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1

Genomic organization of duplicated short wave-sensitive and long wave-sensitive opsin genes in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes have undergone multiple lineage-specific duplication events throughout the evolution of teleost fishes. LWS repertoire expansions in live-bearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) have equipped multiple species in this family with up to four LWS genes. Given that color vision, especially attraction to orange male coloration, is important to mate choice within poeciliids, LWS opsins have been

Corey T Watson; Krzysztof P Lubieniecki; Ellis Loew; William S Davidson; Felix Breden

2010-01-01

2

A Single Enhancer Regulating the Differential Expression of Duplicated Red-Sensitive Opsin Genes in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

A fundamental step in the evolution of the visual system is the gene duplication of visual opsins and differentiation between the duplicates in absorption spectra and expression pattern in the retina. However, our understanding of the mechanism of expression differentiation is far behind that of spectral tuning of opsins. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have two red-sensitive cone opsin genes, LWS-1 and LWS-2. These genes are arrayed in a tail-to-head manner, in this order, and are both expressed in the long member of double cones (LDCs) in the retina. Expression of the longer-wave sensitive LWS-1 occurs later in development and is thus confined to the peripheral, especially ventral-nasal region of the adult retina, whereas expression of LWS-2 occurs earlier and is confined to the central region of the adult retina, shifted slightly to the dorsal-temporal region. In this study, we employed a transgenic reporter assay using fluorescent proteins and P1-artificial chromosome (PAC) clones encompassing the two genes and identified a 0.6-kb “LWS-activating region” (LAR) upstream of LWS-1, which regulates expression of both genes. Under the 2.6-kb flanking upstream region containing the LAR, the expression pattern of LWS-1 was recapitulated by the fluorescent reporter. On the other hand, when LAR was directly conjugated to the LWS-2 upstream region, the reporter was expressed in the LDCs but also across the entire outer nuclear layer. Deletion of LAR from the PAC clones drastically lowered the reporter expression of the two genes. These results suggest that LAR regulates both LWS-1 and LWS-2 by enhancing their expression and that interaction of LAR with the promoters is competitive between the two genes in a developmentally restricted manner. Sharing a regulatory region between duplicated genes could be a general way to facilitate the expression differentiation in duplicated visual opsins. PMID:21187910

Tsujimura, Taro; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Kawamura, Shoji

2010-01-01

3

Ancestral loss of short wave-sensitive cone visual pigment in lorisiform prosimians, contrasting with its strict conservation in other prosimians.  

PubMed

Mammals are basically dichromatic in color vision, possessing middle to long wave-sensitive (M/LWS) and the short wave-sensitive (SWS) cone opsins in the retina, whereas some nocturnal mammals lack functional SWS opsins. Prosimians, primitive primates consisting of three extant groups (Lorisiformes, Lemuriformes, and Tarsiiformes), include many nocturnal species. Among nocturnal prosimians, a species of lorisiforms, the greater galago (Otolemur crassicaudatus), is known to lack a functional SWS opsin gene, while lemuriforms and tarsiiforms appear to retain SWS opsins in the retina. It has not been established, however, whether the loss of SWS opsin is a universal phenomenon among lorisiforms and whether the functional SWS opsin genes of lemuriforms and tarsiiforms are under strict or relaxed selective constraint. To gain better insight into an association between nocturnality and loss of SWS function, we isolated and sequenced the SWS opsin genes from two species of lorisiforms, the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang; nocturnal) and the lesser galago (Galago senegalensis; nocturnal), and one species each of lemuriforms and tarsiiforms, the brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus; cathemeral) and the western tarsier ( Tarsius bancanus; nocturnal), respectively. Our sequence analysis revealed that (1) the SWS opsin gene was disrupted in the common ancestor of galagids and lorisids and (2) the rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution has been kept significantly lower than that of synonymous substitution in tarsier and lemur, demonstrating the presence of strict selective constraint on the SWS opsin genes in tarsiiforms and lemuriforms. PMID:15045486

Kawamura, Shoji; Kubotera, Naoya

2004-03-01

4

Divergent selection for opsin gene variation in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations of Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

The guppy is known to exhibit remarkable interindividual variations in spectral sensitivity of middle to long wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) cone photoreceptor cells. The guppy has four M/LWS-type opsin genes (LWS-1, LWS-2, LWS-3 and LWS-4) that are considered to be responsible for this sensory variation. However, the allelic variation of the opsin genes, particularly in terms of their absorption spectrum, has not been explored in wild populations. Thus, we examined nucleotide variations in the four M/LWS opsin genes as well as blue-sensitive SWS2-B and ultraviolet-sensitive SWS1 opsin genes for comparison and seven non-opsin nuclear loci as reference genes in 10 guppy populations from various light environments in Trinidad and Tobago. For the first time, we discovered a potential spectral variation (180 Ser/Ala) in LWS-1 that differed at an amino acid site known to affect the absorption spectra of opsins. Based on a coalescent simulation of the nucleotide variation of the reference genes, we showed that the interpopulation genetic differentiation of two opsin genes was significantly larger than the neutral expectation. Furthermore, this genetic differentiation was significantly related to differences in dissolved oxygen (DO) level, and it was not explained by the spatial distance between populations. The DO levels are correlated with eutrophication that possibly affects the color of aquatic environments. These results suggest that the population diversity of opsin genes is significantly driven by natural selection and that the guppy could adapt to various light environments through color vision changes. PMID:24690753

Tezuka, A; Kasagi, S; van Oosterhout, C; McMullan, M; Iwasaki, W M; Kasai, D; Yamamichi, M; Innan, H; Kawamura, S; Kawata, M

2014-11-01

5

Gene Duplication and Divergence of Long Wavelength-Sensitive Opsin Genes in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female preference for male orange coloration in the genus Poecilia suggests a role for duplicated long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in facilitating behaviors related to mate choice in these species. Previous work has shown that LWS gene duplication in this genus has resulted in expansion of long wavelength visual capacity as determined by microspectrophotometry\\u000a (MSP). However, the relationship between LWS

Corey T. Watson; Suzanne M. Gray; Margarete Hoffmann; Krzysztof P. Lubieniecki; Jeffrey B. Joy; Ben A. Sandkam; Detlef Weigel; Ellis Loew; Christine Dreyer; William S. Davidson; Felix Breden

2011-01-01

6

A fish eye out of water: ten visual opsins in the four-eyed fish, Anableps anableps.  

PubMed

The "four-eyed" fish Anableps anableps has numerous morphological adaptations that enable above and below-water vision. Here, as the first step in our efforts to identify molecular adaptations for aerial and aquatic vision in this species, we describe the A. anableps visual opsin repertoire. We used PCR, cloning, and sequencing to survey cDNA using unique primers designed to amplify eight sequences from five visual opsin gene subfamilies, SWS1, SWS2, RH1, RH2, and LWS. We also used Southern blotting to count opsin loci in genomic DNA digested with EcoR1 and BamH1. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of all opsin sequences and allowed us to map gene duplication and divergence events onto a tree of teleost fish. Each of the gene-specific primer sets produced an amplicon from cDNA, indicating that A. anableps possessed and expressed at least eight opsin genes. A second PCR-based survey of genomic and cDNA uncovered two additional LWS genes. Thus, A. anableps has at least ten visual opsins and all but one were expressed in the eyes of the single adult surveyed. Among these ten visual opsins, two have key site haplotypes not found in other fish. Of particular interest is the A. anableps-specific opsin in the LWS subfamily, S180gamma, with a SHYAA five key site haplotype. Although A. anableps has a visual opsin gene repertoire similar to that found in other fishes in the suborder Cyprinodontoidei, the LWS opsin subfamily has two loci not found in close relatives, including one with a key site haplotype not found in any other fish species. A. anableps opsin sequence data will be used to design in situ probes allowing us to test the hypothesis that opsin gene expression differs in the distinct ventral and dorsal retinas found in this species. PMID:19551143

Owens, Gregory L; Windsor, Diana J; Mui, Justin; Taylor, John S

2009-01-01

7

Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.  

PubMed

Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1), short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS) from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti) and in toothed whales (Odontoceti). Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1) Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales), (2) Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale), (3) Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale), (4) Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale), and (5) Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale). All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among mammalian species. PMID:23637615

Meredith, Robert W; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A; York, Vincent M; Springer, Mark S

2013-04-01

8

Comparison between IRAS and ISO-LWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LWS synthetic photometry and IRAS photometry in the IRAS 100 mum band have been compared. This comparison has yielded the relationship between IRAS and LWS photometry and also provides a way of determining the LWS faint source cut-off. We propose that the definition of an LWS faint source is a source with IRAS flux density less than 25 Jy

S. J. Chan; C. Lloyd; B. M. Swinyard; T. L. Lim

2003-01-01

9

ISO/LWS: Detector status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory is to perform spectrometry in the wavelength range 45 to 200 microns using two resolution modes. The resolution will be around 200 in the medium resolution mode while it will reach 10(exp 4) in the high resolution mode. The sensitivity of this instrument will be close to 10(exp -18) W/sq. root Hz. A schematic view of the focal plane unit is presented. The detectors divide the wavelength range into ten spectral channels. The spectral range and position of each detector is indicated. Each detector will cover approximately a spectral bandwidth sufficient to allow for a 50 percent redundancy in the case of detector failure. There are three types of detectors. SW1 is a Ge:Be photoconductor covering the 45 to 55 micron region. LW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 are unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductors which cover the 50 to 120 micron region. LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5 are uniaxially stressed Ge:GA photoconductors covering the range from 100 to 200 microns. The stress applied to each detector will be adjusted in order to get the peak response in the corresponding wavelength range, and to minimize the dark current of the shorter wavelength stressed detectors. Stressed and unstressed detectors are located alternatively in order to receive the first and second order of the diffracted beam.

Lenaour, C.; Delettrez, C.; Griffin, M.; Ade, P.; Robinson, D.; Vickers, D.

1989-01-01

10

Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: ?(d)). The ?(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria. PMID:22617953

Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

2012-11-01

11

Catalogue of ISO LWS observations of asteroids  

E-print Network

(Abridged) The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observed the four large main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (10) Hygiea multiple times. The photometric and spectroscopic data cover the wavelength range between 43 and 197 um, and are a unique dataset for future investigations and detailed characterisations of these bodies. The standard ISO archive products, produced through the last post-mission LWS pipeline, were still affected by instrument artefacts. Our goal was to provide the best possible data products to exploit the full scientific potential of these observations. We performed a refined reduction of all measurements, corrected for various instrumental effects, and re-calibrated the data. We outline the data reduction process and give an overview of the available data and the quality of the observations. We apply a thermophysical model to the flux measurements to derive far-IR based diameter and albedo values of the asteroids. The measu...

Hormuth, Felix

2009-01-01

12

Transcriptional co-regulation of evolutionarily conserved microRNA/cone opsin gene pairs: implications for photoreceptor subtype specification.  

PubMed

The vertebrate retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which use distinct types of opsins and phototransduction proteins. Cones can be further divided into several subtypes with differing wavelength sensitivity and morphology. Although photoreceptor development has been extensively studied in a variety of vertebrate species, the mechanism by which photoreceptor subtypes are established is still largely unknown. Here we report two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-726 and miR-729, which are potentially involved in photoreceptor subtype specification. In the medaka Oryzias latipes, the genes encoding miR-726 and miR-729 are located upstream of the red-sensitive opsin gene LWS-A and the UV-sensitive opsin gene SWS1, respectively, and are transcribed in the opposite direction from the respective opsin genes. The miR-726/LWS pair is conserved between teleosts and tetrapods, and the miR-729/SWS1 pair is conserved among teleosts. in situ hybridization analyses and fluorescence reporter assays suggest that these miRNAs are co-expressed with the respective opsins in specific cone subtypes. Potential targets of miR-726 and miR-729 predicted in silico include several transcription factors that regulate photoreceptor development. Functional analyses of cis-regulatory sequences in vivo suggest that transcription of the paired microRNA and opsin genes is co-regulated by common cis-regulatory modules. We propose an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that controls photoreceptor subtype identity through coupling between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. PMID:24797636

Daido, Yutaka; Hamanishi, Sakurako; Kusakabe, Takehiro G

2014-08-01

13

Ontogenetic changes in photoreceptor opsin gene expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, Walbaum).  

PubMed

Pacific salmonids start life in fresh water then migrate to the sea, after a metamorphic event called smoltification, later returning to their natal freshwater streams to spawn and die. To accommodate changes in visual environments throughout life history, salmon may adjust their spectral sensitivity. We investigated this possibility by examining ontogenetic and thyroid hormone (TH)-induced changes in visual pigments in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, Walbaum). Using microspectrophotometry, we measured the spectral absorbance (quantified by lambda(max)) of rods, and middle and long wavelength-sensitive (MWS and LWS) cones in three age classes of coho, representing both freshwater and marine phases. The lambda(max) of MWS and LWS cones differed among freshwater (alevin and parr) and ocean (smolt) phases. The lambda(max) of rods, on the other hand, did not vary, which is evidence that vitamin A(1)/A(2) visual pigment chromophore ratios were similar among freshwater and ocean phases when sampled at the same time of year. Exogenous TH treatment long wavelength shifted the lambda(max) of rods, consistent with an increase in A(2). However, shifts in cones were greater than predicted for a change in chromophore ratio. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that at least two RH2 opsin subtypes were expressed in MWS cones, and these were differentially expressed among alevin, parr and TH-treated alevin groups. Combined with changes in A(1)/A(2) ratio, differential expression of opsin subtypes allows coho to alter the spectral absorbance of their MWS and LWS cones by as much as 60 and 90 nm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the largest spectral shift reported in a vertebrate photoreceptor. PMID:19043060

Temple, S E; Veldhoen, K M; Phelan, J T; Veldhoen, N J; Hawryshyn, C W

2008-12-01

14

Opsin vs opsin: new materials for biotechnological applications  

E-print Network

The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called \\textit{proteotronics}. Proteotronics is here here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani

2014-02-03

15

Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in panarthropoda.  

PubMed

Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an "arthropsin," were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. PMID:25193307

Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

2014-09-01

16

Analysis of the Opsin Repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini Provides Insights into the Evolution of Opsin Genes in Panarthropoda  

PubMed Central

Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an “arthropsin,” were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. PMID:25193307

Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

2014-01-01

17

LWS observations of the colliding galaxies NGC 4038\\/39  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) and ground-based Fabry-Perot imaging spectroscopic observations are used to penetrate the extinction to the powerful burst of star formation that has occurred in the extranuclear molecular cloud complex in the galaxy overlap region of the galaxies NGC 4038\\/39 (\\

J. Fischer; L. M. Shier; M. L. Luhman; S. Satyapal; H. A. Smith; G. J. Stacey; S. J. Unger; M. A. Greenhouse; L. Spinoglio; M. A. Malkan; S. D. Lord; J. W. Miles; M. A. Shure; P. E. Clegg; P. A. R. Ade; C. Armand; M. Burgdorf; S. E. Church; G. R. Davis; A. di Giorgio; D. Ewart; I. Furniss; W. M. Glencross; C. Gry; T. Lim; S. Molinari; Nguyen-Q-Rieu; M. C. Price; S. D. Sidher; A. Smith; B. M. Swinyard; D. Texier; N. R. Trams; M. G. Wolfire

1996-01-01

18

The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools  

PubMed Central

The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics. Here we provide a Primer on these light-activated ion channels and pumps, describe a group of opsins bridging prior categories, and explore the convergence of molecular engineering and genomic discovery for the utilization and understanding of these remarkable molecular machines. PMID:22196724

Zhang, Feng; Vierock, Johannes; Yizhar, Ofer; Fenno, Lief E.; Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kianianmomeni, Arash; Prigge, Matthias; Berndt, Andre; Cushman, John; Polle, Jurgen; Magnuson, Jon; Hegemann, Peter; Deisseroth, Karl

2014-01-01

19

Human scotopic dark adaptation: Comparison of recoveries of psychophysical threshold and ERG b-wave sensitivity.  

PubMed

We have compared the time course of dark adaptation of the human scotopic visual system, measured psychophysically and from the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG), for bleaches ranging from a few percent to near total. We also measured light adaptation, in order to apply a "Crawford transformation" to convert the raw measurements of dark adaptation into equivalent background intensities. For both the "psychophysical threshold equivalent" intensity and the "ERG b-wave sensitivity equivalent" intensity, the equivalent background declined over much of its range with an "S2" component, though with somewhat different slopes of -0.36 (psychophysical) and -0.22 (ERG) log(10) unit min(-1), respectively. In addition, the magnitude of the equivalent background was approximately 1 log(10) unit lower in the psychophysical experiments than in the ERG experiments. Despite these differences, the two approaches extract a common time course for the decline in level of free opsin following moderately large bleaches. We conclude that the recovery of psychophysical scotopic visual threshold over the S2 region reflects events that are present by the stage of the first synapse of rod vision, stemming ultimately from the presence of unregenerated opsin in the rod outer segments. PMID:21733908

Ruseckaite, Rasa; Lamb, Trevor D; Pianta, Michael J; Cameron, Allison M

2011-01-01

20

Metazoan opsin evolution reveals a simple route to animal vision.  

PubMed

All known visual pigments in Neuralia (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Bilateria) are composed of an opsin (a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor), and a light-sensitive chromophore, generally retinal. Accordingly, opsins play a key role in vision. There is no agreement on the relationships of the neuralian opsin subfamilies, and clarifying their phylogeny is key to elucidating the origin of this protein family and of vision. We used improved methods and data to resolve the opsin phylogeny and explain the evolution of animal vision. We found that the Placozoa have opsins, and that the opsins share a common ancestor with the melatonin receptors. Further to this, we found that all known neuralian opsins can be classified into the same three subfamilies into which the bilaterian opsins are classified: the ciliary (C), rhabdomeric (R), and go-coupled plus retinochrome, retinal G protein-coupled receptor (Go/RGR) opsins. Our results entail a simple scenario of opsin evolution. The first opsin originated from the duplication of the common ancestor of the melatonin and opsin genes in a eumetazoan (Placozoa plus Neuralia) ancestor, and an inference of its amino acid sequence suggests that this protein might not have been light-sensitive. Two more gene duplications in the ancestral neuralian lineage resulted in the origin of the R, C, and Go/RGR opsins. Accordingly, the first animal with at least a C, an R, and a Go/RGR opsin was a neuralian progenitor. PMID:23112152

Feuda, Roberto; Hamilton, Sinead C; McInerney, James O; Pisani, Davide

2012-11-13

21

Soluble opsin is present in human vitreous.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research project was to evaluate if intravitreal opsins are present in human vitreous liquid which is, so far, unknown. Therefore a pilot study was conducted including 22 vitreal samples which were harvested at the beginning of a standard 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy for macular pucker, diabetic vitreous hemorrhage or vitreal floater removal as well as macular hole closure or vitreomacular traction relief from the central vitreous body. No adverse events or serious side effects occurred. All samples were immediately stabilized by human albumin and arginine and subsequently frozen. Short-wavelength cone opsin concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immune essay (EIA) with anti-proteolytic 400 mM arginine, pH 8.7, in the antigen capture phase. Intravitreal short-wavelength cone opsins were detected in all analyzed samples and respective concentrations ranged at levels of 157 pg/ml ± 73 pg/ml (MV ± SD; range: 27 pg/m-286 pg/ml). Eyes with MP/MH/DVH/VMT and VF exhibited intravitreal short-wavelength cone opsin concentrations of 189 pg/ml ± 68 pg/ml (range: 72 pg/ml-286 pg/ml)/96 pg/ml ± 39 pg/ml (range: 50 pg/ml-138 pg/ml)/126 pg/ml ± 88 pg/ml (range: 27 pg/ml-198 pg/ml)/224 pg/ml and 121 pg/ml. Further studies will quantify the intravitreal opsin pattern of all visual opsins and compare these concentrations between different vitreoretinal diseases. This in turn might offer a better pathophysiological understanding and new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for various eye pathologies. As a hypothesis, soluble opsins might be a biomarker for retinal damage comparable to creatinine for kidney damage. PMID:24582891

Bertelmann, Thomas; Stief, Thomas; Sekundo, Walter

2014-04-01

22

The vertebrate ancestral repertoire of visual opsins, transducin alpha subunits and oxytocin/vasopressin receptors was established by duplication of their shared genomic region in the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplications  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrate color vision is dependent on four major color opsin subtypes: RH2 (green opsin), SWS1 (ultraviolet opsin), SWS2 (blue opsin), and LWS (red opsin). Together with the dim-light receptor rhodopsin (RH1), these form the family of vertebrate visual opsins. Vertebrate genomes contain many multi-membered gene families that can largely be explained by the two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in the vertebrate ancestor (2R) followed by a third round in the teleost ancestor (3R). Related chromosome regions resulting from WGD or block duplications are said to form a paralogon. We describe here a paralogon containing the genes for visual opsins, the G-protein alpha subunit families for transducin (GNAT) and adenylyl cyclase inhibition (GNAI), the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OT/VP-R), and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1-L). Results Sequence-based phylogenies and analyses of conserved synteny show that the above-mentioned gene families, and many neighboring gene families, expanded in the early vertebrate WGDs. This allows us to deduce the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate ancestor had a chromosome containing the genes for two visual opsins, one GNAT, one GNAI, two OT/VP-Rs and one CACNA1-L gene. This chromosome was quadrupled in 2R. Subsequent gene losses resulted in a set of five visual opsin genes, three GNAT and GNAI genes, six OT/VP-R genes and four CACNA1-L genes. These regions were duplicated again in 3R resulting in additional teleost genes for some of the families. Major chromosomal rearrangements have taken place in the teleost genomes. By comparison with the corresponding chromosomal regions in the spotted gar, which diverged prior to 3R, we could time these rearrangements to post-3R. Conclusions We present an extensive analysis of the paralogon housing the visual opsin, GNAT and GNAI, OT/VP-R, and CACNA1-L gene families. The combined data imply that the early vertebrate WGD events contributed to the evolution of vision and the other neuronal and neuroendocrine functions exerted by the proteins encoded by these gene families. In pouched lamprey all five visual opsin genes have previously been identified, suggesting that lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrates after 2R. PMID:24180662

2013-01-01

23

Limulus opsins: diurnal regulation of expression.  

PubMed

Much has been learned from studies of Limulus photoreceptors about the role of the circadian clock and light in the removal of photosensitive membrane. However, little is known in this animal about mechanisms regulating photosensitive membrane renewal, including the synthesis of proteins in, and associated with, the photosensitive membrane. To begin to understand renewal, this study examines diurnal changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding opsin, the integral membrane protein component of visual pigment, and the relative roles of light and the circadian clock in producing these changes. We show that at least two distinct opsin genes encoding very similar proteins are expressed in both the lateral and ventral eyes, and that during the day and night in the lateral eye, the average level of mRNA encoding opsinl is consistently higher than that encoding opsin2. Northern blot assays showed further that total opsin mRNA in the lateral eyes of animals maintained under natural illumination increases during the afternoon (9 & 12 h after sunrise) in the light and falls at night in the dark. This diurnal change occurs whether or not the eyes receive input from the circadian clock, but it is eliminated in eyes maintained in the dark. Thus, it is regulated by light and darkness, not by the circadian clock, with light stimulating an increase in opsin mRNA levels. The rise in opsin mRNA levels observed under natural illumination was seasonal; it occurred during the summer but not the spring and fall. However, a significant increase in opsin mRNA levels could be achieved in the fall by exposing lateral eyes to 3 h of natural illumination followed by 9 h of artificial light. The diurnal regulation of opsin mRNA levels contrasts sharply with the circadian regulation of visual arrestin mRNA levels (Battelle et al., 2000). Thus, in Limulus, distinctly different mechanisms regulate the levels of mRNA encoding two proteins critical for the photoresponse. PMID:14977331

Dalal, Jasbir S; Jinks, Robert N; Cacciatore, Chelsie; Greenberg, Robert M; Battelle, Barbara-Anne

2003-01-01

24

The Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sentinels Mission, the heliospheric element of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program, is still rapidly evolving, especially as the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team is progressing with its work. With the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the solar component, and the Geospace elements taking a more finalized form, it becomes clearer what scientific and measurement objectives will be necessary to establish the solar-geospace connection in order to achieve the goals of the LWS program. Possible, early formulation designs of the Sentinels mission will be presented that includes the Inner Heliospheric Mappers, a four spacecraft mission to observe the inner heliosphere between 0.25 and 1.0 AUs along with a Far Side Sentinel that will perform remote solar observations from nearly the opposite side of the Sun. Moreover, the complementarity of the various planned international missions (e.g., ESA Solar Orbiter, and Beppi Colombo) along with NASA planetary projects (e.g., Mars program and MESSENGER) will be discussed and how they can form a coherent system. Finally, the importance of already available heliospheric data will be emphasized.

Szabo, A.

2005-01-01

25

LWS/SET End-to-End Data System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the concept for the End-to-End Data System that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap.between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The End-to-end data system allows investigators to access the SET control center, command their experiments, and receive data from their experiments back at their home facility, using the Internet. The logical functioning of major components of the end-to-end data system are described, including the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC), SET Payloads, the GSFC SET Simulation Lab, SET Experiment PI Facilities, and Host Systems. Host Spacecraft Operations Control Centers (SOCC) and the Host Spacecraft are essential links in the end-to-end data system, but are not directly under the control of the SET Project. Formal interfaces will be established between these entities and elements of the SET Project. The paper describes data flow through the system, from PI facilities connecting to the SET operations center via the Internet, communications to SET carriers and experiments via host systems, to telemetry returns to investigators from their flight experiments. It also outlines the techniques that will be used to meet mission requirements, while holding development and operational costs to a minimum. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Giffin, Geoff; Sherman, Barry; Colon, Gilberto (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

26

Carrier Plus: A Sensor Payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the following: 1. Living with a Star (LWS) program: space environment testbed (SET); natural space environment. 2. Carrier plus: goals and benefits. 3. ON-orbit sensor measurements. 4. Carrier plus architecture. 5. Participation in carrier plus.

Marshall, Cheryl; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet; Brewer, Dana

2003-01-01

27

Carrier Plus: A sensor payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTR4) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating to develop the Carrier Plus sensor experiment platform as a capability of the Space Environments Testbed (SET). The Space Environment Testbed (SET) provides flight opportunities for technology experiments as part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Carrier Plus will provide new capability to characterize sensor technologies such as state-of-the-art visible focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a natural space radiation environment. The technical objectives include on-orbit validation of recently developed FPA technologies and performance prediction methodologies, as well as characterization of the FPA radiation response to total ionizing dose damage, displacement damage and transients. It is expected that the sensor experiment will carry 4-6 FPAs and associated radiation correlative environment monitors (CEMs) for a 2006-2007 launch. Sensor technology candidates may include n- and p-charge coupled devices (CCDs), active pixel sensors (APS), and hybrid CMOS arrays. The presentation will describe the Carrier Plus goals and objectives, as well as provide details about the architecture and design. More information on the LWS program can be found at http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Business announcements for LWS/SET and program briefings are posted at http://lws-set.gsfc.nasa.gov

Marshall, Cheryl J.; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana

2003-01-01

28

Living with a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET), Mission Carrier Overview and Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The three program elements of the LWS Program are Science Missions; Targeted Research and Technology; and Space Environment Testbeds (SETS). SET is an ideal platform for small experiments performing research on space environment effects on technologies and on the mitigation of space weather effects. A short description of the LWS Program will be given, and the SET will be described in detail, giving the mission objectives, available carrier services, and upcoming flight opportunities.

Patschke, Robert; Barth, Janet; Label, Ken; Mariano, Carolyn; Pham, Karen; Brewer, Dana; Cuviello, Michael; Kobe, David; Wu, Carl; Jarosz, Donald

2004-01-01

29

Photoionization modeling of the LWS fine-structure lines in IR bright galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) fine structure line spectra from infrared luminous galaxies were modeled using stellar evolutionary synthesis models combined with photoionization and photodissociation region models. The calculations were carried out by using the computational code CLOUDY. Starburst and active galactic nuclei models are presented. The effects of dust in the ionized region are examined.

Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M. L.; Fischer, J.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Wolfire, M. G.

1997-01-01

30

Characterization of the long-wavelength opsin from Mecoptera and Siphonaptera: does a flea see?  

PubMed

Mecoptera and Siphonaptera represent two insect orders that have largely been overlooked in the study of insect vision. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Mecoptera (scorpionflies) is paraphyletic, with the order Siphonaptera (fleas) nesting as sister to the family Boreidae (snow fleas), showing an evolutionary trend towards reduction in gross eye morphology within fleas. We provide the first molecular characterization of long-wavelength opsins from these three lineages (opsin gene from fleas [FL-Opsin], the Boreidae [B-Opsin], and a mecopteran family [M-Opsin]) and assess the effects of loss of visual acuity on the structure and function of the opsin gene. Phylogenetic analysis implies a physiological sensitivity in the red-green spectrum for these opsins. Analysis of intron splice sites reveals a high degree of similarity between FL-Opsin and B-Opsin as well as conserved splice sites across insect blue-green and long-wavelength opsins. Calculated rates of evolution and tests for destabilizing selection indicate that FL-Opsin, B-Opsin, and M-Opsin are evolving at similar rates with no radical selective pressures, implying conservative evolution and functional constraint across all three lineages. PMID:15703237

Taylor, Sean D; de la Cruz, Katharina Dittmar; Porter, Megan L; Whiting, Michael F

2005-05-01

31

Differential expression of duplicated VAL-opsin genes in the developing zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Non-visual opsins mediate various light-dependent physiological events. Our previous search for non-visual opsin genes in zebrafish led to the discovery of VAL-opsin (VAL-opsinA) in deep brain cells and retinal horizontal cells of the adult fish. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of its duplicated gene, VAL-opsinB, in zebrafish. A molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that VAL-opsinB is orthologous to a previously reported salmon gene and that the duplication of the VAL-opsin gene occurred in the teleost lineage. The recombinant protein of zebrafish VAL-opsinB forms a green-sensitive photopigment when reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. VAL-opsinB expression was detected in a limited number of cells of the brain and the eye, and the expression pattern is distinct from that of the VAL-opsinA gene. Such a differential expression pattern suggests that VAL-opsinA and VAL-opsinB are involved in different physiological events in zebrafish. PMID:18036148

Kojima, Daisuke; Torii, Masaki; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Dowling, John E.

2009-01-01

32

Parallel evolution of opsin gene expression in African cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Phenotypic evolution may occur either through alterations to the structure of protein-coding genes or their expression. Evidence for which of these two mechanisms more commonly contribute to the evolution of a phenotype can be garnered from examples of parallel and convergent evolution. The visual system of East African cichlid fishes is an excellent system with which to address this question. Cichlid fishes from Lakes Malawi (LM) and Victoria together exhibit three diverse palettes of coexpressed opsins and several important protein-coding mutations that both shift spectral sensitivity. Here we assess both opsin expression and protein-coding diversity among cichlids from a third rift lake, Lake Tanganyika (LT). We found that Tanganyikan cichlids exhibit three palettes of coexpressed opsins that largely overlap the short-, middle-, and long-wavelength-sensitive palettes of LM cichlids. Bayesian phenotypic clustering and ancestral state reconstructions both support the parallel evolution of the short- and middle-wavelength palettes among cichlids from LT and LM. In each case, these transitions occurred from different ancestors that expressed the same long-wavelength palette. We also identified similar but distinct patterns of correlated evolution between opsin expression, diet, and lens transmittance among cichlids from LT and LM as well. In contrast to regulatory changes, we identified few functional or potentially functional mutations in the protein-coding sequences of three variable opsins, with the possible exception of the SWS1 (ultraviolet) opsin. These results underscore the important contribution that gene regulation can make to rapid phenotypic evolution and adaptation. PMID:20601410

O'Quin, Kelly E; Hofmann, Christopher M; Hofmann, Hans A; Carleton, Karen L

2010-12-01

33

The detector assemblies of ISOPHOT and the spectrometers ISO-SWS and ISO-LWS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, qualification, and testing of the detector assemblies of three instruments for the European satellite Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are reported: ISOPHOT (photometer, polarimeter, spectrometer); ISO SWS (Short Wavelength Spectrometer); and ISO LWS (Long Wavelength Spectrometer). For each instrument three models were developed: engineering qualification models, flight models, and flight space models. The different assemblies are described and the applied radiometric test methods are presented together with the performance data.

Engemann, D.; Faymonville, R.; Felten, R.; Frenzl, O.; Overhamm, M.

1992-12-01

34

Implications of the ISO LWS spectrum of the prototypical ultraluminous galaxy: ARP 220  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low resolution far infrared spectrum of the galaxy Arp 220, obtained with the low wavelength spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), is presented. The spectrum is dominated by the OH, H2O, CH, NH3 and O I absorption lines. The upper limits on the far infrared fine structure lines indicate a softer radiation in Arp 220 than in starburst galaxies.

Fischer, J.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M. L.; Melnick, G.; Cox, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Smith, H. A.; Lord, S. D.; Greenhouse, M. A.

1997-01-01

35

PDR modeling of the LWS fine-structure lines in ultraluminous galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observations performed onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) on the fine structure lines in ultraluminous galaxies are reported on. The C II 158 micrometer, the O I 63 and 146 micrometer fine structure lines were detected. These lines were compared to the results of the revised theoretical models of extragalactic photodissociation regions (PDRs). The PDR origin of the fine structure lines and the physical properties of the PDR component are discussed.

Luhman, M. L.; Satyapal, S.; Fischer, J.; Wolfire, M. G.

1997-01-01

36

Variations in Opsin Coding Sequences Cause X-Linked Cone Dysfunction Syndrome with Myopia and Dichromacy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the role of variant L opsin haplotypes in seven families with Bornholm Eye Disease (BED), a cone dysfunction syndrome with dichromacy and myopia. Methods. Analysis of the opsin genes within the L/M opsin array at Xq28 included cloning and sequencing of an exon 3-5 gene fragment, long range PCR to establish gene order, and quantitative PCR to establish gene copy number. In vitro expression of normal and variant opsins was performed to examine cellular trafficking and spectral sensitivity of pigments. Results. All except one of the BED families possessed L opsin genes that contained a rare exon 3 haplotype. The exception was a family with the deleterious Cys203Arg substitution. Two rare exon 3 haplotypes were found and, where determined, these variant opsin genes were in the first position in the array. In vitro expression in transfected cultured neuronal cells showed that the variant opsins formed functional pigments, which trafficked to the cell membranes. The variant opsins were, however, less stable than wild type. Conclusions. It is concluded that the variant L opsin haplotypes underlie BED. The reduction in the amount of variant opsin produced in vitro compared with wild type indicates a possible disease mechanism. Alternatively, the recently identified defective splicing of exon 3 of the variant opsin transcript may be involved. Both mechanisms explain the presence of dichromacy and cone dystrophy. Abnormal pigment may also underlie the myopia that is invariably present in BED subjects. PMID:23322568

McClements, Michelle; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Michaelides, Michel; Young, Terri; Neitz, Maureen; MacLaren, Robert E.; Moore, Anthony T.; Hunt, David M.

2013-01-01

37

Probing human red cone opsin activity with retinal analogues.  

PubMed

Retinal analogues have been used to probe the chromophore binding pocket and function of the rod visual pigment rhodopsin. Despite the high homology between rod and cone visual pigment proteins, conclusions drawn from rhodopsin studies should not necessarily be extrapolated to cone visual pigment proteins. In this study, the effects of full-length and truncated retinal analogues on the human red cone opsin's ability to activate transducin, the G protein in visual transduction, were assessed. The result with beta-ionone (6) confirms that a covalent bond is not necessary to deactivate the red cone opsin. In addition, several small compounds were found able to deactivate this opsin. However, as the polyene chain is extended in a trans configuration beyond the 9-carbon position, the analogues became agonists up to all-trans-retinal (3). The 22-carbon analogue (2) appeared to be neither an agonist nor an inverse agonist. Although the all-trans-C17 (5) analogue was an agonist, the 9-cis-C17 (11) compound was an inverse agonist, a result that differs from that with rhodopsin. These results suggest that the red cone opsin has a more open structure in the chromophore binding region than rhodopsin and its activation or deactivation as a G-protein receptor may be less selective than rhodopsin. PMID:21314100

Kono, Masahiro; Crouch, Rosalie K

2011-03-25

38

Vertebrate ancient opsin photopigment spectra and the avian photoperiodic response  

PubMed Central

In mammals, photoreception is restricted to cones, rods and a subset of retinal ganglion cells. By contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates possess many extraocular photoreceptors but in many cases the role of these photoreceptors and their underlying photopigments is unknown. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors have been shown to sense photic changes in daylength (photoperiod) and mediate seasonal reproduction. Nonetheless, the specific identity of the opsin photopigment ‘sensor’ involved has remained elusive. Previously, we showed that vertebrate ancient (VA) opsin is expressed in avian hypothalamic neurons and forms a photosensitive molecule. However, a direct functional link between VA opsin and the regulation of seasonal biology was absent. Here, we report the in vivo and in vitro absorption spectra (?max = ?490 nm) for chicken VA photopigments. Furthermore, the spectral sensitivity of these photopigments match the peak absorbance of the avian photoperiodic response (?max = 492 nm) and permits maximum photon capture within the restricted light environment of the hypothalamus. Such a correspondence argues strongly that VA opsin plays a key role in regulating seasonal reproduction in birds. PMID:22031722

Davies, Wayne I. L.; Turton, Michael; Peirson, Stuart N.; Follett, Brian K.; Halford, Stephanie; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Sharp, Peter J.; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.

2012-01-01

39

Embryonic appearance of rod opsin in the urodele amphibian eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notophthalmus (Triturus) viridescens, a urodele amphibian (newt) common to the Eastern United States, is a promising subject for developmental and regeneration studies. We have available a monoclonal antibody shown to be specific in many vertebrates for rod opsin, the membrane apoprotein of the visual pigment rhodopsin. This antibody to an N-terminal epitope, by rigorous biochemical and immunological criteria, recognizes only

David Stephen McDevitt; Samir Kumar Brahma; Jean-Claude Jeanny

1993-01-01

40

Characterisation and localisation of the opsin protein repertoire in the brain and retinas of a spider and an onychophoran  

PubMed Central

Background Opsins have been found in the majority of animals and their most apparent functions are related to vision and light-guided behaviour. As an increasing number of sequences have become available it has become clear that many opsin-like transcripts are expressed in tissues other than the eyes. Opsins can be divided into three main groups: rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and group 4 opsins. In arthropods, the main focus has been on the r-opsins involved in vision. However, with increased sequencing it is becoming clear that arthropods also possess opsins of the c-type, group 4 opsins and the newly discovered arthropsins but the functions of these opsins are unknown in arthropods and data on their localisation is limited or absent. Results We identified opsins from the spider Cupiennius salei and the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis and characterised the phylogeny and localisation of these transcripts. We recovered all known visual opsins in C. salei, and in addition found a peropsin, a c-opsin and an opsin resembling Daphnia pulex arthropsin. The peropsin was expressed in all eye types except the anterior median eyes. The arthropsin and the c-opsin were expressed in the central nervous system but not the eyes. In E. kanangrensis we found: a c-opsin; an opsin resembling D. pulex arthropsins; and an r-opsin with high sequence similarity to previously published onychophoran onychopsins. The E. kanangrensis c-opsin and onychopsin were expressed in both the eyes and the brain but the arthropsin only in the brain. Conclusion Our novel finding that opsins of both the ciliary and rhabdomeric type are present in the onychophoran and a spider suggests that these two types of opsins were present in the last common ancestor of the Onychophora and Euarthropoda. The expression of the c-opsin in the eye of an onychophoran indicates that c-opsins may originally have been involved in vision in the arthropod clade. The lack of c-opsin expression in the spider retina suggests that the role for c-opsin in vision was lost in the euarthropods. Our discovery of arthropsin in onychophorans and spiders dates the emergence of arthropsin to the common ancestor of Onychophora and Euarthropoda and their expression in the brain suggests a non-visual function. PMID:24010579

2013-01-01

41

Expression patterns of the opsin 5-related genes in the developing chicken retina.  

