Lin, Zhi-Fong; Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Li-Hsin; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Chung, Pau-Choo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, continuous wave spectroscopy (CWS) can be used to accurately quantify biological tissue optical properties (μ a and μ s ') by employing the diffuse reflectance information acquired at multiple source-detector separations (multi-distance). On the other hand, sample optical properties can also be obtained by fitting multi-wavelength light reflectance acquired at a single source detector separation to the diffusion theory equation. To date, multi-wavelength and multi-distance methods have not yet been rigorously compared for their accuracy in quantification of the sample optical properties. In this investigation, we compared the accuracy of the two above-mentioned quantifying methods in the optical properties recovery. The liquid phantoms had μ a between 0.004 and 0.011 mm(-1) and μ s ' between 0.55 and 1.07 mm(-1) whose optical properties mimic the human breast. Multi-distance data and multi-wavelength data were fitted to the same diffusion equation for consistency. The difference between benchmark μ a and μ s ' and the fitted results, ΔError (ΔE) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the two methods. The results showed that either method yielded ΔE within 15-30 % when values were within certain limits to standard values applicable to μ s ' and μ a for human adipose tissue. Both methods showed no significant differences in ΔE values. Our results suggest that both multi-distance and multi-wavelength methods can yield similar reasonable optical properties in biological tissue with a proper calibration. PMID:27526161

  5. Search for transient gravitational waves in coincidence with short-duration radio transients during 2007-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, K. N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stiles, D.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Berndsen, A.; Boyles, J.; Cardoso, R. F.; Chawla, P.; Cherry, A.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Epstein, C. R.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D.; Lunsford, G.; Lynch, R. S.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; McPhee, C. A.; Penucci, T.; Ransom, S.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D. W.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include starquakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.

  6. Integrated Analysis of Carbonatite using Short Wave Infra-Red and Visible/Near Infra-Red Reflectance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assiri, A.; Rooney, T. O.; Velbel, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonatites are among the most important hosts for economically important rare-earth element (REE) deposits. An ongoing challenge has been the identification of carbonatites, which may outcrop as small bodies with indistinct field characteristics. Remote sensing techniques may provide a routine and reliable method to identify such deposits. We have used short wave infra-red (SWIR) and visible/near infra-red (VNIR) reflectance characteristics of a well exposed carbonatite located in the north east of the United Arab Emirates to develop techniques to facilitate the distinction of carbonatites from other rock types. This project has focused on the wavelength region from 0.45 to 2.43 μm of SWIR and VNIR subsystems on the imaging instrument onboard ASTER. We hypothesize that based on spectral and spatial data derived from computer segmentation algorithms of the SWIR (7) and VNIR (4, 1) bands we will be able to identify carbonatite rocks. In order to build a technique that can capture the intrinsic associations between carbonatite anomalies, rock class types, and attributes, we assembled the spectral and spatial information derived from computer segmentation algorithms into a single segment image. During our investigation of the spatial data two principal questions arose: 1) How should spatial structures, or "neighborhoods" for each pixel within the image be automatically defined? 2) How should spatial and spectral information be combined in the classification? We addressed these questions by using unsupervised and supervised segmentation algorithm strategies based on pixel values and locations. Pixels that are spatially connected and have similar values were grouped in a single segment (fixed neighborhood pixels) on the basis of the integration of the maximum-likelihood supervised classification technique within a Markov Random Fields framework. We then developed guidelines for combining the spatial information extracted through segmentation with spectral information

  7. On the onset of surface wind drift at short fetches as observed in a wind wave flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model wind waves and specially the early stages of surface waves development and ocean-atmosphere fluxes during incipient wind events and storms. In particular, wave models are not so accurate predicting wave behaviour at short fetches, where wind drift onset might be very important. The onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide reference information to the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at rather short non-dimensional fetches. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Surface drift values were up to 0.5 cm/s for the highest wind while very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm. Rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from ANUIES-ECOS M09-U01 project, CONACYT-187112 Estancia Sabática, and Institute Carnot, is greatly acknowledged.

  8. Dependence of the Normalized Radar Cross Section of Water Waves on Bragg Wavelength-Wind Speed Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Collyer, R. Scott; Reed, Ryan; Arnold, David V.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the normalized radar cross section (sigma(sup o)) made by the YSCAT ultrawideband scatterometer during an extended deployment on the Canada Centre for Inland Waters(CCIW) Research Tower located at Lake Ontario are analyzed and compared with anemometer wind measurements to study the sensitivity of (sigma(sup o)) to the wind speed as a function of the Bragg wavelength. This paper concentrates on upwind and downwind azimuth angles in the wind speed range of 4.5-12 m/s. While YSCAT collected measurements of sigma(sup o) at a variety of frequencies and incidence angles, this paper focuses on frequencies of 2.0, 3.05, 5.30, 10.02, and 14.0 GHz and incidence angles within the Bragg regime, 30-50 deg. Adopting a power law model to describe the relationship between sigma(sup o) and wind speed, both wind speed exponents and upwind/downwind (u/d) ratios of sigma(sup o) are found using least squares linear regression. The analysis of the wind speed exponents and u/d ratios show that shorter Bragg wavelengths (Lambda less than 4 cm) are the most sensitive to wind speed and direction. Additionally, vertical polarization (V-pol) sigma(sup o) is shown to be more sensitive to wind speed than horizontal polarization (H-pol) sigma(sup o), while the H-pol u/d ratio is larger than the V-pol u/d ratio.

  9. Short-ranged and short-lived charge-density-wave order and pseudogap features in underdoped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Andrés; Bejas, Matías

    2011-06-01

    The pseudogap phase of high-Tc cuprates is controversially attributed to preformed pairs or to a phase which coexists and competes with superconductivity. One of the challenges is to develop theoretical and experimental studies in order to distinguish between both proposals. Very recently, researchers at Stanford have reported [M. Hashimoto , Nat. Phys.PRLTAO1745-247310.1038/nphys1632 6, 414 (2010); R.-H. He , ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1198415 331, 1579 (2011)] angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments on Pb-Bi2201 supporting the point of view that the pseudogap is distinct from superconductivity and associated to a spacial symmetry breaking without long-range order. In this paper, we show that many features reported by these experiments can be described in the framework of the t-J model considering self-energy effects in the proximity to a d charge-density-wave instability.

  10. Modeling short wave radiation and ground surface temperature: a validation experiment in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogliotti, P.; Cremonese, E.; Dallamico, M.; Gruber, S.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2009-12-01

    Permafrost distribution in high-mountain areas is influenced by topography (micro-climate) and high variability of ground covers conditions. Its monitoring is very difficult due to logistical problems like accessibility, costs, weather conditions and reliability of instrumentation. For these reasons physically-based modeling of surface rock/ground temperatures (GST) is fundamental for the study of mountain permafrost dynamics. With this awareness a 1D version of GEOtop model (www.geotop.org) is tested in several high-mountain sites and its accuracy to reproduce GST and incoming short wave radiation (SWin) is evaluated using independent field measurements. In order to describe the influence of topography, both flat and near-vertical sites with different aspects are considered. Since the validation of SWin is difficult on steep rock faces (due to the lack of direct measures) and validation of GST is difficult on flat sites (due to the presence of snow) the two parameters are validated as independent experiments: SWin only on flat morphologies, GST only on the steep ones. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of: (i) distance between driving meteo station location and simulation point location, (ii) cloudiness, (iii) simulation point aspect, (iv) winter/summer period. The temporal duration of model runs is variable from 3 years for the SWin experiment to 8 years for the validation of GST. The model parameterization is constant and tuned for a common massive bedrock of crystalline rock like granite. Ground temperature profile is not initialized because rock temperature is measured at only 10cm depth. A set of 9 performance measures is used for comparing model predictions and observations (including: fractional mean bias (FB), coefficient of residual mass (CMR), mean absolute error (MAE), modelling efficiency (ME), coefficient of determination (R2)). Results are very encouraging. For both experiments the distance (Km) between location of the driving meteo

  11. EXPLORING SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE STANDARD SIRENS

    SciTech Connect

    Nissanke, Samaya; Dalal, Neal; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-12-10

    Recent observations support the hypothesis that a large fraction of 'short-hard' gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) are associated with the inspiral and merger of compact binaries. Since gravitational-wave (GW) measurements of well-localized inspiraling binaries can measure absolute source distances, simultaneous observation of a binary's GWs and SHB would allow us to directly and independently determine both the binary's luminosity distance and its redshift. Such a 'standard siren' (the GW analog of a standard candle) would provide an excellent probe of the nearby (z {approx}< 0.3) universe's expansion, independent of the cosmological distance ladder, thereby complementing other standard candles. Previous work explored this idea using a simplified formalism to study measurement by advanced GW detector networks, incorporating a high signal-to-noise ratio limit to describe the probability distribution for measured parameters. In this paper, we eliminate this simplification, constructing distributions with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. We assume that each SHB observation gives source sky position and time of coalescence, and we take non-spinning binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star coalescences as plausible SHB progenitors. We examine how well parameters (particularly distance) can be measured from GW observations of SHBs by a range of ground-based detector networks. We find that earlier estimates overstate how well distances can be measured, even at fairly large signal-to-noise ratio. The fundamental limitation to determining distance proves to be a degeneracy between distance and source inclination. Overcoming this limitation requires that we either break this degeneracy, or measure enough sources to broadly sample the inclination distribution.

  12. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth's atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth's climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth's atmosphere by man's activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth's atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992.

  13. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth`s atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth`s climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth`s atmosphere by man`s activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth`s atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992.

  14. Investigating gait recognition in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectrum: dataset and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCann, Brian; Ross, Arun; Dawson, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    In the biometrics community, challenge datasets are often released to determine the robustness of state-of-the- art algorithms to conditions that can confound recognition accuracy. In the context of automated human gait recognition, evaluation has predominantly been conducted on video data acquired in the active visible spectral band, although recent literature has explored recognition in the passive thermal band. The advent of sophisticated sensors has piqued interest in performing gait recognition in other spectral bands such as short-wave infrared (SWIR), due to their use in military-based tactical applications and the possibility of operating in nighttime environments. Further, in many operational scenarios, the environmental variables are not controlled, thereby posing several challenges to traditional recognition schemes. In this work, we discuss the possibility of performing gait recognition in the SWIR spectrum by first assembling a dataset, referred to as the WVU Outdoor SWIR Gait (WOSG) Dataset, and then evaluate the performance of three gait recognition algorithms on the dataset. The dataset consists of 155 subjects and represents gait information acquired under multiple walking paths in an uncontrolled, outdoor environment. Detailed experimental analysis suggests the benefits of distributing this new challenging dataset to the broader research community. In particular, the following observations were made: (a) the importance of SWIR imagery in acquiring data covertly for surveillance applications; (b) the difficulty in extracting human silhouettes in low-contrast SWIR imagery; (c) the impact of silhouette quality on overall recognition accuracy; (d) the possibility of matching gait sequences pertaining to different walking trajectories; and (e) the need for developing sophisticated gait recognition algorithms to handle data acquired in unconstrained environments.

  15. Modulation of centimetric waves by long gravity waves - Progress report on field and laboratory results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented from laboratory and field experiments on the modulation of short waves by long waves. The field study employed a wave follower capable of tracking ocean waves with frequencies less than 1.0 Hz and heights less than 2.0 m. A high-response laser-optical system was used to detect upwind-downwind and cross-wind slopes of short waves. The laboratory study was conducted with wind over periodic long waves. The laboratory findings are discussed and compared with laboratory radar measurements and also short wave measurements obtained in the field. It is found that long waves significantly modulate the short wave dispersion by their orbital velocity, and that demodulation is necessary if the data collected by remote sensors are to be compared to surface penetrating devices. The modulation level is weak for wavelengths in the range 2.76-3.30 cm. Other relevant results are also presented.