PubMed

The opsin gene family encodes G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind to a retinaldehyde chromophore for photoreception. It has been reported that opsin 5 is expressed in mammalian neural tissue, but its function has been elusive. As a first step to understand the function for opsin 5 in the developing eye, we searched for chicken opsin 5-related genes in the genome by a bioinformatic approach and isolated opsin 5 cDNA fragments from the embryonic retina by RT-PCR. We found that there are three opsin 5-related genes, designated cOpn5m (chicken opsin 5, mammalian type), cOpn5L1 (chicken opsin 5-like 1), and cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), in the chicken genome. Quantitative PCR analysis has revealed that cOpn5m is the most abundant in the developing and early posthatching neural retina. In situ hybridization analysis has shown that cOpn5m is specifically expressed in subsets of differentiating ganglion cells and amacrine cells. These results suggest that the mammalian type opsin 5 may contribute to the development of these retinal cells in the chicken. PMID:18570255

Tomonari, Sayuri; Migita, Kyoichi; Takagi, Akira; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

2008-07-01

42

Molecular evolution of arthropod color vision deduced from multiple opsin genes of jumping spiders.  

PubMed

Among terrestrial animals, only vertebrates and arthropods possess wavelength-discrimination ability, so-called "color vision". For color vision to exist, multiple opsins which encode visual pigments sensitive to different wavelengths of light are required. While the molecular evolution of opsins in vertebrates has been well investigated, that in arthropods remains to be elucidated. This is mainly due to poor information about the opsin genes of non-insect arthropods. To obtain an overview of the evolution of color vision in Arthropoda, we isolated three kinds of opsins, Rh1, Rh2, and Rh3, from two jumping spider species, Hasarius adansoni and Plexippus paykulli. These spiders belong to Chelicerata, one of the most distant groups from Hexapoda (insects), and have color vision as do insects. Phylogenetic analyses of jumping spider opsins revealed a birth and death process of color vision evolution in the arthropod lineage. Phylogenetic positions of jumping spider opsins revealed that at least three opsins had already existed before the Chelicerata-Pancrustacea split. In addition, sequence comparison between jumping spider Rh3 and the shorter wavelength-sensitive opsins of insects predicted that an opsin of the ancestral arthropod had the lysine residue responsible for UV sensitivity. These results strongly suggest that the ancestral arthropod had at least trichromatic vision with a UV pigment and two visible pigments. Thereafter, in each pancrustacean and chelicerate lineage, the opsin repertoire was reconstructed by gene losses, gene duplications, and function-altering amino acid substitutions, leading to evolution of color vision. PMID:18217181

Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Nagata, Takashi; Katoh, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Shigeki; Tokunaga, Fumio

2008-02-01

43

Diversity of animal opsin-based pigments and their optogenetic potential.  

PubMed

Most animal opsin-based pigments are typical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and consist of a protein moiety, opsin, and 11-cis retinal as a chromophore. More than several thousand opsins have been identified from a wide variety of animals, which have multiple opsin genes. Accumulated evidence reveals the molecular property of opsin-based pigments, particularly non-conventional visual pigments including non-visual pigments. Opsin-based pigments are generally a bistable pigment having two stable and photointerconvertible states and therefore are bleach-resistant and reusable, unlike vertebrate visual pigments which become bleached. The opsin family contains Gt-coupled, Gq-coupled, Go-coupled, Gs-coupled, Gi-coupled, and Gi/Go-coupled opsins, indicating the existence of a large diversity of light-driven GPCR-signaling cascades. It is suggested that these molecular properties might contribute to different physiologies. In addition, various opsin based-pigments, especially nonconventional visual pigments having different molecular characteristics would facilitate the design and development of promising optogenetic tools for modulating GPCR-signaling, which is involved in a wide variety of physiological responses. We here introduce molecular and functional properties of various kinds of opsins and discuss their physiological function and also their potentials for optogenetic applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal proteins - you can teach an old dog new tricks. PMID:24041647

Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

2014-05-01

44

The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control.  

PubMed

Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110-C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease. PMID:25055872

Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Paul Chapple, J; Cheetham, Michael E

2014-12-15

45

The Opsin Shift and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations have been performed to investigate the mechanism of the opsin shift and spectral tuning in rhodopsin. A red shift of ?980 cm?1 was estimated in the transfer of the chromophore from methanol solution environment to the protonated Schiff base binding site of the opsin. The conformational change from a 6-s-cis-all-trans configuration in solution to the 6-s-cis-11-cis conformer contributes additional ?200 cm?1 and the remaining effects were attributed to dispersion interactions with the aromatic residues in the binding site. An opsin shift of 2100 cm?1 was obtained, in reasonable accord with experiment (2730 cm?1). Dynamics simulations revealed that the 6-s-cis bond can occupy two main conformations for the ?-ionone ring, resulting a weighted average dihedral angle of about 50°, which may be compared with the experimental estimate of ?28° from solid-state NMR and Raman data. We investigated a series of four single-mutations, including E113D, A292S, T118A and A269T, which are located near the protonated Schiff base, along the polyene chain of retinal and close to the ionone ring. The computational results on absorption energy shift provided insights into the mechanism of spectral tuning, which involves all means of electronic structural effects, including the stabilization or destabilization of either the ground or the electronically excited state of the retinal protonated Schiff base. PMID:20941732

Rajamani, Ramkumar; Lin, Yen-lin

2010-01-01

46

True blue: S-opsin is widely expressed in different animal species.  

PubMed

Colour vision in animals is an interesting, fascinating subject. In this study, we examined a wide variety of species for expression of S-opsin (blue sensitive) and M-/L-opsin (green-red sensitive) in retinal cones using two novel monoclonal antibodies specific for peptides from human opsins. Mouse, rat and hare did not express one of the investigated epitopes, but we could clearly prove existence of cones through peanut agglutinin labelling. Retinas of guinea pig, dog, wolf, marten, cat, roe deer, pig and horse were positive for S-opsin, but not for M-/L-opsin. Nevertheless all these species are clearly at least dichromats, because we could detect further S-opsin negative cones by labelling with cone arrestin specific antibody. In contrast, pheasant and char had M-/L-opsin positive cones, but no S-opsin expressing cones. Sheep, cattle, monkey, men, pigeon, duck and chicken were positive for both opsins. Visual acuity analyzed through density of retinal ganglion cells revealed least visual discrimination by horses and highest resolution in pheasant and pigeon. Most mammals studied are dichromats with visual perception similar to red-green blind people. PMID:23173557

Amann, B; Hirmer, S; Hauck, S M; Kremmer, E; Ueffing, M; Deeg, C A

2014-02-01

47

Cloning and characterization of six zebrafish photoreceptor opsin cDNAs and immunolocalization of their corresponding proteins.  

PubMed

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) represents an excellent genetic model for vertebrate visual system studies. Because the opsin proteins are ideal markers of specific photoreceptor cell types, we cloned six different zebrafish opsin cDNAs. Based on pairwise alignments and phylogenetic comparisons between the predicted zebrafish opsin amino acid sequences and other vertebrate opsins, the cDNAs encode rhodopsin, two different green opsins (zfgr1 and zfgr2), a red, a blue, and an ultraviolet opsin. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the zfgr1 protein occupies a well-resolved dendrogram branch separate from the other green opsins examined, while zebrafish ultraviolet opsin is closely related to the human blue- and chicken violet-sensitive proteins. Polyclonal antisera were generated against individual bacterial fusion proteins containing either the red, blue, or ultraviolet amino termini or the rod or green opsin carboxyl termini. Immunolocalization on adult zebrafish frozen sections demonstrates the green and red opsins are each expressed in different members of the double cone cell pair, the blue opsin is detected in long single cones, and the ultraviolet opsin protein is expressed in the short single cones. In 120-h postfertilization wholemounts, green, red, blue, and ultraviolet opsin-positive cells are detected in an orderly arrangement throughout the entire retina. The antibodies' photoreceptor-type specificity indicates they will be useful for characterizing both wild-type and mutant zebrafish retinas. PMID:10349976

Vihtelic, T S; Doro, C J; Hyde, D R

1999-01-01

48

Molecular characterization of visual pigments in Branchiopoda and the evolution of opsins in Arthropoda.  

PubMed

Studies on color vision in invertebrates have focused primarily on insect visual pigments, with little attention given to crustacean visual pigments. None of the blue-green-, blue-, or ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive-opsins have been identified in crustaceans. In addition, the discussion of visual pigments has been limited to long-wavelength-sensitive opsins in Pancrustacea. Here, we focused on Branchiopoda (Crustacea), which is a sister group of Hexapoda including insects. In the tadpole shrimp Triops granarius, the visual pigment chromophore was retinal. Multiple opsins were isolated from each of three branchiopod species, T. granarius, Triops longicaudatus, and the fairy shrimp Branchinella kugenumaensis (five, five, and four opsins from these species, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses and the presence of a lysine residue corresponding to position 90 in bovine rhodopsin suggested that three of the branchiopod opsins comprise UV-sensitive pigments. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships between insect and branchiopod UV-sensitive opsins revealed that the divergence of blue- and UV-sensitive pigments predates the Branchiopoda and Insecta divergence. The other branchiopod opsins show distant relationships to other known insect opsins and form novel clusters. The present results strongly suggest that the ancestral arthropod of the Chelicerata-Pancrustacea lineages possessed at least four types of opsins. The ancestors of Pancrustacea and the Insecta-Branchiopoda lineages possessed at least five and six types of opsins, respectively. Our results suggest that in the evolutionary process associated with each lineage, several opsins appeared and diversified with repeated gene duplication, of which some have been lost in some taxa. PMID:18984904

Kashiyama, Kazuyuki; Seki, Takaharu; Numata, Hideharu; Goto, Shin G

2009-02-01

49

Coexpression of three opsins in cone photoreceptors of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum.  

PubMed

Although more than one type of visual opsin is present in the retina of most vertebrates, it was thought that each type of photoreceptor expresses only one opsin. However, evidence has accumulated that some photoreceptors contain more than one opsin, in many cases as a result of a developmental transition from the expression of one opsin to another. The salamander UV-sensitive (UV) cone is particularly notable because it contains three opsins (Makino and Dodd [1996] J Gen Physiol 108:27-34). Two opsin types are expressed at levels more than 100 times lower than the level of the primary opsin. Here, immunohistochemical experiments identified the primary component as a UV cone opsin and the two minor components as the short wavelength-sensitive (S) and long wavelength-sensitive (L) cone opsins. Based on single-cell recordings of 156 photoreceptors, the presence of three components in UV cones of hatchlings and terrestrial adults ruled out a developmental transition. There was no evidence for multiple opsin types within rods or S cones, but immunohistochemistry and partial bleaching in conjunction with single-cell recording revealed that both single and double L cones contained low levels of short wavelength-sensitive pigments in addition to the main L visual pigment. These results raise the possibility that coexpression of multiple opsins in other vertebrates was overlooked because a minor component absorbing at short wavelengths was masked by the main visual pigment or because the expression level of a component absorbing at long wavelengths was exceedingly low. PMID:24374736

Isayama, Tomoki; Chen, Ying; Kono, Masahiro; Fabre, Eduard; Slavsky, Michael; DeGrip, Willem J; Ma, Jian-Xing; Crouch, Rosalie K; Makino, Clint L

2014-07-01

50

Making the gradient: Thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina  

E-print Network

Making the gradient: Thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina dorsal­ventral gradient. We previously reported that cone opsin patterning requires thyroid hormone 2, a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates transcription in con- junction with its ligand, thyroid hormone

Reh, Thomas A.

51

Divergent Selection on Opsins Drives Incipient Speciation in Lake Victoria Cichlids  

E-print Network

Divergent Selection on Opsins Drives Incipient Speciation in Lake Victoria Cichlids Yohey Terai1, et al. (2006) Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids for the genetics of vertebrate speciation and adaptive radiation [8]. Lake Victoria, the largest of the African

52

Adaptive Molecular Evolution in the Opsin Genes of Rapidly Speciating Cichlid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cichlid fish inhabit a diverse range of environments that vary in the spectral content of light available for vision. These differences should result in adaptive selective pressure on the genes involved in visual sensitivity, the opsin genes. This study examines the evidence for differential adaptive molecular evolution in East African cichlid opsin genes due to gross differences in environmental light

Tyrone C. Spady; Ole Seehausen; Ellis R. Loew; Rebecca C. Jordan; Thomas D. Kocher; Karen L. Carleton

2005-01-01

53

Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: A stop codon versus gene deletions  

E-print Network

rearrangements affects phenotype in terms of color vision behavior. Recently, high-resolution imaging of the cone associated with X-chromosome opsin gene arrays in which the first two head-to-tail genes at the 50 -end of the array encode L opsin. If the encoded opsins form pigments that differ in spectral sensitiv- ity

54

2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: Overview of Current Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a summary of the research conducted by the members of the 2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) Team on the physical processes that heat and accelerate the solar wind. The Team applied a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations for their investigation of the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST Team examined magnetic reconnection, waves, and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements of solar wind source regions and streams, are being used to constrain the models. The consistency of candidate theoretical models with existing observational data for the solar wind will be discussed.

Miralles, M. P.; LWS Tr&T Solar Wind Fst Team

2008-12-01

55

Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

MacNeice, Peter

2012-01-01

56

Opsin evolution and expression in Arthropod compound Eyes and Ocelli: Insights from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus  

PubMed Central

Background Opsins are key proteins in animal photoreception. Together with a light-sensitive group, the chromophore, they form visual pigments which initiate the visual transduction cascade when photoactivated. The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. Studies on the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins have received considerable attention, but our knowledge about insect visual opsins is still limited. Up to now, researchers have focused on holometabolous insects, while general conclusions require sampling from a broader range of taxa. We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Results Phylogenetic analyses place all identified cricket sequences within the three main visual opsin clades of insects. We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue (445 nm) and UV (332 nm) spectral range. Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1) the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2) a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3) the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. In addition, we provide evidence for two ocellar photopigments with peak absorbances in the green (511 nm) and UV (350 nm) spectral range, and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Conclusions Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more specialized than has previously been assumed, suggesting that similar adaptations in other insect species might have been overlooked. The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally accepted pattern found in holometabolous insect taxa and awaits a functional explanation. From the opsin phylogeny, we conclude that gene duplications, which permitted differential opsin expression in insect ocelli and compound eyes, occurred independently in several insect lineages and are recent compared to the origin of the eyes themselves. PMID:22935102

2012-01-01

57

Kinetic, Energetic, and Mechanical Differences between Dark-State Rhodopsin and Opsin  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Rhodopsin, the photoreceptor pigment of the retina, initiates vision upon photon capture by its covalently linked chromophore 11-cis-retinal. In the absence of light, the chromophore serves as an inverse agonist locking the receptor in the inactive dark state. In the absence of chromophore, the apoprotein opsin shows low-level constitutive activity. Toward revealing insight into receptor properties controlled by the chromophore, we applied dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to quantify the kinetic, energetic, and mechanical differences between dark-state rhodopsin and opsin in native membranes from the retina of mice. Both rhodopsin and opsin are stabilized by ten structural segments. Compared to dark-state rhodopsin, the structural segments stabilizing opsin showed higher interaction strengths and mechanical rigidities and lower conformational variabilities, lifetimes, and free energies. These changes outline a common mechanism toward activating G-protein-coupled receptors. Additionally, we detected that opsin was more pliable and frequently stabilized alternate structural intermediates. PMID:23434406

Kawamura, Shiho; Gerstung, Moritz; Colozo, Alejandro T.; Helenius, Jonne; Maeda, Akiko; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Park, Paul S.-H.; Muller, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

58

Functional Properties of Opsins and their Contribution to Light-Sensing Physiology.  

PubMed

Many animals have developed systems for sensing environmental conditions during evolution. In sensory cells, receptor molecules are responsible for their sensing abilities. In light sensing, most animals capture light information via rhodopsin-like photoreceptive proteins known as opsin-based pigments. A body of evidence from comparisons of amino acid sequences and in vitro experiments demonstrates that opsins have phylogenetically and functionally diversified during evolution and suggests that the phylogenetic diversity in opsins correlates with the variety of molecular properties of opsin-based pigments. In this review, we discuss the various molecular properties of opsin-based pigments and their contribution to light-sensing ability by providing two examples: i) contribution of photoregeneration ability and Chromophore retinal binding property of an Opn3 homolog to non-visual photoreception, and ii) contribution of an absorption characteristic of a visual pigment to depth perception in jumping spiders. PMID:25284384

Terakita, Akihisa; Nagata, Takashi

2014-10-01

59

Endothelin modulates the circadian expression of non-visual opsins.  

PubMed

The non-visual opsin, melanopsin, expressed in the mammalian retina, is considered a circadian photopigment because it is responsible to entrain the endogenous biological clock. This photopigment is also present in the melanophores of Xenopus laevis, where it was first described, but its role in these cells is not fully understood. X. laevis melanophores respond to light with melanin granule dispersion, the maximal response being achieved at the wavelength of melanopsin maximal excitation. Pigment dispersion can also be triggered by endothelin-3 (ET-3). Here we show that melanin translocation is greater when a blue light pulse was applied in the presence of ET-3. In addition, we demonstrated that mRNA levels of the melanopsins Opn4x and Opn4m exhibit temporal variation in melanophores under light/dark (LD) cycles or constant darkness, suggesting that this variation is clock-driven. Moreover, under LD cycles the oscillations of both melanopsins show a circadian profile suggesting a role for these opsins in the photoentrainment mechanism. Blue-light pulse decreased Opn4x expression, but had no effect on Opn4m. ET-3 abolishes the circadian rhythm of expression of both opsins; in addition the hormone increases Opn4x expression in a dose-, circadian time- and light-dependent way. ET-3 also increases the expression of its own receptor, in a dose-dependent manner. The variation of melanopsin levels may represent an adaptive mechanism to ensure greater melanophore sensitivity in response to environmental light conditions with ideal magnitude in terms of melanin granule dispersion, and consequently color change. PMID:24816266

Moraes, Maria Nathália de Carvalho Magalhães; Lima, Leonardo Henrique Ribeiro Graciani de; Ramos, Bruno Cesar Ribeiro; Poletini, Maristela de Oliveira; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro

2014-09-01

60

Evolution and Expression Plasticity of Opsin Genes in a Fig Pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi  

PubMed Central

Figs and fig pollinators have co-evolved species-specific systems of mutualism. So far, it was unknown how visual opsin genes of pollinators have evolved in the light conditions inside their host figs. We cloned intact full-length mRNA sequences of four opsin genes from a species of fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi, and tested for selective pressure and expressional plasticity of these genes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the four opsin genes evolved under different selective constraints. Subsets of codons in the two long wavelength sensitive opsin (LW1, LW2) genes were positively selected in ancestral fig pollinators. The ultraviolet sensitive opsin (UV) gene was under strong purifying selection, whereas a relaxation of selective constrains occurred on several amino acids in the blue opsin. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that female and male fig pollinators had different expression patterns possibly due to their distinct lifestyles and different responses to light within the syconia. Co-evolutionary history with figs might have influenced the evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in fig pollinators. PMID:23342036

Bian, Sheng-Nan; Niu, Li-Ming; Murphy, Robert W.; Huang, Da-Wei

2013-01-01

61

Retinal Cone Photoreceptors of the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus: Development, Topography, Opsin Expression and Spectral Tuning  

PubMed Central

A quantitative analysis of photoreceptor properties was performed in the retina of the nocturnal deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, using pigmented (wildtype) and albino animals. The aim was to establish whether the deer mouse is a more suitable model species than the house mouse for photoreceptor studies, and whether oculocutaneous albinism affects its photoreceptor properties. In retinal flatmounts, cone photoreceptors were identified by opsin immunostaining, and their numbers, spectral types, and distributions across the retina were determined. Rod photoreceptors were counted using differential interference contrast microscopy. Pigmented P. maniculatus have a rod-dominated retina with rod densities of about 450.000/mm2 and cone densities of 3000 - 6500/mm2. Two cone opsins, shortwave sensitive (S) and middle-to-longwave sensitive (M), are present and expressed in distinct cone types. Partial sequencing of the S opsin gene strongly supports UV sensitivity of the S cone visual pigment. The S cones constitute a 5-15% minority of the cones. Different from house mouse, S and M cone distributions do not have dorsoventral gradients, and coexpression of both opsins in single cones is exceptional (<2% of the cones). In albino P. maniculatus, rod densities are reduced by approximately 40% (270.000/mm2). Overall, cone density and the density of cones exclusively expressing S opsin are not significantly different from pigmented P. maniculatus. However, in albino retinas S opsin is coexpressed with M opsin in 60-90% of the cones and therefore the population of cones expressing only M opsin is significantly reduced to 5-25%. In conclusion, deer mouse cone properties largely conform to the general mammalian pattern, hence the deer mouse may be better suited than the house mouse for the study of certain basic cone properties, including the effects of albinism on cone opsin expression. PMID:24260509

Arbogast, Patrick; Glosmann, Martin; Peichl, Leo

2013-01-01

62

Retinal cone photoreceptors of the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus: development, topography, opsin expression and spectral tuning.  

PubMed

A quantitative analysis of photoreceptor properties was performed in the retina of the nocturnal deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, using pigmented (wildtype) and albino animals. The aim was to establish whether the deer mouse is a more suitable model species than the house mouse for photoreceptor studies, and whether oculocutaneous albinism affects its photoreceptor properties. In retinal flatmounts, cone photoreceptors were identified by opsin immunostaining, and their numbers, spectral types, and distributions across the retina were determined. Rod photoreceptors were counted using differential interference contrast microscopy. Pigmented P. maniculatus have a rod-dominated retina with rod densities of about 450.000/mm(2) and cone densities of 3000-6500/mm(2). Two cone opsins, shortwave sensitive (S) and middle-to-longwave sensitive (M), are present and expressed in distinct cone types. Partial sequencing of the S opsin gene strongly supports UV sensitivity of the S cone visual pigment. The S cones constitute a 5-15% minority of the cones. Different from house mouse, S and M cone distributions do not have dorsoventral gradients, and coexpression of both opsins in single cones is exceptional (<2% of the cones). In albino P. maniculatus, rod densities are reduced by approximately 40% (270.000/mm(2)). Overall, cone density and the density of cones exclusively expressing S opsin are not significantly different from pigmented P. maniculatus. However, in albino retinas S opsin is coexpressed with M opsin in 60-90% of the cones and therefore the population of cones expressing only M opsin is significantly reduced to 5-25%. In conclusion, deer mouse cone properties largely conform to the general mammalian pattern, hence the deer mouse may be better suited than the house mouse for the study of certain basic cone properties, including the effects of albinism on cone opsin expression. PMID:24260509

Arbogast, Patrick; Glösmann, Martin; Peichl, Leo

2013-01-01

63

Three different cone opsin gene array mutational mechanisms with genotype-phenotype correlation and functional investigation of cone opsin variants.  

PubMed

Mutations in the OPN1LW (L-) and OPN1MW (M-)cone opsin genes underlie a spectrum of cone photoreceptor defects from stationary loss of color vision to progressive retinal degeneration. Genotypes of 22 families with a range of cone disorders were grouped into three classes: deletions of the locus control region (LCR); missense mutation (p.Cys203Arg) in an L-/M-hybrid gene; and exon 3 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interchange haplotypes in an otherwise normal gene array. Moderate-to-high myopia was observed in all mutation categories. Individuals with LCR deletions or p.Cys203Arg mutations were more likely to have nystagmus and poor vision, with disease progression in some p.Cys203Arg patients. Three disease-associated exon 3 SNP haplotypes encoding LIAVA, LVAVA, or MIAVA were identified in our cohort. These patients were less likely to have nystagmus but more likely to show progression, with all patients over the age of 40 years having marked macular abnormalities. Previously, the haplotype LIAVA has been shown to result in exon 3 skipping. Here, we show that haplotypes LVAVA and MIAVA also result in aberrant splicing, with a residual low level of correctly spliced cone opsin. The OPN1LW/OPN1MW:c.532A>G SNP, common to all three disease-associated haplotypes, appears to be principally responsible for this mutational mechanism. PMID:25168334

Gardner, Jessica C; Liew, Gerald; Quan, Ying-Hua; Ermetal, Burcu; Ueyama, Hisao; Davidson, Alice E; Schwarz, Nele; Kanuga, Naheed; Chana, Ravinder; Maher, Eamonn R; Webster, Andrew R; Holder, Graham E; Robson, Anthony G; Cheetham, Michael E; Liebelt, Jan; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Moore, Anthony T; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J

2014-11-01

64

Explant cultures of Rpe65?/? mouse retina: a model to investigate cone opsin trafficking  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the absence of 11-cis retinal (e.g., Rpe65?/?), the chromophore for all pigments, cone opsins are mislocalized in vivo. Using the systemic application of 11-cis retinal, appropriate protein localization can be promoted. Here, we asked whether explant cultures of Rpe65?/? mouse retina are amenable to screening retinoids for their ability to promote opsin trafficking. Methods Retina-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cultures were prepared from 7-day-old Rpe65?/? Rho?/? or wild-type pups and cultured for 11 days. Explants were treated with retinoids throughout this period. Ultraviolet (UV)-opsin trafficking was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis, while its messenger RNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the interaction of retinoids with UV-opsin was probed in transducing-activation assays. Results In wild-type explant cultures, UV-opsin was restricted to the outer segments, whereas in those derived from Rpe65?/? Rho?/? mice, opsin trafficking was impaired. In Rpe65?/? Rho?/? explants, administration of 11-cis retinal, 11-cis retinol or retinoic acid (RA) reversed the opsin trafficking phenotype. RA analogs designed to act by binding to the retinoic acid receptor or the retinoid X-receptor, however, had no effect. RA was shown to interact with the UV–cone opsin, demonstrated by its ability to effect ligand-dependent activation of transducin by UV–cone opsin. All compounds tested increased cone opsin messenger RNA expression. Conclusions Cone-opsin trafficking defects were replicated in Rpe65?/? Rho?/? retina-RPE cultures, and were reversed by 11-cis retinal treatment. Comparing the effects of different retinoids on their ability to promote UV-opsin trafficking to outer segments confirmed the critical role of agents that bind in the retinoid binding pocket. Retinoids that act as transcription factors, however, were ineffective. Thus, organ cultures may be a powerful low-throughput screening tool to identify novel compounds to promote cone survival. PMID:23734084

Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Kono, Masahiro

2013-01-01

65

The Need for NASA's LWS Ionosphere-Thermosphere Storm Probe Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's LWS Geospace Programs has defined a sequence of space missions dedicated to making the most advances in science understanding dealing with the immediate impacts of geospace on humans and their technology systems. One of these focused missions, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes is being implemented with the recent NASA Announcement of Opportunity for instrument proposals. The launch date of the other Geospace mission, the Ionosphere-Thermosphere Storm Probes (I-TSP), has consequently been delayed until the middle of the next decade. This changes its planned coordination with other space resources like the EVE instrument on SDO, but does not affect the importance of the two in situ measuring spacecraft compromising the I-T Storm Probes. Indeed, since the original science definition of the mission increasing concern has been expressed by the US Department of Defense and private industry about communication, guidance disturbances and spacecraft orbit perturbations resulting from the ionosphere-thermosphere properties that the I-TSP's will be configured to understand. The practical value of this mission and the focusing of its instruments, orbit configuration and collaborative observations on understanding the underlying physics of how the I-T system impacts human systems will be shown.

Grebowsky, J. M.; Sibeck, D. G.

2006-05-01

66

New evidence for the role of heterochrony in the repeated evolution of cichlid opsin expression  

E-print Network

-wavelength-sensitive profiles among unrelated cichlids in Lake Tanganyika (LT). To address these questions, we surveyed opsin the three East African Great Lakes: Lakes Tanganyika (LT), Malawi (LM), and Victoria (LV). Cichlids from

Carleton, Karen L.

67

Organization of the G Protein-coupled Receptors Rhodopsin and Opsin in Native Membranes*  

E-print Network

obtained from wild-type mouse photoreceptors and opsin isolated from photoreceptors of Rpe65 / mu- tant a structural role for this protein (10, 11). The organization of rhodopsin and other GPCRs in their native

Palczewski, Krzysztof

68

The human M?ller cell line MIO-M1 expresses opsins  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether the human Müller cell line Moorfields/Institute of Ophthalmology-Müller 1 (MIO-M1) expresses opsins. Methods The gene expression of opsins was determined by reverse-transcription PCR (RT–PCR). The presence of opsin proteins was determined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The light sensitivity of the cells was examined with imaging experiments using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4. Results MIO-M1 cells express glial (glutamine synthase [GLUL], vimentin [VIM], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein [RLBP1], glial high-affinity glutamate transporter [SLCA1], aquaporin-4 [AQP4], inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 [Kir4.1]), neuronal (Thy-1 cell surface antigen [THY1], heavy neurofilament polypeptide [NEFH], microtubule-associated protein 2 [MAP2], neurogenic differentiation 1 [NEUROD1], neuronal nuclei [NEUN]), and neural progenitor markers (Nestin [NES], paired-type homeobox transcription factor [PAX6], neurogenic locus notch homolog 1 [NOTCH1]). The cells contain mRNA for the following opsins: blue opsin (OPN1SW), rhodopsin (OPN2), panopsin (OPN3), melanopsin (OPN4), neuropsin (OPN5), and peropsin (RRH), as well as for the transducins (guanine nucleotide binding protein [GNAZ], alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 [GNAT1], alpha transducing activity polypeptide 2 [GNAT2]). The presence of blue opsin and melanopsin was confirmed with immunocytochemistry and western blotting. The immunoreactivity and mRNA of red-green opsin were found in some but not all cultures, while the immunoreactivity for rhodopsin was absent in all cultures investigated. Repetitive stimulation with 480 nm light evoked slow and fast transient calcium responses in the majority of cells investigated, while irradiation with 600 nm light was ineffective. Conclusions The human Müller cell line MIO-M1 expresses opsins. This suggests immortalized Müller cells could be used as a cellular source to produce human opsins for their potential application as therapeutic agents in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:22065927

Ulbricht, Elke; Rillich, Katja; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Wurm, Antje; Wagner, Lysann; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Limb, Gloria Astrid; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon

2011-01-01

69

Six Opsins from the Butterfly Papilio glaucus: Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Paralogous Origins of Red-Sensitive Visual Pigments in Insects  

E-print Network

Six Opsins from the Butterfly Papilio glaucus: Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Paralogous to the placement of six opsins from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus (PglRh1­ 6) in relationship to 46- izing the opsins from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus and examining their relationship other

70

Molecular Basis of Spectral Tuning in the Red- and Green-Sensitive (M/LWS) Pigments in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate vision is mediated by five groups of visual pigments, each absorbing a specific wavelength of light between ultraviolet and red. Despite extensive mutagenesis analyses, the mechanisms by which contemporary pigments absorb variable wavelengths of light are poorly understood. We show that the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of contemporary visual pigments can be illuminated only by mutagenesis analyses using ancestral pigments. Following this new principle, we derive the “five-sites” rule that explains the absorption spectra of red and green (M/LWS) pigments that range from 510 to 560 nm. Our findings demonstrate that the evolutionary method should be used in elucidating the mechanisms of spectral tuning of four other pigment groups and, for that matter, functional differentiations of any other proteins. PMID:18660543

Yokoyama, Shozo; Yang, Hui; Starmer, William T.

2008-01-01

71

Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin  

E-print Network

of the pigment, causing severe, early onset retinitis pigmentosa. While the C203R mutation has been associated this mutant opsin. Here, we used high-resolution retinal im- aging to examine the cone mosaic in two individuals with genes encoding a middle-wavelength sensitive (M) pigment with the C203R mutation. We found

Foster, David H.

72

Adaptive Molecular Evolution in the Opsin Genes of Rapidly Speciating Cichlid Species  

E-print Network

Adaptive Molecular Evolution in the Opsin Genes of Rapidly Speciating Cichlid Species Tyrone C* *Hubbard Center for Genome Studies and Department of Zoology, University of New Hampshire; Institute of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; àDepartment of Biomedical Sciences

Carleton, Karen L.

73

Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S  

E-print Network

Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S Received with an autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP), or X-linked pattern of inheritance. Although to be associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). The first reported case of arRP associated

Palczewski, Krzysztof

74

Electrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E150K Opsin  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E manner. The E150K opsin mutant associated with rarely occurring autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa of the pathophysiology of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa due to the E150K mutation. Rod photoreceptor cells

Palczewski, Krzysztof

75

Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate insect opsin phylogeny.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNA clones encoding the PglRh3 opsin from the tiger swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus were isolated from cDNA synthesized from adult head tissue total RNA. This cDNA consists of 1679 nucleotides and contains a single open reading frame predicted to be 379 amino acids in length. PCR amplification of genomic DNA with primers spanning the coding region yielded a single 2760bp fragment which was sequenced. The PglRh3 gene has nine exons and eight introns, four of which are in unique locations relative to the positions of introns in other known insect opsin sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid and nucleotide sequence data places PglRh3 within a clade of insect visual pigments thought to be sensitive to long wavelengths of light. The genomic structure of PglRh3 is the first characterized from a member of this opsin clade. Three PglRh3 intron positions are shared with Drosophila Rh1, and one of these is also shared with Drosophila Rh2. By contrast, none of the known intron locations in a clade of anciently diverged ultraviolet- and blue-sensitive visual pigments are shared by P. glaucus PglRh3, Drosophila Rh1 or Rh2. The placement of introns within opsin genes therefore independently supports the clustering of a putatively long-wavelength-sensitive clade with a clade of blue-green-sensitive visual pigments. PMID:10196479

Briscoe, A D

1999-04-01

76

Photoreceptor Autophagy: Effects of Light History on Number and Opsin Content of Degradative Vacuoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. The number of AVs increased significantly after switching from 3 lux to 200 lux at days 1 and 2 and declined at day 3, whereas the reverse intensity change did not cause any increase. Early time points after change from 3 lux to 200 lux showed a significant increase of AVs 2 and 3 hours after switching. Distinct opsin

Charlotte E. Reme; Uwe Wolfrum; Cornelia Imsand; Farhad Hafezi; Theodore P. Williams

1999-01-01

77

Color discrimination in the red range with only one long-wavelength sensitive opsin.  

PubMed

The basic precondition for color vision is the presence of at least two receptor types with different spectral sensitivities. The sensitivity of a receptor is mostly defined by the opsin-based visual pigment expressed in it. We show here, through behavioral experiments, that the nymphalid butterfly Heliconius erato, although it expresses short and medium wavelength opsins and only one long wavelength opsin, discriminates colors in the long-wavelength range (590 nm, 620 nm and 640 nm), whereas another nymphalid, Vanessa atalanta, despite having color vision, is unable to do so. In the eyes of H. erato we identified filtering pigments very close to the rhabdom which differ between ommatidia and produce the yellow and red ommatidial reflection seen under orthodromic illumination. The eyes of V. atalanta lack the filtering pigments, and reflect a homogeneous orange. We hypothesize that the filtering pigments found in the eyes of H. erato may shift the spectral sensitivity peak of the long wavelength receptors in some ommatidia towards longer wavelengths. The comparison of the signals between the two new receptor types makes color discrimination in the red range possible. To our knowledge, this is the first behavioral proof of color vision based on receptors expressing the same opsin. PMID:16651559

Zaccardi, Guillermo; Kelber, Almut; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Briscoe, Adriana D

2006-05-01

78

Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role  

E-print Network

Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role reversal complements sex role reversal Andrew Everett1* , Xiaoling Tong1 , Adriana D Briscoe2 and Antónia Monteiro1 forms, wet and dry, that vary in wing ornament brightness and in the identity of the sex that performs

Monteiro, Antónia

79

Parallel Evolution of Opsin Gene Expression in African Cichlid Kelly E. O'Quin,*,1  

E-print Network

be garnered from examples of parallel and convergent evolution. The visual system of East African cichlid examples of repeated evolution either through parallelism or convergence (Gompel and Prud'homme 2009Parallel Evolution of Opsin Gene Expression in African Cichlid Fishes Kelly E. O'Quin,*,1

Carleton, Karen L.

80

Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi  

E-print Network

Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi ADAM R. SMITH cichlids from Lake Malawi, and with ambient light environment among cichlids from Lake Victoria with predictable changes in gene expression in Lake Malawi, and that this variation would tune visual sensitivities

Carleton, Karen L.

81

New evidence for the role of heterochrony in the repeated evolution of cichlid opsin expression.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Lake Malawi (LM) cichlids have undergone heterochronic shifts in the expression of their cone opsin genes, the genes responsible for color vision. These shifts have generated species with short-, middle-, and long-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors and visual systems. However, it is unclear when during the evolution of African cichlids these shifts occurred, or whether they could account for similar short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive profiles among unrelated cichlids in Lake Tanganyika (LT). To address these questions, we surveyed opsin expression in developing fry of two African cichlids, Astatotilapia burtoni from LT and Melanochromis auratus from LM. We found that A. burtoni expresses a series of three different single-cone opsins over the course of development, while M. auratus exhibits variation in the expression of only two. Neither A. burtoni nor M. auratus exhibits much variation in the expression of its double-cone opsins. These patterns reveal that A. burtoni exhibits progressive development in the sensitivity of its single-cone photoreceptors, but direct development in the sensitivity of its double-cone photoreceptors. M. auratus exhibits neotenic development in the sensitivity of both photoreceptor sets. Given the intermediate phylogenetic placement of A. burtoni between cichlids from LT and LM, our results suggest that the ancestor of LM's cichlids exhibited a progressive developmental pattern of opsin expression. These results indicate that the heterochronic shifts which produced the short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive profiles of LM's cichlids occurred recently, and suggest that the presence of similar profiles among LT's cichlids are due to parallel heterochronic shifts. PMID:21410875

O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Adam R; Sharma, Anit; Carleton, Karen L

2011-01-01

82

Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: Loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long wavelength-opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Background Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW)-opsin; however, these animals do not encode a blue (B)-opsin as most other insects. Here, we studied the spatial regulation of the Tribolium single LW- and UV-opsin gene paralogs in comparison to that of the five opsin paralogs in the retina of Drosophila melanogaster. Results In situ hybridization analysis reveals that the Tribolium retina, in contrast with other insect retinas, constitutes a homogenous field of ommatidia that have seven LW-opsin expressing photoreceptors and one UV-/LW-opsin co-expressing photoreceptor per eye unit. This pattern is consistent with the loss of photoreceptors sensitive to blue wavelengths. It also identifies Tribolium as the first example of a species in insects that co-expresses two different opsins across the entire retina in violation of the widely observed "one receptor rule" of sensory cells. Conclusion Broader studies of opsin evolution in darkling beetles and other coleopteran groups have the potential to pinpoint the permissive and adaptive forces that played a role in the evolution of vision in Tribolium castaneum. PMID:18154648

Jackowska, Magdalena; Bao, Riyue; Liu, Zhenyi; McDonald, Elizabeth C; Cook, Tiffany A; Friedrich, Markus

2007-01-01

83

Expression of UV, blue-, long-wavelength-sensitive opsins and melatonin in extraretinal photoreceptors of the optic lobes of hawkmoths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopterans display biological rhythms associated with egg laying, eclosion and flight activity but the photoreceptors that mediate these behavioural patterns are largely unknown. To further our progress in identifying candidate light-input channels for the lepidopteran circadian system, we have developed polyclonal antibodies against ultraviolet (UV)-, blue- and extraretinal long-wavelength (LW)-sensitive opsins and examined opsin immunoreactivity in the adult optic lobes

Jochen Lampel; Adriana D. Briscoe; Lutz T. Wasserthal

2005-01-01

84

Adaptation of pineal expressed teleost exo-rod opsin to non-image forming photoreception through enhanced Meta II decay.  

PubMed

Photoreception by vertebrates enables both image-forming vision and non-image-forming responses such as circadian photoentrainment. Over the recent years, distinct non-rod non-cone photopigments have been found to support circadian photoreception in diverse species. By allowing specialization to this sensory task a selective advantage is implied, but the nature of that specialization remains elusive. We have used the presence of distinct rod opsin genes specialized to either image-forming (retinal rod opsin) or non-image-forming (pineal exo-rod opsin) photoreception in ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) to gain a unique insight into this problem. A comparison of biochemical features for these paralogous opsins in two model teleosts, Fugu pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), reveals striking differences. While spectral sensitivity is largely unaltered by specialization to the pineal environment, in other aspects exo-rod opsins exhibit a behavior that is quite distinct from the cardinal features of the rod opsin family. While they display a similar thermal stability, they show a greater than tenfold reduction in the lifetime of the signaling active Meta II photoproduct. We show that these features reflect structural changes in retinal association domains of helices 3 and 5 but, interestingly, not at either of the two residues known to define these characteristics in cone opsins. Our findings suggest that the requirements of non-image-forming photoreception have lead exo-rod opsin to adopt a characteristic that seemingly favors efficient bleach recovery but not at the expense of absolute sensitivity. PMID:21416149

Tarttelin, Emma E; Fransen, Maikel P; Edwards, Patricia C; Hankins, Mark W; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Vogel, Reiner; Lucas, Robert J; Bellingham, James

2011-11-01

85

Signatures of functional constraint at aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate.  

PubMed

While color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. Indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. However, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic capacity. The evolutionary significance of this surprising observation has not yet been elucidated. We used a molecular population genetics approach to test evolutionary hypotheses for the two intact opsin genes of the fully nocturnal aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual and endangered Madagascar primate. No evidence of gene degradation in either opsin gene was observed for any of 8 aye-aye individuals examined. Furthermore, levels of nucleotide diversity for opsin gene functional sites were lower than those for 15 neutrally evolving intergenic regions (>25 kb in total), which is consistent with a history of purifying selection on aye-aye opsin genes. The most likely explanation for these findings is that dichromacy is advantageous for aye-ayes despite their nocturnal activity pattern. We speculate that dichromatic nocturnal primates may be able to perceive color while foraging under moonlight conditions, and suggest that behavioral and ecological comparisons among dichromatic and monochromatic nocturnal primates will help to elucidate the specific activities for which color vision perception is advantageous. PMID:17575304

Perry, George H; Martin, Robert D; Verrelli, Brian C

2007-09-01

86

A Phe-rich region in short-wavelength sensitive opsins is responsible for their aggregation in the absence of 11-cis-retinal.  

PubMed

Human blue and mouse S-opsin are prone to aggregation in the absence of 11-cis-retinal, which underlie the rapid cone degeneration in human patients and animal models of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). By in silico analysis and domain swapping experiments, we show that a Phe-rich region in short-wavelength sensitive (SWS) opsins, but not in medium/long-wavelength sensitive opsins, is responsible for SWS opsin aggregation. Mutagenesis studies suggest that Phe residues in this region are critical in mediating protein aggregation. Fusing the Phe-rich region of SWS opsins to GFP causes the latter to aggregate. Our findings suggest that new therapeutics can be designed to disrupt the Phe-rich region in preventing cone degeneration due to S-opsin aggregation in LCA. PMID:23792161

Zhang, Tao; Fu, Yingbin

2013-08-01

87

Imaging neural spiking in brain tissue using FRET-opsin protein voltage sensors  

PubMed Central

Genetically encoded fluorescence voltage sensors offer the possibility of directly visualizing neural spiking dynamics in cells targeted by their genetic class or connectivity. Sensors of this class have generally suffered performance-limiting tradeoffs between modest brightness, sluggish kinetics, and limited signaling dynamic range in response to action potentials. Here we describe sensors that use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to combine the rapid kinetics and substantial voltage-dependence of rhodopsin family voltage-sensing domains with the brightness of genetically engineered protein fluorophores. These FRET-opsin sensors significantly improve upon the spike detection fidelity offered by the genetically encoded voltage sensor, Arclight, while offering faster kinetics and higher brightness. Using FRET-opsin sensors we imaged neural spiking and sub-threshold membrane voltage dynamics in cultured neurons and in pyramidal cells within neocortical tissue slices. In live mice, rates and optical waveforms of cerebellar Purkinje neurons’ dendritic voltage transients matched expectations for these cells’ dendritic spikes. PMID:24755708

Gong, Yiyang; Wagner, Mark J.; Li, Jin Zhong; Schnitzer, Mark J.

2014-01-01

88

Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate insect opsin phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-length cDNA clones encoding the PglRh3 opsin from the tiger swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus were isolated from cDNA synthesized from adult head tissue total RNA. This cDNA consists of 1679 nucleotides and contains a single open reading frame predicted to be 379 amino acids in length. PCR amplification of genomic DNA with primers spanning the coding region yielded a single

Adriana D. Briscoe

1999-01-01

89

Correlation of Regenerable Opsin with Rod ERG Signal in Rpe65\\/ Mice during Development and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. RPE65 has been shown to be essential for the pro- duction of 11-cis retinal by the retinal pigment epithelium. Mutations in RPE65 are known to be associated with severe forms of early-onset retinal dystrophy. This project was de- signed to determine the amount of regenerable opsin in Rpe65\\/ mice during development and aging, and to exam- ine the function

Baerbel Rohrer; Patrice Goletz; Sergei Znoiko; Zsolt Ablonczy; Jian-xing Ma; T. Michael Redmond; Rosalie K. Crouch

2003-01-01

90

Targeting Gene Expression to Cones with Human Cone Opsin Promoters in Recombinant AAV  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Specific cone directed therapy is of high priority in the treatment of human hereditary retinal diseases. However, not much information exists about the specific targeting of photoreceptor subclasses. Three versions of the human red cone opsin promoter (PR0.5, 3LCR-PR0.5, and PR2.1), and the human blue cone opsin promoter HB569, were evaluated for their specificity and robustness in targeting green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression to subclasses of cones in the canine retina when used in recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors of serotype 5. The vectors were administered by subretinal injection. The promoter PR2.1 led to most effective and specific expression of GFP in the long- and medium-wavelength-absorbing cones (L/M-cones) of normal and diseased retinas. The PR0.5 promoter was not effective. Adding 3 copies of the 35-bp LCR in front of PR0.5 lead to weak GFP expression in L/M-cones. The HB569 promoter was not specific, and GFP was expressed in a few L/M-cones, some rods, and the retinal pigment epithelium. These results suggest that L/M-cones, the predominant class of cone photoreceptors in the retinas of dogs and most mammalian species can be successfully targeted using the human red cone opsin promoter. PMID:18337838

Komaromy, AM; Alexander, JJ; Cooper, AE; Chiodo, VA; Glushakova, LG; Acland, GM; Hauswirth, WW; Aguirre, GD

2009-01-01

91

Opsin cDNA sequences of a UV and green rhodopsin of the satyrine butterfly Bicyclus anynana.  

PubMed

The cDNAs of an ultraviolet (UV) and long-wavelength (LW) (green) absorbing rhodopsin of the bush brown Bicyclus anynana were partially identified. The UV sequence, encoding 377 amino acids, is 76-79% identical to the UV sequences of the papilionids Papilio glaucus and Papilio xuthus and the moth Manduca sexta. A dendrogram derived from aligning the amino acid sequences reveals an equidistant position of Bicyclus between Papilio and Manduca. The sequence of the green opsin cDNA fragment, which encodes 242 amino acids, represents six of the seven transmembrane regions. At the amino acid level, this fragment is more than 80% identical to the corresponding LW opsin sequences of Dryas, Heliconius, Papilio (rhodopsin 2) and Manduca. Whereas three LW absorbing rhodopsins were identified in the papilionid butterflies, only one green opsin was found in B. anynana. PMID:12539740

Vanhoutte, K J A; Eggen, B J L; Janssen, J J M; Stavenga, D G

2002-11-01

92

Substitution of isoleucine for threonine at position 190 of S-opsin causes S-cone-function abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Five mutations in the S-cone-opsin gene (OPN1SW) that give rise to different single amino-acid substitutions (L56P, G79R, S214P, P264S, R283Q) are known to be associated with tritan color-vision deficiency. Here we report a sixth OPN1SW mutation (T190I) and the associated color vision phenotype. S-opsin genotyping and clinical evaluation of color vision were performed on affected and unaffected family members and normal controls. Chromatic contrast was tested at different levels of retinal illuminance. Affected family members were heterozygous for a nucleotide change that substituted the amino acid isoleucine (I) in place of threonine (T) that is normally present at position 190 of the S-opsin. The mutation is in extracellular loop II (EII). The association between making tritan errors and having the T190I mutant S opsin was strong (p > 0.0001: Fisher's exact test). The performance of subjects with the T190I mutation was significantly different from that of normal trichromats along the tritan vector under all conditions tested (Mann-Whitney U: p < 0.05), but not along the protan or deutan vectors. Individuals with the T190I S-opsin mutation behaved as mild tritans at 12.3–92.3 Td, but as tritanopes at 1.2–9.2 Td, for both light-adapted and dark-adapted conditions. The results are consistent with the mutant opsin causing abnormal S-cone function. PMID:23022137

Baraas, Rigmor C.; Hagen, Lene A.; Dees, Elise W.; Neitz, Maureen

2012-01-01

93

Membrane assembly in retinal photoreceptors. II. Immunocytochemical analysis of freeze-fractured rod photoreceptor membranes using anti-opsin antibodies.  

PubMed

We have used a cytochemical technique for labeling freeze-fractured tissues (Pinto da Silva, P., C. Parkison, and N. Dwyer (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 343-347) to examine the distribution of immunoreactive opsin in rod photoreceptor membranes. Aldehyde-fixed retinas of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) embedded in a cross-linked protein matrix were frozen and fractured at -196 degrees C, then thawed and labeled with biotinylated sheep anti-cow opsin IgG followed by avidin-ferritin. In thin sections of plastic-embedded retinas, rod outer segment (ROS) disc membranes exposed by fracturing bound specific antibody intensely and relatively uniformly. However, they differed from membranes of the inner segment as well as those of erythrocytes in that protoplasmic face leaflets did not assume an interrupted bilayer appearance and disc exoplasmic face leaflets were apparently lost during thawing. The disposition of opsin immunoreactivity in the cell membrane was highly asymmetric. Although ROS plasma membranes from which discs are elaborated labeled heavily with anti-opsin after cleavage, fractures passing along inner segment plasma membranes bound very little antibody. In cross-fractures exposing inner segment cytoplasm, we found specific labeling of Golgi complex elements, as well as both perimitochondrial and periciliary vesicles. The latter are presumed to be the vehicle shuttling newly synthesized membrane to the ROS for disc assembly. These results suggest that opsin-containing membrane is sorted out within the cell, being transported from synthetic sites to the immediate periciliary zone where localized insertion into the cell membrane takes place. Furthermore, the close correspondence of the present immunocytochemical analysis with the distribution of opsin deduced from prior quantitative freeze-fracture analysis (Besharse, J. C., and K. H. Pfenninger (1980) J. Cell Biol. 87: 451-463) offers the possibility that fracture-label may be generally useful for study of patterned membrane topography in neuronal cells. PMID:3156972

Defoe, D M; Besharse, J C

1985-04-01

94

Substitution of isoleucine for threonine at position 190 of S-opsin causes S-cone-function abnormalities.  

PubMed

Five mutations in the S-cone-opsin gene (OPN1SW) that give rise to different single amino-acid substitutions (L56P, G79R, S214P, P264S, R283Q) are known to be associated with tritan color-vision deficiency. Here we report a sixth OPN1SW mutation (T190I) and the associated color vision phenotype. S-opsin genotyping and clinical evaluation of color vision were performed on affected and unaffected family members and normal controls. Chromatic contrast was tested at different levels of retinal illuminance. Affected family members were heterozygous for a nucleotide change that substituted the amino acid isoleucine (I) in place of threonine (T) that is normally present at position 190 of the S-opsin. The mutation is in extracellular loop II (EII). The association between making tritan errors and having the T190I mutant S opsin was strong (p>0.0001: Fisher's exact test). The performance of subjects with the T190I mutation was significantly different from that of normal trichromats along the tritan vector under all conditions tested (Mann-Whitney U: p<0.05), but not along the protan or deutan vectors. Individuals with the T190I S-opsin mutation behaved as mild tritans at 12.3-92.3Td, but as tritanopes at 1.2-9.2Td, for both light-adapted and dark-adapted conditions. The results are consistent with the mutant opsin causing abnormal S-cone function. PMID:23022137

Baraas, Rigmor C; Hagen, Lene A; Dees, Elise W; Neitz, Maureen

2012-11-15

95

Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa E150K opsin mice exhibit photoreceptor disorganization.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of the E150K mutation in the rod opsin gene associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) has yet to be determined. We generated knock-in mice carrying a single nucleotide change in exon 2 of the rod opsin gene resulting in the E150K mutation. This novel mouse model displayed severe retinal degeneration affecting rhodopsin's stabilization of rod outer segments (ROS). Homozygous E150K (KK) mice exhibited early-onset retinal degeneration, with disorganized ROS structures, autofluorescent deposits in the subretinal space, and aberrant photoreceptor phagocytosis. Heterozygous (EK) mice displayed a delayed-onset milder retinal degeneration. Further, mutant receptors were mislocalized to the inner segments and perinuclear region. Though KK mouse rods displayed markedly decreased phototransduction, biochemical studies of the mutant rhodopsin revealed only minimally affected chromophore binding and G protein activation. Ablation of the chromophore by crossing KK mice with mice lacking the critical visual cycle protein LRAT slowed retinal degeneration, whereas blocking phototransduction by crossing KK mice with GNAT1-deficient mice slightly accelerated this process. This study highlights the importance of proper higher-order organization of rhodopsin in the native tissue and provides information about the signaling properties of this mutant rhodopsin. Additionally, these results suggest that patients heterozygous for the E150K mutation should be periodically reevaluated for delayed-onset retinal degeneration. PMID:23221340

Zhang, Ning; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Jastrzebska, Beata; Mustafi, Debarshi; Sawada, Osamu; Maeda, Tadao; Genoud, Christel; Engel, Andreas; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

96

Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa E150K opsin mice exhibit photoreceptor disorganization  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of the E150K mutation in the rod opsin gene associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) has yet to be determined. We generated knock-in mice carrying a single nucleotide change in exon 2 of the rod opsin gene resulting in the E150K mutation. This novel mouse model displayed severe retinal degeneration affecting rhodopsin’s stabilization of rod outer segments (ROS). Homozygous E150K (KK) mice exhibited early-onset retinal degeneration, with disorganized ROS structures, autofluorescent deposits in the subretinal space, and aberrant photoreceptor phagocytosis. Heterozygous (EK) mice displayed a delayed-onset milder retinal degeneration. Further, mutant receptors were mislocalized to the inner segments and perinuclear region. Though KK mouse rods displayed markedly decreased phototransduction, biochemical studies of the mutant rhodopsin revealed only minimally affected chromophore binding and G protein activation. Ablation of the chromophore by crossing KK mice with mice lacking the critical visual cycle protein LRAT slowed retinal degeneration, whereas blocking phototransduction by crossing KK mice with GNAT1-deficient mice slightly accelerated this process. This study highlights the importance of proper higher-order organization of rhodopsin in the native tissue and provides information about the signaling properties of this mutant rhodopsin. Additionally, these results suggest that patients heterozygous for the E150K mutation should be periodically reevaluated for delayed-onset retinal degeneration. PMID:23221340

Zhang, Ning; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Jastrzebska, Beata; Mustafi, Debarshi; Sawada, Osamu; Maeda, Tadao; Genoud, Christel; Engel, Andreas; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

97

Metal Mesh Fabrication and Testing for Infrared Astronomy and ISO Science Programs; ISO GO Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program addresses astrophysics research with the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), including efforts to supply ISO-LWS with superior metal mesh filters. This grant has, over the years, enabled Dr. Smith in his role as a Co-Investigator on the satellite, the PI (Principal Investigator) on the Extragalactic Science Team, and a member of the Calibration and performance working groups. The emphasis of the budget in this proposal is in support of Dr. Smith's Infrared Space Observatory research. This program began (under a different grant number) while Dr. Smith was at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, and was transferred to SAO with a change in number. While Dr. Smith was a visiting Discipline Scientist at NASA HQ the program was in abeyance, but it has resumed in full since his return to SAO. The Infrared Space Observatory mission was launched in November, 1996, and since then has successfully completed its planned lifetime mission. Data are currently being calibrated to the 2% level.

Smith, Howard A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

98

Activation of mislocalized opsin kills rod cells: A novel mechanism for rod cell death in retinal disease  

PubMed Central

Rod photoreceptors are highly compartmentalized sensory neurons that maintain strict ultrastructural and molecular polarity. Structural subdivisions include the outer segment, inner segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal. The visual pigment rhodopsin is found predominantly in membranes of the rod cell outer segment but becomes mislocalized, appearing throughout the plasma membrane of the cell in many retinal diseases and injuries. Currently, there is no known link between rhodopsin redistribution and rod cell death. We propose that activation of mislocalized rhodopsin kills rod cells by stimulating normally inaccessible signaling pathways. This hypothesis was tested in primary retinal cell cultures, which contain photoreceptors. In rod photoreceptors, opsin immunofluorescence occurred throughout the rod cell plasma membrane. Activation of this mislocalized opsin by photostimulation after formation of isorhodopsin or by incubation with ?-ionone (opsin agonist) killed 19–30% of rod cells. Rod cell death was apoptotic, as indicated by marked chromatin condensation and the requirement for caspase-3 activation. Rod cell death could be induced by forskolin (adenylate cyclase agonist), and conversely, ?-ionone-induced cell death could be blocked by cotreatment with SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor). Pertussis toxin (a G protein inhibitor) also blocked ?-ionone-induced cell death. The data support a mechanism by which activation of mislocalized opsin initiates apoptotic rod cell death through G protein stimulation of adenylate cyclase. PMID:11943854

Alfinito, Peter D.; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

2002-01-01

99

Spatial distribution of opsin-encoding mRNAs in the tiered larval retinas of the sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)  

PubMed Central

Larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus, have a cluster of six stemmata (E1-6) and one eye patch on each side of the head. Each eye has two retinas: a distal retina that is closer to the lens, and a proximal retina that lies directly underneath. The distal retinas of E1 and E2 are made of a dorsal and a ventral stack of at least twelve photoreceptor layers. Could this arrangement be used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration, with shorter wavelengths detected by the distal layers and longer wavelengths by the proximal layers? To answer this question we molecularly identified opsins and their expression patterns in these eyes. We found three opsin-encoding genes. The distal retinas of all six eyes express long-wavelength opsin (TmLW) mRNA, whereas the proximal retinas express ultraviolet opsin (TmUV I) mRNA. In the proximal retinas of E1 and E2, the TmUV I mRNA is expressed only in the dorsal stack. A second ultraviolet opsin mRNA (TmUV II), is expressed in the proximal retinas of E1 and E2 (both stacks). The finding that longer-wavelength opsins are expressed distally to shorter-wavelength opsins makes it unlikely that this retinal arrangement is used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration. In addition, we also described opsin expression patterns in the medial retina of E1 and in the non-tiered retina of the lensless eye patch. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of multiple UV opsins being expressed in the same stemma. PMID:19915119

Maksimovic, Srdjan; Cook, Tiffany A.; Buschbeck, Elke K.

2009-01-01

100

Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence???20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave-adapted organisms because they may play a pleiotropic role in other important processes that are unrelated to vision. PMID:23617561

2013-01-01

101

Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, a representative of the earliest branch of animals that emit light, provided an opportunity to examine the genome of an organism that uses this class of luciferase for bioluminescence and to look for genes involved in light reception. To determine when photoprotein genes first arose, we examined the genomic sequence from other early-branching taxa. We combined our genomic survey with gene trees, developmental expression patterns, and functional protein assays of photoproteins and opsins to provide a comprehensive view of light production and light reception in Mnemiopsis. Results The Mnemiopsis genome has 10 full-length photoprotein genes situated within two genomic clusters with high sequence conservation that are maintained due to strong purifying selection and concerted evolution. Photoprotein-like genes were also identified in the genomes of the non-luminescent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the non-luminescent cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, and phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that photoprotein genes arose at the base of all animals. Photoprotein gene expression in Mnemiopsis embryos begins during gastrulation in migrating precursors to photocytes and persists throughout development in the canals where photocytes reside. We identified three putative opsin genes in the Mnemiopsis genome and show that they do not group with well-known bilaterian opsin subfamilies. Interestingly, photoprotein transcripts are co-expressed with two of the putative opsins in developing photocytes. Opsin expression is also seen in the apical sensory organ. We present evidence that one opsin functions as a photopigment in vitro, absorbing light at wavelengths that overlap with peak photoprotein light emission, raising the hypothesis that light production and light reception may be functionally connected in ctenophore photocytes. We also present genomic evidence of a complete ciliary phototransduction cascade in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This study elucidates the genomic organization, evolutionary history, and developmental expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, introduces a novel dual role for ctenophore photocytes in both bioluminescence and phototransduction, and raises the possibility that light production and light reception are linked in this early-branching non-bilaterian animal. PMID:23259493

2012-01-01

102

Mislocalized Opsin and cAMP Signaling: A Mechanism for Sprouting by Rod Cells in Retinal Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose. In human retinal degeneration, rod photoreceptors reactively sprout neurites. The mechanism is unknown in part because of the paucity of animal models displaying this feature of human pathology. We tested the role of cAMP and opsin in sprouting by tiger salamander rod cells, photoreceptors that can produce reactive growth. Methods. In vitro systems of isolated photoreceptor cells and intact neural retina were used. cAMP signaling was manipulated with nucleotide analogues, enzyme stimulators, agonists for adenosine and dopamine receptors, and the opsin agonist, ?-ionone. Levels of cAMP were determined by radioimmunoassay, and protein levels by Western blot and quantitative immunocytochemistry. Neuritic growth was assayed by image analysis and conventional and confocal microscopy. Results. cAMP analogues and stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) directly or through G-protein–coupled receptors resulted in significant increases in neuritic growth of isolated rod, but not cone, cells. The signaling pathway included protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB). Opsin, a G-linked receptor, is present throughout the plasmalemma of isolated cells; its activation also induced sprouting. In neural retina, rod sprouting was significantly increased by ?-ionone with concomitant increases in cAMP, pCREB, and synaptic proteins. Notably, opsin stimulated sprouting only when mislocalized to the plasmalemma of the rod cell body. Conclusions. cAMP causes neuritic sprouting in rod, but not cone, cells through the AC-PKA-CREB pathway known to be associated with synaptic plasticity. We propose that in retinal disease, mislocalized rod opsin gains access to cAMP signaling, which leads to neuritic sprouting. PMID:22899763

Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Nan; Beuve, Annie; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

2012-01-01

103

A Non-Mammalian Type Opsin 5 Functions Dually in the Photoreceptive and Non-Photoreceptive Organs of Birds  

PubMed Central

A mammalian type opsin 5 (neuropsin) is a recently identified ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive pigment of the retina and other photosensitive organs in birds. Two other opsin 5-related molecules have been found in the genomes of non-mammalian vertebrates. However, their functions have not been examined as yet. Here, we identify the molecular properties of a second avian opsin 5, cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), and its localization in the post-hatch chicken. Spectrophotometric analysis and radionucleotide-binding assay have revealed that cOpn5L2 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with the Gi subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). As a bistable pigment, it also shows the direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal to activate G protein. The absorption maxima of UV-light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms were 350 and 521 nm, respectively. Expression analysis showed relatively high expression of cOpn5L2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, which is not photoreceptive but an endocrine organ, while lower expression was found in the brain and retina. At the protein level, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were present in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. In the brain, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, known for photoreceptive deep brain areas. In the retina, cOpn5L2 protein was localized to subsets of cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. These results suggest that the non-mammalian type opsin 5 (Opn5L2) functions as a second UV sensor in the photoreceptive organs, while it might function as chemosensor using its direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal in non-photoreceptive organs such as the adrenal gland of birds. PMID:22348098

Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Tomonari, Sayuri; Fujita-Yanagibayashi, Sari; Sakai, Kazumi; Noji, Sumihare; Shichida, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

104

A non-mammalian type opsin 5 functions dually in the photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive organs of birds.  

PubMed

A mammalian type opsin 5 (neuropsin) is a recently identified ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive pigment of the retina and other photosensitive organs in birds. Two other opsin 5-related molecules have been found in the genomes of non-mammalian vertebrates. However, their functions have not been examined as yet. Here, we identify the molecular properties of a second avian opsin 5, cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), and its localization in the post-hatch chicken. Spectrophotometric analysis and radionucleotide-binding assay have revealed that cOpn5L2 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with the Gi subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). As a bistable pigment, it also shows the direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal to activate G protein. The absorption maxima of UV-light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms were 350 and 521 nm, respectively. Expression analysis showed relatively high expression of cOpn5L2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, which is not photoreceptive but an endocrine organ, while lower expression was found in the brain and retina. At the protein level, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were present in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. In the brain, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, known for photoreceptive deep brain areas. In the retina, cOpn5L2 protein was localized to subsets of cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. These results suggest that the non-mammalian type opsin 5 (Opn5L2) functions as a second UV sensor in the photoreceptive organs, while it might function as chemosensor using its direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal in non-photoreceptive organs such as the adrenal gland of birds. PMID:22348098

Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Tomonari, Sayuri; Fujita-Yanagibayashi, Sari; Sakai, Kazumi; Noji, Sumihare; Shichida, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

105

Divergent Selection on Opsins Drives Incipient Speciation in Lake Victoria Cichlids  

PubMed Central

Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong divergent natural selection fixed opsin proteins with different predicted light absorbance properties at opposite ends of an environmental gradient. By expressing them and measuring absorbance, we show that the reciprocal fixation adapts populations to divergent light environments. The divergent evolution of the visual system coincides with divergence in male breeding coloration, consistent with incipient ecological by-product speciation. PMID:17147472

Terai, Yohey; Seehausen, Ole; Sasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Mizoiri, Shinji; Sugawara, Tohru; Sato, Tetsu; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Konijnendijk, Nellie; Mrosso, Hillary D. J; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Shichida, Yoshinori; Okada, Norihiro

2006-01-01

106

Thermal destabilization of rhodopsin and opsin by proteolytic cleavage in bovine rod outer segment disk membranes.  

PubMed

The G-protein coupled receptor, rhodopsin, consists of seven transmembrane helices which are buried in the lipid bilayer and are connected by loop domains extending out of the hydrophobic core. The thermal stability of rhodopsin and its bleached form, opsin, was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal transitions were asymmetric, and the temperatures of the thermal transitions were scan rate dependent. This dependence exhibited characteristics of a two-state irreversible denaturation in which intermediate states rapidly proceed to the final irreversible state. These studies suggest that the denaturation of both rhodopsin and opsin is kinetically controlled. The denaturation of the intact protein was compared to three proteolytically cleaved forms of the protein. Trypsin removed nine residues of the carboxyl terminus, papain removed 28 residues of the carboxyl terminus and a portion of the third cytoplasmic loop, and chymotrypsin cleaved cytoplasmic loops 2 and 3. In each of these cases the fragments remained associated as a complex in the membrane. DSC studies were carried out on each of the fragmented proteins. In all of the samples the scan rate dependence of the Tm indicated that the transition was kinetically controlled. Trypsin-proteolyzed protein differed little from the intact protein. However, the activation energy for denaturation was decreased when cytoplasmic loop 3 was cleaved by papain or chymotrypsin. This was observed for both bleached and unbleached samples. In the presence of the chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, the noncovalent interactions among the proteolytic fragments produced by papain and chymotrypsin cleavage were sufficiently strong such that each of the complexes denatured as a unit. Upon bleaching, the papain fragments exhibited a single thermal transition. However, after bleaching, the chymotrypsin fragments exhibited two calorimetric transitions. These data suggest that the loops of rhodopsin exert a stabilizing effect on the protein. PMID:11551216

Landin, J S; Katragadda, M; Albert, A D

2001-09-18

107

The Expression of Three Opsin Genes from the Compound Eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Is Regulated by a Circadian Clock, Light Conditions and Nutritional Status  

PubMed Central

Visual genes may become inactive in species that inhabit poor light environments, and the function and regulation of opsin components in nocturnal moths are interesting topics. In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV), blue (BL) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels fluctuated over a daily cycle, which might be an adaptation of a nocturnal lifestyle, and were dependent on a circadian clock. Cycling of opsin mRNA levels was disturbed by constant light or constant darkness, and the UV opsin gene was up-regulated after light exposure. Furthermore, the opsin genes tended to be down-regulated upon starvation. Thus, this study illustrates that opsin gene expression is determined by multiple endogenous and exogenous factors and is adapted to the need for nocturnal vision, suggesting that color vision may play an important role in the sensory ecology of nocturnal moths. PMID:25353953

Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Zhang, Xinfang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

2014-01-01

108

Polygenic Disease and Retinitis Pigmentosa: Albinism Exacerbates Photoreceptor Degeneration Induced by the Expression of a Mutant Opsin in Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of a mouse opsin transgene containing three point mutations (V20G, P23H, and P27L; termed VPP) causes a progressive photoreceptor degeneration that resembles in many important respects that seen in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by a P23H point muta- tion. We have attempted to determine whether the degree of degeneration induced by expression of the transgene is

Muna I. Naash; Harris Ripps; Shihong Li; Yoshinobu Goto; Neal S. Peachey

1996-01-01

109

Evolution of color vision in pierid butterflies: blue opsin duplication, ommatidial heterogeneity and eye regionalization in Colias erate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the molecular organization of the eye of the Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow butterfly, Colias erate (Pieridae). We cloned four cDNAs encoding visual pigment opsins, corresponding to one ultraviolet, two blue and one long\\u000a wavelength-absorbing visual pigments. Duplication of the blue visual pigment class occurs also in another pierid species,\\u000a Pieris rapae, suggesting that blue duplication is a

Hiroko Awata; Motohiro Wakakuwa; Kentaro Arikawa

2009-01-01

110

Opsin-immunoreactive outer segments and acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons in the pineal complex of Phoxinus phoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pineal complex of the teleost, Phoxinus phoxinus L., was studied light-microscopically by the use of the indirect immunocytochemical antiopsin reaction and the histochemical acetylcholinersterase (AChE) method.Opsin-immunoreactive outer segments of photoreceptor cells were demonstrated in large numbers in all divisions of the pineal end-vesicle and in the pineal stalk. Moreover, they were found in the roof of the third ventricle,

I. Vigh-Teichmann; H.-W. Korf; A. Oksche; B. Vigh

1982-01-01

111

Membrane Assembly in Retinal Photoreceptors II. lmmunocytochemical Analysis of Freeze-fractured Rod Photoreceptor Membranes Using Anti-opsin Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a cytochemical technique for labeling freeze-fractured tissues (Pinto da Silva, P., C. Parkison, and N. Dwyer (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78: 343-347) to examine the distribution of immunoreactive opsin in rod photoreceptor membranes. Aldehyde-fixed retinas of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) embedded in a cross-linked protein matrix were frozen and fractured at -196%,

DENNIS M. DEFOE; JOSEPH C. BESHARSE

112

The Transporter-Opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) Superfamily  

PubMed Central

Visual Rhodopsins (VR) are recognized members of the large and diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but their evolutionary origin and relationships to other proteins, are not known. In an earlier publication (Shlykov et al., 2012), we characterized the 4-Toulene Sulfonate Uptake Permease (TSUP) family of transmembrane proteins, showing that these 7 or 8 TMS proteins arose by intragenic duplication of a 4 TMS-encoding gene, sometimes followed by loss of a terminal TMS. In this study, we show that the TSUP, GPCR and Microbial Rhodopsin (MR) families are related to each other and to six other currently recognized transport protein families. We designate this superfamily the Transporter-Opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) Superfamily. Despite their 8 TMS origins, members of most constituent families exhibit 7 TMS topologies that are well conserved, and these arose by loss of either the N-terminal (more frequent) or the C-terminal (less frequent) TMS, depending on the family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed familial relationships within the superfamily and protein relationships within each of the nine families. The statistical analyses leading to the conclusion of homology were confirmed using HMMs, Pfam, and 3D superimpositions. Proteins functioning by dissimilar mechanisms (channels, primary active transporters, secondary active transporters, group translocators and receptors) are interspersed on a phylogenetic tree of the TOG superfamily, suggesting that changes in the transport and energy-coupling mechanisms occurred multiple times during the evolution of this superfamily. PMID:23981446

Yee, Daniel C.; Shlykov, Maksim A.; Vastermark, Ake; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Arora, Sumit; Sun, Eric I.; Saier, Milton H.

2013-01-01

113

Informational Lesions: Optical Perturbation of Spike Timing and Neural Synchrony Via Microbial Opsin Gene Fusions  

PubMed Central

Synchronous neural activity occurs throughout the brain in association with normal and pathological brain functions. Despite theoretical work exploring how such neural coordination might facilitate neural computation and be corrupted in disease states, it has proven difficult to test experimentally the causal role of synchrony in such phenomena. Attempts to manipulate neural synchrony often alter other features of neural activity such as firing rate. Here we evaluate a single gene which encodes for the blue-light gated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 and the yellow-light driven chloride pump halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis, linked by a ‘self-cleaving’ 2A peptide. This fusion enables proportional expression of both opsins, sensitizing neurons to being bi-directionally controlled with blue and yellow light, facilitating proportional optical spike insertion and deletion upon delivery of trains of precisely-timed blue and yellow light pulses. Such approaches may enable more detailed explorations of the causal role of specific features of the neural code. PMID:19753326

Han, Xue; Qian, Xiaofeng; Stern, Patrick; Chuong, Amy S.; Boyden, Edward S.

2009-01-01

114

Expression pattern of the melanopsin-like (cOpn4m) and VA opsin-like genes in the developing chicken retina and neural tissues.  

PubMed

We examined the expression pattern of melanopsin-like (cOpn4m) and VA opsin-like (cVAL) genes during chicken development. Two types of cOpn4m transcripts, distinct in their carboxyl terminals were found, as is the case for the chicken melanopsin (cOpn4) reported previously. The expression of cOpn4m was restricted to the developing retina, specifically to a subset of developing amacrine cells from embryonic day 10. VA opsin is one of the non-canonical opsins, reported to exist in fish so far. In this study, an aberrant type of VA opsin-like (cVAL) cDNA was isolated from chicken embryonic neural tissues. The expression of cVAL was observed in the ventral region of the developing brain and neural tube; however, specific signals for cVAL could not be detected in the developing retina. These results indicate that the additional melanopsin in avian identifies a subset of developing amacrine cells in the retina and that the aberrant transcript of the VA opsin-like gene are present during neural tube development in the chicken. PMID:17631423

Tomonari, Sayuri; Takagi, Akira; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

2007-08-01

115

Structural comparison of metarhodopsin II, metarhodopsin III, and opsin based on kinetic analysis of Fourier transform infrared difference spectra.  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared difference spectra were measured at 30-s intervals after a complete bleach of rhodopsin (rho) samples at 20 degrees C and three different pH values. At each pH, all of the spectra could be fit globally to two exponential decay processes. Using a branched unimolecular kinetic model in which metarhodopsin II (meta II) is hydrolyzed to opsin and retinal both directly and through metarhodopsin III (meta III), we calculated rho-->meta II, rho-->meta III, and rho-->opsin difference spectra at each of the pH values and obtained estimates for the microscopic rate constants at each pH. Because of assumptions that had to be made about the branching ratio between the meta II decay pathways, some uncertainties remain in our calculated rho-->meta III difference spectrum at each pH. Nevertheless, our data covering long time ranges, especially those obtained at pH 8, place significant new constraints on the spectrum of meta III and thus on its structure. The rho-->meta II spectrum shows no significant pH dependence over the range examined (pH 5.5-8). However, the rho-->meta III and rho-->opsin spectra each include a limited subset of pH-dependent peaks, which are mostly attributable to titratable amino acid side chains. Our observations can be used to refine an earlier conclusion that the visual pigment refolds to a rhodopsin-like conformation during meta II decay (Rothschild, K.J., J. Gillespie, and W.J. DeGrip. 1987 Biophys. J. 51:345-350). Most of this refolding occurs in the same way at pH values ranging from 5.5 to 8 and whether meta II decays to meta III or opsin. Meta II displays unique spectral perturbations that are mostly attributable to a few residues, probably including three to four aspartic or glutamic acids and an arginine. PMID:1477276

Klinger, A L; Braiman, M S

1992-11-01

116

Adaptations to an extreme environment: retinal organisation and spectral properties of photoreceptors in Antarctic notothenioid fish.  

PubMed

The Notothenioid suborder of teleosts comprises a number of species that live below the sea ice of the Antarctic. The presence of 'antifreeze' glycoproteins in these fish as an adaptation to freezing temperature has been well documented but little is known about the adaptations of the visual system of these fish to a light environment in which both the quantity and spectral composition of downwelling sunlight has been reduced by passage through ice and snow. In this study, we show that the red/long-wave sensitive (LWS) opsin gene is not present in these fish but a UV-sensitive short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigment is expressed along with blue-sensitive (SWS2) and green/middle-wave sensitive (Rh2) pigments. The identity and spectral location of maximal absorbance of the SWS1 and Rh2 pigments was confirmed by in vitro expression of the recombinant opsins followed by regeneration with 11-cis retinal. Only the SWS2 pigment showed interspecific variations in peak absorbance. Expression of the Rh2 opsin is localised to double cone receptors in both the central and peripheral retina, whereas SWS2 opsin expression is present only in the peripheral retina. SWS1 cones could not be identified by either microspectrophotometry or in situ hybridisation, presumably reflecting their low number and/or uneven distribution across the retina. A study of photoreceptor organisation in the retina of two species, the shallower dwelling Trematomus hansoni and the deeper dwelling Dissostichus mawsoni, identified a square mosaic in the former, and a row mosaic in the latter species; the row mosaic in Dissostichus mawsoni with less tightly packed cone photoreceptors allows for a higher rod photoreceptor density. PMID:15939776

Pointer, Marie A; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina; Bowmaker, James K; Parry, Juliet W L; Soto, Nelyn; Jeffery, Glen; Cowing, Jill A; Hunt, David M

2005-06-01

117

High overexpression and purification of optimized bacterio-opsin from Halobacterium Salinarum R1 in E. coli.  