  16. Ultrafast spectroscopy of wavelength-dependent coherent photoionization cross sections of Li2 wave packets in the E1Σg+ state: The role of Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberna, Radoslaw; Amitay, Zohar; Qian, Charles X. W.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2001-06-01

    The significance of Rydberg states in the probing (via ionization) of Li2 wave packets has been studied through quantitative measurements of the relative coherent ionization cross sections in a two-color pump-probe femtosecond experiment. Following the preparation of a single intermediate rovibronic state with a cw laser, a femtosecond pump pulse (around 800 nm) creates a single two-state rotational wave packet by coherent excitation of the E1Σg+ (ν=9; J=27 and 29) states. The wave packet is then probed through ionization using time-delayed, wavelength tunable pulses (in the region 508-690 nm) while the total energy of the system is kept below the dissociation limit of Li2+. The background-free coherent ionization yield (for each probe wavelength) is measured as the relative oscillation amplitude of the single quantum beat time-dependent signal. The experimental results closely follow a relatively simple theoretical model, which is based on the assumption that the coherent ionization predominantly takes place via the excitation of high-n bound singly excited Rydberg states in the ionization continuum converging to the X 2Σg+ ground electronic state of Li2+. The best interpretation is that the high-n Rydberg states (above n˜25) undergo collisional ionization or autoionization and contribute to the measured coherent ionization signal, while the low-n Rydberg states undergo predissociation and do not contribute to the measured signal. An implication of the results is that the final states of the Li2 system, accessed by the above probe pulses, can be better approximated by a corresponding set of isolated discrete levels rather than by a continuum. This conclusion is important to experimental, as well as theoretical, coherent control and wave packet dynamics studies, in particular, when phase- and amplitude-shaped pump and probe pulses are employed. This study is also the first to investigate ionization of lithium dimer slightly below the E 1Σg+ shelf region with

  17. Degenerate four-wave mixing based all-optical wavelength conversion in a semiconductor optical amplifier and highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber parametric loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Yeo, Yong kee; Wang, Yixin; Xue, Lifang; Wang, Dawei; Yu, Xiaojun

    2008-11-01

    The idler is separated from the co-propagating pump in a degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) with a symmetrical parametric loop mirror (PALM), which is composed of two identical SOAs and a 70 m highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HN-PCF). The signal and pump are coupled into the symmetrical PALM from different ports, respectively. After the DFWM based wavelength conversion (WC) in the clockwise and anticlockwise, the idler exits from the signal port, while the pump outputs from its input port. Therefore, the pump is effectively suppressed in the idler channel without a high-speed tunable filter. Contrast to a traditional PALM, the DFWM based conversion efficiency is increased greatly, and the functions of the amplification and the WC are integrated in the smart SOA and HN-PCF PALM.

  18. All-optical ultrafast wavelength and mode converter based on inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2015-08-01

    An ultrafast all-optical simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion scheme is purposed based on intermodal four-wave mixing (IM-FWM), with the capability of switching state of polarization (SOP) and mode degeneracy orientation (MDO) in few-mode fibers (FMF). The relation among the conversion efficiency, pump power and phase matching conditions is investigated in theory analysis and simulation. Using this scheme, cross-polarization modulation (XPolM) and cross-mode modulation (XMM) can be achieved, by in the best case up to 50% conversion efficiency. Furthermore, numerical results further indicate that the proposed configuration has the potential application for generating doughnut modes by the mixing of three characteristic spatial frequencies.

  19. Widely tunable dispersive wave generation and soliton self-frequency shift in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber pumped near the zero dispersion wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tuan, Tong-Hoang; Liu, Lai; Gao, Wei-Qing; Kawamura, Harutaka; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-12-01

    Widely tunable dispersive waves (DW) and Raman solitons are generated in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber (TMOF) by pumping in the anomalous dispersion regime, close to the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW). The DW can be generated from 1518.3 nm to 1315.5 nm, and the soliton can be shifted from the pump wavelength of 1570 nm to 1828.7 nm, by tuning the average pump power from 3 dBm to 17.5 dBm. After the average pump power is increased to 18.8 dBm, two DW peaks (centered at 1323 nm and 1260 nm) and three soliton peaks (centered at 1762 nm, 1825 nm, and 1896 nm) can be observed simultaneously. When the average pump power is greater than 23.4 dBm, a flat and broadband supercontinuum (SC) can be formed by the combined nonlinear effects of soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), DW generation, and cross phase modulation (XPM).

  20. Dual-wavelength, continuous-wave Yb:YAG laser for high-resolution photothermal common-path interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Fengjiang; Jungbluth, Bernd; Gronloh, Bastian; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Zhang, Ge

    2013-07-20

    We present a continuous-wave (CW) intracavity frequency-doubled Yb:YAG laser providing 1030 and 515 nm output simultaneously. This laser system was designed for photothermal common-path interferometry to measure spatially resolved profiles of the linear absorption in dielectric media and coatings for visible or infrared light as well as of the nonlinear absorption for the combination of both. A Z-shape laser cavity was designed, providing a beam waist in which an LBO crystal was located for effective second-harmonic generation (SHG). Suitable frequency conversion parameters and cavity configurations were discussed to achieve the optimal performance of a diode-pumped CW SHG laser. A 12.4 W 1030 nm laser and 5.4 W 515 nm laser were developed simultaneously in our experiment. PMID:23872763

  1. Excitation of surface waves by a short laser pulse in a conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Uryupin, S A; Frolov, A A

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the possibility of exciting surface waves in a conductor, which is irradiated by a focused femtosecond laser pulse incident along the normal to the surface. The time-dependent ponderomotive force is shown to lead to the excitation of surface waves in the terahertz frequency range. It is also shown that the total energy and the pulse amplitude of the surface waves increases with increasing effective electron collision frequency. (terahertz radiation)

  2. Short wavelength and high amplitude (~ 1 km) surface uplift in the western Colorado Plateau driven by recent and ongoing mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    upper mantle are driving differential uplift of the lithosphere along the western flank of the Colorado Plateau. The differential uplift across the faults and the length scale of the high mantle velocity gradient area indicate that the zone of uplift has an amplitude of ca. 1000 m and a wavelength of ca. 200 m. High amplitude and short wavelength dynamic topography reflect mantle flow forcings, suggested by the extremely sharp mantle velocity gradients, filtered through a thinned lithosphere with high heat flow and thin effective elastic thickness that suggest upper mantle melt-filled shear zone conduits. This new geologic evidence for recent and ongoing surface uplift offers an important constraint for geodynamic models which are beginning to elucidate the mantle processes that are producing dynamic topography on the western edge of the Colorado Plateau.

  3. Portable dynamic positioning control system on a barge in short-crested waves using the neural network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming-chung; Lee, Zi-yi

    2013-08-01

    This paper develops a nonlinear mathematical model to simulate the dynamic motion behavior of the barge equipped with the portable outboard Dynamic Positioning (DP) system in short-crested waves. The self-tuning Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller based on the neural network algorithm is applied to control the thrusters for optimal adjustment of the barge position in waves. In addition to the wave, the current, the wind and the nonlinear drift force are also considered in the calculations. The time domain simulations for the six-degree-of-freedom motions of the barge with the DP system are solved by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method which can compromise the efficiency and the accuracy of the simulations. The technique of the portable alternative DP system developed here can serve as a practical tool to assist those ships without being equipped with the DP facility while the dynamic positioning missions are needed.

  4. Application of artificial neural network to search for gravitational-wave signals associated with short gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Harry, Ian W.; Hodge, Kari A.; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Oh, John J.; Oh, Sang Hoon; Son, Edwin J.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a machine learning algorithm, the artificial neural network, to the search for gravitational-wave signals associated with short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-dimensional samples consisting of data corresponding to the statistical and physical quantities from the coherent search pipeline are fed into the artificial neural network to distinguish simulated gravitational-wave signals from background noise artifacts. Our result shows that the data classification efficiency at a fixed false alarm probability (FAP) is improved by the artificial neural network in comparison to the conventional detection statistic. Specifically, the distance at 50% detection probability at a fixed false positive rate is increased about 8%-14% for the considered waveform models. We also evaluate a few seconds of the gravitational-wave data segment using the trained networks and obtain the FAP. We suggest that the artificial neural network can be a complementary method to the conventional detection statistic for identifying gravitational-wave signals related to the short GRBs.

  5. Short-scale convection and long-scale deformationally unstable Rossby wave in a rotating fluid layer heated from below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomolov, Evgeniy

    1996-12-01

    A rotating fluid layer, heated from below, with a deformable upper and nondeformable lower stress free surfaces is considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The system of the differential equations that governs the long-scale Rossby waves and short-scale convection is obtained in the rapid-rotation approximation. Long-scale flows are unstable due to heating and deformation of the upper surface. The neutral stability curves for Rossby waves and convection are obtained for linearized version of the equations. In a slightly supercritical regime the amplitude equations for convection and Rossby waves are derived by the use of the method of multiscale expansions. The properties of the amplitude equations are discussed. The existence of the two weakly supercritical stationary convection regimes is shown by numerical integration of the equations in the rapid-rotation approximation. In one of them, the amplitude of short-scale convection is modulated due to long-scale deformation of the upper surface associated with the excitation of the Rossby wave. In the other regime, the presence of deformation gives rise to alternating regions with and without convection.

  6. Effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth on Stokes drift estimation based on short-term variation of wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrhaug, Dag; Wang, Hong; Holmedal, Lars Erik

    2016-04-01

    The Stokes drift represents an important transport component of ocean circulation models. Locally it is responsible for transport of e.g. contaminated ballast water from ships, oil spills, plankton and larvae. It also plays an important role in mixing processes across the interphase between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Stokes drift is the mean Lagrangian velocity obtained from the water particle trajectory in the wave propagation direction; it is maximum at the surface, decreasing rapidly with the depth below the surface. The total mean mass transport is obtained by integrating the Stokes drift over the water depth; this is also referred to as the volume Stokes transport. The paper provides a simple analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth based on short-term variation of wave conditions. This is achieved by using a joint distribution of individual wave heights and wave periods together with an explicit solution of the wave dispersion equation. The mean values of the surface Stokes drift and the volume Stokes transport for individual random waves within a sea state are presented, and the effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth parameter are discussed. Furthermore, example of results corresponding to typical field conditions are presented to demonstrate the application of the method, including the Stokes drift profile in the water column beneath the surface. Thus, the present analytical method can be used to estimate the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth for random waves within a sea state based on available wave statistics.