PubMed

The purple membrane of Halobacterium Salinarum carries out a protein, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which is a model for structure-function studies of membrane proteins. The heterologous expression of integral membrane proteins (IMPS) is difficult. In this study, we reported the heterologous overexpression of bacterio-opsin (bO) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Bacterio-opsin expression is facilitated by using mistic, a membrane protein from Bacillus subtilis in E. coli BL21 (DE3) membranes. The optimized bO gene was cloned in fusion to the C-terminus of mistic in pET 30a (+) and contains an oct-histidine in C-terminal to facilitate purification. Different medium, temperature, and induction time were used to optimize protein overexpression. The highest expression was obtained from the Terrific Broth (TB) medium at 18 °C with an IPTG concentration of 0.1 mM. The final purified bR was 192?±?1 mg/L which has an important value for the production of membrane proteins in E. coli. PMID:25123363

Kahaki, Fatemeh Abarghooi; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Memari, Hamid Rajabi; Mofid, Mohammad Reza

2014-10-01

118

Interspecific variation in Rx1 expression controls opsin expression and causes visual system diversity in African cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic diversity are key to understanding evolution and speciation. Cichlid fishes are among the most speciose vertebrates and an ideal model for identifying genes controlling species differences. Cichlids have diverse visual sensitivities that result from species expressing subsets of seven cichlid cone opsin genes. We previously identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that tunes visual sensitivity by varying SWS2A (short wavelength sensitive 2A) opsin expression in a genetic cross between two Lake Malawi cichlid species. Here, we identify Rx1 (retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox) as the causative gene for the QTL using fine mapping and RNAseq in retinal transcriptomes. Rx1 is differentially expressed between the parental species and correlated with SWS2A expression in the F2 progeny. Expression of Rx1 and SWS2A is also correlated in a panel of 16 Lake Malawi cichlid species. Association mapping in this panel identified a 413-bp deletion located 2.5-kb upstream of the Rx1 translation start site that is correlated with decreased Rx1 expression. This deletion explains 62% of the variance in SWS2A expression across 53 cichlid species in 29 genera. The deletion occurs in both the sand and rock-dwelling cichlid clades, suggesting that it is an ancestral polymorphism. Our finding supports the hypothesis that mixing and matching of ancestral polymorphisms can explain the diversity of present day cichlid phenotypes. PMID:24859246

Schulte, Jane E; O'Brien, Conor S; Conte, Matthew A; O'Quin, Kelly E; Carleton, Karen L

2014-09-01

119

Possible Involvement of Cone Opsins in Distinct Photoresponses of Intrinsically Photosensitive Dermal Chromatophores in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

PubMed Central

Dermal specialized pigment cells (chromatophores) are thought to be one type of extraretinal photoreceptors responsible for a wide variety of sensory tasks, including adjusting body coloration. Unlike the well-studied image-forming function in retinal photoreceptors, direct evidence characterizing the mechanism of chromatophore photoresponses is less understood, particularly at the molecular and cellular levels. In the present study, cone opsin expression was detected in tilapia caudal fin where photosensitive chromatophores exist. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed co-existence of different cone opsins within melanophores and erythrophores. By stimulating cells with six wavelengths ranging from 380 to 580 nm, we found melanophores and erythrophores showed distinct photoresponses. After exposed to light, regardless of wavelength presentation, melanophores dispersed and maintained cell shape in an expansion stage by shuttling pigment granules. Conversely, erythrophores aggregated or dispersed pigment granules when exposed to short- or middle/long-wavelength light, respectively. These results suggest that diverse molecular mechanisms and light-detecting strategies may be employed by different types of tilapia chromatophores, which are instrumental in pigment pattern formation. PMID:23940562

Chen, Shyh-Chi; Robertson, R. Meldrum; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

2013-01-01

120

Probing Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration in a New Mouse Model of the Common Form of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa due to P23H Opsin Mutations*?  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1–10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

121

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-09-01

122

Retrograde intraciliary trafficking of opsin during the maintenance of cone-shaped photoreceptor outer segments of Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Photoreceptor outer segments (OSs) are essential for our visual perception, and take either rod or cone forms. The cell biological basis for the formation of rods is well established; however, the mechanism of cone formation is ill characterized. While Xenopus rods are called rods, they exhibit cone-shaped OSs during the early process of development. To visualize the dynamic reorganization of disk membranes, opsin and peripherin/rds were fused to a fluorescent protein, Dendra2, and expressed in early developing rod photoreceptors, in which OSs are still cone-shaped. Dendra2 is a fluorescent protein which can be converted from green to red irreversibly, and thus allows spatiotemporal labeling of proteins. Using a photoconversion technique, we found that disk membranes are assembled at the base of cone-shaped OSs. After incorporation into disks, however, Opsin-Dendra2 was also trafficked from old to new disk membranes, consistent with the hypothesis that retrograde trafficking of membrane components contributes to the larger disk membrane observed toward the base of the cone-shaped OS. Such retrograde trafficking is cargo-specific and was not observed for peripherin/rds-Dendra2. The trafficking is unlikely mediated by diffusion, since the disk membranes have a closed configuration, as evidenced by CNGA1 labeling of the plasma membrane. Consistent with retrograde trafficking, the axoneme, which potentially mediates retrograde intraflagellar trafficking, runs through the entire axis of OSs. This study provides an insight into the role of membrane reorganization in developing photoreceptor OSs, and proves that retrograde trafficking of membrane cargoes can occur there. PMID:24855015

Tian, Guilian; Lodowski, Kerrie H; Lee, Richard; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

2014-11-01

123

Six Opsins from the Butterfly Papilio glaucus: Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Paralogous Origins of Red-Sensitive Visual Pigments in Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   It has been hypothesized that the UV-, blue-, and green-sensitive visual pigments of insects were present in the common ancestor\\u000a of crustaceans and insects, whereas red-sensitive visual pigments evolved later as a result of convergent evolution. This\\u000a hypothesis is examined with respect to the placement of six opsins from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus (PglRh1–6) in relationship to 46

Adriana D. Briscoe

2000-01-01

124

Genetic transformation of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia osbeck) with thebO (bacterio-opsin) genen and its initial evaluation forPhytophthora nicotianae resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants expressing the bacterio-opsin (bO) gene can spontaneously activate programmed cell death (pcd) and may enhance broad-spectrum pathogen resistance by activating an intrinsic defense pathway in plant species such as tobacco and potato. In this work, we produced transgenic Rangpur lime plants with the bO gene, via Agro- bacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and evaluated these plants for Phyto- phthora nicotianae

F. A. Azevedo; F. A. A. Mourão Filho; B. M. J. Mendes; W. A. B. Almeida; E. H. Schinor; R. Pio; J. M. Barbosa; S. GUIDETTI-GONZALEZ; H. Carrer; E. Lam

2006-01-01

125

Genetic transformation of Rangpur lime ( Citrus limonia osbeck) with the bO (bacterio-opsin) genen and its initial evaluation for Phytophthora nicotianae resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants expressing the bacterio-opsin (bO) gene can spontaneously activate programmed cell death (ped) and may enhance broad-spectrum pathogen resistance by activating\\u000a an intrinsic defense pathway in plant species such as tobacco and potato. In this work, we produced transgenic Rangpur lime\\u000a plants with thebO gene, viaAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and evaluated these plants forPhytophthora nicotianae resistance. Two transgenic lines were

F. A. Azevedo; F. A. A. Mourão Filho; B. M. J. Mendes; W. A. B. Almeida; E. H. Schinor; R. Pio; J. M. Barbosa; S Guidetti-Gonzalez; H. Carrer; E. Lam

2006-01-01

126

Physiology and morphology of color-opponent ganglion cells in a retina expressing a dual gradient of S and M opsins  

PubMed Central

Most mammals are dichromats, having short-wavelength sensitive (S) and middle-wavelength sensitive (M) cones. Smaller terrestrial species commonly express a dual gradient in opsins, with M opsin concentrated superiorly and declining inferiorly, and vice-versa for S opsin. Some ganglion cells in these retinas combine S and M-cone inputs antagonistically, but no direct evidence links this physiological opponency with morphology; nor is it known whether opponency varies with the opsin gradients. By recording from more than 3000 ganglion cells in guinea pig, we identified small numbers of color-opponent cells. Chromatic properties were characterized by responses to monochromatic spots and/or spots produced by mixtures of two primary lights. Superior retina contained cells with strong S+/M? and M+/S? opponency, whereas inferior retina contained cells with weak opponency. In superior retina, the opponent cells had well-balanced M and S weights, while in inferior retina the weights were unbalanced, with the M weights being much weaker. The M and S components of opponent cell receptive fields had approximately the same diameter. Opponent cells injected with Lucifer yellow restricted their dendrites to the ON stratum of the inner plexiform layer and provided sufficient membrane area (?2.1e+4 ?m2) to collect ?3.9e+3 bipolar synapses. Two bistratified cells studied were non-opponent. The apparent decline in S/M opponency from superior to inferior retina is consistent with the dual gradient and a model where photoreceptor signals in both superior and inferior retina are processed by the same post-receptoral circuitry. PMID:19261865

Yin, Lu; Smith, Robert G; Sterling, Peter; Brainard, David H.

2009-01-01

127

Six opsins from the butterfly Papilio glaucus: molecular phylogenetic evidence for paralogous origins of red-sensitive visual pigments in insects.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that the UV-, blue-, and green-sensitive visual pigments of insects were present in the common ancestor of crustaceans and insects, whereas red-sensitive visual pigments evolved later as a result of convergent evolution. This hypothesis is examined with respect to the placement of six opsins from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus (PglRh1-6) in relationship to 46 other insect, crustacean, and chelicerate opsin sequences. All basal relationships established with maximum parsimony analysis except two are present in the distance and maximum likelihood analyses. In all analyses, the six P. glaucus opsins fall into three well-supported clades, comprised, respectively, of ultraviolet (UV), blue, and long-wavelength (LW) pigments, which appear to predate the radiation of the insects. Lepidopteran green- and red-sensitive visual pigments form a monophyletic clade, which lends support to the hypothesis from comparative physiological studies that red-sensitive visual pigments in insects have paralogous origins. Polymorphic amino acid sites (180, 197, 277, 285, 308), which are essential for generating the spectral diversity among the vertebrate red- and green-sensitive pigments are notably invariant in the Papilio red- and green-sensitive pigments. Other major tuning sites must be sought to explain the spectral diversification among these and other insect visual pigments. PMID:10948267

Briscoe, A D

2000-08-01

128

Development of Lead Hammerhead Ribozyme Candidates against Human Rod Opsin mRNA for Retinal Degeneration Therapy  

PubMed Central

To identify lead candidate allele-independent hammerhead ribozymes (hhRz) for the treatment of autosomal dominant mutations in the human rod opsin (RHO) gene, we tested a series of hhRzs for potential to significantly knockdown human RHO gene expression in a human cell expression system. Multiple computational criteria were used to select target mRNA regions likely to be single stranded and accessible to hhRz annealing and cleavage. Target regions are tested for accessibility in a human cell culture expression system where the hhRz RNA and target mRNA and protein are coexpressed. The hhRz RNA is embedded in an adenoviral VAI RNA chimeric RNA of established structure and properties which are critical to the experimental paradigm. The chimeric hhRz-VAI RNA is abundantly transcribed so that the hhRzs are expected to be in great excess over substrate mRNA. HhRz-VAI traffics predominantly to the cytoplasm to colocalize with the RHO mRNA target. Colocalization is essential for second-order annealing reactions. The VAI chimera protects the hhRz RNA from degradation and provides for a long half life. With cell lines chosen for high transfection efficiency and a molar excess of hhRz plasmid over target plasmid, the conditions of this experimental paradigm are specifically designed to evaluate for regions of accessibility of the target mRNA in cellulo. Western analysis was used to measure the impact of hhRz expression on RHO protein expression. Three lead candidate hhRz designs were identified that significantly knockdown target protein expression relative to control (p < 0.05). Successful lead candidates (hhRz CUC? 266, hhRz CUC? 1411, hhRz AUA? 1414) targeted regions of human RHO mRNA that were predicted to be accessible by a bioinformatics approach, whereas regions predicted to be inaccessible supported no knockdown. The maximum opsin protein level knockdown is approximately 30% over a 48 hr paradigm of testing. These results validate a rigorous computational bioinformatics approach to detect accessible regions of target mRNAs in cellulo. The opsin knockdown effect could prove to be clinically significant when integrated over longer periods in photoreceptors. Further optimization and animal testing is the next step in this stratified RNA drug discovery program. A recently developed novel and efficient screening assay based upon expression of a dicistronic mRNA (RHO-IRES-SEAP) containing both RHO and reporter (SEAP) cDNAs was used to compare the hhRz 266 lead candidate to another agent (Rz525/hhRz485) already known to partially rescue retinal degeneration in a rodent model. Lead hhRz 266 CUC? proved more efficacious than Rz525/hhRz485 which infers viability for rescue of retinal degeneration in appropriate preclinical models of disease. PMID:19094986

Abdelmaksoud, Heba E.; Yau, Edwin H.; Zuker, Michael; Sullivan, Jack M.

2011-01-01

129

Opsin expression, physiological characterization and identification of photoreceptor cells in the dorsal rim area and main retina of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.  

PubMed

For compass orientation many insects rely on the pattern of sky polarization, but some species also exploit the sky chromatic contrast. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, detect polarized light through a specialized dorsal rim area (DRA) in their compound eye. To better understand retinal mechanisms underlying visual navigation, we compared opsin expression, spectral and polarization sensitivities and response-stimulus intensity functions in the DRA and main retina of the locust. In addition to previously characterized opsins of long-wavelength-absorbing (Lo1) and blue-absorbing visual pigments (Lo2), we identified an opsin of an ultraviolet-absorbing visual pigment (LoUV). DRA photoreceptors exclusively expressed Lo2, had peak spectral sensitivities at 441 nm and showed high polarization sensitivity (PS 1.3-31.7). In contrast, ommatidia in the main eye co-expressed Lo1 and Lo2 in five photoreceptors, expressed Lo1 in two proximal photoreceptors, and Lo2 or LoUV in one distal photoreceptor. Correspondingly, we found broadband blue- and green-peaking spectral sensitivities in the main eye and one narrowly tuned UV peaking receptor. Polarization sensitivity in the main retina was low (PS 1.3-3.8). V-log I functions in the DRA were steeper than in the main retina, supporting a role in polarization vision. Desert locusts occur as two morphs, a day-active gregarious and a night-active solitarious form. In solitarious locusts, sensitivities in the main retina were generally shifted to longer wavelengths, particularly in ventral eye regions, supporting a nocturnal lifestyle at low light levels. The data support the role of the DRA in polarization vision and suggest trichromatic colour vision in the desert locust. PMID:25104757

Schmeling, Fabian; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Tegtmeier, Jennifer; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Bockhorst, Tobias; Arikawa, Kentaro; Homberg, Uwe

2014-10-01

130

Opsin1-2, Gq? and arrestin levels at Limulus rhabdoms are controlled by diurnal light and a circadian clock  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dark and light adaptation in photoreceptors involve multiple processes including those that change protein concentrations at photosensitive membranes. Light- and dark-adaptive changes in protein levels at rhabdoms have been described in detail in white-eyed Drosophila maintained under artificial light. Here we tested whether protein levels at rhabdoms change significantly in the highly pigmented lateral eyes of wild-caught Limulus polyphemus maintained in natural diurnal illumination and whether these changes are under circadian control. We found that rhabdomeral levels of opsins (Ops1-2), the G protein activated by rhodopsin (Gq?) and arrestin change significantly from day to night and that nighttime levels of each protein at rhabdoms are significantly influenced by signals from the animal's central circadian clock. Clock input at night increases Ops1-2 and Gq? and decreases arrestin levels at rhabdoms. Clock input is also required for a rapid decrease in rhabdomeral Ops1-2 beginning at sunrise. We found further that dark adaptation during the day and the night are not equivalent. During daytime dark adaptation, when clock input is silent, the increase of Ops1-2 at rhabdoms is small and Gq? levels do not increase. However, increases in Ops1-2 and Gq? at rhabdoms are enhanced during daytime dark adaptation by treatments that elevate cAMP in photoreceptors, suggesting that the clock influences dark-adaptive increases in Ops1-2 and Gq? at Limulus rhabdoms by activating cAMP-dependent processes. The circadian regulation of Ops1-2 and Gq? levels at rhabdoms probably has a dual role: to increase retinal sensitivity at night and to protect photoreceptors from light damage during the day. PMID:23393287

Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E.; Parker, Alexander K.; Gaddie, Cristina D.

2013-01-01

131

Expression of Novel Opsins and Intrinsic Light Responses in the Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cell Line RGC-5. Presence of OPN5 in the Rat Retina  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate retina is known to contain three classes of photoreceptor cells: cones and rods responsible for vision, and intrinsically photoresponsive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) involved in diverse non-visual functions such as photic entrainment of daily rhythms and pupillary light responses. In this paper we investigated the potential intrinsic photoresponsiveness of the rat RGC line, RGC-5, by testing for the presence of visual and non-visual opsins and assessing expression of the immediate-early gene protein c-Fos and changes in intracellular Ca2+mobilization in response to brief light pulses. Cultured RGC-5 cells express a number of photopigment mRNAs such as retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR), encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3), neuropsin (Opn5) and cone opsin (Opn1mw) but not melanopsin (Opn4) or rhodopsin. Opn5 immunoreactivity was observed in RGC-5 cells and in the inner retina of rat, mainly localized in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Furthermore, white light pulses of different intensities and durations elicited changes both in intracellular Ca2+ levels and in the induction of c-Fos protein in RGC-5 cell cultures. The results demonstrate that RGC-5 cells expressing diverse putative functional photopigments display intrinsic photosensitivity which accounts for the photic induction of c-Fos protein and changes in intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The presence of Opn5 in the GCL of the rat retina suggests the existence of a novel type of photoreceptor cell. PMID:22022612

Nieto, Paula S.; Valdez, Diego J.; Acosta-Rodriguez, Victoria A.; Guido, Mario E.

2011-01-01

132

Ablation of the X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (Rp2) Gene in Mice Results in Opsin Mislocalization and Photoreceptor Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Mutations in the RP2 gene are associated with 10% to 15% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), a debilitating disorder characterized by the degeneration of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. The molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of photoreceptor degeneration in XLRP-RP2 has not been elucidated, and no treatment is currently available. This study was undertaken to investigate the pathogenesis of RP2-associated retinal degeneration. Methods. We introduced loxP sites that flank exon 2, a mutational hotspot in XLRP-RP2, in the mouse Rp2 gene. We then produced Rp2-null allele using transgenic mice that expressed Cre-recombinase under control of the ubiquitous CAG promoter. Electroretinography (ERG), histology, light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to ascertain the effect of ablation of Rp2 on photoreceptor development, function, and protein trafficking. Results. Although no gross abnormalities were detected in the Rp2null mice, photopic (cone) and scotopic (rod) function as measured by ERG showed a gradual decline starting as early as 1 month of age. We also detected slow progressive degeneration of the photoreceptor membrane discs in the mutant retina. These defects were associated with mislocalization of cone opsins to the nuclear and synaptic layers and reduced rhodopsin content in the outer segment of mutant retina prior to the onset of photoreceptor degeneration. Conclusions. Our studies suggest that RP2 contributes to the maintenance of photoreceptor function and that cone opsin mislocalization represents an early step in XLRP caused by RP2 mutations. The Rp2null mice should serve as a useful preclinical model for testing gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:23745007

Li, Linjing; Khan, Naheed; Hurd, Toby; Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Cheng, Christiana; Molday, Robert; Heckenlively, John R.; Swaroop, Anand; Khanna, Hemant

2013-01-01

133

Opsin vs opsin: new materials for biotechnological applications  

E-print Network

The continuous research of new diagnostical methods, early, low invasive and much efficient is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices and in particular sensors, able to use the excellent ability of proteins to selectively react to a specific stimulus, in a fast, reproducible and reversible way. To explore these specific features, a theoretical/computational model called INPA (impedance network protein analogue) is used. The specific characteristic of this approach is to give in a glance a description of the protein not lingering on the complex details of its biochemialc nature but instead privileging its activity.

Alfinito, E

2014-01-01

134

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL LWS gene variation, depth and colour  

E-print Network

(defined as M3 allele) 545-550 nm. The 15 nm shift between H and P pigments was mainly caused by A230T window analysis revealed fairly high levels of polymorphism in blue, but very low levels in red males.e. speciation was most advanced on gradients with intermediate slope (p (one-tailed) 0.032, adjusted R2 0.31, 12

Carleton, Karen L.

135

Characterization of photoreceptor cell types in the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus (Vespertilionidae).  

PubMed

We report the expression of three visual opsins in the retina of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus, Vespertilionidae). Gene sequences for a rod-specific opsin and two cone-specific opsins were cloned from cDNA derived from bat eyes. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the two cone opsins correspond to an ultraviolet short-wavelength opsin (SWS1) and a long-wavelength opsin (LWS). Immunocytochemistry using antisera to visual opsins revealed that the little brown bat retina contains two types of cone photoreceptors within a rod-dominated background. However, unlike other mammalian photoreceptors, M. lucifugus cones and rods are morphologically indistinguishable by light microscopy. Both photoreceptor types have a thin, elongated outer segment. Using microspectrophotometry we classified the absorption spectrum for the ubiquitous rods. Similar to other mammals, bat rhodopsin has an absorption peak near 500 nm. Although we were unable to confirm a spectral range, cellular and molecular analyses indicate that M. lucifugus expresses two types of cone visual pigments located within the photoreceptor layer. This study provides important insights into the visual capacity of a nocturnal microchiropteran species. PMID:19720154

Feller, K D; Lagerholm, S; Clubwala, R; Silver, M T; Haughey, D; Ryan, J M; Loew, E R; Deutschlander, M E; Kenyon, K L

2009-12-01

136

Cone visual pigments of aquatic mammals.  

PubMed

It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the retina and, in deeper-dwelling animals, are blue shifted in lambda(max). PMID:16469194

Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R

2005-01-01

137

LWS Proposal to Provide Scientific Guidance and Modeling Support for the Ionospheric Mapping Mission. Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data assimilation system for specifying the thermospheric density has been developed over the last several years. This system ingests GRACE/CHAMP-type in situ as well as SSULI/SSUSI remote sensing observations while making use of a physical model, the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere Model (CTIM) (Fuller-Rowel1 et al., 1996). The Kalman filter was implemented as the backbone to the data assimilation system, which provides a statistically 'best' estimate as well as an estimate of the error in its state. The system was tested using a simulated thermosphere and observations. CHAMP data were then used to provide the system with a real data source. The results of this study are herein.

Richmond, Arthur D.

2005-01-01

138

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) team was created to apply a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations to the understanding of how the fast and slow solar wind are heated and accelerated. Four proposals were selected for this FST team. They will investigate the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST team will examine magnetic reconnection and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements, will be used to put firm constraints on the models. The work of the Solar Wind FST team is in its initial stages. The organization, planning, and findings resulting from the first FST team meeting will be reported.

Miralles, M. P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Landi, E.; Markovskii, S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Doschek, G. A.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Ng, C.; Raymond, J. C.; Vasquez, B. J.

2006-12-01

139

Flight Experiments for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS-SET): Relationship to Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on flight validation experiments for technologies to determine solar effects. The experiments are intended to demonstrate tolerance to a solar variant environment. The technologies tested are microelectronics, photonics, materials, and sensors.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana A.

2003-01-01

140

The LWS Geospace Storm Investigations Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geospace mission of the Living With a Star program is a family of investigations focusing on the compelling science questions that advance our ability to specify, understand, and predict the societal impact of solar variance. Two key areas have been identified as combining both importance to society and potential for scientific progress: 1) characterization and understanding of the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of energetic electrons and ions in the inner magnetosphere, and 2) characterization and understanding of the ionosphere and irregularities that affect communications, navigation and radar systems. Under these broad categories specific science questions have emerged as the priority science objectives for the first Geospace Investigations: How and why do relativistic electrons in the outer zone and slot region vary during geomagnetic storms? How does the long- and short-term variability of the Sun affect the global-scale behavior of the ionospheric electron density and irregularities, especially during magnetic storms and at mid-latitudes? The first Geospace mission will attempt to answer these questions.

2002-01-01

141

Cone photoreceptors and potential UV vision in a subterranean insectivore, the European mole.  

PubMed

We have examined the presence, the distribution, and the opsin identity of photoreceptor types in the retina of the European mole, Talpa europaea, a subterranean insectivore with regressed morphology of the visual system. Cones and rods were identified using opsin antisera, and their topographies determined from flat-mounted retinas. The retina (total area 0.75 mm(2)) contains about 100,000 photoreceptors, 10-12% of which are cones. Rod density is low (theoretical maximum 127,000 mm(-2)). Cone density peaks in central retina (17,750 mm(-2)). Similar to most mammals, two cone opsins, shortwave-sensitive (S) and middle-to-long-wave-sensitive (M), are present. Cone distribution shows a dorsoventral gradient with higher S cone numbers in ventral retina. Coexpression of S and M opsin occurs in more than 30% of the cones. Partial sequencing of the S opsin gene strongly supports UV sensitivity of the mole S cone photopigment. Amino acids that spectrally tune the S opsin are identical in T. europaea and in mammals with known UV cone photosensitivity. The lens transmits light down to 300 nm. Together, our data suggest that photopic vision and UV sensitivity of a cone pigment play a functional role in the European mole. PMID:18484862

Glösmann, Martin; Steiner, Marianne; Peichl, Leo; Ahnelt, Peter K

2008-01-01

142

The Transcription Factor GTF2IRD1 Regulates the Topology and Function of Photoreceptors by Modulating Photoreceptor Gene Expression across the Retina.  

PubMed

The mechanisms that specify photoreceptor cell-fate determination, especially as regards to short-wave-sensitive (S) versus medium-wave-sensitive (M) cone identity, and maintain their nature and function, are not fully understood. Here we report the importance of general transcription factor II-I repeat domain-containing protein 1 (GTF2IRD1) in maintaining M cone cell identity and function as well as rod function. In the mouse, GTF2IRD1 is expressed in cell-fate determined photoreceptors at postnatal day 10. GTF2IRD1 binds to enhancer and promoter regions in the mouse rhodopsin, M- and S-opsin genes, but regulates their expression differentially. Through interaction with the transcription factors CRX and thyroid hormone receptor ? 2, it enhances M-opsin expression, whereas it suppresses S-opsin expression; and with CRX and NRL, it enhances rhodopsin expression. In an apparent paradox, although GTF2IRD1 is widely expressed in multiple cell types across the retina, knock-out of GTF2IRD1 alters the retinal expression of only a limited number of annotated genes. Interestingly, however, the null mutation leads to altered topology of cone opsin expression in the retina, with aberrant S-opsin overexpression and M-opsin underexpression in M cones. Gtf2ird1-null mice also demonstrate abnormal M cone and rod electrophysiological responses. These findings suggest an important role for GTF2IRD1 in regulating the level and topology of rod and cone gene expression, and in maintaining normal retinal function. PMID:25392503

Masuda, Tomohiro; Zhang, Xiaodong; Berlinicke, Cindy; Wan, Jun; Yerrabelli, Anitha; Conner, Elizabeth A; Kjellstrom, Sten; Bush, Ronald; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Swaroop, Anand; Chen, Shiming; Zack, Donald J

2014-11-12

143

Parallel and Convergent Evolution of the Dim-Light Vision Gene RH1 in Bats (Order: Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620

Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2010-01-01

144

Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a detector of configurable positive operator-valued measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures\\u000a(POVMs). The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques\\u000aand photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting POVMs can be continuously\\u000atuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state\\u000ameasurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator\\u000acoupling, amplitude and phase, allowing thus not only detection

Graciana Puentes; Jeff S. Lundeen; Matthijs P. A. Branderhorst; Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; Brian J. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley

2009-01-01

145

Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a detector of configurable positive operator-valued measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures (POVMs). The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting POVMs can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude and phase, allowing thus not only detection

Graciana Puentes; Jeff S. Lundeen; Matthijs P. A. Branderhorst; Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; Brian J. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley

2009-01-01

146

Bridging Particle and Wave Sensitivity in a Configurable Detector of Positive Operator-Valued Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only

Graciana Puentes; Jeff S. Lundeen; Matthijs P. A. Branderhorst; Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; Brian J. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley

2009-01-01

147

Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.  

PubMed

We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities. PMID:19257725

Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

2009-02-27

148

Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.  

PubMed

Although motile iridophores in the longitudinal stripes of neon tetra skin are under control of the sympathetic nervous system, they also respond to light directly and show circadian color changes. Using neon tetra skin, we found that the photoresponse of iridophores depends on light intensity, and that light near 500 nm is most effective. RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of mRNAs encoding rhodopsin and two kinds of cone opsins (Pi-green1 and Pi-green2) in neon tetra skin where the light-sensitive iridophores exist. These mRNAs are also expressed in the lateral eyes. The cone opsin genes, Pi-green1 and Pi-green2, show high similarity with the g101 and g103 genes of unique green cone opsins (belonging to the MWS/LWS group) of the blind Mexican cavefish. These results show that Pi-green1, Pi-green2, and/or rhodopsin may play important roles in the photoresponse of neon tetra iridophores, which are most sensitive to light near 500 nm. PMID:17043404

Kasai, Akiko; Oshima, Noriko

2006-09-01

149

Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2  

E-print Network

The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential ...

Liske, Holly

150

Informational lesions: optical perturbation of spike timing and neural synchrony via microbial opsin gene fusions  

E-print Network

Synchronous neural activity occurs throughout the brain in association with normal and pathological brain functions. Despite theoretical work exploring how such neural coordination might facilitate neural computation and ...

Han, Xue

151

Evolution of the vertebrate eye: opsins, photoreceptors, retina and eye cup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Darwin appreciated the conceptual difficulty in accepting that an organ as wonderful as the vertebrate eye could have evolved through natural selection. He reasoned that if appropriate gradations could be found that were useful to the animal and were inherited, then the apparent difficulty would be overcome. Here, we review a wide range of findings that capture glimpses of

Shaun P. Collin; Edward N. Pugh; Trevor D. Lamb

2007-01-01

152

Short-wavelength sensitive opsin (SWS1) as a new marker for vertebrate phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrate SWS1 visual pigments mediate visual transduction in response to light at short wavelengths. Due to their importance in vision, SWS1 genes have been isolated from a surprisingly wide range of vertebrates, including lampreys, teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The SWS1 genes exhibit many of the characteristics of genes typically targeted for phylogenetic analyses. This study investigates both the utility of SWS1 as a marker for inferring vertebrate phylogenetic relationships, and the characteristics of the gene that contribute to its phylogenetic utility. Results Phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate SWS1 genes produced topologies that were remarkably congruent with generally accepted hypotheses of vertebrate evolution at both higher and lower taxonomic levels. The few exceptions were generally associated with areas of poor taxonomic sampling, or relationships that have been difficult to resolve using other molecular markers. The SWS1 data set was characterized by a substantial amount of among-site rate variation, and a relatively unskewed substitution rate matrix, even when the data were partitioned into different codon sites and individual taxonomic groups. Although there were nucleotide biases in some groups at third positions, these biases were not convergent across different taxonomic groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that SWS1 may be a good marker for vertebrate phylogenetics due to the variable yet consistent patterns of sequence evolution exhibited across fairly wide taxonomic groups. This may result from constraints imposed by the functional role of SWS1 pigments in visual transduction. PMID:17107620

van Hazel, Ilke; Santini, Francesco; Muller, Johannes; Chang, Belinda SW

2006-01-01

153

Evolution and Expression Plasticity of Opsin Genes in a Fig Pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi  

E-print Network

, 6 Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract Figs to their distinct lifestyles and different responses to light within the syconia. Co-evolutionary history with figs

Murphy, Bob

154

Opsin localization and chromophore retinoids identified within the basal brain of the lizard Anolis carolinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of this century evidence has accumulated which demonstrates that non-mammalian vertebrates possess photoreceptors situated deep within the brain. While many attempts have been made to localize these sensory cells, studies have either failed or been inconclusive. In this report we have used several experimental approaches to localize the deep brain photoreceptors of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. Using

R. G. Foster; J. M. Garcia-Fernandez; I. Provencio; W. J. DeGrip

1993-01-01

155

Opsin switch reveals function of the ultraviolet cone in fish foraging  

PubMed Central

Although several studies have shown that ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths are important in naturally occurring, visually guided behaviours of vertebrates, the function of the UV cone in such behaviours is unknown. Here, I used thyroid hormone to transform the UV cones of young rainbow trout into blue cones, a phenomenon that occurs naturally as the animal grows, to test whether the resulting loss of UV sensitivity affected the animal's foraging performance on Daphnia magna, a prey zooplankton. The distances and angles at which prey were located (variables that are known indicators of foraging performance) were significantly reduced for UV knock-out fish compared with controls. Optical measurements and photon-catch calculations revealed that the contrast of Daphnia was greater when perceived by the visual system of control versus that of thyroid-hormone-treated fish, demonstrating that the UV cone enhanced the foraging performance of young rainbow trout. Because most juvenile fishes have UV cones and feed on zooplankton, this finding has wide implications for understanding the visual ecology of fishes. The enhanced target contrast provided by UV cones could be used by other vertebrates in various behaviours, including foraging, mate selection and communication. PMID:23222448

Novales Flamarique, Inigo

2013-01-01

156

Cell-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns of Retina-Specific Genes  

PubMed Central

Many studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are important in the regulation of gene expression during embryogenesis, gametogenesis, and other forms of tissue-specific gene regulation. We sought to explore the possible role of epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, in the establishment and maintenance of cell type-restricted gene expression in the retina. To assess the relationship between DNA methylation status and expression level of retinal genes, bisulfite sequence analysis of the 1000 bp region around the transcription start sites (TSS) of representative rod and cone photoreceptor-specific genes and gene expression analysis were performed in the WERI and Y79 human retinoblastoma cell lines. Next, the homologous genes in mouse were bisulfite sequenced in the retina and in non-expressing tissues. Finally, bisulfite sequencing was performed on isolated photoreceptor and non-photoreceptor retinal cells isolated by laser capture microdissection. Differential methylation of rhodopsin (RHO), retinal binding protein 3 (RBP3, IRBP) cone opsin, short-wave-sensitive (OPN1SW), cone opsin, middle-wave-sensitive (OPN1MW), and cone opsin, long-wave-sensitive (OPN1LW) was found in the retinoblastoma cell lines that inversely correlated with gene expression levels. Similarly, we found tissue-specific hypomethylation of the promoter region of Rho and Rbp3 in mouse retina as compared to non-expressing tissues, and also observed hypomethylation of retinal-expressed microRNAs. The Rho and Rbp3 promoter regions were unmethylated in expressing photoreceptor cells and methylated in non-expressing, non-photoreceptor cells from the inner nuclear layer. A third regional hypomethylation pattern of photoreceptor-specific genes was seen in a subpopulation of non-expressing photoreceptors (Rho in cones from the Nrl ?/? mouse and Opn1sw in rods). These results demonstrate that a number of photoreceptor-specific genes have cell-specific differential DNA methylation that correlates inversely with their expression level. Furthermore, these cell-specific patterns suggest that DNA methylation may play an important role in modulating photoreceptor gene expression in the developing mammalian retina. PMID:22403679

Merbs, Shannath L.; Khan, Miriam A.; Hackler, Laszlo; Oliver, Verity F.; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J.

2012-01-01

157

Opsin cDNA sequences of a UV and green rhodopsin of the satyrine butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNAs of an ultraviolet (UV) and long-wavelength (LW) (green) absorbing rhodopsin of the bush brown Bicyclus anynana were partially identified. The UV sequence, encoding 377 amino acids, is 76–79% identical to the UV sequences of the papilionids Papilioglaucus and Papilio xuthus and the moth Manduca sexta. A dendrogram derived from aligning the amino acid sequences reveals an equidistant position

K. J. A. Vanhoutte; B. J. L. Eggen; J. J. M. Janssen; D. G. Stavenga

2002-01-01

158

Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Supports Normal Development of Photoreceptor Neurons and Opsin Expression after Retinal Pigment Epithelium Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), its loss, or separation from the underlying neural retina results in severe photoreceptor degeneration. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with reported neuroprotective and dif- ferentiation properties that is secreted in abundance by RPE cells. The \\

Monica M. Jablonski; Joyce Tombran-Tink; David A. Mrazek; Alessandro Iannaccone

2000-01-01

159

RRH, encoding the RPE-expressed opsin-like peropsin, is not mutated in retinitis pigmentosa and allied diseases  

E-print Network

to blindness after several decades of evolution. To date, 45 known genes/loci have been identified in non) and childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy, LRAT 10, 11 causing rare cases of RP and LCA, RLBP1 encoding

Boyer, Edmond

160

Cone Opsin Mislocalization in Rpe65\\/ Mice: A Defect That Can Be Corrected by 11-cis Retinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. In retinal degenerative diseases, rod photoreceptors typically deteriorate more rapidly than cone photoreceptors. In the Rpe65\\/ mouse, a model for Leber's congenital amau- rosis, cones degenerate much more rapidly than rods. In this model, the retinoid processing pathway in the retinal pigment epithelium is disrupted, and 11-cis retinal is not generated. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility

Baerbel Rohrer; Heather R. Lohr; Peter Humphries; T. Michael Redmond; Mathias W. Seeliger; Rosalie K. Crouch

161

From the ultrasonic to the infrared: molecular evolution and the sensory biology of bats  

PubMed Central

Great advances have been made recently in understanding the genetic basis of the sensory biology of bats. Research has focused on the molecular evolution of candidate sensory genes, genes with known functions [e.g., olfactory receptor (OR) genes] and genes identified from mutations associated with sensory deficits (e.g., blindness and deafness). For example, the FoxP2 gene, underpinning vocal behavior and sensorimotor coordination, has undergone diversification in bats, while several genes associated with audition show parallel amino acid substitutions in unrelated lineages of echolocating bats and, in some cases, in echolocating dolphins, representing a classic case of convergent molecular evolution. Vision genes encoding the photopigments rhodopsin and the long-wave sensitive opsin are functional in bats, while that encoding the short-wave sensitive opsin has lost functionality in rhinolophoid bats using high-duty cycle laryngeal echolocation, suggesting a sensory trade-off between investment in vision and echolocation. In terms of olfaction, bats appear to have a distinctive OR repertoire compared with other mammals, and a gene involved in signal transduction in the vomeronasal system has become non-functional in most bat species. Bitter taste receptors appear to have undergone a “birth-and death” evolution involving extensive gene duplication and loss, unlike genes coding for sweet and umami tastes that show conservation across most lineages but loss in vampire bats. Common vampire bats have also undergone adaptations for thermoperception, via alternative splicing resulting in the evolution of a novel heat-sensitive channel. The future for understanding the molecular basis of sensory biology is promising, with great potential for comparative genomic analyses, studies on gene regulation and expression, exploration of the role of alternative splicing in the generation of proteomic diversity, and linking genetic mechanisms to behavioral consequences. PMID:23755015

Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

162

From the ultrasonic to the infrared: molecular evolution and the sensory biology of bats.  

PubMed

Great advances have been made recently in understanding the genetic basis of the sensory biology of bats. Research has focused on the molecular evolution of candidate sensory genes, genes with known functions [e.g., olfactory receptor (OR) genes] and genes identified from mutations associated with sensory deficits (e.g., blindness and deafness). For example, the FoxP2 gene, underpinning vocal behavior and sensorimotor coordination, has undergone diversification in bats, while several genes associated with audition show parallel amino acid substitutions in unrelated lineages of echolocating bats and, in some cases, in echolocating dolphins, representing a classic case of convergent molecular evolution. Vision genes encoding the photopigments rhodopsin and the long-wave sensitive opsin are functional in bats, while that encoding the short-wave sensitive opsin has lost functionality in rhinolophoid bats using high-duty cycle laryngeal echolocation, suggesting a sensory trade-off between investment in vision and echolocation. In terms of olfaction, bats appear to have a distinctive OR repertoire compared with other mammals, and a gene involved in signal transduction in the vomeronasal system has become non-functional in most bat species. Bitter taste receptors appear to have undergone a "birth-and death" evolution involving extensive gene duplication and loss, unlike genes coding for sweet and umami tastes that show conservation across most lineages but loss in vampire bats. Common vampire bats have also undergone adaptations for thermoperception, via alternative splicing resulting in the evolution of a novel heat-sensitive channel. The future for understanding the molecular basis of sensory biology is promising, with great potential for comparative genomic analyses, studies on gene regulation and expression, exploration of the role of alternative splicing in the generation of proteomic diversity, and linking genetic mechanisms to behavioral consequences. PMID:23755015

Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C; Rossiter, Stephen J

2013-01-01

163

Lambda waves and occipital generators.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between lambda waves (LWs) and other occipital waveforms, in a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEGs) of clinic and hospitalized patients at a single center. The LWs were correlated with ? rhythm, photic driving, and positive occipital sharp transients of sleep (POSTS). A computer-generated cursor quantified amplitude and duration of POSTS and LWs (3 waveforms and both hemispheres). Fisher exact test was used for significance (P ? .05). A total of 116 patients were evaluated. Of 111 patients, with interpretable results, 74 (66.67%) had visual scanning during EEG, with 37 (50.0%) having LWs. The LWs (17.69 µV) were consistently smaller than POSTS (31.40 µV) despite similar morphology. Patients with an ? rhythm of >8.5 Hz were strongly correlated with the presence of LWs (P < .0001), and those with LWs were strongly predictive of normal EEG (P = .001). Of the 37 patients, 27 (73.0%) with LWs had photic driving (P = .0496). No correlation was found between LWs and POSTS (P = .45). The presence of LWs and a low normal posterior dominant rhythm (PDR) suggests intact electrocerebral health. LWs and the photic driving response suggest similar generators but stimulus-specific networks. POSTS differ from LWs despite similar morphology, suggesting different network activation of occipital generators. LWs have clinical significance in excluding encephalopathy. Occipital generators are differentiated by state and stimulus-dependent network activation and not by location and morphology. PMID:23545245

Tatum, William O; Ly, Reynold C; Sluzewska-Niedzwiedz, Monika; Shih, Jerry J

2013-10-01

164

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 11/14/06 11:27 AM  

E-print Network

: University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center Morse Hall, Durham, NH 03824 United States AU: Landi, E EM: Markovskii, S EM: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu AF: University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center Morse Hall: Forbes, T G EM: terry.forbes@unh.edu AF: University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center Morse Hall

Ng, Chung-Sang

165

GRK1Dependent Phosphorylation of S and M Opsins and Their Binding to Cone Arrestin during Cone Phototransduction in the Mouse Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphor- ylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the quenching of the phototransduction cascade in cone photoreceptors

Xuemei Zhu; Bruce Brown; Aimin Li; Alan J. Mears; Anand Swaroop; Cheryl M. Craft

2003-01-01

166

Introduction Color vision enables animals to reliably detect and recognize  

E-print Network

), whereas another nymphalid, Vanessa atalanta, despite having color vision, is unable to do so. In the eyes, both S opsin or one M opsin and one S opsin: Vanessa cardui (Briscoe et al., 2003); Danaus plexippus either broadband light (300­700·nm) as in Vanessa cardui (Briscoe et al., 2003), or relatively narrow

167

The Living with a Star Program Mission Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LWS (Living With a Star) is research science focused to facilitate enabling science for spacecraft design (specifically environment specification models) and spacecraft operations (specifically Space Weather research). The following topics are discussed: LWS goals and program, program architecture, the solar dynamic observer, the geospace plan, the space environment testbed concept, and the heliosphere missions.