  7. Short-Wave Diathermy Pretreatment and Inflammatory Myokine Response After High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vardiman, John P.; Moodie, Nicole; Siedlik, Jacob A.; Kudrna, Rebecca A.; Graham, Zachary; Gallagher, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Context Various modalities have been used to pretreat skeletal muscle to attenuate inflammation. Objective To determine the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) preheating treatment on inflammation and stress markers after eccentric exercise. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting University laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants Fifteen male (age = 22 ± 4.9 years, height = 179.75 ± 9.56 cm, mass = 82.22 ± 12.67 kg) college-aged students. Intervention(s) Seven participants were selected randomly to receive 40 minutes of SWD heat treatment (HT), and 8 participants served as the control (CON) group and rested without SWD. Both groups completed 7 sets of 10 repetitions of a high-intensity eccentric exercise protocol (EEP) at 120% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg extension. Main Outcome Measure(s) We biopsied muscles on days 1, 3 (24 hours post-EEP), and 4 (48 hours post-EEP) and collected blood samples on days 1, 2 (4 hours post-EEP), 3, and 4. We determined 1-RM on day 2 (24 hours post-SWD) and measured 1-RM on days 3 and 4. We analyzed the muscle samples for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and heat shock protein 70 and the blood for serum creatine kinase. Results We found a group × time interaction for intramuscular IL-6 levels after SWD (F2,26 = 7.13, P = .003). The IL-6 decreased in HT (F1,6 = 17.8, P = .006), whereas CON showed no change (P > .05). We found a group × time interaction for tumor necrosis factor α levels (F2,26 = 3.71, P = .04), which increased in CON (F2,14 = 7.16, P = .007), but saw no changes for HT (P > .05). No group × time interactions were noted for 1-RM, heat shock protein 70, or creatine kinase (P > .05). Conclusions The SWD preheating treatment provided a treatment effect for intramuscular inflammatory myokines induced through high-intensity eccentric exercise but did not affect other factors associated with intense exercise and inflammation. PMID:25844857

  8. Satellite Estimates of Surface Short-wave Fluxes: Issues of Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H.; Pinker, Rachel; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Surface solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is the primary forcing function of the land surface energy and water cycle. Therefore, there is a need for information on this parameter, preferably, at global scale. Satellite based estimates are now available at accuracies that meet the demands of many scientific objectives. Selection of an approach to estimate such fluxes requires consideration of trade-offs between the use of multi-spectral observations of cloud optical properties that are more difficult to implement at large scales, and methods that are simplified but easier to implement. In this study, an evaluation of such trade-offs will be performed. The University of Maryland Surface Radiation Model (UMD/SRB) has been used to reprocess five years of GOES-8 satellite observations over the United States to ensure updated calibration and improved cloud detection over snow. The UMD/SRB model was subsequently modified to allow input of information on aerosol and cloud optical depth with information from independent satellite sources. Specifically, the cloud properties from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Satellite Data Analysis Program (Minnis et al., 1995) are used to drive the modified version of the model to estimate surface short-wave fluxes over the Southern Great Plain ARM sites for a twelve month period. The auxiliary data needed as model inputs such as aerosol optical depth, spectral surface albedo, water vapor and total column ozone amount were kept the same for both versions of the model. The estimated shortwave fluxes are evaluated against ground observations at the ARM Central Facility and four satellite ARM sites. During summer, the estimated fluxes based on cloud properties derived from the multi-spectral approach were in better agreement with ground measurements than those derived from the UMD/SRB model. However, in winter, the fluxes derived with the UMD/SRB model were in better agreement with ground observations than those

  9. On wave stability in relativistic cosmic-ray hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Wave stability of a two-fluid hydrodynamical model describing the acceleration of cosmic rays by the first-order Fermi mechanism in relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shocks is investigated. For a uniform background state, the short- and long-wavelength wave speeds are shown to interlace, thus assuring wave stability in this case. A JWKB analysis is performed to investigate the stability of short-wavelength thermal gas sound waves in the smooth, decelerating supersonic flow upstream of a relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shock. The stability of the waves is assessed both in terms of the fluid velocity and density perturbations, as well as in terms of the wave action. The stability and interaction of the short-wavelength cosmic-ray coherent mode with the background flow is also studied.

  10. Variable Gamma-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula: Short Flares and Long "Waves"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Giuliani, A.; Pucella, G.; Argan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cardillo, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Ferrari, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Rapisarda, M.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been recently shown to be unsteady. In this paper, we study the flux and spectral variability of the Crab above 100 MeV on different timescales ranging from days to weeks. In addition to the four main intense and day-long flares detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 September and 2012 September, we find evidence for week-long and less intense episodes of enhanced gamma-ray emission that we call "waves." Statistically significant "waves" show timescales of 1-2 weeks, and can occur by themselves or in association with shorter flares. We present a refined flux and spectral analysis of the 2007 September-October gamma-ray enhancement episode detected by AGILE that shows both "wave" and flaring behavior. We extend our analysis to the publicly available Fermi-LAT data set and show that several additional "wave" episodes can be identified. We discuss the spectral properties of the 2007 September "wave"/flare event and show that the physical properties of the "waves" are intermediate between steady and flaring states. Plasma instabilities inducing "waves" appear to involve spatial distances l ~ 1016 cm and enhanced magnetic fields B ~ (0.5-1) mG. Day-long flares are characterized by smaller distances and larger local magnetic fields. Typically, the deduced total energy associated with the "wave" phenomenon (Ew ~ 1042 erg, where Ew is the kinetic energy of the emitting particles) is comparable with that associated to the flares, and can reach a few percent of the total available pulsar spin-down energy. Most likely, flares and waves are the product of the same class of plasma instabilities that we show acting on different timescales and radiation intensities.

  11. VARIABLE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CRAB NEBULA: SHORT FLARES AND LONG 'WAVES'

    SciTech Connect

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Argan, A.; Cardillo, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Pacciani, L.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.; Bulgarelli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pittori, C.; and others

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been recently shown to be unsteady. In this paper, we study the flux and spectral variability of the Crab above 100 MeV on different timescales ranging from days to weeks. In addition to the four main intense and day-long flares detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 September and 2012 September, we find evidence for week-long and less intense episodes of enhanced gamma-ray emission that we call 'waves'. Statistically significant 'waves' show timescales of 1-2 weeks, and can occur by themselves or in association with shorter flares. We present a refined flux and spectral analysis of the 2007 September-October gamma-ray enhancement episode detected by AGILE that shows both 'wave' and flaring behavior. We extend our analysis to the publicly available Fermi-LAT data set and show that several additional 'wave' episodes can be identified. We discuss the spectral properties of the 2007 September 'wave'/flare event and show that the physical properties of the 'waves' are intermediate between steady and flaring states. Plasma instabilities inducing 'waves' appear to involve spatial distances l {approx} 10{sup 16} cm and enhanced magnetic fields B {approx} (0.5-1) mG. Day-long flares are characterized by smaller distances and larger local magnetic fields. Typically, the deduced total energy associated with the 'wave' phenomenon (E{sub w} {approx} 10{sup 42} erg, where E{sub w} is the kinetic energy of the emitting particles) is comparable with that associated to the flares, and can reach a few percent of the total available pulsar spin-down energy. Most likely, flares and waves are the product of the same class of plasma instabilities that we show acting on different timescales and radiation intensities.

  12. Wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2007-07-24

    A wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator (OPO) comprising a type II nonlinear optical medium for generating a pair of degenerate waves at twice a pump wavelength and a plurality of mirrors for rotating the polarization of one wave by 90 degrees to produce a wavelength-doubled beam with an increased output energy by coupling both of the degenerate waves out of the OPO cavity through the same output coupler following polarization rotation of one of the degenerate waves.

  13. Integrated visible to near infrared, short wave infrared, and long wave infrared spectral analysis for surface composition mapping near Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Meryl L.; Kruse, Fred A.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed new methods for enhanced surface material identification and mapping that integrate visible to near infrared (VNIR, ~0.4 - 1 μm), short wave infrared (SWIR, ~1 - 2.5 μm), and long wave infrared (LWIR, ~8 - 12 μm) multispectral and hyperspectral imagery. This approach produces a single map of surface composition derived from the full spectral range. We applied these methods to a spectrally diverse region around Mountain Pass, CA. A comparison of the integrated results with those obtained from analyzing the spectral ranges individually reveals compositional information not exhibited by the VNIR, SWIR or LWIR data alone. We also evaluate the benefit of hyperspectral rather than multispectral LWIR data for this integrated approach.

  14. Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shock wave produced by a short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Metzler, N.; Oh, J.

    2011-10-01

    The first experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution in a strong unsupported shock wave, which is immediately followed by a rarefaction wave, is reported. Our planar solid polystyrene laser-machined targets, 50 to 100 μm thick, rippled from the front side with a single-mode wavelength 30 or 45 μm and peak-to-valley amplitude 4 to 6 μm, were irradiated with a 350 ps long Nike KrF laser pulse at peak intensity of up to 330 TW/cm2. The perturbation evolution in the target was observed using face-on monochromatic x-ray radiography while the pulse lasted and for 3 to 4 ns after it ended. While the driving pulse was on, the areal mass modulation amplitude in the target was observed to grow by a factor of up to ~4 due to the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. After the end of the pulse, while the strong unsupported shock wave propagated through the unperturbed target, the theoretically predicted large oscillations of the areal mass [A. L. Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3270 (2003)] were observed. Multiple phase reversals of the areal mass modulation have been detected. Work supported by DOE/NNSA and Office of Naval Research.

  15. The interaction of short surface waves with stratified flow in Raccoon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. T.; Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Largier, J. L.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Strong tidal currents and complex wave-current interaction characterize the west side of Raccoon Strait, the narrow waterway between Angel Island and the Tiburon Peninsula in San Francisco Bay. The surface and internal hydrodynamics in this area are strongly affected by the presence of a shallow sill (depth ~10m) that extends partially across the strait near the western tip of Angel Island. In this work we present observations collected during several field experiments in 2011 and 2012 in Raccoon Strait, San Francisco Bay, using shipboard ADCP, bottom mounted ADCPs, CTDs, and Wave Resolving Drifters (WRDs). By combining observations from bottom-mounted, fixed (Eulerian) instruments and newly developed Lagrangian drifters that can resolve wind wave dynamics and surface drifts, we relate the spatial structure of the stratified flow dynamics with the observed wave evolution in the area. We analyze the interaction and characteristics of the wave blocking dynamics observed near the sill, the development of a subduction zone of surface waters during flood tide, and the occurrence of an internal lee wave downstream of the sill.

  16. X-ray conversion of ultra-short laser pulses on a solid sample: Role of electron waves excited in the pre-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Baffigi, F. Cristoforetti, G.; Fulgentini, L.; Giulietti, A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2014-07-15

    Flat silicon samples were irradiated with 40 fs, 800 nm laser pulses at an intensity at the best focus of 2·10{sup 18} Wcm{sup −2}, in the presence of a pre-plasma on the sample surface. X-ray emission in the spectral range from 2 to 30 keV was detected inside and outside the plane of incidence, while varying pre-plasma scale length, laser intensity, and polarization. The simultaneous detection of 2ω and 3ω/2 emission allowed the contributions to the X-ray yield to be identified as originating from laser interaction with either the near-critical density (n{sub c}) region or with the n{sub c}/4 region. In the presence of a moderate pre-plasma, our measurements reveal that, provided the pre-plasma reaches a scale-length of a few laser wavelengths, X-ray emission is dominated by the contribution from the interaction with the under dense plasma, where electron plasma waves can grow, via laser stimulated instabilities, and, in turn, accelerate free electrons to high energies. This mechanism leads also to a clear anisotropy in the angular distribution of the X-ray emission. Our findings can lead to an enhancement of the conversion efficiency of ultra short laser pulses into X-rays.

  17. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  18. Thermally induced transparency for short spin wave pulses in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez Romero, Cesar Leonardo; Kolokoltsev, Oleg; Gomez Arista, Ivan; Qureshi, Naser; Monsiváis Galindo, Guillermo; Vargas Hernández, Hesiquio

    2014-03-01

    The compensation of spin wave propagation losses plays a very important role in the development of novel magnonic devices. Up to now, however, most of the known amplification methods present relative narrow frequency bandwidths due to their resonant nature. In this work, we present compensation of the propagation losses or pseudo-amplification of travelling spin waves by tailoring the bias magnetic field profile. The thermally-induced non-uniform profile of the magnetization introduced on an Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) thin film by a localized spot of a cw argon-ion laser creates the conditions to observe the complete compensation of the spin wave propagation losses. The spin wave evolution was mapped with a time and spaced resolved inductive magneto-dynamic prove system. The experiment was carried out using a uniform sample of single-crystal YIG film grown on a gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) substrate. The 2mm-wide, 20mm-long and 6microns-thick YIG strip was saturated with an external magnetic field enabling the set up for the propagation of magneto-static surface waves. This work was supported by the UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IA100413.