Barth, Janet; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

168

Evolving the Living With a Star Data System Definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) Program is a space weather-focused and applications-driven research program. The LWS Program is soliciting input from the solar, space physics, space weather, and climate science communities to develop a system that enables access to science data associated with these disciplines, and advances the development of discipline and interdisciplinary findings. The LWS Program will implement a data system that builds upon the existing and planned data capture, processing, and storage components put in place by individual spacecraft missions and also inter-project data management systems, such as active archives, deep archives, and multi-mission repositories. It is technically feasible for the LWS Program to integrate data from a broad set of resources, assuming they are either publicly accessible or access is permitted by the system’s administrators. The LWS Program data system will work in coordination with spacecraft mission data systems and science data repositories, integrating them into a common data representation. This common representation relies on a robust metadata definition that provides journalistic and technical data descriptions, plus linkages to supporting data products and tools. The LWS Program intends to become an enabling resource to PIs, interdisciplinary scientists, researchers, and students facilitating both access to a broad collection of science data, as well as the necessary supporting components to understand and make productive use of the data. For the LWS Program to represent science data that is physically distributed across various ground system elements, information about the data products stored on each system is collected through a series of LWS-created active agents. These active agents are customized to interface or interact with each one of these data systems, collect information, and forward updates to a single LWS-developed metadata broker. This broker, in turn, updates a centralized repository of LWS-specific metadata. A populated LWS metadata database is a single point-of-contact that can serve all users (the science community) with a “one-stop-shop” for data access. While data may not be physically stored in an LWS-specific repository, the LWS system enables data access from wherever the data are stored. Moreover, LWS provides the user access to information for understanding the data source, format, and calibration, enables access to ancillary and correlative data products, provides links to processing tools and models associated with the data, and any corresponding findings. The LWS may also support an active archive for solar, space physics, space weather, and climate data when these data would otherwise be discarded or archived off-line. This archive could potentially serve as a backup facility for LWS missions. This plan is developed based upon input already received from the science community; the architecture is based on system developed to date that have worked well on a smaller scale. The LWS Program continues to seek constructive input from the science community, examples of both successes and failures in dealing with science data systems, and insights regarding the obstacles between the current state-of-the-practice and this vision for the LWS Program data system.

Otranto, J.; Dijoseph, M.; Worrall, W.

2003-04-01

169

Downregulation of Cone-Specific Gene Expression and Degeneration of Cone Photoreceptors in the Rpe65\\/ Mouse at Early Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. The short-wavelength (SWL) cone opsin mRNA was markedly decreased at 2 weeks of age, whereas the decrease in the middle-wavelength (MWL) cone opsin mRNA occurred relatively later in age. In contrast, the rhodopsin mRNA level did not show any significant change at all the ages analyzed. Consistent with the cone opsin changes, the cone transducin -subunit mRNA decreased at

Sergey L. Znoiko; Baerbel Rohrer; Kangmo Lu; Heather R. Lohr; Rosalie K. Crouch; Jian-xing Ma

170

The nop-1 gene of Neurospora crassa encodes a seven transmembrane helix retinal-binding protein homologous to archaeal rhodopsins  

PubMed Central

Opsins are a class of retinal-binding, seven transmembrane helix proteins that function as light-responsive ion pumps or sensory receptors. Previously, genes encoding opsins had been identified in animals and the Archaea but not in fungi or other eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we report the identification and mutational analysis of an opsin gene, nop-1, from the eukaryotic filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. The nop-1 amino acid sequence predicts a protein that shares up to 81.8% amino acid identity with archaeal opsins in the 22 retinal binding pocket residues, including the conserved lysine residue that forms a Schiff base linkage with retinal. Evolutionary analysis revealed relatedness not only between NOP-1 and archaeal opsins but also between NOP-1 and several fungal opsin-related proteins that lack the Schiff base lysine residue. The results provide evidence for a eukaryotic opsin family homologous to the archaeal opsins, providing a plausible link between archaeal and visual opsins. Extensive analysis of ?nop-1 strains did not reveal obvious defects in light-regulated processes under normal laboratory conditions. However, results from Northern analysis support light and conidiation-based regulation of nop-1 gene expression, and NOP-1 protein heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris is labeled by using all-trans [3H]retinal, suggesting that NOP-1 functions as a rhodopsin in N. crassa photobiology. PMID:10393943

Bieszke, Jennifer A.; Braun, Edward L.; Bean, Laura E.; Kang, Seogchan; Natvig, Donald O.; Borkovich, Katherine A.

1999-01-01

171

A comparison of the efficiency of G protein activation by ligand-free and light-activated forms of rhodopsin.  

PubMed Central

Activation of the photoreceptor G protein transducin (Gt) by opsin, the ligand-free form of rhodopsin, was measured using rod outer segment membranes with densities of opsin and Gt similar to those found in rod cells. When GTPgammaS was used as the activating nucleotide, opsin catalyzed transducin activation with an exponential time course with a rate constant k(act) on the order of 2 x 10(-3)s(-1). Comparison under these conditions to activation by flash-generated metarhodopsin II (MII) revealed that opsin- and R*-catalyzed activation showed similar kinetics when MII was present at a surface density approximately 10(-6) lower than that of opsin. Thus, in contrast to some previous reports, we find that the catalytic potency of opsin is only approximately 10(-6) that of MII. In the presence of residual retinaldehyde-derived species present in membranes treated with hydroxylamine after bleaching, the apparent k(act) observed was much higher than that for opsin, suggesting a possible explanation for previous reports of more efficient activation by opsin. These results are important for considering the possible role of opsin in the diverse phenomena in which it has been suggested to play a key role, such as bleaching desensitization and retinal degeneration induced by continuous light or vitamin A deprivation. PMID:9414230

Melia, T J; Cowan, C W; Angleson, J K; Wensel, T G

1997-01-01

172

Targeted Research and Technology Within NASA's Living With a Star Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

Hesse, Michael

2003-01-01

173

Fluid-Rock Interaction at the Slab-Mantle Interface: Insights from the High Pressure Rocks of the Sivrihisar Massif, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is transported into the deep parts of the subduction system via hydrous phases such as lawsonite (lws, 11 wt.% H2O), phengite (ph, 4%), amphibole (4%), epidote-group minerals (2-4%), talc (5%), and chlorite (12%). These hydrous phases are abundant in the metabasaltic (lws eclogite and blueschist) and metasedimentary (marble, quartzite) rocks of the Sivrihisar Massif (Turkey), where they can exceed 40% modal abundance. The hydrous nature of these rocks (~5-6 wt.% H2O) likely reflects the effects of prolonged fluid-rock interaction at or near the slab-mantle interface at depths up to ~80 km for at least ~10 Ma, as indicated by the difference in 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages for lws eclogite and lws blueschist that formed from eclogite during decompression. To document the conditions, scale, and mechanism of fluid-mineral interaction at 80-45 km depth in a Late Cretaceous subduction zone, we integrate geochemical (major and trace element compositions, zoning patterns), geochronologic (40Ar/39Ar phengite), and microstructural (EBSD, XRCT) data. These techniques are applied to minerals in different textural positions (grt inclusions, fabric-forming minerals in matrix, HP veins) to investigate changes as a function of P-T conditions and to minerals in different structural positions (proximity to fault contact with overlying ultramafic unit, serpentinite lenses, lithologic contacts) to evaluate the effects of deformation and identify fluid sources and pathways. Microprobe analysis and mapping shows that lawsonite is commonly zoned in Fe, Ti, and (less common) Cr. Cr zoning is typically oscillatory and occurs in lws+grt+ph veins at lws-ecl pod margins or in blueschist located along lithologic or structural contacts. Blueschist/eclogite lws zoned in Fe typically has a Fe-poor core and Fe-richer rim, but oscillatory Fe zoning is also observed in lws veins and coarse-grained lws at pod margins. Fe-poor cores are enriched in Ti. Hourglass Ti sector zoning is common in blueschist, and can be seen in prism sections of grains cut parallel to the c-axis. Grains cut perpendicular to the c-axis show less zoning, with the exception of oscillatory rim zoning. Highly deformed lws (displaying subgrains) and lws clusters have irregular, patchy zoning patterns. Lws in retrogressed (chl+ep+lws) rocks have higher Fe content; chl-lws rocks at the margins of serpentinite lenses in the HP unit have elevated trace element content. Together, these observations indicate crystallographic and environmental control on lws composition and zoning; systematic evaluation of these characteristics and trends for different generations of lws provides information about how the fluid-rock history evolved with the P-T-time-deformation path.

Fornash, K.; Whitney, D. L.; Cosca, M. A.

2013-12-01

174

Distinct Evolutionary Patterns Between Two Duplicated Color Vision Genes Within Cyprinid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the molecular evolution of duplicated color vision genes (LWS-1 and SWS2) within cyprinid fish, focusing on the most cavefish-rich genus—Sinocyclocheilus. Maximum likelihood-based codon substitution approaches were used to analyze the evolution of vision genes. We found that\\u000a the duplicated color vision genes had unequal evolutionary rates, which may lead to a related function divergence. Divergence\\u000a of LWS-1 was

Zhiqiang Li; Xiaoni Gan; Shunping He

2009-01-01

175

Excitation of Langmuir waves by the lower energy cutoff behavior of power-law electrons  

E-print Network

Langmuir waves (LWs), which are believed to play a crucial role in the plasma emission of solar radio bursts, can be excited by streaming instability of energetic electron beams. However, solar hard X-ray observations imply that the energetic flare electrons usually have a power-law energy distribution with a lower energy cutoff. In this paper, we investigate LWs driven by the power-law electrons. The results show that power-law electrons with the steepness cutoff behavior can excite LWs effectively because of the population inversion distribution below the cutoff energy ($E_c$). The growth rate of LWs increases with the steepness index ($\\delta$) and decreases with the power-law index ($\\alpha$). The wave number of the fastest growing LWs ($k\\lambda_D$), decreases with the characteristic velocity of the power-law electrons ($v_{c}=\\sqrt{2E_{c}/m_{e}}$) and increases with the thermal velocity of ambient electrons ($v_T$). This can be helpful for us to understand better the physics of LWs and the dynamics of e...

Tang, Jianfei; Zhao, Guoqing; Chen, Ling; Tan, Chengming

2014-01-01

176

Gene 230 (1999) 101109 Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate  

E-print Network

Gene 230 (1999) 101­109 Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate insect opsin-length cDNA clones encoding the PglRh3 opsin from the tiger swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus were; Papilio glaucus; PglRh3; Visual pigments 1. Introduction green- and green- or long

177

Identification and characterization of a protostome homologue of peropsin from a jumping spider.  

PubMed

Peropsin, a member of the opsin family, has characteristics of two functionally distinct opsin-groups, that is, amino acid residues conserved among opsins for light-sensing and a retinal-photoisomerase-like molecular property. Although such a bilateral feature of peropsin seems to be important for understanding the diversity of the opsin family, previous studies have been limited to higher deuterostome, vertebrate and amphioxus peropsins. Here, we report a protostome peropsin homologue from a jumping spider. We found a spider opsin that shares amino acid homology and conserved amino acid residues with known peropsins. The spider opsin-based pigment heterologously expressed in cultured cells exhibited photoisomerase-like isomerization characteristics and a bistable nature. Based on the characteristics of both the amino acid homology and its photochemical properties, we concluded that the spider opsin is the first protostome peropsin homologue. These results show that peropsin existed before the deuterostome-protostome split like other members of the opsin family. In addition, the spider peropsin was localized to non-visual cells in the retina, and fluorescence from reduced retinal chromophore was also observed in the region where peropsin was localized. These findings provide the first demonstration that the peropsin can form a photosensitive pigment in vivo and underlie non-visual function. PMID:19960196

Nagata, Takashi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

2010-01-01

178

Bat eyes have ultraviolet-sensitive cone photoreceptors.  

PubMed

Mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. For colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins) that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light) and long wavelengths (green or red light). Microchiropteran bats, which use echolocation to navigate and forage in complete darkness, have long been considered to have pure rod retinae. Here we use opsin immunohistochemistry to show that two phyllostomid microbats, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata, possess a significant population of cones and express two cone opsins, a shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin and a longwave-sensitive (L) opsin. A substantial population of cones expresses S opsin exclusively, whereas the other cones mostly coexpress L and S opsin. S opsin gene analysis suggests ultraviolet (UV, wavelengths <400 nm) sensitivity, and corneal electroretinogram recordings reveal an elevated sensitivity to UV light which is mediated by an S cone visual pigment. Therefore bats have retained the ancestral UV tuning of the S cone pigment. We conclude that bats have the prerequisite for daylight vision, dichromatic colour vision, and UV vision. For bats, the UV-sensitive cones may be advantageous for visual orientation at twilight, predator avoidance, and detection of UV-reflecting flowers for those that feed on nectar. PMID:19636375

Müller, Brigitte; Glösmann, Martin; Peichl, Leo; Knop, Gabriel C; Hagemann, Cornelia; Ammermüller, Josef

2009-01-01

179

BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

. This chromophore, which exhibits a remarkable opsin red shift (140 nm), represents a useful model system is known as the opsin shift (OS). The absorbance maximum of visual pigments spans from the near UV at about with n- butylamine absorbs at 440 nm. Experimental and theoretical considerations led to the external

Keinan, Ehud

180

Aberrant Metabolites in Mouse Models of Congenital Blinding Diseases: Formation and Storage of Retinyl Esters  

E-print Network

RPE65, but they are reduced in double knockout mice also lacking opsin, suggesting a connection-retinyl esters, regardless of the simultaneous disruption of RPE65, opsin, and prRDH. 13-cis of the retinoid cycle genes are linked to human conditions that cause congenital or progressive defects in vision

Palczewski, Krzysztof

181

Pathophysilogical mechanism and treatment strategies for Leber congenital amaurosis.  

PubMed

Mutations in retinoid isomerase, RPE65, or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) disrupt 11-cis-retinal recycling and cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), the most severe retinal dystrophy in early childhood. We used Lrat (-/-), a murine model for LCA, to investigate the mechanism of rapid cone degeneration. We found that mislocalized M-opsin was degraded whereas mislocalized S-opsin accumulated in Lrat (-/-) cones before the onset of massive ventral/central cone degeneration. Since the ventral and central retina expresses higher levels of S-opsin than the dorsal retina in mice, our results may explain why ventral and central cones degenerate more rapidly than dorsal cones in Rpe65 (-/-) and Lrat (-/-) LCA models. In addition, human blue opsin and mouse S-opsin, but not mouse M-opsin or human red/green opsins, aggregated to form cytoplasmic inclusions in transfected cells, which may explain why blue cone function is lost earlier than red/green-cone function in LCA patients. The aggregation of short-wavelength opsins likely caused rapid cone degenerations through an ER stress pathway as demonstrated in both the Lrat (-/-) retina and transfected cells. Based on this mechanism, we designed a new therapy of LCA by reducing ER stress. We found that systemic injection of an ER chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), is effective in reducing ER stress, preventing apoptosis, and preserving cones in Lrat (-/-) mice. PMID:24664772

Fu, Yingbin; Zhang, Tao

2014-01-01

182

Into the blue: Gene duplication and loss underlie color vision adaptations in a deep-sea chimaera, the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii  

PubMed Central

The cartilaginous fishes reside at the base of the gnathostome lineage as the oldest extant group of jawed vertebrates. Recently, the genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaerid holocephalan, has been sequenced and therefore becomes the first cartilaginous fish to be analyzed in this way. The chimaeras have been largely neglected and very little is known about the visual systems of these fishes. By searching the elephant shark genome, we have identified gene fragments encoding a rod visual pigment, Rh1, and three cone visual pigments, the middle wavelength-sensitive or Rh2 pigment, and two isoforms of the long wavelength-sensitive or LWS pigment, LWS1 and LWS2, but no evidence for the two short wavelength-sensitive cone classes, SWS1 and SWS2. Expression of these genes in the retina was confirmed by RT-PCR. Full-length coding sequences were used for in vitro expression and gave the following peak absorbances: Rh1 496 nm, Rh2 442 nm, LWS1 499 nm, and LWS2 548 nm. Unusually, therefore, for a deep-sea fish, the elephant shark possesses cone pigments and the potential for trichromacy. Compared with other vertebrates, the elephant shark Rh2 and LWS1 pigments are the shortest wavelength-shifted pigments of their respective classes known to date. The mechanisms for this are discussed and we provide experimental evidence that the elephant shark LWS1 pigment uses a novel tuning mechanism to achieve the short wavelength shift to 499 nm, which inactivates the chloride-binding site. Our findings have important implications for the present knowledge of color vision evolution in early vertebrates. PMID:19196633

Davies, Wayne L.; Carvalho, Livia S.; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Hunt, David M.; Venkatesh, Byrappa

2009-01-01

183

Dichromatic vision in a fruit bat with diurnal proclivities: the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis).  

PubMed

A nocturnal bottleneck during mammalian evolution left a majority of species with two cone opsins, or dichromatic color vision. Primate trichromatic vision arose from the duplication and divergence of an X-linked opsin gene, and is long attributed to tandem shifts from nocturnality to diurnality and from insectivory to frugivory. Opsin gene variation and at least one duplication event exist in the order Chiroptera, suggesting that trichromatic vision could evolve under favorable ecological conditions. The natural history of the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis) meets these conditions-it is a large bat that consumes nectar and fruit and demonstrates strong diurnal proclivities. It also possesses a visual system that is strikingly similar to that of primates. To explore the potential for opsin gene duplication and divergence in this species, we sequenced the opsin genes of 11 individuals (19 X-chromosomes) from three South Pacific islands. Our results indicate the uniform presence of two opsins with predicted peak sensitivities of ca. 360 and 553 nm. This result fails to support a causal link between diurnal frugivory and trichromatic vision, although it remains plausible that the diurnal activities of P. samoensis have insufficient antiquity to favor opsin gene renovation. PMID:25319538

Melin, Amanda D; Danosi, Christina F; McCracken, Gary F; Dominy, Nathaniel J

2014-12-01

184

Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence  

PubMed Central

Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73%) occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the expression of multiple genes are required in order to produce functional phenotypes. PMID:23267665

2012-01-01

185

Number and Distribution of Mouse Retinal Cone Photoreceptors: Differences between an Albino (Swiss) and a Pigmented (C57/BL6) Strain  

PubMed Central

We purpose here to analyze and compare the population and topography of cone photoreceptors in two mouse strains using automated routines, and to design a method of retinal sampling for their accurate manual quantification. In whole-mounted retinas from pigmented C57/BL6 and albino Swiss mice, the longwave-sensitive (L) and the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsins were immunodetected to analyze the population of each cone type. In another group of retinas both opsins were detected with the same fluorophore to quantify all cones. In a third set of retinas, L-opsin and Brn3a were immunodetected to determine whether L-opsin+cones and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have a parallel distribution. Cones and RGCs were automatically quantified and their topography illustrated with isodensity maps. Our results show that pigmented mice have a significantly higher number of total cones (all-cones) and of L-opsin+cones than albinos which, in turn, have a higher population of S-opsin+cones. In pigmented animals 40% of cones are dual (cones that express both opsins), 34% genuine-L (cones that only express the L-opsin), and 26% genuine-S (cones that only express the S-opsin). In albinos, 23% of cones are genuine-S and the proportion of dual cones increases to 76% at the expense of genuine-L cones. In both strains, L-opsin+cones are denser in the central than peripheral retina, and all-cones density increases dorso-ventrally. In pigmented animals S-opsin+cones are scarce in the dorsal retina and very numerous in the ventral retina, being densest in its nasal aspect. In albinos, S-opsin+cones are abundant in the dorsal retina, although their highest densities are also ventral. Based on the densities of each cone population, we propose a sampling method to manually quantify and infer their total population. In conclusion, these data provide the basis to study cone degeneration and its prevention in pathologic conditions. PMID:25029531

Jimenez-Lopez, Manuel; Alburquerque-Bejar, Juan J.; Nieto-Lopez, Leticia; Garcia-Ayuso, Diego; Villegas-Perez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

2014-01-01

186

Living With a Star, the Geospace Mission Definition Team and Aeronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To gain an understanding of the Sun-Earth system, including how and why the sun varies, how the earth responds, and the impacts on humanity, research is needed that has a integrated and systematic approach. The Living With a Star (LWS) program represents an important element in this regard both to continued progress in space science in general and in Aeronomy in particular. A fundamental question in Aeronomy is how the variable sun affects the ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. The LWS program focuses on those areas of scientific understanding that promote progress in areas that have human impact and can be investigated with space borne instruments. The Geospace Mission Definition Team is charged with investigating the science priorities identified by the LWS Science Architecture Team and developing an approach to making the necessary measurements in concert with other missions and programs. An important aspect of this approach is that all LWS measurement programs are operating simultaneously for several years. We will review some of the areas that the LWS SAT have emphasized in Aeronomy, including understanding the effects of solar variability on ionospheric density and irregularities, the effects of solar variability on the mass density of the atmosphere at LEO altitudes, and the effects of solar variability on near-surface temperatures and on ozone distribution.

Kintner, Paul M., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Spann, Jim; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

187

Laser Wire Scanner Basic Process and Perspectives for the CTF's and CLIC Machines  

E-print Network

In a laser wire scanner, the basic idea is to replace the solid wire classically used in a standard wire scanner by a narrow laser beam. The basic process involved is the Thomson-Compton scattering process, where photons are scattered from the laser beam by the incoming electrons. By counting the number of scattered photons or degraded electrons as a function of laser position the bunch profile can be reconstructed. In this note the Compton scattering mechanism is first presented. In the framework of the CLIC project, a laser wire scanner (LWS) could be used as a non-interfering beam profile measurement both on the Drive Beam for a high current electron beam and on the Main Beam for very small electron beam sizes. A design for a LWS on the CTF2 and CTF3 machines is proposed and some considerations for the use of a LWS on the CLIC main beam are also mentioned.

Lefèvre, T

2002-01-01

188

Modulation of propagation-invariant Localized Waves for FSO communication systems.  

PubMed

The novel concept of spatio-temporal modulation of Nyquist pulses is introduced, and the resulting wave-packets are termed Nyquist Localized Waves (LWs). Ideal Nyquist LWs belong to the generic family of LW solutions and can propagate indefinitely in unbounded media without attenuation or chromatic dispersion. The possibility of modulating Nyquist LWs for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems is demonstrated using two different modulation techniques. The first technique is on-off keying (OOK) with alternate mark inversion (AMI) coding for 1-bit per symbol transmission, and the second one is 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) for 4-bits per symbol transmission. Aspects related to the performance, detection and generation of the spatio-temporally coupled wave-packets are discussed and future research directions are outlined. PMID:22772211

Salem, Mohamed A; Ba?c?, Hakan

2012-07-01

189

Characterization of RPE65 and RDH12, Two Enzymes Associated with Retinal Dystrophy and Retinoid Processing.  

E-print Network

??Phototransduction in vertebrate vision is mediated by visual pigments composed of opsin apoproteins covalently attached to a light-sensitive chromophore, 11-cis retinal. Absorption of light isomerizes… (more)

Chrispell, Jared D.

2010-01-01

190

Supporting Information Section S1: Known Spectral Tuning Sites  

E-print Network

, Seehausen O (2005) Colour vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids of the genus Pundamilia. Mol Ecol selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids. PLoS Biol 4: 2244-2251. Section S

Carleton, Karen L.

191

Animals are composed of cell types that are specialized for functions as diverse as nutrient uptake, contraction,  

E-print Network

photoreceptors in humans and worms harbour orthologous opsins7 , and that the stripes of striated muscle cells reconstruct systems such as the urbilaterian brain, eyes and immune system. Molecular fingerprinting also

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

192

RPE65 Is Essential for the Function of Cone Photoreceptors in NRL-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Phototransduction in cones is initiated by the bleaching of their visual pigment, which comprises a protein component— cone opsin—and a vitamin A derivative—11-cis retinal. Little is known about the source of 11-cis retinal for cones. In the current study, neural retina leucine zipper-deficient (Nrl\\/) and rod opsin (Rho\\/)-deficient mice were used, two mouse models that have been described as

Andreas Wenzel; Johannes von Lintig; Vitus Oberhauser; Naoyuki Tanimoto; Christian Grimm; Mathias W. Seeliger

2007-01-01

193

Development of visual cells in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells was investigated in the retinas of Pacific bluefin tuna larvae and juveniles,\\u000a using RET-P1 monoclonal antibody labeling to identify photoreceptors. At 60 h after hatching, which was about when feeding\\u000a began, opsin (presumably green opsin (Rh2)) was expressed in the outer segments of cone cells. At 15 days after hatching (dah),\\u000a although many labeled

R. Matsuura; Y. Sawada; Y. Ishibashi

2010-01-01

194

Single-Copy Nuclear Genes Recover Cretaceous-Age Divergences in Bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the higher level phylogeny of the bee family Halictidae based on the coding regions of three single-copy nuclear genes (long-wavelength (LW) opsin, wingless, and elongation factor 1-? (EF-1?)). Our combined data set consisted of 2,234 aligned nucleotide sites (702 base pairs (bp) for LW opsin, 405 bp for wingless, and 1,127 bp for EF-1?) and 779 parsimony-informative sites.

BRYAN N. DANFORTH; S E ´ AN G. BRADY; SEDONIA SIPES; ADAM PEARSON

2004-01-01

195

Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary of activities: (1) FYO1 NRA - Model development and data mining. (2) FY03 NRA - Flight investigations. (3) SET carrier development. (4) Study for accommodation of SET carrier to support advanced detectors. (5) Collaboration with other programs: LWS TR&T to maximize synergy between TR&T space environment research and SET space environment effects research. LWS Data System to optimize dissemination of SET data. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program to leverage ground testing of technologies. Defense Threat Reduction Agency to leverage ground testing and common interests in advanced detectors. and Air Force Research Laboratory to leverage flight opportunities. (6) Education and Public Outreach.

Barth, Janet

2003-01-01

196

The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

197

NASA space shuttle lightweight seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

1996-01-01

198

Encephalic photoreception and phototactic response in the troglobiont Somalian blind cavefish Phreatichthys andruzzii  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many physiological and behavioural responses to changes in environmental lighting conditions are mediated by extraocular photoreceptors. Here we investigate encephalic photoreception in Phreatichthys andruzzii, a typical cave-dwelling fish showing an extreme phenotype with complete anophthalmy and a reduction in size of associated brain structures. We firstly identified two P. andruzzii photopigments, orthologues of rod opsin and exo-rod opsin. In vitro, both opsins serve as light-absorbing photopigments with ?max around 500 nm when reconstituted with an A1 chromophore. When corrected for the summed absorption from the skin and skull, the spectral sensitivity profiles shifted to longer wavelengths (rod opsin: 521 nm; exo-rod opsin: 520 nm). We next explored the involvement of both opsins in the negative phototaxis reported for this species. A comparison of the spectral sensitivity of the photophobic response with the putative A2 absorbance spectra corrected for skin/skull absorbance indicates that the A2 versions of either or both of these pigments could explain the observed behavioural spectral sensitivity. PMID:22837464

Tarttelin, Emma E.; Frigato, Elena; Bellingham, James; Di Rosa, Viviana; Berti, Roberto; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Lucas, Robert J.; Bertolucci, Cristiano

2012-01-01

199

Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

Mathger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

200

ORIGINAL PAPER M.E. Cummings J.C. Partridge  

E-print Network

(Embiotocidae) in the California kelp forest Accepted: 12 October 2001 / Published online: 24 November 2001 � for maximizing relative photon capture of background radiance demonstrate that the LWS cone kmax values are tuned oset from the dominant background radiance. This study is one of the ®rst to demonstrate species

Cummings, Molly E.

201

The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates.  

PubMed

To better understand the evolution of red-green color vision in vertebrates, we inferred the amino acid sequences of the ancestral pigments of 11 selected visual pigments: the LWS pigments of cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus), frog (Xenopus laevis), chicken (Gallus gallus), chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), goat (Capra hircus), and human (Homo sapiens);and the MWS pigments of cave fish, gecko (Gekko gekko), mouse (Mus musculus), squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and human. We constructed these ancestral pigments by introducing the necessary mutations into contemporary pigments and evaluated their absorption spectra using an in vitro assay. The results show that the common ancestor of vertebrates and most other ancestors had LWS pigments. Multiple regression analyses of ancestral and contemporary MWS and LWS pigments show that single mutations S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, A308S, and double mutations S180A/H197Y shift the lambda(max) of the pigments by -7, -28, -8, -15, -27, and 11 nm, respectively. It is most likely that this "five-sites" rule is the molecular basis of spectral tuning in the MWS and LWS pigments during vertebrate evolution. PMID:11545071

Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

2001-08-01

202

A Cluster Randomized Trial to Evaluate a Health Education Programme "Living with Sun at School"  

PubMed Central

Over-exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers can play an active role in providing an education programme that can help prevent this. “Living with the Sun,” (LWS) is a sun safety education program for school children based on a handy guide for classroom activities designed to improve children’s knowledge, but moreover to positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviours. The goal of our study was to determine the effectiveness of this programme by examining children’s knowledge, attitude and sun exposure behaviours prior to and after the completion of the programme. We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes were randomly assigned to one of two groups; one using the LWS programme and another that didn’t, serving as the control. Data was collected before completion of the programme and an additional three times in the year after completion. The 70 participating classes (1,365 schoolchildren) were distributed throughout France. Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge of sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes (p < 0.001). Both groups positively changed their attitudes when considering the best sun protection, but the LWS group proved to consistently be more convinced (p = 0.04). After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased throughout the year but stayed globally significant. We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays. For instance, the LWS group applied sunscreen more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59%) and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75% versus 64%). PMID:22851947

Sancho-Garnier, Helene; Pereira, Bruno; Cesarini, Pierre

2012-01-01

203

The Eyes Have It: Regulatory and Structural Changes Both Underlie Cichlid Visual Pigment Diversity  

PubMed Central

A major goal of evolutionary biology is to unravel the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie functional diversification and adaptation. We investigated how changes in gene regulation and coding sequence contribute to sensory diversification in two replicate radiations of cichlid fishes. In the clear waters of Lake Malawi, differential opsin expression generates diverse visual systems, with sensitivities extending from the ultraviolet to the red regions of the spectrum. These sensitivities fall into three distinct clusters and are correlated with foraging habits. In the turbid waters of Lake Victoria, visual sensitivity is constrained to longer wavelengths, and opsin expression is correlated with ambient light. In addition to regulatory changes, we found that the opsins coding for the shortest- and longest-wavelength visual pigments have elevated numbers of potentially functional substitutions. Thus, we present a model of sensory evolution in which both molecular genetic mechanisms work in concert. Changes in gene expression generate large shifts in visual pigment sensitivity across the collective opsin spectral range, but changes in coding sequence appear to fine-tune visual pigment sensitivity at the short- and long-wavelength ends of this range, where differential opsin expression can no longer extend visual pigment sensitivity. PMID:20027211

Marshall, N. Justin; Cronin, Thomas W.; Seehausen, Ole; Carleton, Karen L.

2009-01-01

204

Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies  

PubMed Central

The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are expressed in the blue (?max?=?453 nm) and violet receptors (?max?=?425 nm), respectively. To reveal accurate absorption profiles and the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of these visual pigments, we successfully modified our honeybee opsin expression system based on HEK293s cells, and expressed PrB and PrV, the first lepidopteran opsins ever expressed in cultured cells. We reconstituted the expressed visual pigments in vitro, and analysed them spectroscopically. Both reconstituted visual pigments had two photointerconvertible states, rhodopsin and metarhodopsin, with absorption peak wavelengths 450 nm and 485 nm for PrB and 420 nm and 482 nm for PrV. We furthermore introduced site-directed mutations to the opsins and found that two amino acid substitutions, at positions 116 and 177, were crucial for the spectral tuning. This tuning mechanism appears to be specific for invertebrates and is partially shared by other pierid and lycaenid butterfly species. PMID:21124838

Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro

2010-01-01

205

Regulation by light in Fusarium.  

PubMed

The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

2010-11-01

206

Multiple photopigments from the Mexican blind cavefish, Astyanax fasciatus: a microspectrophotometric study.  

PubMed

The cave-dwelling (hypogean) form of the teleost Astyanax fasciatus is blind, having only subdermal eye rudiments, but nevertheless maintains intact opsin genes. Second generation offspring of a cross between these and the normally sighted surface (epigean) form inherit opsin genes from both ancestries. A study of the expressed hypogean opsins of the hybrids, in comparison to the epigean forms, was undertaken by microspectrophotometry. The hybrid population showed considerable variation in the visual pigments of double cones, with evidence for two groups of cells with lambda(max) intermediate to those of the epigean pigments. Possible explanations for these intermediate pigments are discussed, including the hypothesis that they may represent hybrid genes similar to the genes for anomalous cone pigments in humans. Evidence was also found for ultraviolet-sensitive single cones and for an additional MWS pigment. PMID:12505602

Parry, Juliet W L; Peirson, Stuart N; Wilkens, Horst; Bowmaker, James K

2003-01-01

207

Molecular evidence for color discrimination in the Atlantic sand fiddler crab, Uca pugilator  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Fiddler crabs are intertidal brachyuran crabs that belong to the genus Uca. Approximately 97 different species have been identified, and several of these live sympatrically. Many have species-specific body color patterns that may act as signals for intra- and interspecific communication. To understand the behavioral and ecological role of this coloration we must know whether fiddler crabs have the physiological capacity to perceive color cues. Using a molecular approach, we identified the opsin-encoding genes and determined their expression patterns across the eye of the sand fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. We identified three different opsin-encoding genes (UpRh1, UpRh2 and UpRh3). UpRh1 and UpRh2 are highly related and have similarities in their amino acid sequences to other arthropod long- and medium-wavelength-sensitive opsins, whereas UpRh3 is similar to other arthropod UV-sensitive opsins. All three opsins are expressed in each ommatidium, in an opsin-specific pattern. UpRh3 is present only in the R8 photoreceptor cell, whereas UpRh1 and UpRh2 are present in the R1-7 cells, with UpRh1 expression restricted to five cells and UpRh2 expression present in three cells. Thus, one photoreceptor in every ommatidium expresses both UpRh1 and UpRh2, providing another example of sensory receptor coexpression. These results show that U. pugilator has the basic molecular machinery for color perception, perhaps even trichromatic vision. PMID:21113005

Rajkumar, Premraj; Rollmann, Stephanie M.; Cook, Tiffany A.; Layne, John E.

2010-01-01

208

Phototransduction Motifs and Variations  

PubMed Central

Seeing begins in the photoreceptors, where light is absorbed and signaled to the nervous system. Throughout the animal kingdom, photoreceptors are diverse in design and purpose. Nonetheless, phototransduction—the mechanism by which absorbed photons are converted into an electrical response—is highly conserved and based almost exclusively on a single class of photoproteins, the opsins. In this Review, we survey the G protein-coupled signaling cascades downstream from opsins in photoreceptors across vertebrate and invertebrate species, noting their similarities as well as differences. PMID:19837030

Yau, King-Wai; Hardie, Roger C.

2010-01-01

209

In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics combines optical and genetic methods to rapidly and reversibly control neural activities or other cellular functions. Using genetic methods, specific cells or anatomical pathways can be sensitized to light through exogenous expression of microbial light activated opsin proteins. Using optical methods, opsin expressing cells can be rapidly and reversibly controlled by pulses of light of specific wavelength. With the high spatial temporal precision, optogenetic tools have enabled new ways to probe the causal role of specific cells in neural computation and behavior. Here, we overview the current state of the technology, and provide a brief introduction to the practical considerations in applying optogenetics in vivo to analyze neural circuit functions. PMID:22896801

2012-01-01

210

ANTENNA RADIATION NEAR THE LOCAL PLASMA FREQUENCY BY LANGMUIR WAVE EIGENMODES  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir waves (LWs) in the solar wind are generated by electron beams associated with solar flares, interplanetary shock fronts, planetary bow shocks, and magnetic holes. In principle, LWs localized as eigenmodes of density fluctuations can emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation by an antenna mechanism near the local plasma frequency f{sub p} and twice the local plasma frequency. In this work, analytic expressions are derived for the radiated electric and magnetic fields and power generated near f{sub p} by LW eigenmodes. The EM wave power emitted near f{sub p} is predicted as a function of the eigenmode length scale L, maximum electric field, driving electron beam speed, and the ambient plasma density and temperature. The escape to a distant observer of f{sub p} radiation from a localized Langmuir eigenmode is also briefly explored as a function of the plasma conditions.

Malaspina, David M. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ergun, Robert E., E-mail: David.Malaspina@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: cairns@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: ree@lasp.colorado.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

2012-08-10

211

NASA's Living with a Star Program: The Geospace Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has initiated the Living with a Star Program (LWS) to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. Three program elements are the Science Missions; a Theory, Modeling, and Data Analysis program; and a Space Environment Testbeds program. Because many of the effects of solar variability on humanity are observed in Geospace regions of space, the science research for all three elements of the LWS Program have significant components in Geospace regions.

Barth, Janet L.; Giles, Barbara; Zanetti, Lawrence; Spann, James; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

212

Sprinkler protection of manufactured homes with sloped ceilings using prototype limited water supply sprinklers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three full-scale fire tests were conducted in a commercial manufactured home 4.3 m wide by 18.3 m long with 10° sloped ceilings. The purpose of the tests was to determine the performance of limited water supply (LWS) sprinklers under a sloped ceiling and to determine whether the minimum distance allowed between sprinklers could be reduced from 2.4 m to 1.8

1995-01-01

213

Evidence for water ice and estimate of dust production rate in comet Hale-Bopp at 2.9 AU from the Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report observational evidence for water ice in comet C\\/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) when it was at 2.9 AU from the Sun, from emission features at 44 and 65 mu m, and possibly an absorption feature at 3.1 mu m, observed with ISO\\/LWS and PHT. We find that icy grains have mean radii of 15 mu m within a factor of

E. Lellouch; J. Crovisier; T. Lim; D. Bockelee-Morvan; K. Leech; M. S. Hanner; B. Altieri; B. Schmitt; F. Trotta; H. U. Keller

1998-01-01

214

A photoionization model of the compact H II region G29.96-0.02  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed photoionization model of G29.96-0.02 (hereafter G29.96), one of the brightest Galactic Ultra Compact H Ii (UCHII) regions in the Galaxy. This source has been observed extensively at radio and infrared wavelengths. The most recent data include a complete ISO (SWS and LWS) spectrum, which displays a remarkable richness in atomic fine-structure lines. The number of observables

C. Morisset; D. Schaerer; N. L. Martín-Hernández; E. Peeters; F. Damour; J.-P. Baluteau; P. Cox; P. Roelfsema

2002-01-01

215

Solar and interplanetary sources of major geomagnetic storms (Dst ? ?100 nT) during 1996–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an investigation of the sequence of events from the Sun to the Earth that ultimately led to the 88 major geomagnetic storms (defined by minimum Dst ? ?100 nT) that occurred during 1996–2005. The results are achieved through cooperative efforts that originated at the Living with a Star (LWS) Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) held at

J. Zhang; I. G. Richardson; D. F. Webb; N. Gopalswamy; E. Huttunen; J. C. Kasper; N. V. Nitta; W. Poomvises; B. J. Thompson; C.-C. Wu; S. Yashiro; A. N. Zhukov

2007-01-01

216

Rheological aspects of dense lignite–water suspensions; structure development on consecutive flow loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of dense lignite–water slurries (LWS) rheology were investigated using controlled stress and controlled strain rheometers\\u000a with parallel disks and Couette geometries. During the preparation of the slurries, the achieved solids volume fractions were\\u000a up to 0.425 and the particle size distributions were polydispersed with sizes up to 300 ?m. In the ascending parts of consecutive\\u000a flow loops, a slope transition

Thomas B. Goudoulas; Eleftherios G. Kastrinakis; Stavros G. Nychas

2007-01-01

217

Visual pigments and optical habitats of surfperch (Embiotocidae) in the California kelp forest.  