  19. Exactly solvable model of resonance tunneling of an electromagnetic wave in plasma containing short-scale inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, N. S. Zakharov, V. E.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2015-02-15

    Different variants of resonance tunneling of a transverse electromagnetic wave through a plasma layer containing short-scale (subwavelength) inhomogeneities, including evanescence regions to which approximate methods are inapplicable, are analyzed in the framework of an exactly solvable one-dimensional model. Complex plasma density profiles described by a number of free parameters determining the permittivity modulation depth, the characteristic scale lengths of plasma structures, their number, and the thickness of the inhomogeneous plasma layer are considered. It is demonstrated that reflection-free propagation of the wave incident on the layer from vacuum (the effect of wave-barrier transillumination) can be achieved for various sets of such structures, including plasma density profiles containing a stochastic component. Taking into account cubic nonlinearity, it is also possible to obtain an exact solution to the one-dimensional problem on the nonlinear transillumination of nonuniform plasma. In this case, the thicknesses of the evanescence regions decrease appreciably. The problem of resonance tunneling of electromagnetic waves through such barriers is of interest for a number of practical applications.

  20. Diurnal variations of the propagation conditions of short-wave signals on a high-latitude path in the winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingalev, V. S.; Orlova, M. I.; Evlashina, M. L.; Krivilev, V. N.; Mingaleva, G. I.

    1987-08-01

    The propagation trajectories of short waves on a path from the North Magnetic Pole to Murmansk in the course of a complete winter day is calculated on the basis of the electron density distribution determined using a numerical model of the convective polar ionosphere. It is shown that the propagation of the signals may be impossible at certain hours of local time, while, at those hours when it is possible, the ray trajectories can be of different types: beat, channeled between the E and F layers, ricocheting with chord propagation, and their combinations.

  1. Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Jacob Mancuso, J.; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Dwelle, Jordan; Ma, Li L.; Willsey, Brian; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Asmis, Reto; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of combined photothermal wave (PTW) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect, and further characterize the distribution of macrophages (having taken up plasmonic gold nanorose as a contrast agent) and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. Aortas with atherosclerotic plaques were harvested from nine male New Zealand white rabbits divided into nanorose- and saline-injected groups and were imaged by dual-wavelength (800 and 1210 nm) multifrequency (0.1, 1 and 4 Hz) PTW imaging in combination with OCT. Amplitude PTW images suggest that lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by two-photon luminescence microscopy and RAM-11 macrophage stain) and lipid deposits can be identified at selected modulation frequencies. Radiometric temperature increase and modulation amplitude of superficial nanoroses in response to 4 Hz laser irradiation (800 nm) were significantly higher than native plaque (P<0.001). Amplitude PTW images (4 Hz) were merged into a coregistered OCT image, suggesting that superficial nanorose-loaded macrophages are distributed at shoulders on the upstream side of atherosclerotic plaques (P<0.001) at edges of lipid deposits. Results suggest that combined PTW-OCT imaging can simultaneously reveal plaque structure and composition, permitting characterization of nanorose-loaded macrophages and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. All-optical frequency downconversion technique utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2012-03-26

    An all-optical frequency downconversion utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was experimentally demonstrated for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) applications. Two WDM optical radio frequency (RF) signals having 155 Mbps differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data at 28.5 GHz were simultaneously down-converted to two WDM optical intermediate frequency (IF) signals having an IF frequency of 4.5 GHz by mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a LO frequency of 24 GHz in the SOA. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the RoF up-links with different optical fiber lengths employing all-optical frequency downconversion was investigated. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with a 6 km single mode fiber and an optical IF signal in an optical double-sideband format was approximately -8.5 dBm and the power penalty for simultaneous frequency downconversion was approximately 0.63 dB. The BER performance showed a strong dependence on the fiber length due to the fiber dispersion. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with the optical IF signal in the optical single-sideband format was reduced to approximately -17.4 dBm and showed negligible dependence on the fiber length. PMID:22453476

  3. Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Jacob Mancuso, J.; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Dwelle, Jordan; Ma, Li L.; Willsey, Brian; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Asmis, Reto; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of combined photothermal wave (PTW) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect, and further characterize the distribution of macrophages (having taken up plasmonic gold nanorose as a contrast agent) and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. Aortas with atherosclerotic plaques were harvested from nine male New Zealand white rabbits divided into nanorose- and saline-injected groups and were imaged by dual-wavelength (800 and 1210 nm) multifrequency (0.1, 1 and 4 Hz) PTW imaging in combination with OCT. Amplitude PTW images suggest that lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by two-photon luminescence microscopy and RAM-11 macrophage stain) and lipid deposits can be identified at selected modulation frequencies. Radiometric temperature increase and modulation amplitude of superficial nanoroses in response to 4 Hz laser irradiation (800 nm) were significantly higher than native plaque (P<0.001). Amplitude PTW images (4 Hz) were merged into a coregistered OCT image, suggesting that superficial nanorose-loaded macrophages are distributed at shoulders on the upstream side of atherosclerotic plaques (P<0.001) at edges of lipid deposits. Results suggest that combined PTW-OCT imaging can simultaneously reveal plaque structure and composition, permitting characterization of nanorose-loaded macrophages and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22502567

  4. Influence of natural surfactants on short wind waves in the coastal Peruvian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefhaber, D.; Zappa, C. J.; Jähne, B.

    2015-07-01

    Results from measurements of wave slope statistics during the R/V Meteor M91 cruise in the coastal upwelling regions off the coast of Peru are reported. Wave slope probability distributions were measured with an instrument based on the reflection of light at the water surface and a method very similar to the Cox and Munk (1954b) sun glitter technique. During the cruise, the mean square slope (mss) of the waves was found to be very variable, despite the limited range of encountered wind speeds. The Cox and Munk (1954b) parameterization for clean water is found to overestimate mss, but most measurements fall in the range spanned by their clean water and slick parameterizations. The observed variability of mss is attributed to the wave damping effect of surface films, generated by increased biological production in the upwelling zones. The small footprint and high temporal resolution of the measurement allows for tracking abrupt changes in conditions caused by the often patchy structure of the surface films.

  5. On the short-wave nature of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskaya, M. S.; Belotserkovskii, O. M.; Denisenko, V. V.; Eriklintsev, I. V.; Kozlov, S. A.; Oparina, E. I.; Troshkin, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    In the case of a variable period (wavelength) of a perturbed interface, the instability and stability of Richtmyer-Meshkov vortices in perfect gas and incompressible perfect fluid, respectively, are investigated numerically and analytically. Taking into account available experiments, the instability of the interface between the argon and xenon in the case of a relatively small period is modeled. An estimate of the magnitude of the critical period is given. The nonlinear (for arbitrary initial conditions) stability of the corresponding steady-state vortex flow of perfect fluid in a strip (vertical periodic channel) in the case of a fairly large period is shown.

  6. LOCALIZATION OF SHORT DURATION GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENTS WITH THE EARLY ADVANCED LIGO AND VIRGO DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey

    2015-02-20

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg{sup 2} in 2015 and 60-110 deg{sup 2} in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg{sup 2}. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.

  7. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    DOE PAGESBeta

    van der Laan, J. D.; Sandia National Lab.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists bettermore » than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.« less

  8. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, J. D.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists better than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.

  9. SASE free electron lasers as short wavelength coherent sources. From first results at 100 nm to a 1 Å X-ray laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treusch, R.; Feldhaus, J.

    2003-10-01

    During the last few years free electron lasers (FELs) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) have been demonstrated at wavelengths of 12 μm [CITE], 830 nm [CITE], 530 nm [CITE] and 385 nm [CITE], and around 100 nm [CITE]. Recently, saturation has been observed in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 82 nm and 125 nm at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. The radiation pulses have been characterized with respect to pulse energy, statistical fluctuations, angular divergence and spectral distribution, both in the linear gain and in the saturation regime of the FEL [CITE]. The results are in good agreement with theoretical simulations, providing a solid basis for other projects aiming at still shorter wavelengths down to the 0.1 nm range [CITE].

  10. Short-term Climate Simulations of African Easterly Waves with a Global Mesoscale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution global model simulations ( Shen et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2012; 2013), which were conducted to examine the role of multiscale processes associated with tropical waves in the predictability of mesoscale tropical cyclones (TCs), suggested that a large-scale system (e.g., tropical waves) can provide determinism on the prediction of TC genesis, making it possible to extend the lead time of genesis predictions. Selected cases include the relationship between (i) TC Nargis (2008) and an Equatorial Rossby wave; (ii) Hurricane Helene (2006) and an intensifying African Easterly Wave (AEW); (iii) Twin TCs (2002) and a mixed Rossby-gravity wave during an active phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); (iv) Hurricane Sandy (2012) and tropical waves during an active phase of the MJO. In this talk, thirty-day simulations with different model configurations are presented to examine the model's ability to simulate AEWs and MJOs and their association with tropical cyclogenesis. I will first discuss the simulations of the initiation and propagation of 6 consecutive AEWs in late August 2006 and the mean state of the African easterly jet (AEJ) over both Africa and downstream in the tropical Atlantic. By comparing our simulations with NCEP analysis and satellite data (e.g., TRMM), it is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and th AEWs. Results from the sensitivity experiments suggest the following: 1) accurate representations of non-linear interactions between the atmosphere and land processes are crucial for improving the simulations of the AEWs and the AEJ; 2) improved simulations of an individual AEW and its interaction with local environments (e.g., the Guinea Highlands) could provide determinism for hurricane formation downstream. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is

  11. High Resolution Full Wave Modeling of Fast Waves in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. K.; Berk, L.; Hosea, J. C.; Leblanc, B. P.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Berry, L. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.

    2010-11-01

    High Harmonic Fast Waves (HHFW) are being used in NSTX for plasma heating and noninductive current profile control. Numerical solutions for the wave fields obtained with the full wave TORIC and AORSA codes with ultrafine spatial resolution reveal the presence of a short wavelength feature that is predominantly polarized in the direction parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field and which is predicted by the codes to damp on electrons. A similar short wavelength mode also appears in simulations of the rf fields in C-Mod in the ICRF regime. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mode may be related to a slow mode that can propagate above the fundamental ion cyclotron frequency. The predicted power deposition profiles will be compared to those inferred from experimental measurements to see if the mode has a significant effect on the wave propagation and absorption. Possibilities for detecting the mode in NSTX and C-Mod will be discussed.

  12. Over 100 W ultra-flat broadband short-wave infrared supercontinuum generation in a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Li, Lei; Yao, Jinmei; Zhang, Bin; Hou, Jing

    2015-10-15

    An ultra-flat high-power short-wave infrared super-continuum (SC) source generated in an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) is reported. The SC had a high-spectral flatness with a 10 dB spectral bandwidth spanning from 1970 to 2431 nm and a power spectral density >23  dBm/nm. The output SC beam had Gaussian-shape profiles with a maximum average power of 101.6 W, a SC pulse repetition rate of 2 MHz, and a temporal duration of ∼5  ns. Benefiting from the high duty cycle of the 2 μm seed pulses, the power conversion efficiency from the 793 nm pump light to the maximal SC output power in the TDFA was as high as 35.4%, and the slope efficiency of the TDFA was linearly fitted to be 36.5%. Long-term high-power operation of the SC source showed its outstanding temporal stability. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the results obtained in this Letter represent a new power record for ultra-flat SC in the short-wave infrared region. PMID:26469620

  13. Interference of birefractive waves in CdGa2S4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrbu, N. N.; Tiron, A. V.; Parvan, V. I.; Zalamai, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.