PubMed

We studied the optical microhabitat use and visual pigment variation among a group of closely related teleosts (surfperch: Embiotocidae) living along the nearshore central California coast. We employed a diver-operated spectroradiometer to record the optical microhabitat use of eight surfperch species in Monterey Bay. and microspectrophotometry to measure visual pigment absorbance for nine surfperch species. Species were dichromatic with mixtures of A1- and A2-based visual pigments exhibiting extensive maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) variation across species: 455-482 nm for SWS cones and 527-546 nm for LWS cones. Interspecific variation in sidewelling irradiance measurements (mean lambdaFmaxs) significantly accounted for 63% of the variation in surfperch LWS visual pigments and 83% of the interspecific variation in SWS visual pigments using a phylogenetically-corrected regression technique. Optimality models for maximizing relative photon capture of background radiance demonstrate that the LWS cone lambda(max) values are tuned for maximizing photon capture of the species-specific horizontal visual field, while the SWS cone lambda(max), are well offset from the dominant background radiance. This study is one of the first to demonstrate species-specific differences in habitat usage at microhabitat scales accounting for differences in photoreceptor peak absorbance among closely related, sympatric species. PMID:11866186

Cummings, M E; Partridge, J C

2001-12-01

218

Matching the Spectrometers on board ISO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the findings of the Spectral Matching Working Group, the main aim of which was to investigate discontinuities between SWS and LWS in complete ISO spectra from 2 - 200 ?m. In order to check in a quantitative way the agreement between the two spectrometers, a software tool was developed which automatically selected observations made with SWS and LWS on the same coordinates and which calculated the ratio of the fluxes in the overlap region from the browser products. In this way all observations suitable for this cross-calibration exercise could be selected, provided that they were performed with standard Astronomical Observing Templates and covered the wavelength range that SWS and LWS have in common. 95% of those targets which were neither extended nor variable showed an agreement better than 20% between the two spectrometers. Several problems with the data from the instruments, like saturation effects, detector transients and discontinuities between the sub-spectra from different detectors, affect both spectrometers in a similar way and require special processing steps. We show, for some solar system objects, to which extent the spectra taken with ISO from the mid- to the far-infrared agree with theoretical models. Furthermore, we discuss for the example of Neptune how the combined information from both spectrometers can be used to put new constraints on models of objects that are possible calibration standards for future missions.

Burgdorf, M.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Salama, A.; García-Lario, P.; Müller, T.; Lord, S.

219

The distribution of the Intermediate and Deep Water Masses on 60N in the Atlantic Ocean in 2006-2011.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subpolar water structure in Atlantic Ocean has been analyzed using the newest hydrochemical data as well as CTD data. Water mass properties are compared to measurement data obtained in 2006, 2009 and 2011. New data analysis made it possible to reveal, that gradual Labrador Sea Water (LWS) dense lower core destruction in Irminger Basin and Icelandic Basin has been going on within the period of 2006-2011. In 2009 and 2011 dual-mode LWS structure was already not observed. New, developed Labrador Sea waters have spread in the upper layer. In addition to that arctic waters' influence increased slightly, and the tendency of intermediate southern-origin waters' intense penetration to the north continued. The detected LWS and Icelandic-Scotlandic Overflow Water (ISOW) warming, salinization and depletion in dissolved oxygen in Irminger Basin and Icelandic Basin have been going on in 2006-2011, happening simultaneously. Such a mode of water mass interaction in years 2000 is a reflection of the fact that one of the meridional circulation pattern dynamic phase is being completed. The mode is establishing, when water exchange between North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean is going to be defined by a weak current in the intermediate layer, intense entrance of deep waters from the north as well as strong subtropical Atlantic water transfer to the north.

Kolokolova, Alexandra

2014-05-01

220

Low nuclear DNA variation supports a recent origin of Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous phylogenetic work on the Hawaiian bees of the genus Hylaeus, based on mitochondrial DNA and morphology, appeared to support a recent origin for the group, but support for the resulting tree was weak. Four nuclear genes with varying evolutionary rates— arginine kinase, EF-1?, opsin, and wingless—were sequenced for a reduced taxon set in an attempt to find one or

Karl N. Magnacca; Bryan N. Danforth

2007-01-01

221

Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(6):983986. 2002 2002 by the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. ISSN: 0737-4038  

E-print Network

amino acids. Tools that au- tomate this process are now available on the World Wide Web (Guex of a high-resolution crystal structure of bovine rhodop- sin (Palczewski et al. 2000) and the existence by seven membrane- spanning alpha helices. The opsin protein is covalently attached to a light

222

Color vision is achieved by comparing the inputs from retinal photoreceptor neurons that differ in their wavelength  

E-print Network

critical for the spectral tuning of each molecule [4­6]. Both physiological and molecular data have led in their wavelength seansitivity. Recent studies have elucidated the distribution and phylogeny of opsins, the family is consistent with the distribution of pigments in primitive arthropods (e.g. Chelicerata), which are sensitive

223

Direct Innervation of GnRH Neurons by Encephalic Photoreceptors in Birds  

PubMed Central

In nonmammalian vertebrates, photic cues that regulate the timing of seasonal reproductive cyclicity are detected by nonretinal, nonpineal deep brain photoreceptors. It has long been assumed that the underlying mechanism involves the transmission of photic information from the photoreceptor to a circadian system, and thence to the reproductive axis. An alternative hypothesis is that there is direct communication between the brain photoreceptor and the reproductive axis. In the present study, light and confocal microscopy reveal that gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and processes are scattered among photoreceptor cells (identified by their opsin-immunoreactivity) in the lateral septum (SL). In the median eminence (ME), opsin and GnRH immunoreactive fibers overlap extensively. Single and double label ultrastructural immunocytochemistry indicate that in the SL and preoptic area (POA), opsin positive terminals form axo-dendritic synapses onto GnRH dendrites. In the ME, opsin and GnRH terminals lie adjacent to each other, make contact with tanycytes, or terminate on the hypophyseal portal capillaries. These results reveal that brain photoreceptors communicate directly with GnRH-neurons; this represents a means by which photoperiodic information reaches the reproductive axis. PMID:11220777

Saldanha, Colin J.; Silverman, Ann-Judith; Silver, Rae

2012-01-01

224

Cell, Vol. 115, 267279, October 31, 2003, Copyright 2003 by Cell Press Homothorax Switches Function  

E-print Network

Function of Drosophila Photoreceptors from Color to Polarized Light Sensors 1985). They project to the first optic ganglion, the lamina, where visual information relevant for form vision and motion detection of the opsins expressed in these R7 andium are involved in motion detection while the inner R8 cells is tightly

Desplan, Claude

225

Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies  

PubMed Central

The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with ?max = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2010-01-01

226

In conditions of limited chromophore supply rods entrap 11-cis-retinal leading to loss of cone function and cell death.  

PubMed

RPE65 is a retinoid isomerase required for the production of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of both cone and rod visual pigments. We recently established an R91W knock-in mouse strain as homologous animal model for patients afflicted by this mutation in RPE65. These mice have impaired vision and can only synthesize minute amounts of 11-cis-retinal. Here, we investigated the consequences of this chromophore insufficiency on cone function and pathophysiology. We found that the R91W mutation caused cone opsin mislocalization and progressive geographic cone atrophy. Remnant visual function was mostly mediated by rods. Ablation of rod opsin corrected the localization of cone opsin and improved cone retinal function. Thus, our analyses indicate that under conditions of limited chromophore supply rods and cones compete for 11-cis-retinal that derives from regeneration pathway(s) which are reliant on RPE65. Due to their higher number and the instability of cone opsin, rods are privileged under this condition while cones suffer chromophore deficiency and degenerate. These findings reinforce the notion that in patients any effective gene therapy with RPE65 needs to target the cone-rich macula directly to locally restore the cones' chromophore supply outside the reach of rods. PMID:19147682

Samardzija, Marijana; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Kostic, Corinne; Beck, Susanne; Oberhauser, Vitus; Joly, Sandrine; Thiersch, Markus; Fahl, Edda; Arsenijevic, Yvan; von Lintig, Johannes; Wenzel, Andreas; Seeliger, Mathias W; Grimm, Christian

2009-04-01

227

original article The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy vol. 18 no. 12, 20572063 dec. 2010 2057  

E-print Network

cones expressed regular cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel complexes and opsins in outer segments photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel stands at the end of the phototransduction process responses and to transfer these signals to bipolar cells. In support, we found morphologically that treated

Gollisch, Tim

228

Melanopsin Ganglion Cells Use a Membrane-associated Rhabdomeric Phototransduction Cascade  

E-print Network

Melanopsin Ganglion Cells Use a Membrane- associated Rhabdomeric Phototransduction Cascade Dustin M author Abstract Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are photoreceptors this invertebrate-like opsin triggers the photocurrent in these cells is unknown. Here, using patch-clamp recordings

Newman, Eric A.

229

Development/Plasticity/Repair NeuroD1 Regulates Expression of Thyroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair NeuroD1 Regulates Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor 2 and Cone patterning of opsin expression in cone photoreceptors is critical for normal color vision. Thyroid hormone of the thyroid hor- mone receptors, thyroid hormone receptor 2 (TR 2), and its heterodimer partner, retinoid X

Reh, Thomas A.

230

Rod and cone visual cycle consequences of a null mutation in the 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene in man  

E-print Network

of the photolyzed chromophore and recombination of opsin and 11-cis- retinal to allow regeneration of visual is believed to involve adjacent retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) (Bok, 1993). There are also suggestions that retinal cells other than photoreceptors participate in this process (Bunt-Milam & Saari, 1983; Das et al

Palczewski, Krzysztof

231

Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision  

E-print Network

, University of Chester, Chester, UK C. M. Schaffner Á F. Aureli Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad, Linda M. Fedigan, Colleen M. Schaffner, Filippo Aureli and Shoji Kawamura Abstract Opsins provide Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico F. Aureli Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology

Fedigan, Linda M.

232

Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arn106  

E-print Network

in collared lemurs and ring-tailed lemurs. We show that this polymorphism may be linked to ``behavioral the spectral sensitivity of the X-linked opsin protein in certain strepsirrhines (e.g., Malagasy lemurs lemurs, representing 4 species, and test if the genetic capacity for trichromacy impacts foraging

Leal, Manuel S.

233

Optobionic vision---a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery that neurons can be photostimulated via genetic incorporation of artificial opsins is creating a revolution in the field of neural stimulation. In this paper we show its potential in the field of retinal prosthesis. We show that we need typically 100 mW cm-2 in instantaneous light intensity on the neuron in order to stimulate action potentials. We

Patrick Degenaar; Nir Grossman; Muhammad Ali Memon; Juan Burrone; Martin Dawson; Emmanuel Drakakis; Mark Neil; Konstantin Nikolic

2009-01-01

234

Photostimulator for optogenetic retinal prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that neurons can be photostimulated via genetic incorporation of artificial opsins offers potential for many new forms of neural prosthesis. In this work, we demonstrate a photostimulator which has both the irradiance requirement and the spatial resolution for retinal prosthesis. We characterise its electrical and optical properties and show its ability to accurately stimulate individual action potentials.

N. Grossman; K. Nikolic; V. Poher; B. McGovern; E. Drankasis; M. Neil; C. Toumazou; P. Degenaar

2009-01-01

235

2013NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nAture methods | ADVANCEONLINEPUBLICATION |  

E-print Network

Drosophila owing, at least in part, to low penetrance of blue light through the cuticle. Indeed, direct for the genetic dissection of neural circuit function1,2. Likewise, the use of light-sensitive microbial opsinsChR activation with functional calcium imaging, we have also identified a neural correlate of the influence

Tsien, Roger Y.

236

Gene therapy rescues cone structure and function in the 3-month-old rd12 mouse: a model for midcourse RPE65 leber congenital amaurosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: RPE65 function is necessary in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to generate chromophore for all opsins. Its absence results in vision loss and rapid cone degeneration. Recent Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA with RPE65 mutations) phase I clinical trials demonstrated restoration of vision on RPE65 gene transfer into RPE cells overlying cones. In the rd12 mouse, a naturally

Xia Li; Wensheng Li; Xufeng Dai; Fansheng Kong; Qinxiang Zheng; Xiangtian Zhou; Fan Lü; Bo Chang; Bärbel Rohrer; William W Hauswirth; Jia Qu; Ji-jing Pang

2011-01-01

237

Selection of transgenic Xenopus laevis using antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously established lines of transgenic Xenopus laevis expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP fusion proteins in the rod photoreceptors of their retinas under control of the X. laevis opsin promoter, which permits easy identification of transgenic animals by fluorescence microscopy. However, GFP tags can alter the properties of fusion partners, and in many circumstances a second selectable marker

Orson L. Moritz; Kathleen E. Biddle; Beatrice M. Tam

2002-01-01

238

Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(8):12921302. 2002 2002 by the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. ISSN: 0737-4038  

E-print Network

). Key words: molecular evolution, statistical power, likelihood ratio test, rbcL, opsin, rhodopsin. ISSN: 0737-4038 Power Analysis of Tests for Loss of Selective Constraint in Cave Crayfish of constraint on the evolution of coding genes. Maintenance may be inferred, however, when power analyses

dePamphilis, Claude

239

nature methods | VOL.6 NO.1 | JANUARY 2009 | 35 MethOds tO wAtch | special feature  

E-print Network

microscopy and low-resolution, in vivo methods such as MRI. In recent years, several optical approaches have structure of the GPCR opsin (Nature 454, 183­187; 2008). optical imaging in thick samples Optical methods. And although techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can image deep into bio- logical samples

Cai, Long

240

Heterologous Expression of the Adenosine A1 Receptor in Transgenic Mouse Ning Li,, David Salom,, Li Zhang,,# Tim Harris,,4 Juan A. Ballesteros,,O Marcin Golczak, Beata Jastrzebska,  

E-print Network

Heterologous Expression of the Adenosine A1 Receptor in Transgenic Mouse Retina Ning Li,, David show that the adenosine A1 receptor, when placed under the influence of the mouse opsin promoter of glycosylation. Upon solubilization, the retinal adenosine A1 receptor retained binding characteristics similar

241

Distribution and Density of Medium and Short-wavelength Selective Cones in the Domestic Pig Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topography of medium (M)- and short (S)-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors was studied in the domestic pig retina. Antisera specific for M or S opsin as well as cone photoreceptor proteins arrestin and alpha-transducin were used to label cone types. Retinal wholemounts and their blood vessel patterns were drawn and specific regions removed. The wholemounts were immunocytochemically labelled to detect

Anita Hendrickson; David Hicks

2002-01-01

242

Immunohistochemical evidence of a melanopsin cone in human retina Ouria Dkhissi-Benyahya1,2  

E-print Network

Immunohistochemical evidence of a melanopsin cone in human retina Ouria Dkhissi-Benyahya1 photoisomerase activity. Melanopsin is widely distributed in the retina of vertebrates and depending was conducted to determine the distribution of this opsin in the human retina. Methods: Human eyes were obtained

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

INTRODUCTION Cone photoreceptors are specialized cells of the retina whose visual  

E-print Network

656 INTRODUCTION Cone photoreceptors are specialized cells of the retina whose visual pigments that re- structures the chromatic organization of the retina and the colour sensitivity of these animals on quantification of opsin transcripts from whole retinas using real-time PCR (Fuller et al., 2005; Shand et al

Reimchen, Thomas E.

244

Alouatta Trichromatic Color Vision: Cone Spectra and Physiological Responses Studied with Microspectrophotometry and Single Unit Retinal Electrophysiology  

PubMed Central

The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10–20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression. PMID:25405863

Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.; Saito, Cézar A.; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K.; Lee, Barry B.

2014-01-01

245

78 FR 49272 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. The device may have adjustments for impulse strength, duration, R-wave sensitivity, and other pacing...

2013-08-13

246

21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.  

...permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. The device may have adjustments for impulse strength, duration, R-wave sensitivity, and other pacing variables....

2014-04-01

247

21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. The device may have adjustments for impulse strength, duration, R-wave sensitivity, and other pacing variables....

2013-04-01

248

21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. The device may have adjustments for impulse strength, duration, R-wave sensitivity, and other pacing variables....

2011-04-01

249

21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. The device may have adjustments for impulse strength, duration, R-wave sensitivity, and other pacing variables....

2012-04-01

250

Evidence from Chlamydomonas on the photoactivation of rhodopsins without isomerization of their chromophore  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Attachment of retinal to opsin forms the chromophore N-retinylidene which isomerizes during photoactivation of rhodopsins. To test whether isomerization is crucial, custom-tailored chromophores lacking the ?-ionone ring and any isomerizable bonds were incorporated in vivo into the opsin of a blind mutant of the eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analogues restored phototaxis with the anticipated action spectra, ruling out the need for isomerization in photoactivation. To further elucidate photoactivation, responses to chromophores formed from naphthalene aldehydes were studied. The resulting action spectral shifts suggest that charge separation within the excited chromophore leads to electric field induced polarization of nearby amino-acid residues and altered hydrogen bonding. This redistribution of charge faciliates the reported multiple bond rotations and protein rearrangements of rhodopsin activation. These results provide new insight into the activation of rhodopsins and related GPCRs. PMID:21700209

Foster, Kenneth W.; Saranak, Jureepan; Krane, Sonja; Johnson, Randy L.; Nakanishi, Koji

2011-01-01

251

A comprehensive multiscale framework for simulating optogenetics in the heart  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics has emerged as an alternative method for electrical control of the heart, where illumination is used to elicit a bioelectric response in tissue modified to express photosensitive proteins (opsins). This technology promises to enable evocation of spatiotemporally precise responses in targeted cells or tissues, thus creating new possibilities for safe and effective therapeutic approaches to ameliorate cardiac function. Here, we present a comprehensive framework for multi-scale modelling of cardiac optogenetics, allowing both mechanistic examination of optical control and exploration of potential therapeutic applications. The framework incorporates accurate representations of opsin channel kinetics and delivery modes, spatial distribution of photosensitive cells, and tissue illumination constraints, making possible the prediction of emergent behaviour resulting from interactions at sub-organ scales. We apply this framework to explore how optogenetic delivery characteristics determine energy requirements for optical stimulation and to identify cardiac structures that are potential pacemaking targets with low optical excitation threshold. PMID:23982300

Boyle, Patrick M; Williams, John C; Ambrosi, Christina M; Entcheva, Emilia; Trayanova, Natalia A

2013-01-01

252

Membrane Assembly in Retinal Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We,have,used,a,cytochemical,technique,for,labeling freeze-fractured tissues (Pinto da Silva, P., C. Parkison, and N. Dwyer,(1981) Proc. Natl. Acad.,Sci. U. S. A. 78: 343-347) to examine,the distribution,of immunoreactive,opsin,in rod photoreceptor,membranes.,Aldehyde-fixed,retinas,of African clawed,frogs,(Xenopus,laevis) embedded,in a cross-linked protein matrix were frozen and fractured at -196%, then thawed,and,labeled,with,biotinylated,sheep,anti-cow,opsin IgG followed,by ,avidin-ferritin.,In thin,sections,of ,plastic- embedded retinas, rod outer segment (ROS) disc membranes exposed,by fracturing,bound,specific,antibody ,intensely ,and relatively

DENNIS M. DEFOE; C. BESHARSE

253

The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS): A Canadian Mission to the Inner Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission is proposed as a Canadian Space Agency satellite mission contribution to ILWS. The ORBITALS is currently approved by the CSA for Phase A, and the NASA LWS Mission of Opportunity 4-instrument payload MORE (Mission of Opportunity Radbelt Experiment) for the ORBITALS satellite is undergoing NASA funded Phase A study. The ORBITALS will provide a unique view of the largely previously unexplored inner magnetosphere. Its mission goal to "understand the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of energetic electrons and ions in the inner magnetosphere" is perfectly aligned with the top geospace priority for the LWS and ILWS programs. In a 12 hour low inclination orbit, the ORBITALS will come into once daily apogee conjunctions with the extensive ground-based Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) instrumentation as well as with GOES East and West. Baseline raised perigee will provide both long outer radiation belt dwell times as well as coverage of the outer-most inner radiation belt. In combination, the ORBITALS-CGSM-GOES conjunctions will provide a unique data set with which to address fundamental radiation belt science questions, such as the competition between ULF and VLF acceleration processes, the role of EMIC and VLF waves in loss, and the relationship between these processes and plasmaspheric cold plasma dynamics. The ORBITALS will also address inter-related science questions about the structure of inner magnetosphere electric and magnetic field structure, plasmaspheric dynamics, including thermal ion injection and loss, and the dynamics of the ring current population in the inner magnetosphere during storms. In combination with the approved NASA LWS RBSP mission, and the proposed Japanese ERG satellite, the ORBITALS-RBSP-ERG three petal constellation will resolve the spatio-temporal ambiguities and global dynamics and morphology of the Earths radiation belts.

Mann, I. R.; Loto'Aniu, T.; Milling, D. K.; Rankin, R.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Knudsen, D.; Yau, A.; Balmain, K.; McCabe, D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Fennel, J. F.; Kistler, L.; Reeves, G.

2006-12-01

254

The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission and Related Missions of Opportunity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides an overview of the Living With a Star (LWS) Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission in the context of the broader Geospace program. Missions to Geospace offer an opportunity to observe in situ the fundamental processes that operate throughout the solar system and in particular those that generate hazardous space weather effects in the vicinity of Earth. The recently selected investigations on NASA's LWS program's RBSP will provide the measurements needed to characterize and quantify the processes that supply and remove energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Instruments on the RBSP spacecraft will observe charged particles that comprise the Earth's radiation belts over the full energy range from 1 eV to more than 10 MeV (including composition), the plasma waves which energize them, the electric fields which transport them, and the magnetic fields which guide their motion. The two-point measurements by the RBSP spacecraft will enable researchers to discriminate between spatial and temporal effects, and therefore between the various proposed mechanisms for particle acceleration and loss. The measurements taken by the RBSP spacecraft will be used in data modeling projects in order to improve the understanding of these fundamental processes and allow better predictions to be made. NASA's LWS program has also recently selected three teams to study concepts for Missions of Opportunity that will augment the RBSP program, by (1) providing an instrument for a Canadian spacecraft in the Earth's radiation belts, (2) quantifying the flux of particles precipitating into the Earth's atmosphere from the Earth's radiation belts, and (3) remotely sensing both spatial and temporal variations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere.

Sibeck, David G.; Mauk, Barry H.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Fox, Nicola J.

2006-01-01

255

Common Transcriptional Mechanisms for Visual Photoreceptor Cell Differentiation among Pancrustaceans  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of visual rhabdomeric photoreceptors is the expression of a rhabdomeric opsin and uniquely associated phototransduction molecules, which are incorporated into a specialized expanded apical membrane, the rhabdomere. Given the extensive utilization of rhabdomeric photoreceptors in the eyes of protostomes, here we address whether a common transcriptional mechanism exists for the differentiation of rhabdomeric photoreceptors. In Drosophila, the transcription factors Pph13 and Orthodenticle (Otd) direct both aspects of differentiation: rhabdomeric opsin transcription and rhabdomere morphogenesis. We demonstrate that the orthologs of both proteins are expressed in the visual systems of the distantly related arthropod species Tribolium castaneum and Daphnia magna and that their functional roles are similar in these species. In particular, we establish that the Pph13 homologs have the ability to bind a subset of Rhodopsin core sequence I sites and that these sites are present in key phototransduction genes of both Tribolium and Daphnia. Furthermore, Pph13 and Otd orthologs are capable of executing deeply conserved functions of photoreceptor differentiation as evidenced by the ability to rescue their respective Drosophila mutant phenotypes. Pph13 homologs are equivalent in their ability to direct both rhabdomere morphogenesis and opsin expression within Drosophila, whereas Otd paralogs demonstrate differential abilities to regulate photoreceptor differentiation. Finally, loss-of-function analyses in Tribolium confirm the conserved requirement of Pph13 and Otd in regulating both rhabdomeric opsin transcription and rhabdomere morphogenesis. Taken together, our data identify components of a regulatory framework for rhabdomeric photoreceptor differentiation in Pancrustaceans, providing a foundation for defining ancestral regulatory modules of rhabdomeric photoreceptor differentiation. PMID:24991928

Mahato, Simpla; Morita, Shinichi; Tucker, Abraham E.; Liang, Xulong; Jackowska, Magdalena; Friedrich, Markus; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Zelhof, Andrew C.

2014-01-01

256

Selective Photostimulation of Genetically ChARGed Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To permit direct functional analyses of neural circuits, we have developed a method for stimulating groups of genetically designated neurons optically. Coexpression of the Drosophila photoreceptor genes encoding arrestin-2, rhodopsin (formed by liganding opsin with retinal), and the ? subunit of the cognate heterotrimeric G protein—an explosive combination we term “chARGe”—sensitizes generalist vertebrate neurons to light. Illumination of a mixed

Boris V. Zemelman; Georgia A. Lee; Minna Ng; Gero Miesenböck

2002-01-01

257

A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full primary structure of a long-wavelength absorbing visual pigment of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, was determined by molecular cloning. In situ hybridization of the opsin mRNA of the novel visual pigment (PrL) demonstrated that it is expressed in the two distal photoreceptor cells (R3 and R4) as well as in the proximal photoreceptors (R5-8) in all

Motohiro Wakakuwa; Doekele G. Stavenga; Masumi Kurasawa; Kentaro Arikawa

2004-01-01

258

Gene duplication is an evolutionary mechanism for expanding spectral diversity in the long-wavelength photopigments of butterflies.  

PubMed

Butterfly long-wavelength (L) photopigments are interesting for comparative studies of adaptive evolution because of the tremendous phenotypic variation that exists in their wavelength of peak absorbance (lambda(max) value). Here we present a comprehensive survey of L photopigment variation by measuring lambda(max) in 12 nymphalid and 1 riodinid species using epi-microspectrophotometry. Together with previous data, we find that L photopigment lambda(max) varies from 510-565 nm in 22 nymphalids, with an even broader 505- to 600-nm range in riodinids. We then surveyed the L opsin genes for which lambda(max) values are available as well as from related taxa and found 2 instances of L opsin gene duplication within nymphalids, in Hermeuptychia hermes and Amathusia phidippus, and 1 instance within riodinids, in the metalmark butterfly Apodemia mormo. Using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstructions to map the evolution of spectral shifts within the L photopigments of nymphalids, we estimate the ancestral pigment had a lambda(max) = 540 nm +/- 10 nm standard error and that blueshifts in wavelength have occurred at least 4 times within the family. We used ancestral state reconstructions to investigate the importance of several amino acid substitutions (Ile17Met, Ala64Ser, Asn70Ser, and Ser137Ala) previously shown to have evolved under positive selection that are correlated with blue spectral shifts. These reconstructions suggest that the Ala64Ser substitution has indeed occurred along the newly identified blueshifted L photopigment lineages. Substitutions at the other 3 sites may also be involved in the functional diversification of L photopigments. Our data strongly suggest that there are limits to the evolution of L photopigment spectral shifts among species with only one L opsin gene and that opsin gene duplication broadens the potential range of lambda(max) values. PMID:17609538

Frentiu, Francesca D; Bernard, Gary D; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Brower, Andrew Van Zandt; Briscoe, Adriana D

2007-09-01

259

NinaB combines carotenoid oxygenase and retinoid isomerase activity in a single polypeptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals, successful production of the visual chromophore (11-cis-retinal or derivatives thereof such as 11-cis-3-hydroxy-retinal) is essential for photoreceptor cell function and survival. These carotenoid-derived compounds must combine with a protein moiety (the opsin) to establish functional visual pigments. Evidence from cell culture systems has implicated that the retinal pigment epithelium protein of 65 kDa (RPE65) is the long-sought all-trans

Vitus Oberhauser; Olaf Voolstra; Annette Bangert; Johannes von Lintig; Klaus Vogt

2008-01-01

260

Death by color: differential cone loss in the aging mouse retina.  

PubMed

Differential cell death is a common feature of aging and age-related disease. In the retina, 30% of rod photoreceptors are lost over life in humans and rodents. However, studies have failed to show age-related cell death in mouse cone photoreceptors, which is surprising because cone physiological function declines with age. Moreover in human, differential loss of short wavelength cone function is an aspect of age-related retinal disease. Here, cones are examined in young (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) C57 mice and also in complement factor H knock out mice (CFH-/-) that have been proposed as a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. In vivo imaging showed significant age-related reductions in outer retinal thickness in both groups over this period. Immunostaining for opsins revealed a specific significant decline of >20% for the medium/long (M/L)-wavelength cones but only in the periphery. S cones numbers were not significantly affected by age. This differential cell loss was backed up with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the 2 opsins, again showing S opsin was unaffected, but that M/L opsin was reduced particularly in CFH-/- mice. These results demonstrate aged cone loss, but surprisingly, in both genotypes, it is only significant in the peripheral ventral retina and focused on the M/L population and not S cones. We speculate that there may be fundamental differences in differential cone loss between human and mouse that may question the validity of mouse models of human outer retinal aging and pathology. PMID:24929970

Cunea, Alexander; Powner, Michael B; Jeffery, Glen

2014-11-01

261

A Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Eight Phylogenetic Markers in Gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae): Implications for Insect Phylogenetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the utility of eight DNA sequence markers (5.8S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS regions, long-wavelength opsin, elongation factor 1-?, cytochrome b, and cytochrome oxidase I) in reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at various levels of divergence in gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), using a set of eight exemplar taxa. We report sequence divergence values and saturation levels and compare phylogenetic results

Antonis Rokas; Johan A. A. Nylander; Fredrik Ronquist; Graham N. Stone

2002-01-01

262

Lentiviral Gene Transfer of Rpe65 Rescues Survival and Function of Cones in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRPE65 is specifically expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and is essential for the recycling of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rod and cone opsins. In humans, mutations in RPE65 lead to Leber congenital amaurosis or early-onset retinal dystrophy, a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa. The proof of feasibility of gene therapy for RPE65 deficiency has already been established in a

Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans; Corinne Kostic; Sylvain V. Crippa; William W. Hauswirth; Janis Lem; Francis L. Munier; Mathias W. Seeliger; Andreas Wenzel; Yvan Arsenijevic

2006-01-01

263

Spatial and Temporal Expression of AP1 Responsive Rod Photo receptor Genes and bZIP Transcription Factors During Develop ment of the Rat Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The promoter region of the rod-specific ? subunit of cGMP PDE (?-PDE) and opsin genes contains highly conserved cis-acting elements, which include an AP-1 and\\/or Nrl response element (NRE: An extended AP-1 like se- quence). Transactivation of AP-1 or NRE appears necessary to drive expression of these rod-specific genes during adult- hood, however, their role during development is relatively

Lihua He; Martin L. Campbell; Devesh Srivastava; Yvonne S. Blocker; J. Robin Harris; Anand Swaroop; Donald A. Fox

1998-01-01

264

HEK293S Cells Have Functional Retinoid Processing Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodopsin activation is measured by the early receptor current (ERC), a conformation-associated charge motion, in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293S) expressing opsins. After rhodopsin bleaching in cells loaded with 11-cis-retinal, ERC signals recover in minutes and recurrently over a period of hours by simple dark adaptation, with no added chromophore. The purpose of this study is to investigate the source

Lioubov I. Brueggemann; Jack M. Sullivan

2002-01-01

265

Melanopsin in Lower Vertebrates: The Race Is On to Show that It Is Really There  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retina of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii was examined immunocytochemically, using antisera against bovine rhodopsin (1:1,000) and visinin (1:250). There were no surprises with regard to rhodopsin, but positive visinin reactions occurred not only in the cones (visinin has a broad range of sensitivity to opsins), but also in some cells of the ganglion and bipolar cell layers. The

V. Benno Meyer-Rochow

2007-01-01

266

Isorhodopsin rather than rhodopsin mediates rod function in RPE65 knock-out mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromophore of visual pigments is 11-cis-retinal and, thus, in its absence, opsin is not photosensitive and no visual function exists. However, in the RPE65 knockout (Rpe65-\\/-) mouse, where synthesis of 11-cis-retinal does not occur, a minimal visual response from rod photoreceptors is obtained. We have examined if an alternative pathway exists for cis-retinoid generation in the absence of RPE65.

Jie Fan; Baerbel Rohrer; Gennadiy Moiseyev; Jian-Xing Ma; Rosalie K. Crouch

2003-01-01

267

OSCAR4: a flexible architecture for chemical text-mining  

E-print Network

1 OSCAR4: a flexible architecture for chemical text-mining Authors: David M. Jessop, Sam Adams, Egon L.Willighagen, Lezan Hawizy, Peter Murray-Rust* Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Road... KT: Identifying, Indexing and Ranking Chemical Formulae and Chemical Names in Digital Documents. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 29 Article 12 12 Lowe DM, Corbett PT, Murray-Rust P, Glen RC: Chemical name to structure: OPSIN, an open source solution. J. Chem...

Jessop, David M; Adams, Sam; Willighagen, Egon L; Hawizy, Lezan; Murray-Rust, Peter

2011-07-04

268

Different Selective Pressures Shape the Molecular Evolution of Color Vision in Chimpanzee and Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, ''red'') color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with

Brian C. Verrelli; Cecil M. Lewis Jr; Anne C. Stone; George H. Perry

2008-01-01

269

Analysis of Kinesin2 Function in Photoreceptor Cells Using Synchronous Cre-loxP Knockout of Kif3a with RHO-Cre  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine the relationship between the presence of kinesin-2 and photoreceptor cell viability and opsin trans- port, by generating RHO-Cre transgenic mice and breeding them to mice with a floxed kinesin-2 motor gene. METHODS. Different lines of RHO-Cre transgenic mice were generated and characterized by transgene expression, histol- ogy, and electrophysiology. Mice from one line, showing uni- form transgene

David Jimeno; Leonard Feiner; Concepcion Lillo; Karen Teofilo; Lawrence S. B. Goldstein; Eric A. Pierce; David S. Williams

2006-01-01

270

[Inherited colour vision deficiencies--from Dalton to molecular genetics].  

PubMed

In recent years, great advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of colour vision defects, as well as of the patterns of genetic variation in individuals with normal colour vision. Molecular genetic analyses have explained the diversity of types and degrees of severity in colour vision anomalies, their frequencies, pronounced individual variations in test results, etc. New techniques have even enabled the determination of John Dalton's real colour vision defect, 150 years after his death. Inherited colour vision deficiencies most often result from the mutations of genes that encode cone opsins. Cone opsin genes are linked to chromosomes 7 (the S or "blue" gene) and X (the L or "red" gene and the M or "green" gene). The L and M genes are located on the q arm of the X chromosome in a head-to-tail array, composed of 2 to 6 (typically 3) genes--a single L is followed by one or more M genes. Only the first two genes of the array are expressed and contribute to the colour vision phenotype. The high degree of homology (96%) between the L and M genes predisposes them to unequal recombination, leading to gene deletion or the formation of hybrid genes (comprising portions of both the L and M genes), explaining the majority of the common red-green colour vision deficiencies. The severity of any deficiency is influenced by the difference in spectral sensitivity between the opsins encoded by the first two genes of the array. A rare defect, S monochromacy, is caused either by the deletion of the regulatory region of the array or by mutations that inactivate the L and M genes. Most recent research concerns the molecular basis of complete achromatopsia, a rare disorder that involves the complete loss of all cone function. This is not caused by mutations in opsin genes, but in other genes that encode cone-specific proteins, e.g. channel proteins and transducin. PMID:16758855

Cvetkovi?, Dragana; Cvetkovi?, Dobrosav

2005-01-01

271

Immunocytochemical analysis of photoreceptors in the tiger salamander retina  

PubMed Central

In the tiger salamander retina, visual signals are transmitted to the inner retina via six morphologically distinct types of photoreceptors: large/small rods, large/small single cones, and double cones composed of principal and accessory members. The objective of this study was to determine the morphology of these photoreceptors and their synaptic interconnection with bipolar cells and horizontal cells in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Here we showed that glutamate antibodies labeled all photoreceptors and recoverin antibodies strongly labeled all cones and weakly labeled all rods. Antibodies against calbindin selectively stained accessory members of double cones. Antibodies against S-cone opsin stained small rods, a subpopulation of small single cones, and the outer segments of accessory double cones and a subtype of unidentified single cones. On average, large rods and small S-cone opsin positive rods accounted for 98.6% and 1.4% of all rods, respectively. Large/small cones, principle/accessory double cones, S-cone opsin positive small single cones, and S-cone opsin positive unidentified single cones accounted for about 66.9%, 23%, 4.5%, and 5.6% of the total cones, respectively. Moreover, the differential connection between rods/cones and bipolar/horizontal cells and the wide distribution of AMPA receptor subunits GluR2/3 and GluR4 at the rod/cone synapses were observed. These results provide anatomical evidence for the physiological findings that bipolar/horizontal cells in the salamander retina are driven by rod/cone inputs of different weights, and that AMPA receptors play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission at the first visual synapses. The different photoreceptors selectively contacting bipolar and horizontal cells support the idea that visual signals may be conveyed to the inner retina by different functional pathways in the outer retina. PMID:18977238

Zhang, Jian; Wu, Samuel M.

2013-01-01

272

Regulation of Photoactivation in Vertebrate Short Wavelength Visual Pigments:  Protonation of the Retinylidene Schiff Base and a Counterion Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenopus violet cone opsin (VCOP) and its counterion variant (VCOP-D108A) are expressed in mammalian COS1 cells and regenerated with 11-cis-retinal. The phototransduction process in VCOP- D108A is investigated via cryogenic electronic spectroscopy, homology modeling, molecular dynamics, and molecular orbital theory. The VCOP-D108A variant is a UV-like pigment that displays less efficient photoactivation than the mouse short wavelength sensitive visual pigment

Lavoisier S. Ramos; Min-Hsuan Chen; Barry E. Knox; Robert R. Birge

2007-01-01

273

The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration  

PubMed Central

Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The ?max of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice. PMID:25101636

Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li

2014-01-01

274

Transposable elements of Halobacterium halobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different DNA insertions (ISH1, ISH2, ISH23, ISH24, and ISH25) are found in or upstream of the bacterio-opsin (bop) gene in Bop mutants of H. halobium. These insertions have been cloned and characterized. They range in size from 520–3,000 bp, and four of the five insertions have structural features similar to known transposable elements. Two of the elements (ISH1 and

Felicitas Pfeifer; Mary Betlach; Robert Martienssen; James Friedman; Herbert W. Boyer

1983-01-01

275

Comparative retinal morphology of the platypus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to identify evolutionary origin and fate of anatomic features of the duck-billed platypus eye. Eyes from the duck-billed platypus and four key evolutionary basal vertebrates (Pacific hagfish, north hemisphere sea lamprey, and Australian and South American lungfishes) were prepared for light microscopy. In addition to a standard panel of stains, tissues were immunostained against a variety of rod and cone opsins. Finally, published opsin sequences of platypus and several other vertebrate species were aligned and compared with immunohistochemical results. A complete scleral cartilage similar to that seen in birds, reptiles and amphibians encloses the platypus eye. This feature is present in sharks and rays, and in extant relatives of tetrapods, the lungfishes. The choroid lacks a tapetum. The retina is largely avascular and is rod-dominated, with a minority of red- and blue- cone immunoreactive photoreceptors. Like marsupials and many nonmammalian vertebrates, cones contain clear inner segment droplets. Double cones were present, a feature not found in eutherian mammals or marsupials. Evaluation of opsins indicates that red and blue immunoreactive cone opsins, but not rhodopsin, are present in the most basal of the extant species examined, the Pacific hagfish. Rhodopsin appears in the Australian and South American lungfishes, establishing emergence of this pigment in an extant relative of tetrapods. Unlike eyes of eutherian mammals, the platypus eye has retained morphologic features present in early tetrapods such as amphibians and their evolutionarily basal sister group, the lungfishes. These include scleral cartilage, double cones and cone droplets. In the platypus, as in other mammals, rod rhodopsin is the predominant photoreceptor pigment, at expense of the cone system. PMID:21567446

Zeiss, Caroline J; Schwab, Ivan R; Murphy, Christopher J; Dubielzig, Richard W

2011-08-01

276

Designing 2D arrays for SHM of planar structures: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures that aims at detecting and localizing impact or damage at any point of the structure requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. 2-D ultrasonic phased arrays, due to their beam-steering capability and all azimuth angle coverage are a very promising tool for structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures using Lamb waves (LW). Linear phased arrays that have been proposed for that purpose, produce mirrored image characterized by azimuth dependent resolution, which prevents unequivocal damage localization. 2D arrays do not have this drawback and they are even capable of mode selectivity when generating and receiving LWs. Performance of 2D arrays depends on their topology as well as the number of elements (transducers) used and their spacing in terms of wavelength. In this paper we propose a consistent methodology for three-step: theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of a diversity of 2D array topologies in SHM applications. In the first step, the theoretical evaluation is performed using frequency-dependent structure transfer function (STF). STF that defines linear propagation of different LWs modes through the dispersive medium enables theoretical investigation of the particular array performance for a predefined tone-burst excitation signal. A dedicated software tool has been developed for the numerical evaluation of 2D array directional characteristics (beampattern) in a specific structure. The simulations are performed using local interaction simulation approach (LISA), implemented using NVIDIA CUDA graphical computation unit (GPU), which enables time-efficient 3D simulations of LWs propagation. Beampatterns of a 2D array can be to some extend evaluated analytically and using numerical simulations; in most cases, however, they require experimental verification. Using scanning laser vibrometer is proposed for that purpose, in a setup where LWs, excited by PZT transmitters of the investigated array are sensed in multiple points corresponding to the locations of the 2D array receiving elements. A virtual receiving sub-array is created in this way and the performance of various array architectures in the reception mode can be evaluated experimentally without the need of physical prototype; a change of topology requires only straightforward modification of the measurement points distribution at the tested structure. For illustration, beampatterns of three symmetrical 2D topologies, i.e., circular, star-shaped and spiralshaped, will be examined in the paper and compared in terms of their beam-width and side-lobes level. The effect of apodization applied to the array elements will be also investigated.