    2015-04-01

    In СdGа2S4 crystals the Fabry-Perot and birefringence interference spectra were investigated. Spectral dependences of refraction indexes for ordinary (no) and extraordinary (ne) light waves are defined. The spectral dependence Δn=ne-no from the short and long-wavelength parts of isotropic wavelength λ0=485.7 nm (300 K) is determined. It is established that at λ>λ0 Δn is positive and at λ<λ0 Δn is negative. Wavelength λ0=485.7 nm shifts with decreasing temperature to short-wavelengths. The phase difference of ordinary and extraordinary light waves for λ>λ0 and λ<λ0 was determined. The band in reflection spectra observed at the isotropic wavelength has a small halfwidth (∽3-5 Å). Another isotropic wavelength was found in the short-wavelength region (433 nm) for crystals obtained by iodine transport method.

  14. Spin wave excitation patterns generated by spin torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macià, F.; Hoppensteadt, F. C.; Kent, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) are nanoscale devices that can convert a direct current into short wavelength spin wave excitations in a ferromagnetic layer. We show that arrays of STNO can be used to create directional spin wave radiation similarly to electromagnetic antennas. Combining STNO excitations with planar spin waves also creates interference patterns. We show that these interference patterns are static and have information on the wavelength and phase of the spin waves emitted from the STNO. We describe a means of actively controlling spin wave radiation patterns with the direct current flowing through STNO, which is useful in on-chip communication and information processing and could be a promising technique for studying short wavelength spin waves in different materials.

  15. Development and Short-Range Testing of a 100 kW Side-Illuminated Millimeter-Wave Thermal Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander; Eilers, James A.; Lambot, Thomas; Parkin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the phase described here of the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) Project was to launch a small thermal rocket into the air using millimeter waves. The preliminary results of the first MTLS flight vehicle launches are presented in this work. The design and construction of a small thermal rocket with a planar ceramic heat exchanger mounted along the axis of the rocket is described. The heat exchanger was illuminated from the side by a millimeter-wave beam and fed propellant from above via a small tank containing high pressure argon or nitrogen. Short-range tests where the rocket was launched, tracked, and heated with the beam are described. The rockets were approximately 1.5 meters in length and 65 millimeters in diameter, with a liftoff mass of 1.8 kilograms. The rocket airframes were coated in aluminum and had a parachute recovery system activated via a timer and Pyrodex. At the rocket heat exchanger, the beam distance was 40 meters with a peak power intensity of 77 watts per square centimeter. and a total power of 32 kilowatts in a 30 centimeter diameter circle. An altitude of approximately 10 meters was achieved. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  16. Short-term effectiveness of bi-phase oscillatory waves versus hyperthermia for isolated long head biceps tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Via, Alessio Giai; Rossi, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Long head biceps (LHB) tendinopathy is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain. Isolated LHB pathology is most common among younger people who practise overhead sports. The authors conducted a short-term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of two different methods for the treatment of isolated LHB tendinopathy: biphasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia. Study design: The study is a prospective randomised study (Level II). Material and methods: The authors identified 20 patients who had clinical and ultrasound (US) evidence of LHB tendinopathy. No patient was a high-level athlete. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A (10 patients) was treated with bi-phasic oscillatory waves, while Group B received hyperthermia. During the treatment period, no other electromedical therapy, injections with corticosteroids, oral analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All the patients were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the end of the treatment period (T1) and 6 months after the end of treatment (T2) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Furthermore, all patients underwent US examinations at T0 and at T1. All the US examinations were performed by the same radiologist. Results: The VAS scores showed a highly statistically significant reduction of pain at T1 both in Group A (65%; p=0,004) and in Group B (50%; p=0,0002). The CMS also showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-intervention, the post-treatment and the short-term follow-up in both groups. In addition, the peritendinous fluid evident on US examination at T0 was no longer present in all cases at T1. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both bi-phasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia are able to relieve pain in patients with isolated LHB tendinopathy. This is a Class II level of evidence. PMID:23738257

  17. Statistical characterization of short wind waves from stereo images of the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. S.; Yurovskaya, M. V.; Dulov, V. A.; Hauser, D.; GuéRin, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We propose a methodology to extract short-scale statistical characteristics of the sea surface topography by means of stereo image reconstruction. The possibilities and limitations of the technique are discussed and tested on a data set acquired from an oceanographic platform at the Black Sea. A validation is made with simultaneous in situ measurements as well as results from the literature. We show that one- and two-point properties of the short-scale roughness can be well estimated without resorting to an interpolation procedure or an underlying surface model. We obtain the first cumulants of the probability distribution of small-scale elevations and slopes as well as related structure functions. We derive an empirical parametrization for the skewness function that is of primary importance in analytical scattering models from the sea surface.

  18. Application of ZnO nanoparticles to enhance photoluminescence in porous silicon and its possible utilization for improving the short wavelength quantum efficiency of silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Daisy; Kharkwal, Aneeta; Singh, S. N.; Singh, P. K.; Sharma, S. N.; Mehdi, S. S.; Husain, M.

    2014-11-01

    We have formed photoluminescent porous silicon (PS) layers and over which a ZnO layer (hereafter called ZnOPS layers) is deposited. We studied the photoluminescent properties of individual layers as well as the composite layer under excitation with 405 nm wavelength. Using the data of PL a theoretical analysis of a solar cell having such a composite layer of a given photoluminescent conversion efficiency ηPL on the front surface has been done. The condition of a photoluminescent composite layer (ZnOPS) useful for enhancing the spectral response of n+-p-p+ structured silicon solar cell has been identified.

  19. Real-time simulation of combined short-wave and long-wave infrared vision on a head-up display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinecke, Niklas; Schmerwitz, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Landing under adverse weather conditions can be challenging, even if the airfields are well known to the pilots. This is true for civil as well as military aviation. Within the scope of this paper we concentrate especially on fog conditions. The work has been conducted within the project ALICIA. ALICIA is a research and development project co-funded by European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. ALICIA aims at developing new and scalable cockpit applications which can extend operations of aircraft in degraded conditions: All Conditions Operations. One of the systems developed is a head-up display that can display a generated symbology together with a raster-mode infrared image. We will detail how we implemented a real-time enabled simulation of a combined short-wave and long-wave infrared image for landing. A major challenge was to integrate several already existing simulation solutions, e.g., for visual simulation and sensors with the required data-bases. For the simulations DLRs in-house sensor simulation framework F3S was used, together with a commercially available airport model that had to be heavily modified in order to provide realistic infrared data. Special effort was invested for a realistic impression of runway lighting under foggy conditions. We will present results and sketch further improvements for future simulations.

  20. Field and numerical study of wind and surface waves at short fetches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    Measurements were carried out in 2012-2015 from May to October in the waters of Gorky Reservoir belonging to the Volga Cascade. The methods of the experiment focus on the study of airflow in the close proximity to the water surface. The sensors were positioned at the oceanographic Froude buoy including five two-component ultrasonic sensors WindSonic by Gill Instruments at different levels (0.1, 0.85, 1.3, 2.27, 5.26 meters above the mean water surface level), one water and three air temperature sensors, and three-channel wire wave gauge. One of wind sensors (0.1 m) was located on the float tracking the waveform for measuring the wind speed in the close proximity to the water surface. Basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer (the friction velocity u∗, the wind speed U10 and the drag coefficient CD) were calculated from the measured profiles of wind speed. Parameters were obtained in the range of wind speeds of 1-12 m/s. For wind speeds stronger than 4 m/s CD values were lower than those obtained before (see eg. [1,2]) and those predicted by the bulk parameterization. However, for weak winds (less than 3 m/s) CD values considerably higher than expected ones. The new parameterization of surface drag coefficient was proposed on the basis of the obtained data. The suggested parameterization of drag coefficient CD(U10) was implemented within wind input source terms in WAVEWATCH III [3]. The results of the numerical experiments were compared with the results obtained in the field experiments on the Gorky Reservoir. The use of the new drag coefficient improves the agreement in significant wave heights HS [4]. At the same time, the predicted mean wave periods are overestimated using both built-in source terms and adjusted source terms. We associate it with the necessity of the adjusting of the DIA nonlinearity model in WAVEWATCH III to the conditions of the middle-sized reservoir. Test experiments on the adjusting were carried out. The work was supported by the

  1. Spin-wave logic devices based on isotropic forward volume magnetostatic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, S. Pirro, P.; Brächer, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.

    2015-05-25

    We propose the utilization of isotropic forward volume magnetostatic spin waves in modern wave-based logic devices and suggest a concrete design for a spin-wave majority gate operating with these waves. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that the proposed out-of-plane magnetized majority gate overcomes the limitations of anisotropic in-plane magnetized majority gates due to the high spin-wave transmission through the gate, which enables a reduced energy consumption of these devices. Moreover, the functionality of the out-of-plane majority gate is increased due to the lack of parasitic generation of short-wavelength exchange spin waves.

  2. Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch

    2001-03-19

    Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry.

  3. Explanation of the Normal Winter Anomaly from the Seasonal Variation of Short Wave Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velinov, P. J.; Smirnova, N. V.; Vlaskov, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency dependence of the winter anomaly (WA) of radio wave absorption indicates the altitude range where the considered seasonal variation of absorption, L, takes place: 75-95 km. In this height region considerable seasonal variations of ionic composition and effective recombination coefficient, alpha sub e, exist, which can cause seasonal variations of electron concentration, N, and absorption, L. An attempt to render a qualitative estimation of the normal WA, i.e., the increased ratio of winter over summer absorption, L sub w/L sub s, at medium latitudes 40 deg and 50 deg, for solar zenith angles CHi = 60 deg and 75 deg is made. This is compared with existing experimental data.

  4. Intervalley scattering of electrons by short-wave phonons in (GaAs)8(AlAs)8(001) superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyaev, S. N.; Nikitina, L. N.; Tyuterev, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    Intervalley transitions induced by short-wavelength phonons in the conduction band of a superlattice (GaAs)8(AlAs)8(001) are investigated on the basis of the pseudopotential method and in the phenomenological model of interatomic forces. The main attention in the study centers around the transitions associated with the vibrations confined inside the layers. It is shown that the deformation potentials for the majority of intervalley transitions in a superlattice exceed the potentials of corresponding transitions in the binary crystals because of the localization of atomic displacements and wavefunctions of electrons inside the same layer of the superlattice. The bottom of the conduction band in (GaAs)8(AlAs)8(001) superlattice corresponds to the states Γ1(1), Z3, M1, M4 originating from sphalerite's X bar valleys localized in AlAs layers. Transitions between them are the most intense ones and they are caused by optical vibrations of Al atoms. "Semi-interface" vibrations being mainly localized in the one side of the GaAs layer are involved in the Γ1(2) -X1 , Γ1(2) -R1 and X1-Z1 transitions which are analogs of Γ bar - L bar transitions in binaries. The transitions Γ1(2) -M1 and Γ1(2) -M4 are governed by smooth parts of wave-functions and pseudopotentials. As a consequence their intensities are comparable with those of Γ bar - X bar sphalerite transitions in spite that these states are localized in the different layers of the superlattice.