Stepinski, Tadeusz; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

2013-04-01

277

ISO observations of V723 Cas and other classical novae in outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISO mission gave us a unique opportunity to follow the evolution of nova eruptions in detail in the infrared, and there was an active ISO target-of-opportunity programme to observe novae in eruption. Many of the ISO observations were near-simultaneous with ground-based observations, giving wavelength coverage over 100 octaves - another unique feature of this programme. This paper gives an overview of these observations and describes target-of-opportunity observations of the nova V723 Cas (1995), carried out with the SWS and LWS over a period of some 600 days.

Salama, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Gehrz, R.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. A.; Barlow, M. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kessler, M. F.

1999-03-01

278

The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS): A Potential Canadian Mission Contribution to ILWS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission is presently undergoing Concept Study as a Canadian Space Agency satellite mission contribution to ILWS. The ORBITALS will provide a unique view of the largely previously unexplored inner magnetosphere. Its mission goal to "understand the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of energetic electrons and ions in the inner magnetosphere" is perfectly aligned with the top geospace priority for the LWS and ILWS programs. Moreover, the ORBITALS would meet the plea from the LWS Mission Operations Working Group for the international provision of additional probe coverage to complement the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) within LWS. ORBITALS will hence provide Canada with a unique leadership role at the forefront of the highest priority science goals for ILWS. In a 12 hour low inclination orbit (perigee L=2, apogee L=6), the ORBITALS will come into once daily apogee conjunctions with the extensive ground-based Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) instrumentation as well as with GOES East and West, the raised perigee providing both long outer radiation belt dwell times as well as coverage of the outer-most inner radiation belt. In combination, the ORBITALS-CGSM-GOES conjunctions will provide a unique data set with which to address fundamental radiation belt science questions, such as the competition between ULF and VLF acceleration processes, the role of EMIC and VLF waves in loss, and the relationship between these processes and plasmaspheric cold plasma dynamics. The ORBITALS will also address inter-related science questions about the structure of inner magnetosphere electric and magetic fields, the dynamics of the plasmasphere, including thermal ion injection and loss, and the dynamics of the ring current population in the inner magnetosphere during storms. In this poster we outline the motivating ORBITALS mission science, and highlight the concept mission orbit and strawman payload. In combination with the approved NASA LWS RBSP, the ORBITALS-RBSP constellation will have the necessary spatial coverage to resolve the spatio-temporal ambiguities and global dynamics and morphology of the Earth's radiation belts. Further satellite mission collaborations, perhaps bilaterally with ORBITALS, which would re-create the original ILWS mission goal of three-petal local-time coverage would represent an excellent additional mission infrastructure complement to the proposed contemporaneous ORBITALS-RBSP measurements.

Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Rankin, R.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Knudsen, D.; Yau, A. W.; Wygant, J. R.; Fennel, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Summers, D.; Sofko, G.; Boteler, D.

2004-05-01

279

The [CII] and [OI] emission lines in NGC6946 and NGC1313  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The [CII (158 ?m)] fine structure line, which is the principal cooling line of the atomic gas, in two nearby galaxies observed with LWS on board ISO is compared to dust and HI gas emission and heating intensity. The relation between photoelectric effect on different grains populations, dust and gas heating found for a sample of 60 normal galaxies for which global [CII] measurements are available, still holds on scale of ~1.5 kpc. We also succeed in detecting cooling from a low density diffuse atomic gas associated with the diffuse optical disk in both galaxies, accounting typically for ~ 30-40% of the total [CII] emission.

Contursi, A.; Brauher, J.; Helou, G.

280

Correlative Studies with RBSP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission are: (1) Which physical processes produce radiation belt enhancement events? (2) What are the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss? (3) How do ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior? Although a stand-alone mission, RBSP will benefit from correlative studies with observations made by other spacecraft and ground-based observatories. In this presentation, we describe the broad range of such studies as a function of RBSP mission phase, pointing to the unique contributions of both the RBSP mission and the other observatories.

Sibeck, D. G.

2012-01-01

281

The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affects life and society. The Program Architecture includes science missions, theory and modeling and Space Environment Testbeds (SET). This current paper discusses the Space Environment Testbeds. The goal of the SET program is to improve the engineering approach to accomodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The SET Program will infuse new technologies into the space programs through collection of data in space and subsequent design and validation of technologies. Examples of these technologies are cited and discussed.

Barth, Janet; LaBel, Kenneth; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

282

The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

Xapsos, Michael A.

2014-01-01

283

Why aye-ayes see blue.  

PubMed

The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis. PMID:24006536

Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

2012-03-01

284

Volvoxrhodopsin, a light-regulated sensory photoreceptor of the spheroidal green alga Volvox carteri.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cells of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri contain a visual rhodopsin that controls the organism's phototactic behavior via two independent photoreceptor currents. Here, we report the identification of an opsinlike gene, designated as volvoxopsin (vop). The encoded protein exhibits homologies to the opsin of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (chlamyopsin) and to the entire animal opsin family, thus providing new perspectives on opsin evolution. Volvoxopsin accumulates within the eyes of somatic cells. However, the vop transcript is detectable only in the reproductive eyeless gonidia and embryos. vop mRNA levels increase 400-fold during embryogenesis, when embryos develop in darkness, whereas the vop transcript does not accumulate when embryos develop in the light. An antisense transformant, T3, was generated. This transformant produces 10 times less volvoxopsin than does the wild type. In T3, the vop transcript is virtually absent, whereas the antisense transcript is predominant and light regulated. It follows that vop expression is under light-dependent transcriptional control but that volvoxopsin itself is not the regulatory photoreceptor. Transformant T3 is phototactic, but its phototactic sensitivity is reduced 10-fold relative to the parental wild-type strain HK10. Thus, we offer definitive genetic evidence that a rhodopsin serves as the photoreceptor for phototaxis in a green alga. PMID:10449581

Ebnet, E; Fischer, M; Deininger, W; Hegemann, P

1999-01-01

285

Spectral Sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei Keys  

PubMed Central

Summary The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei walks towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study a black target (size 42 × 70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range of 365 to 695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (HW in the range of 6 – 10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40 % and 80%. In a second trial the transmission was reduced to 5%, using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity the spiders showed a spectral sensivity in the range from 380 to 670 nm. In the second trial the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range of 449 to 599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders. PMID:23948480

Zopf, Lydia M.; Schmid, Axel; Fredman, David; Eriksson, Bo Joakim

2014-01-01

286

Spectral sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei.  

PubMed

The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei will walk towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study, a black target (size 42×70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range 365-695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (half-width in the range 6-10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40% and 80%. In the second trial, the transmission was reduced to 5% using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity, the spiders showed a spectral sensitivity in the range 380-670 nm. In the second trial, the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range 449-599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders. PMID:23948480

Zopf, Lydia M; Schmid, Axel; Fredman, David; Eriksson, Bo Joakim

2013-11-01

287

Photosensitivities of rhodopsin mutants with a displaced counterion.  

PubMed

Visual pigments consist of a protein moiety opsin and an 11-cis-retinal chromophore that is covalently bound to the opsin via a Schiff base linkage. They have a high photosensitivity, which can be attributed to the high probability of photon absorption and the high photoisomerization quantum yield of the retinal chromophore. Both of these parameters are regulated by the opsin, though the precise mechanism is unknown. We previously found that counterion residue E113, which stabilizes the proton on the Schiff base, is involved in the efficient photoisomerization in vertebrate visual pigments. To test the positional effect of the counterion on the photon absorption and the photoisomerization, we measured the photosensitivities of a set of mutants of bovine rhodopsin in which the counterion was displaced to position 90, 94, 117, or 292. The molar extinction coefficient was reduced in many of the mutants, leading to reductions in the photosensitivity for monochromatic lights. However, the oscillator strength, the probability of photon absorption integrated over the entire wavenumber range of the absorption band, was relatively similar among the mutants and the wild type. In addition, the quantum yields of the mutants were not markedly different from that of the wild type. These results indicate that the counterion does not need to be located at position 113 for a high photosensitivity for natural light. Interestingly, all of the mutants exhibited greatly increased hydroxylamine sensitivity. This result suggests that the counterion in vertebrate visual pigments is optimally located for the stability of the Schiff base linkage. PMID:21038858

Tsutsui, Kei; Shichida, Yoshinori

2010-11-30

288

Identification and characterization of visual pigments in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), an order of limbless vertebrates with rudimentary eyes.  

PubMed

In comparison with the other amphibian orders, the Anura (frogs) and Urodela (salamanders), knowledge of the visual system of the snake-like Gymnophiona (caecilians) is relatively sparse. Most caecilians are fossorial with, as far as is known any surface activity occurring mainly at night. They have relatively small, poorly developed eyes and might be expected to possess detectable changes in the spectral sensitivity of their visual pigments. Microspectrophotometry was used to determine the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors in three species of caecilian, Rhinatrema bivittatum, Geotrypetes seraphini and Typhlonectes natans. Only rod opsin visual pigment, which may be associated with scotopic (dim light) vision when accompanied by other 'rod-specific' components of the phototransduction cascade, was found to be present. Opsin sequences were obtained from the eyes of two species of caecilian, Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis and T. natans. These rod opsins were regenerated in vitro with 11-cis retinal to give pigments with spectral sensitivity peaks close to 500 nm. No evidence for cone photoreception, associated with diurnal and colour vision, was detected using molecular and physiological methods. Additionally, visual pigments are short-wavelength shifted in terms of the maximum absorption of light when compared with other amphibian lineages. PMID:20889838

Mohun, S M; Davies, W L; Bowmaker, J K; Pisani, D; Himstedt, W; Gower, D J; Hunt, D M; Wilkinson, M

2010-10-15

289

Ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Gulls (Laridae excluding Sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (UV) instead of violet. However, the apparent UV-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the SWS1 opsin confers UV sensitivity. Unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit UV to the retina, gulls might in effect be similar to violet-sensitive birds in spectral sensitivity even if they have an ultraviolet sensitive (UVS) SWS1 visual pigment. We report that the spectral transmission of the cornea and lens of great black-backed Larus marinus and herring gulls L. argentatus allow UV-sensitivity, having a lambda(T0.5) value, 344 nm, similar to the ocular media of UV sensitive birds. By molecular sequencing of the second alpha-helical transmembrane region of the SWS1 opsin gene we could also infer that 15 herring gulls and 16 yellow-legged gulls L. michahellis, all base-pair identical, are genetically UV-sensitive. PMID:19308422

Håstad, Olle; Partridge, Julian C; Odeen, Anders

2009-06-01

290

Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving non-transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain1. Our ability to excite and inhibit these neurons has been limited by pharmacological and electrical stimulation constraints; non-invasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving non-transgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic2 strategy to bidirectionally control nociceptors of non-transgenic mice. Intra-sciatic nerve injection of adeno-associated viruses encoding an excitatory opsin enabled light-inducible stimulation of acute pain, place aversion, and optogenetically mediated reductions in withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, viral delivery of an inhibitory opsin enabled light-inducible inhibition of acute pain perception, and reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. Light was delivered transdermally enabling these behaviors to be induced in freely moving animals. This approach may have utility in basic and translational pain research, and enable rapid drug screening and testing of newly engineered opsins. PMID:24531797

Iyer, Shrivats Mohan; Montgomery, Kate L.; Towne, Chris; Lee, Soo Yeun; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

2014-01-01

291

Identification of DES1 as a vitamin A isomerase in Müller glial cells of the retina.  

PubMed

Absorption of a light particle by an opsin-pigment causes photoisomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the resulting apo-opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the photobleached chromophore. This is carried out by a multistep enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of an alternative visual cycle for regenerating opsins in daylight. Here we identified dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES1) as a retinol isomerase and an excellent candidate for isomerase-2 in this alternative pathway. DES1 is expressed in retinal Müller cells, where it coimmunoprecipitates with cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP). Adenoviral gene therapy with DES1 partially rescued the biochemical and physiological phenotypes in Rpe65(-/-) mice lacking isomerohydrolase (isomerase-1). Knockdown of DES1 expression by RNA interference concordantly reduced isomerase-2 activity in cultured Müller cells. Purified DES1 had very high isomerase-2 activity in the presence of appropriate cofactors, suggesting that DES1 by itself is sufficient for isomerase activity. PMID:23143414

Kaylor, Joanna J; Yuan, Quan; Cook, Jeremy; Sarfare, Shanta; Makshanoff, Jacob; Miu, Anh; Kim, Anita; Kim, Paul; Habib, Samer; Roybal, C Nathaniel; Xu, Tongzhou; Nusinowitz, Steven; Travis, Gabriel H

2013-01-01

292

Diversity of Color Vision: Not All Australian Marsupials Are Trichromatic  

PubMed Central

Color vision in marsupials has recently emerged as a particularly interesting case among mammals. It appears that there are both dichromats and trichromats among closely related species. In contrast to primates, marsupials seem to have evolved a different type of trichromacy that is not linked to the X-chromosome. Based on microspectrophotometry and retinal whole-mount immunohistochemistry, four trichromatic marsupial species have been described: quokka, quenda, honey possum, and fat-tailed dunnart. It has, however, been impossible to identify the photopigment of the third cone type, and genetically, all evidence so far suggests that all marsupials are dichromatic. The tammar wallaby is the only Australian marsupial to date for which there is no evidence of a third cone type. To clarify whether the wallaby is indeed a dichromat or trichromatic like other Australian marsupials, we analyzed the number of cone types in the “dichromatic” wallaby and the “trichromatic” dunnart. Employing identical immunohistochemical protocols, we confirmed that the wallaby has only two cone types, whereas 20–25% of cones remained unlabeled by S- and LM-opsin antibodies in the dunnart retina. In addition, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the rod photopigment (rod opsin) is expressed in cones which would have explained the absence of a third cone opsin gene. Our study is the first comprehensive and quantitative account of color vision in Australian marsupials where we now know that an unexpected diversity of different color vision systems appears to have evolved. PMID:21151905

Ebeling, Wiebke; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Hemmi, Jan M.

2010-01-01

293

Self-Organized Criticality: A Guide to Water-Protein Landscape Evolution  

E-print Network

We focus here on the scaling properties of small interspecies differences between red cone opsin transmembrane proteins, using a hydropathic elastic roughening tool previously applied to the rhodopsin rod transmembrane proteins. This tool is based on a non-Euclidean hydropathic metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments, which thereby encapsulates universal non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of water films enveloping globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank. Whereas the rhodopsin blue rod water films are smoothest in humans, the red cone opsins' water films are optimized in cats and elephants, consistent with protein species landscapes that evolve differently in different contexts. We also analyze red cone opsins in the chromatophore-containing family of chameleons, snakes, zebrafish and goldfish, where short- and long-range (BLAST and hydropathic) aa correlations are found with values as large as 97-99%. We use hydropathic amino acid (aa) optimization to estimate the maximum number Nmax of color shades that the human eye can discriminate, and obtain 10^6 < Nmax < 10^7, in good agreement with experiment.

J. C. Phillips

2011-09-12

294

Identification of DES1 as a Vitamin A Isomerase in M?ller Glial Cells of the Retina  

PubMed Central

Absorption of a light particle by an opsin-pigment causes photoisomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the resulting apo-opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the photobleached chromophore. This is carried out by a multistep enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of an alternate visual cycle for regenerating opsins in daylight. Here, we identified dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES1) as a retinol isomerase and an excellent candidate for isomerase-2 in this alternate pathway. DES1 is expressed in retinal Müller cells where it co-immunoprecipitates with cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP). Adenoviral gene therapy with DES1 partially rescued the biochemical and physiological phenotypes in rpe65 ?/? mice lacking isomerohydrolase (isomerase-1). Knockdown of DES1 expression by RNA-interference concordantly reduced isomerase-2 activity in cultured Müller cells. Purified DES1 possessed very high isomerase-2 activity in the presence of appropriate cofactors, suggesting that DES1 by itself is sufficient for isomerase activity. PMID:23143414

Kaylor, Joanna J.; Yuan, Quan; Cook, Jeremy; Sarfare, Shanta; Makshanoff, Jacob; Miu, Anh; Kim, Anita; Kim, Paul; Habib, Samer; Roybal, C. Nathaniel; Xu, Tongzhou; Nusinowitz, Steven; Travis, Gabriel H.

2012-01-01

295

Functional diversity in the color vision of cichlid fishes  

PubMed Central

Background Color vision plays a critical role in visual behavior. An animal's capacity for color vision rests on the presence of differentially sensitive cone photoreceptors. Spectral sensitivity is a measure of the visual responsiveness of these cones at different light wavelengths. Four classes of cone pigments have been identified in vertebrates, but in teleost fishes, opsin genes have undergone gene duplication events and thus can produce a larger number of spectrally distinct cone pigments. In this study, we examine the question of large-scale variation in color vision with respect to individual, sex and species that may result from differential expression of cone pigments. Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for examining variation in spectral sensitivity because they have seven distinct cone opsin genes that are differentially expressed. Results To examine the variation in the number of cones that participate in cichlid spectral sensitivity, we used whole organism electrophysiology, opsin gene expression and empirical modeling. Examination of over 100 spectral sensitivity curves from 34 individuals of three species revealed that (1) spectral sensitivity of individual cichlids was based on different subsets of four or five cone pigments, (2) spectral sensitivity was shaped by multiple cone interactions and (3) spectral sensitivity differed between species and correlated with foraging mode and the spectral reflectance of conspecifics. Our data also suggest that there may be significant differences in opsin gene expression between the sexes. Conclusions Our study describes complex opponent and nonopponent cone interactions that represent the requisite neural processing for color vision. We present the first comprehensive evidence for pentachromatic color vision in vertebrates, which offers the potential for extraordinary spectral discrimination capabilities. We show that opsin gene expression in cichlids, and possibly also spectral sensitivity, may be sex-dependent. We argue that females and males sample their visual environment differently, providing a neural basis for sexually dimorphic visual behaviour. The diversification of spectral sensitivity likely contributes to sensory adaptations that enhance the contrast of transparent prey and the detection of optical signals from conspecifics, suggesting a role for both natural and sexual selection in tuning color vision. PMID:21029409

2010-01-01

296

Evolution of Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular mechanisms of phototransduction in vertebrates eye is also briefly considered in the lecture. Evolution of vision is an enormous subject for thought and investigation. In the postgenomic era evolutionary molecular physiology as a whole and evolutionary molecular physiology of vision can be considered as a key approach for understanding how genome is working.

Ostrovsky, Mikhail

297

The relation of cold temperature to seedling blight incited by seed-borne and soil-borne organisms  

E-print Network

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Stewart, Robert Blaylock

2012-06-07

298

ISO observations of the interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three IRAS-detected elliptical galaxies were observed with ISO-LWS and PHT, and two of them were observed with CAM. The mid-IR images of NGC 1155 and NGC 6958 at 7 and 15 ? m show extended emission which follows a de Vaucouleurs profile. The ratio of 15/7 ? m flux decreases with radius in both galaxies, approaching the values empirically observed for purely stellar systems. All three galaxies are detected in the [CII](158 ? m) line, and NGC 1155 in the [OI] (63 ? m) line. The ISO-LWS observations of the [CII] line are more sensitive measures of cool ISM than HI and CO; the only previous detection of cool gas was of HI in NGC 1052/LFIR ratio in ellipticals follows the same trends seen in other (spiral and irregular) galaxies wherein L[CII]/LFIR decreases with increasing F?(60 ? m)/F?(100 ? m). These trends indicate similar local physical conditions in the ISM in spirals and ellipticals. The UV radiation from old stellar populations is insufficient, by a factor of 2-30, to produce enough photoelectric heating of gas to account for the cooling via the [CII] and [OI] lines. Heating by X-rays is also insufficient in NGC 6958 and NGC 1155. Given the observed variations in the optical-UV colors and the uncertainties in modelling the UV from old stellar populations, we can make a clear case for young stellar populations in NGC 1155.

Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, G.; Valjavec, E.; Hunter, D. A.; Dale, D.; Lu, N. Y.; Silbermann, N.; Lord, S. D.; Dinerstein, H.; Thronson, H. A.

1999-03-01

299

Restoration of AMPTE/CHEM Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highest time resolution digital data for the Charge-Energy-Mass (CHEM) Spectrometer instrument on the Active Magnetospheric Particle Explorers (AMPTE) mission has been restored and made available online at http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/AMPTE. During the period 1984 to the beginning of 1989, CHEM measured the mass and charge-state compositions as well as the energy spectra and pitch-angle distributions of all major ions from H through Fe with energies from 0.3 to 300 keV/charge. The data cadence is less than one minute. With the spacecraft in a low inclination orbit passing through the magnetopause and well into the magnetosphere, many samplings of the ring-current were made. The data itself consist of so-called PHA (pulse height analysis) events, in which the energy per charge, time of flight, and total energy are measured for each particle. The original Fortran software for calculating fluxes from the PHA events has been ported from VMS to modern Unix Fortran compilers. The CHEM data will be very useful in conjunction with the upcoming Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, which is part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and this restoration effort was funded through the LWS Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) program.

Vandegriff, J.

2006-12-01

300

The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

301

The Leri-Weill and Turner syndrome homeobox gene SHOX encodes a cell-type specific transcriptional activator.  

PubMed

Functional impairment of the human homeobox gene SHOX causes short stature and Madelung deformity in Leri-Weill syndrome (LWS) and has recently been implicated in additional skeletal malformations frequently observed in Turner syndrome. To enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of action, we have established a cell culture model consisting of four stably transfected cell lines and analysed the functional properties of the SHOX protein on a molecular level. Results show that the SHOX-encoded protein is located exclusively within the nucleus of a variety of cell lines, including U2Os, HEK293, COS7 and NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast to this cell-type independent nuclear translocation, the transactivating potential of the SHOX protein on different luciferase reporter constructs was observed only in the osteogenic cell line U2Os. Since C-terminally truncated forms of SHOX lead to LWS and idiopathic short stature, we have compared the activity of wild-type and truncated SHOX proteins. Interestingly, C-terminally truncated SHOX proteins are inactive with regards to target gene activation. These results for the first time provide an explanation of SHOX-related phenotypes on a molecular level and suggest the existence of qualitative trait loci modulating SHOX activity in a cell-type specific manner. PMID:11751690

Rao, E; Blaschke, R J; Marchini, A; Niesler, B; Burnett, M; Rappold, G A

2001-12-15

302

CD changes of 193-nm resists during SEM measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CD linewidth change during SEM inspection has been one of the issues encountered in the introduction of 193 nm resists. As a general tendency, the methacrylate resists exhibit faster line width reduction than the cycloolefin- maleic anhydride (COMA) systems; however, other resist components as well as CD SEM settings paly an important role. Based on the exposure time vs. CD loss, the line width slimming (LSW) is found to proceed in three steps, which are assigned as: 1) chemical change of outer resist layer, 2) evaporation of volatiles and 3) bulk chain scission or deprotection. Countermeasures for CD degradation are proposed form both the formulation and process sides. A calculation of e-beam penetration depth suggests that deprotection, chain scission and other reactions occur in the first 20-40nm, and these reaction rates combined with thermal effects determine LWS. The CD SEM measurement method has been improved to minimize e-beam exposure and to spread out the thermal load over a larger period of time. An optimized formulation exhibits less than 0.2% LWS per measurement with the improved CD measurement program.

Kudo, Takanori; Bae, Jun-Bom; Dammel, Ralph R.; Kim, Woo-Kyu; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Ng, Waiman

2001-08-01

303

Color Constancy: Enhancing von Kries Adaptation via Sensor Transformations Graham D. Finlayson, Mark S. Drew and Brian V. Funt  

E-print Network

perception of color even though the light spectrum entering our eye differs markedly in the two situations color conslancy. Light entering the eye is sampled by long-, medium- and short-wave sensitive coneColor Constancy: Enhancing von Kries Adaptation via Sensor Transformations Graham D. Finlayson

Drew, Mark S.

304

Performance evaluation of the self-organizing map for feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its wide applications as a tool for feature extraction, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) remains a black box to most meteorologists and oceanographers. This paper evaluates the feature extraction performance of the SOM by using artificial data representative of known patterns. The SOM is shown to extract the patterns of a linear progressive sine wave. Sensitivity studies are performed to

Yonggang Liu; Robert H. Weisberg; Christopher N. K. Mooers

2006-01-01

305

Performance Evaluation of the Self-Organizing Map for Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its wide applications as a tool for feature extraction, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) remains a black box to most meteorologists and oceanographers. This paper evaluates the feature extraction performance of the SOM by using artificial data representative of known patterns. The SOM is shown to extract the patterns of a linear progressive sine wave. Sensitivity studies are performed to

Yonggang Liu; Robert H. Weisberg; Christopher N. K. Mooers

2006-01-01

306

Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

Feagin, Louise Crawford

307

Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva  

PubMed Central

Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins) and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm, we found that middle gastrula stage embryos display a positive photoresponse behavior, in the absence of a discrete shading pigment or axonal connections between cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that the dichotomy in the deployment of ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptors for directional light detection is not as clear-cut as previously thought. Analyses of brachiopod larval eyes demonstrate that the utilization of c-opsin expressing ciliary photoreceptors in cerebral eyes is not limited to vertebrates. The presence of ciliary photoreceptor-based eyes in protostomes suggests that the transition between non-visual and visual functions of photoreceptors has been more evolutionarily labile than previously recognized, and that co-option of ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell types for directional light detection has occurred multiple times during animal evolution. In addition, positive photoresponse behavior in gastrula stage embryos suggests that a discrete shading pigment is not requisite for directional photoreception in metazoans. Scanning photoreception of light intensities mediating cell-autonomous changes of ciliary movement may represent an ancient mechanism for regulating locomotory behavior, and is likely to have existed prior to the evolution of eye-mediated directional light detection employing axonal connections to effector cells and a discreet shading pigment. PMID:21362157

2011-01-01

308

On the origins of arrestin and rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Background G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most numerous proteins in mammalian genomes, and the most common targets of clinical drugs. However, their evolution remains enigmatic. GPCRs are intimately associated with trimeric G proteins, G protein receptor kinases, and arrestins. We conducted phylogenetic studies to reconstruct the history of arrestins. Those findings, in turn, led us to investigate the origin of the photosensory GPCR rhodopsin. Results We found that the arrestin clan is comprised of the Spo0M protein family in archaea and bacteria, and the arrestin and Vps26 families in eukaryotes. The previously known animal arrestins are members of the visual/beta subfamily, which branched from the founding "alpha" arrestins relatively recently. Curiously, we identified both the oldest visual/beta arrestin and opsin genes in Cnidaria (but not in sponges). The arrestin clan has 14 human members: 6 alphas, 4 visual/betas, and 4 Vps26 genes. Others recently showed that the 3D structure of mammalian Vps26 and the biochemical function of the yeast alpha arrestin PalF are similar to those of beta arrestins. We note that only alpha arrestins have PY motifs (known to bind WW domains) in their C-terminal tails, and only visual/betas have helix I in the Arrestin N domain. Conclusion We identified ciliary opsins in Cnidaria and propose this subfamily is ancestral to all previously known animal opsins. That finding is consistent with Darwin's theory that eyes evolved once, and lends some support to Parker's hypothesis that vision triggered the Cambrian explosion of life forms. Our arrestin findings have implications on the evolution of GPCR signaling, and on the biological roles of human alpha arrestins. PMID:18664266

2008-01-01

309

Origins and antiquity of X-linked triallelic color vision systems in New World monkeys  

PubMed Central

It is known that the squirrel monkey, marmoset, and other related New World (NW) monkeys possess three high-frequency alleles at the single X-linked photopigment locus, and that the spectral sensitivity peaks of these alleles are within those delimited by the human red and green pigment genes. The three alleles in the squirrel monkey and marmoset have been sequenced previously. In this study, the three alleles were found and sequenced in the saki monkey, capuchin, and tamarin. Although the capuchin and tamarin belong to the same family as the squirrel monkey and marmoset, the saki monkey belongs to a different family and is one of the species that is most divergent from the squirrel monkey and marmoset, suggesting the presence of the triallelic system in many NW monkeys. The nucleotide sequences of these alleles from the five species studied indicate that gene conversion occurs frequently and has partially or completely homogenized intronic and exonic regions of the alleles in each species, making it appear that a triallelic system arose independently in each of the five species studied. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis suggests that the triallelic system arose only once in the NW monkey lineage, from a middle wavelength (green) opsin gene, and that the amino acid differences at functionally critical sites among alleles have been maintained by natural selection in NW monkeys for >20 million years. Moreover, the two X-linked opsin genes of howler monkeys (a NW monkey genus) were evidently derived from the incorporation of a middle (green) and a long wavelength (red) allele into one chromosome; these two genes together with the (autosomal) blue opsin gene would immediately enable even a male monkey to have trichromatic vision. PMID:9811872

Boissinot, Stephane; Tan, Ying; Shyue, Song-Kun; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Neiswanger, Katherine; Hewett-Emmett, David; Li, Wen-Hsiung

1998-01-01

310

Opn5 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein  

PubMed Central

Opn5 (neuropsin) belongs to an independent group separated from the other six groups in the phylogenetic tree of opsins, for which little information of absorption characteristics and molecular properties of the members is available. Here we show that the chicken Opn5 (cOpn5m) is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein. The recombinant expression of cOpn5m in HEK 293s cells followed by the addition of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinal produced UV light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms, respectively. These forms were interconvertible by UV and visible light irradiations, respectively, indicating that cOpn5m is a bistable pigment. The absorption maxima of these forms were estimated to be 360 and 474 nm, respectively. The GTP?S binding assay clearly showed that the visible light-absorbing form having all-trans-retinal activates Gi type of G protein, whereas no Gt or Gq activation ability was observed. Immunohistochemical studies using an antibody against cOpn5m clearly showed that this pigment is localized within some types of amacrine cells and some cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retinas, the vast majority of cells in the pineal gland and serotonin-positive cells in the paraventricular organ. Because cOpn5m is the only UV-sensitive opsin among the opsins found so far in chicken, this study provides the molecular basis for UV reception in chicken. PMID:21135214

Yamashita, Takahiro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Tomonari, Sayuri; Ikeda, Keiko; Sakai, Kazumi; Shichida, Yoshinori

2010-01-01

311

Opn5 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein.  

PubMed

Opn5 (neuropsin) belongs to an independent group separated from the other six groups in the phylogenetic tree of opsins, for which little information of absorption characteristics and molecular properties of the members is available. Here we show that the chicken Opn5 (cOpn5m) is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein. The recombinant expression of cOpn5m in HEK 293s cells followed by the addition of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinal produced UV light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms, respectively. These forms were interconvertible by UV and visible light irradiations, respectively, indicating that cOpn5m is a bistable pigment. The absorption maxima of these forms were estimated to be 360 and 474 nm, respectively. The GTP?S binding assay clearly showed that the visible light-absorbing form having all-trans-retinal activates Gi type of G protein, whereas no Gt or Gq activation ability was observed. Immunohistochemical studies using an antibody against cOpn5m clearly showed that this pigment is localized within some types of amacrine cells and some cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retinas, the vast majority of cells in the pineal gland and serotonin-positive cells in the paraventricular organ. Because cOpn5m is the only UV-sensitive opsin among the opsins found so far in chicken, this study provides the molecular basis for UV reception in chicken. PMID:21135214

Yamashita, Takahiro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Tomonari, Sayuri; Ikeda, Keiko; Sakai, Kazumi; Shichida, Yoshinori

2010-12-21

312

Effect of G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 (Grk1) Overexpression on Rod Photoreceptor Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Photoreceptor rhodopsin kinase (Rk, G protein–dependent receptor kinase 1 [Grk1]) phosphorylates light-activated opsins and channels them into an inactive complex with visual arrestins. Grk1 deficiency leads to human retinopathy and heightened susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the mouse. The goal of this study was to determine whether excess Grk1 activity is protective against photoreceptor cell death. Methods. Grk1-overexpressing transgenic mice (Grk1+) were generated by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct containing mouse Grk1, along with its flanking sequences. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunostaining, and activity assays were combined with electrophysiology and morphometric analysis, to evaluate Grk1 overexpression and its effect on physiologic and morphologic retinal integrity. Morphometry and nucleosome release assays measured differences in resistance to photoreceptor cell loss between control and transgenic mice exposed to intense light. Results. Compared with control animals, the Grk1+ transgenic line had approximately a threefold increase in Grk1 transcript and immunoreactive protein. Phosphorylated opsin immunochemical staining and in vitro phosphorylation assays confirmed proportionately higher Grk1 enzyme activity. Grk1+ mice retained normal rod function, normal retinal appearance, and lacked evidence of spontaneous apoptosis when reared in cyclic light. In intense light, Grk1+ mice showed photoreceptor damage, and their susceptibility was more pronounced than that of control mice with prolonged exposure times. Conclusions. Enhancing visual pigment deactivation does not appear to protect against apoptosis; however, excess flow of opsin into the deactivation pathway may actually increase susceptibility to stress-induced cell death similar to some forms of retinal degeneration. PMID:19834036

Whitcomb, Tiffany; Sakurai, Keisuke; Brown, Bruce M.; Young, Joyce E.; Sheflin, Lowell; Dlugos, Cynthia; Craft, Cheryl M.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

2010-01-01

313

Evaluation of the X-Linked High-Grade Myopia Locus (MYP1) with Cone Dysfunction and Color Vision Deficiencies  

PubMed Central

Purpose X-linked high myopia with mild cone dysfunction and color vision defects has been mapped to chromosome Xq28 (MYP1 locus). CXorf2/TEX28 is a nested, intercalated gene within the red-green opsin cone pigment gene tandem array on Xq28. The authors investigated whether TEX28 gene alterations were associated with the Xq28-linked myopia phenotype. Genomic DNA from five pedigrees (with high myopia and either protanopia or deuteranopia) that mapped to Xq28 were screened for TEX28 copy number variations (CNVs) and sequence variants. Methods To examine for CNVs, ultra-high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) assays were performed comparing the subject genomic DNA with control samples (two pairs from two pedigrees). Opsin or TEX28 gene-targeted quantitative real-time gene expression assays (comparative CT method) were performed to validate the array-CGH findings. All exons of TEX28, including intron/exon boundaries, were amplified and sequenced using standard techniques. Results Array-CGH findings revealed predicted duplications in affected patient samples. Although only three copies of TEX28 were previously reported within the opsin array, quantitative real-time analysis of the TEX28 targeted assay of affected male or carrier female individuals in these pedigrees revealed either fewer (one) or more (four or five) copies than did related and control unaffected individuals. Sequence analysis of TEX28 did not reveal any variants associated with the disease status. Conclusions CNVs have been proposed to play a role in disease inheritance and susceptibility as they affect gene dosage. TEX28 gene CNVs appear to be associated with the MYP1 X-linked myopia phenotypes. PMID:19098318

Metlapally, Ravikanth; Michaelides, Michel; Bulusu, Anuradha; Li, Yi-Ju; Schwartz, Marianne; Rosenberg, Thomas; Hunt, David M.; Moore, Anthony T.; Zuchner, Stephan; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Young, Terri L.

2014-01-01

314

Expression of the bop gene cluster of Halobacterium halobium is induced by low oxygen tension and by light.  

PubMed Central

The bop gene cluster consists of at least three genes: bop (bacterio-opsin), brp (bacterio-opsin-related protein), and bat (bacterio-opsin activator). We have quantitated transcript levels from these genes in a wild-type and bacterioruberin-deficient mutant of Halobacterium halobium under conditions which affect purple membrane synthesis. In wild-type cultures grown under high oxygen tension in the dark, bop and bat transcript levels were low during steady-state growth and then increased approximately 29- and approximately 45-fold, respectively, upon entry into stationary phase. brp gene transcription remained very low and essentially unchanged under these conditions. In addition, exposure of wild-type cultures growing under high oxygen tension to 30,000 lx of light stimulated expression of all three genes, especially brp. In contrast to the wild-type, transcription from all three genes in the bacterioruberin mutant was very high during steady-state growth under high oxygen tension in the dark. Cultures of the bacterioruberin mutant were shifted at early stationary phase to low oxygen tension to determine whether oxygen concentrations lower than those present in stationary phase would induce transcription of the bop gene cluster in this strain. Indeed, transcription was induced, suggesting that the bop gene cluster is not completely uncoupled from regulation by oxygen tension in the bacterioruberin mutant. From these data, we propose a regulatory model involving two different mechanisms: (i) bat gene expression is induced under conditions of low oxygen tension and the bat gene product activates bop gene expression and (ii) light induces brp transcription, which stimulates or modulates bat transcription. PMID:1856168

Shand, R F; Betlach, M C

1991-01-01

315

Retinal photoreceptors of two subterranean tuco-tuco species (Rodentia, Ctenomys): morphology, topography, and spectral sensitivity.  

PubMed

Traditionally, vision was thought to be useless for animals living in dark underground habitats, but recent studies in a range of subterranean rodent species have shown a large diversity of eye features, from small subcutaneous eyes to normal-sized functional eyes. We analyzed the retinal photoreceptors in the subterranean hystricomorph rodents Ctenomys talarum and Ctenomys magellanicus to elucidate whether adaptation was to their near-lightless burrows or rather to their occasional diurnal surface activity. Both species had normally developed eyes. Overall photoreceptor densities were comparatively low (95,000-150,000/mm(2) in C. magellanicus, 110,000-200,000/mm(2) in C. talarum), and cone proportions were rather high (10-31% and 14-31%, respectively). The majority of cones expressed the middle-to-longwave-sensitive (L) opsin, and a 6-16% minority expressed the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin. In both species the densities of L and S cones were higher in ventral than in dorsal retina. In both species the tuning-relevant amino acids of the S opsin indicate sensitivity in the near UV rather than the blue/violet range. Photopic spectral electroretinograms were recorded. Unexpectedly, their sensitivity profiles were best fitted by the linear summation of three visual pigment templates with lambda(max) at 370 nm (S pigment, UV), at 510 nm (L pigment), and at 450 nm (an as-yet unexplained mechanism). Avoiding predators and selecting food during the brief aboveground excursions may have exerted pressure to retain robust cone-based vision in Ctenomys. UV tuning of the S cone pigment is shared with a number of other hystricomorphs. PMID:20737597

Schleich, Cristian E; Vielma, Alex; Glösmann, Martin; Palacios, Adrian G; Peichl, Leo

2010-10-01

316

Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution  

PubMed Central

Research in eye evolution has mostly focused on eyes residing in the head. In contrast, noncephalic light sensors are far less understood and rather regarded as evolutionary innovations. We established stable transgenesis in the annelid Platynereis, a reference species for evolutionary and developmental comparisons. EGFP controlled by cis-regulatory elements of r-opsin, a characteristic marker for rhabdomeric photoreceptors, faithfully recapitulates known r-opsin expression in the adult eyes, and marks a pair of pigment-associated frontolateral eyelets in the brain. Unexpectedly, transgenic animals revealed an additional series of photoreceptors in the ventral nerve cord as well as photoreceptors that are located in each pair of the segmental dorsal appendages (notopodia) and project into the ventral nerve cord. Consistent with a photosensory function of these noncephalic cells, decapitated animals display a clear photoavoidance response. Molecular analysis of the receptors suggests that they differentiate independent of pax6, a gene involved in early eye development of many metazoans, and that the ventral cells may share origins with the Hesse organs in the amphioxus neural tube. Finally, expression analysis of opn4×-2 and opn4m-2, two zebrafish orthologs of Platynereis r-opsin, reveals that these genes share expression in the neuromasts, known mechanoreceptors of the lateral line peripheral nervous system. Together, this establishes that noncephalic photoreceptors are more widespread than assumed, and may even reflect more ancient aspects of sensory systems. Our study marks significant advance for the understanding of photoreceptor cell (PRC) evolution and development and for Platynereis as a functional lophotrochozoan model system. PMID:23284166

Backfisch, Benjamin; Veedin Rajan, Vinoth Babu; Fischer, Ruth M.; Lohs, Claudia; Arboleda, Enrique; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Raible, Florian

2013-01-01

317

Functional and Anatomic Consequences of Subretinal Dosing in the Cynomolgus Macaque  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize functional and anatomic sequelae of a bleb induced by subretinal injection. Methods Subretinal injections (100 ?l) of balance salt solution (BSS) were placed in the superotemporal macula of one eye in 3 cynomolgus macaques. Fellow eyes received intravitreal injections (100 ?l) of BSS. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were obtained before and immediately after injection and again at intervals up to 3 months post injection. Histopathologic analyses included transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), rhodopsin, M/L-cone opsin and S-cone opsin. Results Retinas were re-attached by 2 days post-injection (by OCT). mfERG was suppressed post-subretinal injection within the subretinal injection bleb and surprisingly, also in regions far peripheral to this region. mfERG amplitudes were nearly completely recovered by 90 days. The spectral domain (SD)-OCT inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line had decreased reflectivity at 92 days. GFAP and S-cone staining were unaffected. Rhodopsin and M/L-cone opsins were partially displaced into the inner segments. TEM revealed disorganization of the outer segment rod (but not cone) disks. At all post-injection intervals, eyes with intravitreal injection were similar to baseline. Conclusions Subretinal injection is a promising route for drug delivery to the eye. Three months post subretinal injection, retinal function was nearly recovered, although reorganization of the outer segment rod disk remained disrupted. Understanding the functional and anatomic effects of subretinal injection per se is important for interpretation of the effects of compounds delivered to the subretinal space. Clinical relevance Subretinal injection is a new potential route for drug delivery to the eye. Separating drug effects from the procedural effects per se is critical. PMID:21911651

Nork, T. Michael; Murphy, Christopher J.; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Hoeve, James N. Ver; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Miller, Paul E.; Wabers, Hugh D.; Neider, Michael W.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; McCulloh, Ryan J.; Christian, Brian J.