  5. Improving Atmospheric Correction for Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometers with Iterative Fitting of Absorption By Three Phases of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, E. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Green, R. O.; Gao, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) offer valuable insight into the Earth's terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, mineralogy, and land use. Estimating surface reflectance requires accounting for atmospheric absorption, which is sensitive to the local abundance of water vapor. Analysts typically estimate water vapor concentrations using the depths of absorption features, which can be inaccurate by up to 50% over surface features containing liquid water or ice. This can bias the retrieved water vapor maps and create atmospheric artifacts in reflectance spectra. A new retrieval method offers significant accuracy improvements over plant canopies or ice by estimating the path lengths of all three phases of water simultaneously, adjusting absorptions to best fit the measurement over a broader spectral interval. This paper assesses the remaining sources of error for the three-phase retrieval technique. We analyze retrievals for synthetic data when the 940 and 1140 nm wavelength features are fitted, for initial vapor path estimates ranging from 0 to ±50% accuracy. These tests indicate that most error comes from inaccuracy in the initial path estimate used to obtain vapor absorption coefficients. We evaluate a modified algorithm that uses multiple iterations to refine this estimate. Error is found to approach a constant value, demonstrating improved robustness to initialization conditions. We also assess the new iterative method using corrected AVIRIS data over various environments. The iterative method yields significantly better water vapor maps, reducing spurious correlations between vegetation canopy water and vapor estimates. The new iterative method offers accuracy improvements over traditional Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) atmospheric correction methods, at modest computational cost.

  6. Measuring noise equivalent irradiance of a digital short-wave infrared imaging system using a broadband source to simulate the night spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John R.; Robinson, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in developing helmet-mounted digital imaging systems (HMDIS) for integration into military aircraft cockpits. This interest stems from the multiple advantages of digital vs. analog imaging such as image fusion from multiple sensors, data processing to enhance the image contrast, superposition of non-imaging data over the image, and sending images to remote location for analysis. There are several properties an HMDIS must have in order to aid the pilot during night operations. In addition to the resolution, image refresh rate, dynamic range, and sensor uniformity over the entire Focal Plane Array (FPA); the imaging system must have the sensitivity to detect the limited night light available filtered through cockpit transparencies. Digital sensor sensitivity is generally measured monochromatically using a laser with a wavelength near the peak detector quantum efficiency, and is generally reported as either the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) or Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI). This paper proposes a test system that measures NEI of Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) digital imaging systems using a broadband source that simulates the night spectrum. This method has a few advantages over a monochromatic method. Namely, the test conditions provide spectrum closer to what is experienced by the end-user, and the resulting NEI may be compared directly to modeled night glow irradiance calculation. This comparison may be used to assess the Technology Readiness Level of the imaging system for the application. The test system is being developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  7. Impacts of aerosol scattering on the short-wave infrared satellite observations of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Chen, L.; Li, S.; Tao, J.; Su, L.; Zou, M.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2), as two key factors driving the global climate change, have earned enormous attention from scientist around the world. One challenge for the satellite measurements of CO2 using this SWIR wavelength range (~1.6μm) is the impact of multiple scattering by aerosols and cirrus. Since the rapid economic growth and associated increase in fossil fuel consumption have caused serious particulate pollution in many regions of China, remote sensing of CO2 using SWIR band in China needs to pay more attention to the scattering properties of aerosol particles and the multiple scattering. Considering the complexity of morphological and chemical properties, aerosol particles are grouped based on a large number of TEM/SEM images, and then their scattering properties at 1.6μm band are calculated by the T-matrix method and GMM method. In this study, the Monte Carlo method is used to solve the multiple scattering problem by simulating photons transport in the scattering media. We combined this multiple scattering model with the LBLRTM as a forward radiative transfer model for studying the impact of aerosol scattering on the satellite observations of CO2 using SWIR band. Finally, based on the GOCART aerosol component products, AERONET aerosol size distribution products, CALIPSO aerosol profile products, and MODIS aerosol optical depth and surface albedo products, the monthly variability of errors in CO2 concentrations over China were calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that CO2 concentrations are overestimated in western regions of China, especially in desert areas (a maximum of ~7.08%), and those are underestimated in eastern regions (a minimum of ~-6.9%).

  8. REVISITING COINCIDENCE RATE BETWEEN GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST FOR THE ADVANCED AND THIRD GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Regimbau, T.; Siellez, K.; Meacher, D.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.

    2015-01-20

    We use realistic Monte Carlo simulations including both gravitational-wave (GW) and short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) selection effects to revisit the coincident rate of binary systems composed of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. We show that the fraction of GW triggers that can be observed in coincidence with sGRBs is proportional to the beaming factor at z = 0, but increases with the distance until it reaches 100% at the GW detector horizon distance. When this is taken into account the rate is improved by a factor of three compared to the simple beaming factor correction. We provide an estimate of the performance future GRB detectors should achieve in order to fully exploit the potentiality of the planned third-generation GW antenna Einstein Telescope, and we propose a simple method to constrain the beaming angle of sGRBs.

  9. The Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI): A novel platform for acquiring remotely sensed data from a tethered balloon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vierling, L.A.; Fersdahl, M.; Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Zimmerman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new remote sensing system called the Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI). The SWAMI is designed to acquire co-located video imagery and hyperspectral data to study basic remote sensing questions and to link landscape level trace gas fluxes with spatially and temporally appropriate spectral observations. The SWAMI can fly at altitudes up to 2 km above ground level to bridge the spatial gap between radiometric measurements collected near the surface and those acquired by other aircraft or satellites. The SWAMI platform consists of a dual channel hyperspectral spectroradiometer, video camera, GPS, thermal infrared sensor, and several meteorological and control sensors. All SWAMI functions (e.g. data acquisition and sensor pointing) can be controlled from the ground via wireless transmission. Sample data from the sampling platform are presented, along with several potential scientific applications of SWAMI data. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Creating and manipulating vortices in atomic wave functions with short electric field pulses.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, S Yu; Sternberg, J B; Macek, J H; Lee, Teck-Ghee; Schultz, D R

    2010-11-12

    We demonstrate the creation of vortices in the electronic probability density of an atom subject to short electric field pulses, how these vortices evolve and can be manipulated by varying the applied pulses, and that they persist to macroscopic distances in the spectrum of ejected electrons. This opens the possibility to use practical femtosecond or shorter laser pulses to create and manipulate these vortex quasiparticles at the atomic scale and observe them in the laboratory. Within a hydrodynamic interpretation we also show, since the Schrödinger equation is a particular instance of the Navier-Stokes equations, that for compressible fluids vortices can appear spontaneously and with a certain time delay, which is not expected to occur from the conventional point of view, illustrating applicability of the present study to vortex formation more broadly. PMID:21231229

  11. Spectroscopic study on the photoinduced reaction of fullerene C 60 with aliphatic amines and its dynamics — strong short wavelength fluorescence from the adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jin Li; Gong, Qiao Juan; Du, Li Min; Jin, Wei Jun

    2001-01-01

    The photoinduced electron donor-acceptor interactions of C 60 with eight kinds of aliphatic amines, namely diethylamine (DEA), triethylamine (TEA), tri- n-amylamine (TAA), propylethylamine (PPA), n-butylamine (BTA), n-heptylamine (HPA) and dodecylamine (DDA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) are reported by a comprehensive spectroscopic study. Experiments show that there is a good discipline with different structure and the length of n-alkyl group both in their ground and excited states. At the same time, a slow reaction takes place between C 60 and various amines with a gradual increase in the concentration of various aliphatic amines or the standing of solution, which can be dramatically catalyzed by UV-radiation. The final products can all emit a strong fluorescence at the relatively shorter wavelength around 519 nm. On this basis, the dynamic properties of C 60/aphaliticamines including the enthalpy of activation (Δ H≠et) and entropy activation (Δ S≠et), together with all sorts of influence factors are firstly investigated in this work. The possible reaction mechanisms are explored, also.

  12. Contribution of external parameter orthogonalisation for calibration transfer in short waves--near infrared spectroscopy application to gasoline quality.

    PubMed

    Amat-Tosello, S; Dupuy, N; Kister, J

    2009-05-29

    The octane number rating of a gasoline gives an indication of the gasoline performances, under various engine conditions. Two different ratings are included: Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). The standard laboratory method for octane number determination is the knock engine method in which a gasoline is burned and its combustion characteristics compared to known standards. This method is time consuming and labor intensive, and provides no ability for real time control of production. NIR can be applied in real time directly in process monitoring or as a laboratory procedure. Near infrared spectra of gasoline samples were collected thanks to four different short wavelengths near infrared analysers, built with strictly the same technology. The aim of this study was to transfer the calibration built on one spectrometer to the other ones. We applied the external parameter orthogonalisation (EPO) correction to get rid of the apparatus influence on information contained in spectra. By this method, we managed to improve prediction values of two major gasolines' properties, i.e. Research and Motor Octane Number. PMID:19427453

  13. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  14. Genomic organization of duplicated short wave-sensitive and long wave-sensitive opsin genes in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes have undergone multiple lineage-specific duplication events throughout the evolution of teleost fishes. LWS repertoire expansions in live-bearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) have equipped multiple species in this family with up to four LWS genes. Given that color vision, especially attraction to orange male coloration, is important to mate choice within poeciliids, LWS opsins have been proposed as candidate genes driving sexual selection in this family. To date the genomic organization of these genes has not been described in the family Poeciliidae, and little is known about the mechanisms regulating the expression of LWS opsins in any teleost. Results Two BAC clones containing the complete genomic repertoire of LWS opsin genes in the green swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri, were identified and sequenced. Three of the four LWS loci identified here were linked in a tandem array downstream of two tightly linked short wave-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin genes. The fourth LWS opsin gene, containing only a single intron, was not linked to the other three and is the product of a retrotransposition event. Genomic and phylogenetic results demonstrate that the LWS genes described here share a common evolutionary origin with those previously characterized in other poeciliids. Using qualitative RT-PCR and MSP we showed that each of the LWS and SWS2 opsins, as well as three other cone opsin genes and a single rod opsin gene, were expressed in the eyes of adult female and male X. helleri, contributing to six separate classes of adult retinal cone and rod cells with average λmax values of 365 nm, 405 nm, 459 nm, 499 nm, 534 nm and 568 nm. Comparative genomic analysis identified two candidate teleost opsin regulatory regions containing putative CRX binding sites and hormone response elements in upstream sequences of LWS gene regions of seven teleost species, including X. helleri. Conclusions We report the first complete genomic

  15. The parallel-antiparallel signal difference in double-wave-vector diffusion-weighted MR at short mixing times: A phase evolution perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with two diffusion weightings applied in direct succession in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector diffusion-weighting (DWV) experiments at short mixing times, have been shown to be a promising tool to estimate cell or compartment sizes, e.g. in living tissue. The basic theory for such experiments predicts that the signal decays for parallel and antiparallel wave vector orientations differ by a factor of three for small wave vectors. This seems to be surprising because in standard, single-wave-vector experiments the polarity of the diffusion weighting has no influence on the signal attenuation. Thus, the question how this difference can be understood more pictorially is often raised. In this rather educational manuscript, the phase evolution during a DWV experiment for simple geometries, e.g. diffusion between parallel, impermeable planes oriented perpendicular to the wave vectors, is considered step-by-step and demonstrates how the signal difference develops. Considering the populations of the phase distributions obtained, the factor of three between the signal decays which is predicted by the theory can be reproduced. Furthermore, the intermediate signal decay for orthogonal wave vector orientations can be derived when investigating diffusion in a box. Thus, the presented “phase gymnastics” approach may help to understand the signal modulation observed in DWV experiments at short mixing times.

  16. The Spiral Wave of Our Galaxy Near Inner Lindblad Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Mark, James W-K.

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion relationship for short-wavelength spiral density waves in our Galaxy has been refined to remove the divergences that occurred in wave number and in amplitude as inner Lindblad resonance is approached. The wave is found to be evanescent in an annular region near 4 kpc. By 3 kpc, the inward propagating trailing wave is completely absorbed. The outgoing leading wave is suppressed compared to the trailing one because it begins in the evanescent state. Throughout this region of inner Lindblad resonance, a smooth wave amplitude has been obtained, and it has a sharp peak correlating well with the observed density of ionized hydrogen. PMID:16591941

  17. Direct bandgap GeSn light emitting diodes for short-wave infrared applications grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von den Driesch, Nils; Stange, Daniela; Wirths, Stephan; Rainko, Denis; Mussler, Gregor; Stoica, Toma; Ikonic, Zoran; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Grützmacher, Detlev; Mantl, Siegfried; Buca, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The experimental demonstration of fundamental direct bandgap, group IV GeSn alloys has constituted an important step towards realization of the last missing ingredient for electronic-photonic integrated circuits, i.e. the efficient group IV laser source. In this contribution, we present electroluminescence studies of reduced-pressure CVD grown, direct bandgap GeSn light emitting diodes (LEDs) with Sn contents up to 11 at.%. Besides homojunction GeSn LEDs, complex heterojunction structures, such as GeSn/Ge multi quantum wells (MQWs) have been studied. Structural and compositional investigations confirm high crystalline quality, abrupt interfaces and tailored strain of the grown structures. While also being suitable for light absorption applications, all devices show light emission in a narrow short-wave infrared (SWIR) range. Temperature dependent electroluminescence (EL) clearly indicates a fundamentally direct bandgap in the 11 at.% Sn sample, with room temperature emission at around 0.55 eV (2.25 µm). We have, however, identified some limitations of the GeSn/Ge MQW approach regarding emission efficiency, which can be overcome by introducing SiGeSn ternary alloys as quantum confinement barriers.

  18. Satellite-based forest monitoring: spatial and temporal forecast of growing index and short-wave infrared band.

    PubMed

    Bayr, Caroline; Gallaun, Heinz; Kleb, Ulrike; Kornberger, Birgit; Steinegger, Martin; Winter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For detecting anomalies or interventions in the field of forest monitoring we propose an approach based on the spatial and temporal forecast of satellite time series data. For each pixel of the satellite image three different types of forecasts are provided, namely spatial, temporal and combined spatio-temporal forecast. Spatial forecast means that a clustering algorithm is used to group the time series data based on the features normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the short-wave infrared band (SWIR). For estimation of the typical temporal trajectory of the NDVI and SWIR during the vegetation period of each spatial cluster, we apply several methods of functional data analysis including functional principal component analysis, and a novel form of random regression forests with online learning (streaming) capability. The temporal forecast is carried out by means of functional time series analysis and an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The combination of the temporal forecasts, which is based on the past of the considered pixel, and spatial forecasts, which is based on highly correlated pixels within one cluster and their past, is performed by functional data analysis, and a variant of random regression forests adapted to online learning capabilities. For evaluation of the methods, the approaches are applied to a study area in Germany for monitoring forest damages caused by wind-storm, and to a study area in Spain for monitoring forest fires. PMID:27087034

  19. Towards Removing the Southern Ocean Short Wave Bias in HadGEM3: Mixed-phase Cloud Improvements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, P.; Furtado, K.

    2014-12-01

    Many IPCC models suffer from significant Sea Surface Temperature (SST) biases in the Southern Ocean that adversely affects the representation of the cryosphere and global circulation in these models. Evidence suggests that much of this error is linked to Short Wave (SW) radiation, sensible and latent heat biases. Flaws in the representation of clouds and a deficit of supercooled liquid water in mixed-phase clouds are suspected as a likely source of the SW error. A physically based method that uses subgrid turbulence to control a new liquid production term has been developed. Comparisons between theory, based on a stochastic differential equation used to represent supersaturation fluctuations, and decametre resolution Large Eddy Simulations will be presented. An implementation of this approach in a GCM shows an increased prevalance of supercooled liquid water and a reduction in the magnitude of the Southern Ocean SW bias. To conclude, we will summarize the complete package of changes that have been made to tackle the Southern Ocean SST bias in a physically meaningful way.

  20. Infrared autofluorescence, short-wave autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Hui, Yan-Nian; Xu, Wen-Qin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dong-Jie; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the findings of infrared fundus autofluorescence (IR-AF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with optic disc melanocytoma (ODM). METHODS IR-AF findings and those of other ophthalmologic imaging examinations, including short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF), fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus color photography, and SD-OCT of 8 eyes of 8 consecutive cases with ODM were assessed. RESULTS The ODMs in all cases (100%) presented similar IR-AF, SW-AF, and FA findings. On IR-AF images, ODMs showed outstanding hyper-AF with well-defined outline. On SW-AF images, the area of ODMs presented as hypo-AF. FA images revealed the leaking retinal telangiectasia on the surface of the ODMs. On SD-OCT images in 8 cases (100%), the ODMs were sloped with highly reflective surface, which were disorganized retina and optic nerve layers. In 7 cases (87.5%), peripapillary choroids were involved. The melanocytomas of 8 cases (100%) presented as optically empty spaces. Vitreous seeds were found in one case (12.5%). CONCLUSION IR-AF imaging may provide a new modality to evaluate the pathologic features of ODMs, and together with SW-AF imaging, offers a new tool to study biological characteristics associated with ODMs. SD-OCT is a valuable tool in delimitating the tumor extension and providing morphological information about the adjacent retinal tissue. PMID:27275427

  1. Fabrication of all-solid AsSe2-As2S5 microstructured optical fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths for generation of mid-infrared dispersive waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tonglei; Hoang Tuan, Tong; Liu, Lai; Xue, Xiaojie; Matsumoto, Morio; Tezuka, Hiroshige; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-02-01

    We design and fabricate an all-solid chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF) with four rods in the cladding, in order to generate mid-infrared (MIR) dispersive waves (DWs). The high-index background is made of AsSe2 glass, and the four low-index rods are made of As2S5 glass. This MOF has two zero-dispersive wavelengths: ˜3,720 and 4,230 nm. The propagation loss is ˜1.9 dB/m at 2,000 nm, and the nonlinear coefficient is ˜4 × 103 km-1 W-1 at 3,000 nm. Using a pulse of ˜80 MHz and ˜200 fs emitted from an optical parametric oscillator as the pump source, the resulting MIR DWs are investigated at different pump wavelengths.

  2. [Study on phase-matching of four-wave mixing spectrum in photonic crystal fiber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-xu; Wang, Shu-tao; Zhao, Xing-tao; Chen, Shuang; Zhou, Gui-yao; Wu, Xi-jun; Li, Shu-guang; Hou, Lan-Tian

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, the four-wave mixing principle of fiber was analyzed, and the high-gain phase-matching conditions were shown. The nonlinear coefficient and dispersion characteristics of photonic crystal fibers were calculated by multipole method. The phase mismatch characteristics of fibers with multiple zero-dispersion wavelengths were analyzed for the first time. The changing rules of phase matching wavelength with the pump wavelength and the pump power were obtained, and the phase matching curves were shown. The characteristics of phase matching wavelengths for different dispersion curves were analyzed. There are four new excitation wavelengths of four-wave mixing spectrum in two zero-dispersion wavelength photonic crystal fiers. Four-wave mixing spectroscopy of photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths was obtained in the experi-ent, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis, and verified the reliability of the phase matching theory. The fiber with multiple zero-dispersion wavelengths can create a ricbhphase-matching topology, excite more four-wave mixing wavelengths, ena-ling enhanced control over the spectral locations of the four-wave mixing and resonant-radiation bands emitted by solitons and short pulses. These provide theoretical guidance for photonic crystal fiber wavelength conversion and supercontinoum generation based on four-wave mixing. PMID:25358145

  3. Experimental determination of short- and long-wave dust radiative effects in the Central Mediterranean and comparison with model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S.; Burlizzi, P.; Perrone, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Downward and upward irradiance measurements, in the short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) spectral range, have been used in combination with simultaneous aerosol optical depths (AODs) to experimentally determine the instantaneous and clear-sky aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (DRF) at the surface, during a desert dust outbreak which affected the Central Mediterranean from 9 to 13 July 2012. AODs were retrieved from AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun/sky photometer measurements collocated in space and time. The importance of downward and upward radiative flux measurements to properly account for both the surface albedo dependence on the solar zenith angle, and the land surface temperature (TLS) has been highlighted. Measured radiative fluxes were in reasonable agreement with the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and AERONET corresponding ones collocated in space and time. SW and LW downward fluxes at the surface decreased up to 9% and increased up to 13%, respectively, as a consequence of a factor 5 increase of the AOD at 675 nm (AOD675). This is due to the cooling and warming effect of desert dust in the SW and LW spectral range, respectively. In fact, we have also found that the TLS increased at a rate of about 250 K per unit increase of the AOD675. The aerosol DRF at the surface varied from - 8 to - 74 W m- 2 and from + 1.2 to + 9.6 W m- 2 in the SW and LW spectral domains, respectively. In particular, we have found that the LW-DRF on average offsets 14% of the related SW component. It is shown that a two-stream radiative transfer model can reproduce the experimental findings at the surface by replacing the refractive indices typical of dust particles with the ones obtained for a mixture made of dust and soot particles. The dust contamination by anthropogenic particles during its transport to the monitoring site located several hundred kilometers away from the source region was responsible for this last result. We have also found by model

  4. A simple 2 W continuous-wave laser system for trapping ultracold metastable helium atoms at the 319.8 nm magic wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengelink, R. J.; Notermans, R. P. M. J. W.; Vassen, W.

    2016-05-01

    High-precision spectroscopy on the 2 ^3 S → 2 ^1 S transition is possible in ultracold optically trapped helium, but the accuracy is limited by the ac-Stark shift induced by the optical dipole trap. To overcome this problem, we have built a trapping laser system at the predicted magic wavelength of 319.8 nm. Our system is based on frequency conversion using commercially available components and produces over 2 W of power at this wavelength. With this system, we show trapping of ultracold atoms, both thermal (~0.2 μk) and in a Bose-Einstein condensate, with a trap lifetime of several seconds, mainly limited by off-resonant scattering.

  5. Sparse short-distance connections enhance calcium wave propagation in a 3D model of astrocyte networks

    PubMed Central

    Lallouette, Jules; De Pittà, Maurizio; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Berry, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, astrocytes have been considered to couple via gap-junctions into a syncytium with only rudimentary spatial organization. However, this view is challenged by growing experimental evidence that astrocytes organize as a proper gap-junction mediated network with more complex region-dependent properties. On the other hand, the propagation range of intercellular calcium waves (ICW) within astrocyte populations is as well highly variable, depending on the brain region considered. This suggests that the variability of the topology of gap-junction couplings could play a role in the variability of the ICW propagation range. Since this hypothesis is very difficult to investigate with current experimental approaches, we explore it here using a biophysically realistic model of three-dimensional astrocyte networks in which we varied the topology of the astrocyte network, while keeping intracellular properties and spatial cell distribution and density constant. Computer simulations of the model suggest that changing the topology of the network is indeed sufficient to reproduce the distinct ranges of ICW propagation reported experimentally. Unexpectedly, our simulations also predict that sparse connectivity and restriction of gap-junction couplings to short distances should favor propagation while long–distance or dense connectivity should impair it. Altogether, our results provide support to recent experimental findings that point toward a significant functional role of the organization of gap-junction couplings into proper astroglial networks. Dynamic control of this topology by neurons and signaling molecules could thus constitute a new type of regulation of neuron-glia and glia-glia interactions. PMID:24795613

  6. CXCR-4 Targeted, Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Emitting Nanoprobes for Enhanced Deep Tissue Imaging and Micrometastatic Lesion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zevon, Margot; Ganapathy, Vidya; Kantamneni, Harini; Mingozzi, Marco; Kim, Paul; Adler, Derek; Sheng, Yang; Tan, Mei Chee; Pierce, Mark; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the promise of precision medicine in cancer therapy depends on identifying and tracking of cancerous growths in order to maximize treatment options and improve patient outcomes. However, this goal of early detection remains unfulfilled by current clinical imaging techniques that fail to detect diseased lesions, due to their small size and sub-organ localization. With proper probes, optical imaging techniques can overcome this limitation by identifying the molecular phenotype of tumors at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this study, we propose the first use of nanophotonic short wave infrared technology to molecularly phenotype small sub-surface lesions for more sensitive detection and improved patient outcomes. To this end, we designed human serum albumin encapsulated rare-earth (RE) nanoparticles (ReANCs)[1, 2] with ligands for targeted lesion imaging. AMD3100, an antagonist to CXCR4 (a chemokine receptor involved in cell motility and a classic marker of cancer metastasis) was adsorbed onto ReANCs to form functionalized ReANCs (fReANCs). Functionalized nanoparticles were able to discriminate and preferentially accumulate in receptor positive lesions when injected intraperitoneally in a subcutaneous tumor model. Additionally, fReANCs, administered intravenously, were able to target sub-tissue tumor micro-lesions, at a maximum depth of 10.5 mm, in a lung metastatic model of breast cancer. Internal lesions identified with fReANCs were 2.25 times smaller than those detected with unfunctionalized ReANCs (p < .01) with the smallest tumor being 18.9 mm3. Thus, we present an integrated nanoprobe detection platform that allows target-specific identification of sub-tissue cancerous lesions. PMID:26514367

  7. Real-time short-wave infrared hyperspectral conformal imaging sensor for the detection of threat materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Shi, Lei; Zbur, Lucas; Priore, Ryan J.; Treado, Patrick J.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems can provide sensitive and specific detection and identification of high value targets in the presence of complex backgrounds. However, current generation sensors are typically large and costly to field, and do not usually operate in real-time. Sensors that are capable of real-time operation have to compromise on the number of spectral bands, image definition, and/or the number of targets being detected. Additionally, these systems command a high cost and are typically designed and configured for specific mission profiles, making them unable to adapt to multiple threats within often rapidly evolving and dynamic missions. Despite these shortcomings, HSI-based sensors have proven to be valuable tools, thus resulting in increased demand for HSI technology. A cost-effective sensor system that can easily and quickly adapt to accomplish significantly different tasks in a changing environment is highly desirable. The capability to detect and identify user-defined targets in complex backgrounds under a range of varying conditions with an easily reconfigured, automated, real-time, portable HSI sensor is a critical need. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISSTM) is developing a novel real-time, adaptable, compressive sensing short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging technology called the Reconfigurable Conformal Imaging Sensor (RCIS). RCIS will address many shortcomings of current generation systems and offer improvements in operational agility and detection performance, while addressing sensor weight, form factor and cost needs. This paper discusses the development of the RCIS system, and considers its application in various use scenarios.

  8. A study of doping influences on transmission of large-diameter gallium antimonide substrates for long-wave (LWIR) to very long wavelength (VLWIR) infra-red applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Rebecca; Tybjerg, Marius; Smith, Brian; Mowbray, Andrew; Furlong, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is an important Group III-V compound semiconductor for infra-red (IR) photodetectors used in sensing and imaging applications. Operating in the mid (3-5 μm) to long wavelength region (8-12 μm) of the IR spectrum, the application of GaSb detectors is extensive, encompassing military, industrial, medical and environmental uses. A significant developing technology for GaSb based detectors are those effective in the very long wavelength (VLWIR) infra-red region (13 μm and beyond) which are advantageous in space and stealth based applications which necessitate high operating temperatures. In this study different doping levels of GaSb are considered and the IR transmission spectra examined by Fourier Transform IR analysis. GaSb n-type doped material consistent in delivering long to very long wavelength transmission is demonstrated which is preferable to p-type material which requires backside thinning for IR transmission. Czochralski (Cz) grown GaSb wafers are assessed for electrical quality and uniformity results, on Hall mobility, resistivity and carrier level reported. Results of this work will establish the carrier concentration that ultimately results in high transparency substrates. In summary enhancements in IR transmission will be shown to be achieved in GaSb bulk crystals by tellurium (Te) compensation.

  9. Theory of waves incoherently scattered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves impinging upon a plasma at frequencies larger than the plasma frequency, suffer weak scattering. The scattering arises from the existence of electron density fluctuations. The received signal corresponds to a particular spatial Fourier component of the fluctuations, the wave vector of which is a function of the wavelength of the radiowave. Wavelengths short with respect to the Debye length of the medium relate to fluctuations due to non-interacting Maxwellian electrons, while larger wavelengths relate to fluctuations due to collective Coulomb interactions. In the latter case, the scattered signal exhibits a spectral distribution which is characteristic of the main properties of the electron and ion gases and, therefore, provides a powerful diagnosis of the state of the ionosphere.

  10. High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}/AlAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Haddadi, A.; Suo, X. V.; Adhikary, S.; Dianat, P.; Chevallier, R.; Hoang, A. M.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-10-05

    A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}/AlAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ∼1.8 μm at 300 K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 285 Ω cm{sup 2} and a dark current density of 9.6 × 10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2} under −50 mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45 × 10{sup 10 }cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66 × 10{sup 12 }cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W.

  11. Theoretical estimation and experimental design of high-intensity far-infrared to MM-wave coherent synchrotron radiation generated by short electron bunches at BFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junbiao, Zhu; Yonggui, Li; Jialin, Xie

    2000-06-01

    Broadband continuous and high-intensity coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted from 4 ps electron bunches provided by the 30 MeV RF linac of Beijing FEL is analyzed and numerically calculated using an exact series expansion for the infinite integral of fractional modified Bessel function. CSR in the mm-wave and far-IR to mm-wave regions can be respectively generated by directly using these bunches and by applying those ones compressed to ≤=1 ps. The CSR powers, approximately as 10 8-10 9 times as the SR ones, in the range from several hundred microwatts to milliwatts are dependent on chosen electron density distribution, wavelength range, and gathering angle. The power produced by rectangular bunches is greater than that generated by Gaussian ones. The shorter the bunch, the stronger the produced CSR, the greater the energy concentrated to the far-IR end. Experiments to generate CSR and measure the bunch length are designed.

  12. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of current understanding of the growth and evolution of less-than-1 ion gyroradius 'flute modes' on a plasma as it expands across and ambient magnetic field notes that the mechanism by which the instability is generated, and its approximate linear theory (encompassing nonlocal, finite-beta, and collisional effects), have reached a satisfactory degree of development. AMPTE Ba releases have been the bases of most of the observational studies. Substantial progress is also noted in the development of a nonlinear mode-coupling theory which can resolve remaining differences between theory and observation.

  13. Characteristics of Short Wavelength Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E D; Podesta, M; Bortolon, A; Crocker, N A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M

    2012-12-19

    Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to ≈ 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n=1 kink-like mode. In this paper we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE), and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present evidence of a curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.

  14. Physics of short-wavelength-laser design

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    The physics and design of vuv and soft x-ray lasers pumped by ICF class high intensity infrared laser drivers are described (for example, the SHIVA laser facility at LLNL). Laser design and physics issues are discussed in the case of a photoionization pumping scheme involving Ne II and line pumping schemes involving H-like and He-like neon.

  15. Dispersion equation of gravito-MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2016-03-01

    We derive the dispersion equation for gravito-MHD waves in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified plasma with a horizontal inhomogeneous magnetic field. In the present model the sound and the Alfvén speeds are constant. It is known that in this model analytical solutions can be obtained for linearized perturbations. There are three modes propagating in the considered plasma: the fast, the slow and the Alfvén mode, all modified by gravity. In the extreme short wavelength limit, these waves propagate in a locally uniform plasma. The waves with larger wavelengths will be affected by the nonuniformity of the medium resulting from the action of gravitational force ρg. In the case without magnetic field these waves become gravito-acoustic waves.

  16. Generalized theory of helicon waves. I. Normal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.F.; Arnush, D.

    1997-09-01

    The theory of helicon waves is extended to include finite electron mass. This introduces an additional branch to the dispersion relation that is essentially an electron cyclotron or Trivelpiece{endash}Gould (TG) wave with a short radial wavelength. The effect of the TG wave is expected to be important only for low dc magnetic fields and long parallel wavelengths. The normal modes at low fields are mixtures of the TG wave and the usual helicon wave and depend on the nature of the boundaries. Computations show, however, that since the TG waves are damped near the surface of the plasma, the helicon wave at high fields is almost exactly the same as is found when the electron mass is neglected. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Combined short and long-delay tandem shock waves to improve shock wave lithotripsy according to the Gilmore-Akulichev theory.

    PubMed

    de Icaza-Herrera, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M

    2015-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a common non-invasive treatment for urinary stones whose fragmentation is achieved mainly by acoustic cavitation and mechanical stress. A few years ago, in vitro and in vivo experimentation demonstrated that such fragmentation can be improved, without increasing tissue damage, by sending a second shock wave hundreds of microseconds after the previous wave. Later, numerical simulations revealed that if the second pulse had a longer full width at half maximum than a standard shock wave, cavitation could be enhanced significantly. On the other side, a theoretical study showed that stress inside the stone can be increased if two lithotripter shock waves hit the stone with a delay of only 20 μs. We used the Gilmore-Akulichev formulation to show that, in principle, both effects can be combined, that is, stress and cavitation could be increased using a pressure pulse with long full width at half maximum, which reaches the stone within hundreds of microseconds after two 20 μs-delayed initial shock waves. Implementing the suggested pressure profile into clinical devices could be feasible, especially with piezoelectric shock wave sources. PMID:25553714

  18. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  19. Gravitational Wave Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio

    2005-02-01

    There is only one experimental proof that gravitational waves exist. With such a limitation, it may seem premature to suggest the possibility that gravitational waves can became a preferred space propulsion technique. The present understanding of the problem indicates that this is not the case. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been confirmed by observation, the respective detection at large distance from the source is difficult and actually we have no confirmation of a successful detection. Therefore the required preliminary discovery has been already made. This opinion is enforced by many different proposals for building the required powerful gravitational wave generators that have recently appeared in the literature and discussed at conferences. It is no longer reasonable to wait for additional confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves to start a program for building generators and testing their possible application to space travel. A vast literature shows that gravitational waves can be employed for space propulsion. Gravitational wave rockets have been proposed, non-linearity of Einstein equations allows the conversion of gravitational waves to a static gravitational field and ``artificial gravity assist'' may become a new way of travelling in space-time. Different approaches to gravitational wave propulsion are reviewed and compared. Gravitational wave propulsion is also compared to traditional rocket propulsion and an undeniable advantage can be demonstrated in terms of efficiency and performance. Testing the predictions will require gravitational wave generators with high power and wavelength short enough for producing high energy densities. Detectors designed for the specific application must be developed, taking into account that non-linearity effects are expected. The study and development of Gravitational wave propulsion is a very challenging endeavor, involving the most complex theories, sophisticated

  20. Directional spectra of ocean waves from microwave backscatter: A physical optics solution with application to the short-pulse and two-frequency measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two simple microwave radar techniques that are potentially capable of providing routine satellite measurements of the directional spectrum of ocean waves were developed. One technique, the short pulse technique, makes use of very short pulses to resolve ocean surface wave contrast features in the range direction; the other technique, the two frequency correlation technique makes use of coherency in the transmitted waveform to detect the large ocean wave contrast modulation as a beat or mixing frequency in the power backscattered at two closely separated microwave frequencies. A frequency domain analysis of the short pulse and two frequency systems shows that the two measurement systems are essentially duals; they each operate on the generalized (three frequency) fourth-order statistical moment of the surface transfer function in different, but symmetrical ways, and they both measure the same directional contrast modulation spectrum. A three dimensional physical optics solution for the fourth-order moment was obtained for backscatter in the near vertical, specular regime, assuming Gaussian surface statistics.