2011-01-01

318

Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P excretion levels. To conclude, new selection indexes including RFI can be envisaged to efficiently disentangle the responses to selection on growth rate and body composition from those on feed efficiency, with favorable impacts on N and P excretions, particularly in sire pig breeds. However, the switch from FCR to RFI in selection indexes should not resolve the genetic antagonism between feed efficiency and meat quality. PMID:23482579

Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

2013-06-01

319

Hot-electron generation by ``cavitating'' Langmuir turbulence in the nonlinear stage of the two-plasmon-decay instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell simulation technique has been applied to study the nonlinear stage of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability in an inhomogeneous plasma driven by crossed laser beams. The TPD instability is found to be a prolific generator of "cavitating" Langmuir turbulence. Langmuir "cavitons"—localized longitudinal electric fields, oscillating near the local electron plasma frequency, trapped in ponderomotive density depressions—collapse to dimensions of a few electron Debye lengths, where the electric field energy is collisionlessly transferred to electron kinetic energy. The resulting hot electrons can attain instantaneous temperatures up to 100 keV with net suprathermal heat flux out of the system of up to a few percent of the input laser energy. Scaling laws for this hot-electron generation by TPD, in regimes motivated by recent experiments on the Omega laser, were presented recently by Vu et al. (H. X. Vu, D. F. DuBois, D. A. Russell, and J. F. Myatt, Phys. Plasmas 19, 102703 (2012)). This paper concentrates on the microscopic mechanisms for hot-electron generation. The spatial distribution of the maxima of the electric field envelope modulus is found to be very spiky, with the distribution of electric field envelope maxima obeying Gaussian statistics. The cavitons are produced in density-depletion trenches produced by the combined ponderomotive interference of the crossed laser beams and the ponderomotive beats of the primary backward-going TPD Langmuir waves (LWs) resulting from the crossed beams. The Langmuir turbulence is strongest in the electron-density region near 0.241× the laser's critical density, where the forward LWs from the crossed-beam TPD are degenerate. Nucleation of cavitons is assisted by the modulation of the electron density in the trenches, which in turn is caused by the beating of the common forward-going LW and the pair of backward-going LWs. The autocorrelation function of the LW envelope field provides a near-universal shape for intense cavitons—in the neighborhood of the local field maxima. The hot-electron temperature is found to be approximately a linear function of the "caviton temperature" determined from the Gaussian distribution of caviton maxima. These diagnostics provide strong evidence for the importance of Langmuir caviton collapse in the generation of hot electrons by TPD. Extended Zakharov model predictions for TPD exhibit the same qualitative phenomena.

Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Russell, D. A.; Myatt, J. F.

2012-10-01

320

Microspectrophotometry of visual pigments and oil droplets in a marine bird, the wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus: topographic variations in photoreceptor spectral characteristics.  

PubMed

Microspectrophotometric examination of the retina of a procellariiform marine bird, the wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus, revealed the presence of five different types of vitamin A(1)-based visual pigment in seven different types of photoreceptor. A single class of rod contained a medium-wavelength sensitive visual pigment with a wavelength of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 502 nm. Four different types of single cone contained visual pigments maximally sensitive in either the violet (VS, lambda(max) 406 nm), short (SWS, lambda(max) 450 nm), medium (MWS, lambda(max) 503 nm) or long (LWS, lambda(max) 566 nm) spectral ranges. In the peripheral retina, the SWS, MWS and LWS single cones contained pigmented oil droplets in their inner segments with cut-off wavelengths (lambda(cut)) at 445 (C-type), 506 (Y-type) and 562 nm (R-type), respectively. The VS visual pigment was paired with a transparent (T-type) oil droplet that displayed no significant absorption above at least 370 nm. Both the principal and accessory members of the double cone pair contained the same 566 nm lambda(max) visual pigment as the LWS single cones but only the principal member contained an oil droplet, which had a lambda(cut) at 413 nm. The retina had a horizontal band or 'visual streak' of increased photoreceptor density running across the retina approximately 1.5 mm dorsal to the top of the pecten. Cones in the centre of the horizontal streak were smaller and had oil droplets that were either transparent/colourless or much less pigmented than at the periphery. It is proposed that the reduction in cone oil droplet pigmentation in retinal areas associated with high visual acuity is an adaptation to compensate for the reduced photon capture ability of the narrower photoreceptors found there. Measurements of the spectral transmittance of the ocular media reveal that wavelengths down to at least 300 nm would be transmitted to the retina. PMID:14978063

Hart, Nathan S

2004-03-01

321

Cone photopigment variations in Cebus apella monkeys evidenced by electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the color vision pattern in male and female Cebus apella monkeys by means of electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis. Our objective was to establish a simple, fast and efficient protocol in order to determine the chromatic vision pattern in Cebus monkeys. We found five among ten possible different phenotypes, two trichromats and three dichromats. We also found that Cebus present a new allele with spectral peak near 552 nm, with the amino acid combination SFT at positions 180, 277 and 285 of the opsin gene, in addition to the previously described SYT, AFT and AFA alleles. PMID:19883678

Soares, Juliana G.M.; Fiorani, Mario; Araujo, Eduardo A.; Zana, Yossi; Bonci, Daniela M.O.; Neitz, Maureen; Ventura, Dora F.; Gattass, Ricardo

2011-01-01

322

Ami - The Chemist's Amanuensis  

E-print Network

.7 m wide × 1.2 m high × 0.7 m deep). So we turned our investigations to using the Kinect for controlling the computer itself; because the Kinect monitors body movements, it might be good for someone who is wear- ing protective clothing. Using... KR, Essex JW, Frey JG, Mills HR, Hughes G, Zaluska EJ: The Semantic Grid and chemistry: Experiences with CombeChem. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 2006, 4:84-101. 6. OPSIN, Open Parser for Systematic IUPAC...

Brooks, Brian J; Thorn, Adam L; Smith, Matthew; Matthews, Peter; Chen, Shaoming; O'Steen, Ben; Adams, Sam E; Townsend, Joe A; Murray-Rust, Peter

2011-10-14

323

Energetics of primary processes in visula escitation: photocalorimetry of rhodopsin in rod outer segment membranes.  

PubMed

A sensitive technique for the direct calorimetric determination of the energetics of photochemical reactions under low levels of illumination, and its application to the study of primary processes in visula excitation, are described. Enthlpies are reported for various steps in the bleaching of rhodopsin in intact rod outer segment membranes, together with the heats of appropriate model reactions. Protonation changes are also determined calorimetrically by use of buffers with differing heats of proton ionization. Bleaching of rhodopsin is accompanied by significant uptake of heat energy, vastly in excess of the energy required for simple isomerization of the retinal chromophore. Metarhodopsin I formation involves the uptake of about 17 kcal/mol and no net change in proton ionization of the system. Formation of metarhodopsin II requires an additional energy of about 10 kcal/mol and involves the uptake on one hydrogen ion from solution. The energetics of the overall photolysis reaction, rhodopsin leads to opsin + all-trans-retinal, are pH dependent and involve the exposure of an additional titrating group on opsin. This group has a heat of proton ionization of about 12 kcal/mal, characteristic of a primary amine, but a pKa in the region of neutrality. We suggest that this group is the Schiff base lysine of the chromophore binding site of rhodopsin which becomes exposed on photolysis. The low pKa for this active lysine would result in a more stable retinal-opsin linkage, and might be induced by a nearby positively charged group on the protein (either arginine or a second lysine residue). This leads to a model involving intramolecular protonation of the Schiff base nitrogen in the retinal-opsin linkage of rhodopsin, which is consistent with the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of the system. We further propose that the metarhodopsin I leads to metarhodopsin II step in the bleaching sequence involves reversible hydrolysis of the Schiff base linkage in the chromophore binding site, and that subsequent steps are the result of migration of the chromophore from this site. PMID:8077

Cooper, A; Converse, C A

1976-07-13

324

The ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex  

SciTech Connect

This document provides supporting material related to the sequencing of the ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex. This material includes information on materials and methods and supporting text, as well as supplemental figures, tables, and references. The coverage of materials and methods addresses genome sequence, assembly, and mapping to chromosomes, gene inventory, attributes of a compact genome, the origin and preservation of Daphnia pulex genes, implications of Daphnia's genome structure, evolutionary diversification of duplicated genes, functional significance of expanded gene families, and ecoresponsive genes. Supporting text covers chromosome studies, gene homology among Daphnia genomes, micro-RNA and transposable elements and the 46 Daphnia pulex opsins. 36 figures, 50 tables, 183 references.

Colbourne, John K.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Gilbert, Donald; Thomas, W. Kelley; Tucker, Abraham; Oakley, Todd H.; Tokishita, Shinichi; Aerts, Andrea; Arnold, Georg J.; Basu, Malay Kumar; Bauer, Darren J.; Caceres, Carla E.; Carmel, Liran; Casola, Claudio; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Detter, John C.; Dong, Qunfeng; Dusheyko, Serge; Eads, Brian D.; Frohlich, Thomas; Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry A.; Gerlach, Daniel; Hatcher, Phil; Jogdeo, Sanjuro; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kültz, Dietmar; Laforsch, Christian; Lindquist, Erika; Lopez, Jacqueline; Manak, Robert; Muller, Jean; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Patwardhan, Rupali P.; Pitluck, Samuel; Pritham, Ellen J.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Rho, Mina; Rogozin, Igor B.; Sakarya, Onur; Salamov, Asaf; Schaack, Sarah; Shapiro, Harris; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Skalitzky, Courtney; Smith, Zachary; Souvorov, Alexander; Sung, Way; Tang, Zuojian; Tsuchiya, Dai; Tu, Hank; Vos, Harmjan; Wang, Mei; Wolf, Yuri I.; Yamagata, Hideo; Yamada, Takuji; Ye, Yuzhen; Shaw, Joseph R.; Andrews, Justen; Crease, Teresa J.; Tang, Haixu; Lucas, Susan M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Bork, Peer; Koonin, Eugene V.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lynch, Michael; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2011-02-04

325

Evidence for water ice and estimate of dust production rate in comet Hale-Bopp at 2.9 AU from the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observational evidence for water ice in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) when it was at 2.9 AU from the Sun, from emission features at 44 and 65 mu m, and possibly an absorption feature at 3.1 mu m, observed with ISO/LWS and PHT. We find that icy grains have mean radii of 15 mu m within a factor of 2, lifetimes of ~ 2 days, a temperature of ~ 153 K, and a total mass of ~ 2x10(9) kg. From investigation of the continuum spectrum at 43-195 mu m, we also infer a production rate of large particles ( ~ 100 mu m) dust of about 4x10(4) kg s(-1) . Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with participation of ISAS and NASA.

Lellouch, E.; Crovisier, J.; Lim, T.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leech, K.; Hanner, M. S.; Altieri, B.; Schmitt, B.; Trotta, F.; Keller, H. U.

1998-11-01

326

Compositional Constraints on the Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune from Herschel and Spitzer Spectroscopic Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key elements of planetary compositions provide one of the most fundamental constraints on the origins and evolution of major bodies in the solar system. For the icy giants, Uranus and Neptune, acquiring compositional information has been a challenge because of their faintness. Great strides have been made with the advent of cryogenically cooled space-borne telescopes, however, and we report here the most recent of these results from Spitzer and Herschel telescopes, the latter including data taken within the framework of the Key Project "Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar system". Our interpretation of these results is set in the context of earlier results obtained by the ISO LWS and SWS spectrometers, together with relevant Earth-based observations. We will specifically discuss the chemical inventory and abundances stratospheric hydrocarbons, the implications of thermal structure for deep atmospheric composition, and improved constraints on the D/H ratio in Neptune.

Orton, G. S.; Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hartogh, P.; Jarchow, C.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Line, M. R.; Herschel Key Project On Water; Related Chemistry in Solar System Team

2010-12-01

327

Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, is scheduled to be the first mission to launch in 2007 under the new Living With a Star (LWS) program. It builds on the success of SOHO and other recent solar missions, but will observe the Sun at greater resolution and faster time cadence with a set of remote sensing instruments generating data in excess of 100 megabytes per second. The Science Definition Team produced a report consisting of a series of science objectives and a baseline instrument complement. Instrument proposals were due in April 2002, with selection to occur in the late summer of 2002. The spacecraft is being built at NASA Goddard Spacecraft Center by a team of engineers which are currently undergoing the formulation process. The presentation will discuss the current status of the science investigation selection and the spacecraft formulation.

Thompson, B. J.; Schwer, K. O.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

328

A far-infrared molecular and atomic line survey of the Orion KL region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a high spectral resolution (?/?? ~ 6800-9700) line survey towards the Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) cluster from 44 to 188 ?m. The observations were taken with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) in Fabry-Pérot mode, on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). A total of 152 lines are clearly detected and a further 34 features are present as possible detections. The spectrum is dominated by the molecular species H2O, OH and CO, along with [OI] and [CII] lines from photodissociation region (PDR) or shocked gas and [O III] and [NIII] lines from the foreground M42 HII region. Several isotopic species, as well as NH3, are also detected. HDO and H3O+ are tentatively detected for the first time in the far-infrared (FIR) range towards Orion KL. A basic analysis of the line observations is carried out, by comparing with previous measurements and published models and deriving rotational temperatures and column densities in the case of the molecular species. Analysis of the [OI] and [CII] fine structure lines indicates that although a shock model can reproduce the observed [OI] surface brightness levels, it falls short of the observed [CII] level by more than a factor of 30. A PDR model can reproduce the [OI] 63.2 ?m and [CII] surface brightness levels within 35 per cent, although overpredicting the LWS [OI] 145.5 ?m-emission by a factor of 2.7. The 70 water lines and 22 OH lines detected by the survey appear with mainly P Cygni profiles at the shortest survey wavelengths and with mainly pure emission profiles at the longest survey wavelengths. The emission and absorption velocity peaks of the water and OH lines indicate that they are associated with gas expanding in the outflow from the KL cluster. The estimated column densities are (2-5) × 1014 cm-2 for H2O and (2.5-5.1) × 1016 cm-2 for OH. The 26 detected CO lines confirm the presence of three distinct components, with temperature and column density combinations ranging from 660 K, 6 × 1017 cm-2 to 360 K, 2 × 1019 cm-2. Comparison of the surface brightnesses and integrated fluxes of the CO lines measured in the 80-arcsec LWS beam with those measured previously by the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) in a 44-arcsec beam shows similar surface brightnesses in the different beams for the lowest-J CO lines and similar integrated fluxes in the different beams for the highest-J CO lines, indicating that emission from the former lines has a uniform surface brightness within the LWS beam, while the latter lines originate from a region less than 44 arcsec in diameter. The complexity of the region requires more sophisticated models for the interpretation of all the line observations.

Lerate, M. R.; Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Grundy, T. W.; Lim, T. L.; Polehampton, E. T.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.

2006-08-01

329

Development of a long wavelength spectrometer for the 24-channel multispectral scanner: Instructions for installation, start-up, and adjustment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic information is presented, which is required for start-up and operation of two long-wavelength focal-plane and cooler assemblies, including the amplifiers and temperature control systems. The focal plane systems, referred to as the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) were developed for direct replacement of Arrays 3 and 4 into the multispectral scanner presently being operated by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Facility, and Laboratory Support Branch. The equipment is comprised of two major sub-assemblies: Array 3 with three indium antimonide detector channels and Array 4 with seven mercury doped Germanium detector channels. Each array is mounted on a cryogenic cooler and includes the vacuum housings, mounting hardware (x, y, z translation and rotation stages) and detector signal conditioning, temperature control and monitoring electronics. The two arrays were designed to operate independently and do not share common equipment (viz power supplies, housings, mounts, etc.).

1974-01-01

330

Modeling dichromatic and trichromatic sensitivity to the color properties of fruits eaten by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).  

PubMed

Most platyrrhines have a visual polymorphism that is characterized by the presence of multiple alleles of the M/LWS gene on the X chromosome. This polymorphism is probably maintained by selection. There are two possible mechanisms by which this can be explained: First, heterozygous females may have perceptual advantages over dichromats, such that trichromacy would be favored via the existence of different visual pigments. This is known as selection by heterosis. Second, dichromacy may be advantageous in some situations, with polymorphism being maintained by frequency-dependent selection. In this study the reflectance spectra of fruits and flowers eaten by a troop of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in Eastern Amazon were measured using a spectrophotometer. S. sciureus have an SWS cone with a spectral tuning of approximately 430 nm, and three M/LWS alleles with spectral tunings of 535 nm, 550 nm, and 562 nm. Based on the spectral tunings of the different phenotypes and the spectral data obtained from the food items, the responses of the different visual systems to the measured objects were modeled and then compared. The model predicted that trichromatic phenotypes would have an advantage over dichromats in detecting fruits and flowers from background foliage, which suggests that heterosis is the mechanism for maintaining polymorphism in S. sciureus. On the other hand, a large proportion of fruits could not be detected by any of the phenotypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether other important aspects of the primates' visual world, such as prey, predator, and conspecific detection, favor tri- or dichromacy. PMID:17096422

De Araújo, Mariana F P; Lima, Eldianne M; Pessoa, Valdir F

2006-12-01

331

ISO spectroscopic observations of short-period comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Infrared Space Observatory programmes (guaranteed time and open time) were devoted to high-resolution spectroscopic observations of short-period comets. 22P/Kopff was observed on October-December 1996 with SWS and LWS. Due to the weakness of the object, only the ?3 ro-vibrational lines of water were detected, with SWS. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 was observed close to its perihelion (at 1.04 AU from Sun and 0.82 AU from Earth) on January 1998 with SWS, LWS and CAM. The bands of H2O and CO2 at 2.7 and 4.3 ?m are detected, with [CO2]/[H2O] = 10 %. The 2.7 ?m band of H2O is observed with a high signal-to-noise ratio with SWS, which permits to evaluate the rotational temperature of water to 16-20 K and its ortho-to-para ratio to ~ 2.7, corresponding to a spin temperature of ~ 35 K. The 5-17 ?m spectrum of comet Hartley 2 observed with CAM-CVF shows the 9-12 ?m signature of silicates. Silicate emission around 10 ?m is present at a level of about 20 % of the continuum, with a peak at 11.3 ?m indicative of crystalline silicates. This is the first time crystalline silicates are found in a short-period comet. The ISO observations of the Jupiter-family comet P/Hartley 2, presumably originating from the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, are compared to those of comet Hale-Bopp which came from the Oort cloud.

Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, Th.; Lellouch, E.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Altieri, B.; Leech, K.; Salama, A.; Griffin, M. J.; de Graauw, Th.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Knacke, R.; Brooke, T. Y.

1999-03-01

332

The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future IR missions should give some priority to high resolution spectroscopic observations of the set of far-IR transitions of OH. There are 15 far-IR lines arising between the lowest eight rotational levels of OH, and ISO detected nine of them. Furthermore, ISO found the OH lines, sometimes in emission and sometimes in absorption, in a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic objects ranging from AGB stars to molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. The ISO/LWS Fabry-Perot resolved the 119 m doublet line in a few of the strong sources. This set of OH lines provides a uniquely important diagnostic for many reasons: the lines span a wide wavelength range (28.9 m to 163.2 m); the transitions have fast radiative rates; the abundance of the species is relatively high; the IR continuum plays an important role as a pump; the contribution from shocks is relatively minor; and, not least, the powerful centimeter-wave radiation from OH allows comparison with radio and VLBI datasets. The problem is that the large number of sensitive free parameters, and the large optical depths of the strongest lines, make modeling the full set a difficult job. The SWAS montecarlo radiative transfer code has been used to analyze the ISO/LWS spectra of a number of objects with good success, including in both the lines and the FIR continuum; the DUSTY radiative transfer code was used to insure a self-consistent continuum. Other far IR lines including those from H2O, CO, and [OI] are also in the code. The OH lines all show features which future FIR spectrometers should be able to resolve, and which will enable further refinements in the details of each cloud's structure. Some examples are given, including the case of S140, for which independent SWAS data found evidence for bulk flows.

Smith, Howard A.

2004-01-01

333

Identification of candidate genes and mutations in QTL regions for chicken growth using bioinformatic analysis of NGS and SNP-chip data  

PubMed Central

Mapping of chromosomal regions harboring genetic polymorphisms that regulate complex traits is usually followed by a search for the causative mutations underlying the observed effects. This is often a challenging task even after fine mapping, as millions of base pairs including many genes will typically need to be investigated. Thus to trace the causative mutation(s) there is a great need for efficient bioinformatic strategies. Here, we searched for genes and mutations regulating growth in the Virginia chicken lines – an experimental population comprising two lines that have been divergently selected for body weight at 56 days for more than 50 generations. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped in an F2 intercross between the lines, and the regions have subsequently been replicated and fine mapped using an Advanced Intercross Line. We have further analyzed the QTL regions where the largest genetic divergence between the High-Weight selected (HWS) and Low-Weight selected (LWS) lines was observed. Such regions, covering about 37% of the actual QTL regions, were identified by comparing the allele frequencies of the HWS and LWS lines using both individual 60K SNP chip genotyping of birds and analysis of read proportions from genome resequencing of DNA pools. Based on a combination of criteria including significance of the QTL, allele frequency difference of identified mutations between the selected lines, gene information on relevance for growth, and the predicted functional effects of identified mutations we propose here a subset of candidate mutations of highest priority for further evaluation in functional studies. The candidate mutations were identified within the GCG, IGFBP2, GRB14, CRIM1, FGF16, VEGFR-2, ALG11, EDN1, SNX6, and BIRC7 genes. We believe that the proposed method of combining different types of genomic information increases the probability that the genes underlying the observed QTL effects are represented among the candidate mutations identified. PMID:24204379

Ahsan, Muhammad; Li, Xidan; Lundberg, Andreas E.; Kierczak, Marcin; Siegel, Paul B.; Carlborg, Orjan; Marklund, Stefan

2013-01-01

334

ISO Key Project: Exploring the Full Range of Quasar/Agn Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While most of the work on this program has been completed, as previously reported, the portion of the program dealing with the subtopic of ISO LWS data analysis and reduction for the LWS Extragalactic Science Team and its leader, Dr. Howard Smith, is still active. This program in fact continues to generate results, and newly available computer modeling has extended the value of the datasets. As a result the team requests a one-year no-cost extension to this program, through 31 December 2004. The essence of the proposal is to perform ISO spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star-formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, but including as well some other spectroscopic databases. Four kinds of regions are considered in the studies: (1) disks around more evolved objects; (2) young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star-formation regions; (3) star formation in external, bright IR galaxies; and (4) the galactic center. One prime focus of the program is the OH lines in the far infrared. The program has the following goals: 1) Refine the data analysis of ISO observations to obtain deeper and better SNR results on selected sources. The ISO data itself underwent 'pipeline 10' reductions in early 2001, and additional 'hands-on data reduction packages' were supplied by the ISO teams in 2001. The Fabry-Perot database is particularly sensitive to noise and slight calibration errors; 2) Model the atomic and molecular line shapes, in particular the OH lines, using revised Monte-Carlo techniques developed by the SWAS team at the Center for Astrophysics; 3) Attend scientific meetings and workshops; 4) Perform E&PO activities related to infrared astrophysics and/or spectroscopy.

Wilkes, Belinda; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

335

Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View  

E-print Network

Far-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the ISO LWS has shown that there is strong variation (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULIGs). The variation in the relative [C II] 158 micron line strength has been attributed to low metallicity in blue compact dwarfs, high /n for normal galaxies and ULIGs, soft radiation fields in ellipticals, and extinction or enhanced abundance of dust in ionized regions in ULIGs. Full ISO/LWS far-infrared (43 - 197 micron) spectra of six nearby IR-bright galaxies reveal a dramatic progression of decreasing fine-structure line emission from ionized species to molecular (OH and H2O) absorption line dominated. The archetypical ULIG, Arp 220, lies at the absorption line dominated end of this sequence. For Arp 220, radiative transfer models indicate that it is optically thick in the FIR and that the water molecules observed in absorption are radiatively excited. If extinction plays a role in the sequence it appears from this analysis that the affected regions are heavily obscured even in the far-infrared, while the detected line emission is not more obscured in ULIGs than in starbursts. Linear correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 6.2 micron feature strength and the [C II] 158 micron line strength in starbursts and ULIGs suggests a similar effect for these emitting species, and that the detected PAH emission is not more obscured in ULIGs than in lower luminosity starbursts.

Jacqueline Fischer

2000-09-25

336

High blood pressure and visual sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

2003-09-01

337

ISO Key Project: Exploring The Full Range of Quasar/AGN Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While most of the work on this program has been completed, as previously reported, the portion of the program dealing with the sub topic of ISO LWS data analysis and reduction for the LWS Extragalactic Science Team and its leader, Dr. Howard Smith, is still active. This program in fact continues to generate results, and newly available computer modeling has extended the value of the datasets, As a result the team has requested and been granted an obtained a no-cost extension to this program, through December 31, 2003. The essence of the proposal is to perform ISO spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, but including as well some other spectroscopic data bases. Four kinds of regions are considered in the studies: (1) disks around more evolved objects; (2) young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star formation regions; (3) star formation in external, bright IR galaxies; and (4) the galactic center. One prime focus of the program is the OH lines in the far infrared. The program has the following goals: (1) refine the data analysis of ISO observations, to obtain deeper and better SNR results on selected sources. The ISO data itself underwent "pipeline 10" reductions in early 2001, and additional "hands-on data reduction packages" were supplied by the ISO teams in 2001. The Fabry-Perot database in particularly sensitive to noise can slight calibration errors. (2) model the atomic and molecular line shapes, in particular the OH lines, using revised Monte-Carlo techniques developed by the SWAS team at the Center for Astrophysics; (3) attend scientific meetings and workshops; (4) do E&PO activities related to infrared astrophysics and/or spectroscopy.

Wilkes, Belinda; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

338

Solar Cycle Variation and Multipoint Studies of ICME Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Living With a Star program is to understand the Sun-Earth connection sufficiently well that we can solve problems critical to life and society. This can most effectively be done in the short term using observations from our past and on-going programs. Not only can this approach solve some of the pressing issues but also it can provide ideas for the deployment of future spacecraft in the LWS program. The proposed effort uses data from NEAR, SOHO, Wind, ACE and Pioneer Venus in quadrature, multipoint, and solar cycle studies to study the interplanetary coronal mass ejection and its role in the magnetic flux cycle of the Sun. ICMEs are most important to the LWS objectives because the solar wind conditions associated with these structures are the most geoeffective of any solar wind phenomena. Their ability to produce strong geomagnetic disturbances arises first because of their high speed. This high speed overtakes the ambient solar wind producing a bow shock wave similar to the terrestrial bow shock. In the new techniques we develop as part of this effort we exploit this feature of ICMEs. This shocked plasma has a greater velocity, higher density and stronger magnetic field than the ambient solar wind, conditions that can enhance geomagnetic activity. The driving ICME is a large magnetic structure expanding outward in the solar wind [Gosling, 19961. The ICMEs magnetic field is generally much higher than that in the ambient solar wind and the velocity is high. The twisted nature of the magnetic field in an ICME almost ensures that sometime during the ICME conditions favorable for geomagnetic storm initiation will occur.

Russell, C. T.

2005-01-01

339

Hot-electron production and suprathermal heat flux scaling with laser intensity from the two-plasmon-decay instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fully kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method has been applied to simulations of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability, driven by crossed laser beams, in an inhomogeneous plasma for parameters consistent with recent direct-drive experiments related to laser-driven inertial fusion. The nonlinear saturated state is characterized by very spiky electric fields, with Langmuir cavitation occurring preferentially inside density channels produced by the ponderomotive beating of the crossed laser beams and the primary TPD Langmuir waves (LWs). The heated electron distribution function is, in all cases, bi-Maxwellian, with instantaneous hot-electron temperatures in the range 60-100 keV. The net hot-electron energy flux out of the system is a small fraction (˜1% to 2%) of the input laser intensity in these simulations. Scalings of the hot-electron temperature and suprathermal heat flux as functions of the laser intensity are obtained numerically from RPIC simulations. These simulations lead to the preliminary conclusion that Langmuir cavitation and collapse provide dissipation by producing suprathermal electrons, which stabilize the system in saturation and drive the LW spectrum to the small dissipation scales at the Landau cutoff. The Langmuir turbulence originates at an electron density 0.241× the laser's critical density, where the crossed laser beams excite a "triad" mode—a common forward LW plus a pair of backward LWs. Remnants of this "triad" evolve in k-space and dominate the time-averaged energy spectrum. At times exceeding 10 ps, the excited Langmuir turbulence spreads toward lower densities. Comparisons of RPIC simulations with the extended Zakharov model are presented in appropriate regimes, and the necessary requirements for the validity of a quasi-linear Zakharov model (where the spatially averaged electron-velocity distribution is evolved) are verified by RPIC simulation results.

Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Myatt, J. F.; Russell, D. A.

2012-10-01

340

Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Living With a Star is a NASA initiative employing the combination of dedicated spacecraft with targeted research and modeling efforts to improve what we know of solar effects of all kinds on the Earth and its surrounding space environment, with particular emphasis on those that have significant practical impacts on life and society. The highest priority among these concerns is the subject of this report: the potential effects of solar variability on regional and global climate, including the extent to which solar variability has contributed to the well-documented warming of the Earth in the last 100 years. Understanding how the climate system reacts to external forcing from the Sun will also greatly improve our knowledge of how climate will respond to other climate drivers, including those of anthropogenic origin. A parallel element of the LWS program addresses solar effects on space weather : the impulsive emissions of charged particles, short-wave electromagnetic radiation and magnetic disturbances in the upper atmosphere and near-Earth environment that also affect life and society. These include a wide variety of solar impacts on aeronautics, astronautics, electric power transmission, and national defense. Specific examples are (1) the impacts of potentially- damaging high energy radiation and atomic particles of solar origin on satellites and satellite operations, spacecraft electronics systems and components, electronic communications, electric power distribution grids, navigational and GPS systems, and high altitude aircraft; and (2) the threat of sporadic, high-energy solar radiation to astronauts and high altitude aircraft passengers and crews. Elements of the LWS program include an array of dedicated spacecraft in near- Earth and near-Sun orbits that will closely study and observe both the Sun itself and the impacts of its variations on the Earth's radiation belts and magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere, and ionosphere. These spacecraft, positioned to study and monitor changing conditions in the Sun-Earth neighborhood, will also serve as sentinels of solar storms and impulsive events.

2003-01-01

341

Development of transgenic animals for optogenetic manipulation of mammalian nervous system function: Progress and prospects for behavioral neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Here we review the rapidly growing toolbox of transgenic mice and rats that exhibit functional expression of engineered opsins for neuronal activation and silencing with light. Collectively, these transgenic animals are enabling neuroscientists to access and manipulate the many diverse cell types in the mammalian nervous system in order to probe synaptic and circuitry connectivity, function, and dysfunction. The availability of transgenic lines affords important advantages such as stable and heritable transgene expression patterns across experimental cohorts. As such, the use of transgenic lines precludes the need for other costly and labor-intensive procedures to achieve functional transgene expression in each individual experimental animal. This represents an important consideration when large cohorts of experimental animals are desirable as in many common behavioral assays. We describe the diverse strategies that have been implemented for developing transgenic mouse and rat lines and highlight recent advances that have led to dramatic improvements in achieving functional transgene expression of engineered opsins. Furthermore, we discuss considerations and caveats associated with implementing recently developed transgenic lines for optogenetics-based experimentation. Lastly, we propose strategies that can be implemented to develop and refine the next generation of genetically modified animals for behaviorally-focused optogenetics-based applications. PMID:23473879

Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping

2014-01-01

342

The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat (Felis catus), horse (Equus caballus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). These opsins were expressed in COS1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. The purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531, and 516 nm, respectively, which are precise to within +/-1 nm. We also regenerated the "true" red pigment of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has a lambdamax value at 559 +/- 4 nm. Multiple linear regression analyses show that S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S shift the lambdamax values of the red and green pigments in mammals toward blue by 7, 28, 7, 15, and 16 nm, respectively, and the reverse amino acid changes toward red by the same extents. The additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain the red-green color vision in a wide range of mammalian species, goldfish, American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), and pigeon (Columba livia). PMID:10511567

Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

1999-01-01

343

Gene therapy rescues cone function in congenital achromatopsia  

PubMed Central

The successful restoration of visual function with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene replacement therapy in animals and humans with an inherited disease of the retinal pigment epithelium has ushered in a new era of retinal therapeutics. For many retinal disorders, however, targeting of therapeutic vectors to mutant rods and/or cones will be required. In this study, the primary cone photoreceptor disorder achromatopsia served as the ideal translational model to develop gene therapy directed to cone photoreceptors. We demonstrate that rAAV-mediated gene replacement therapy with different forms of the human red cone opsin promoter led to the restoration of cone function and day vision in two canine models of CNGB3 achromatopsia, a neuronal channelopathy that is the most common form of achromatopsia in man. The robustness and stability of the observed treatment effect was mutation independent, but promoter and age dependent. Subretinal administration of rAAV5–hCNGB3 with a long version of the red cone opsin promoter in younger animals led to a stable therapeutic effect for at least 33 months. Our results hold promise for future clinical trials of cone-directed gene therapy in achromatopsia and other cone-specific disorders. PMID:20378608

Komaromy, Andras M.; Alexander, John J.; Rowlan, Jessica S.; Garcia, Monique M.; Chiodo, Vince A.; Kaya, Asli; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.; Acland, Gregory M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2010-01-01

344

Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments  

SciTech Connect

We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. (Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa (USA))

1990-08-15

345

Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-coupled receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

New strategies for expression, purification, functional characterization, and structural determination of membrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are constantly being developed because of their importance to human health. Here, we report a Caenorhabditis elegans heterologous expression system able to produce milligram amounts of functional native and engineered GPCRs. Both bovine opsin [(b)opsin] and human adenosine A2A subtype receptor [(h)A2AR] expressed in neurons or muscles of C. elegans were localized to cell membranes. Worms expressing these GPCRs manifested changes in motor behavior in response to light and ligands, respectively. With a newly devised protocol, 0.6–1 mg of purified homogenous 9-cis-retinal-bound bovine isorhodopsin [(b)isoRho] and ligand-bound (h)A2AR were obtained from C. elegans from one 10-L fermentation at low cost. Purified recombinant (b)isoRho exhibited its signature absorbance spectrum and activated its cognate G-protein transducin in vitro at a rate similar to native rhodopsin (Rho) obtained from bovine retina. Generally high expression levels of 11 native and mutant GPCRs demonstrated the potential of this C. elegans system to produce milligram quantities of high-quality GPCRs and possibly other membrane proteins suitable for detailed characterization.—Salom, D., Cao, P., Sun, W., Kramp, K., Jastrzebska, B., Jin, H., Feng, Z., Palczewski, K. Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-coupled receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:22090314

Salom, David; Cao, Pengxiu; Sun, Wenyu; Kramp, Kristopher; Jastrzebska, Beata; Jin, Hui; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

346

Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)  

PubMed Central

Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage. PMID:20015861

Ödeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

2010-01-01

347

Optogenetic Control of Targeted Peripheral Axons in Freely Moving Animals  

PubMed Central

Optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) would enable novel studies of motor control, somatosensory transduction, and pain processing. Such control requires the development of methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted sub-populations of neurons within peripheral nerves. We report here methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted peripheral neurons and robust optogenetic modulation of motor neuron activity in freely moving, non-transgenic mammals. We show that intramuscular injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 6 enables expression of channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in motor neurons innervating the injected muscle. Illumination of nerves containing mixed populations of axons from these targeted neurons and from neurons innervating other muscles produces ChR2-mediated optogenetic activation restricted to the injected muscle. We demonstrate that an implanted optical nerve cuff is well-tolerated, delivers light to the sciatic nerve, and optically stimulates muscle in freely moving rats. These methods can be broadly applied to study PNS disorders and lay the groundwork for future therapeutic application of optogenetics. PMID:23991144

Iyer, Shrivats M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

2013-01-01

348

Early apoptosis of rod photoreceptors in Rpe65(-/-) mice is associated with the upregulated expression of lysosomal-mediated autophagic genes.  

PubMed

RPE65-related Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rod-cone dystrophy whose clinical outcome is mainly attributed to the loss of rod photoreceptors followed by cone degeneration. Pathogenesis in Rpe65(-/-) mice is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of rods dependent on the constitutive activation of unliganded opsin. We previously reported that this opsin-mediated apoptosis of rods was dependent on Bcl-2-apoptotic pathway and Bax-induced pro-death activity. In this study, we report early initial apoptosis in the newly differentiated retina of Rpe65(-/-) mice. Apoptotic photoreceptors were identified as rods and resulted from pathological phototransduction signaling. This wave of early apoptosis triggered Bcl-2-related pathway and Bax apoptotic activity, while activation of the caspases was not induced. Following cellular stress, multiple signaling pathways are initiated which either commit cells to death or trigger pro-survival responses including autophagy. We report that Bcl-2-related early rod apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of autophagy markers including chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) substrate receptor LAMP-2 and lysosomal hydrolases Cathepsin S and Lysozyme. This suggests that lysosomal-mediated autophagy may be triggered in response to early rod apoptosis in Rpe65-LCA disease. These results highlight that Rpe65-related primary stress induces early signaling events, which trigger Bax-induced-apoptotic pathway and autophagy-mediated cellular response. These events may determine retinal cell fate, progression and severity of the disease. PMID:22227450

Métrailler, Sylviane; Schorderet, Daniel F; Cottet, Sandra

2012-03-01

349

Acetabularia rhodopsin I is a light-stimulated proton pump.  

PubMed

We cloned an intronless, nuclear-encoded opsin gene from an EST library of Acetabularia acetabulum. Acetabularia rhodopsin I (ARI) encodes a protein of 246 amino acids with molecular weight of 27 kDa. ARI was reconstituted in the Xenopus oocyte expression system to characterize its electrophysiological properties utilizing the two-electrode voltage-clamping technique. Oocytes where ARI cRNA was injected displayed outward directed currents in response to light. The maximum action spectrum of ARI was detected at 520 nm green light. Light-stimulated ARI current amplitude was altered by the protons, but not by the other ions in recording solutions, suggesting that the algal rhodopsin is a light-stimulated proton pump. Typical proton-mediated outward current elicited by 520 nm light was characterized with two phases of non-inactivating outward current following initial transient current. Taken together, we here reported cloning of a novel Acetabularia opsin gene which was characterized to be a proton-pump stimulated by light. PMID:21780504

Lee, Sang-Soo; Choi, Ah Reum; Kim, So Young; Kang, Ho-Won; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Ha

2011-05-01

350

Constitutive phospholipid scramblase activity of a G protein-coupled receptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opsin, the rhodopsin apoprotein, was recently shown to be an ATP-independent flippase (or scramblase) that equilibrates phospholipids across photoreceptor disc membranes in mammalian retina, a process required for disc homoeostasis. Here we show that scrambling is a constitutive activity of rhodopsin, distinct from its light-sensing function. Upon reconstitution into vesicles, discrete conformational states of the protein (rhodopsin, a metarhodopsin II-mimic, and two forms of opsin) facilitated rapid (>10,000 phospholipids per protein per second) scrambling of phospholipid probes. Our results indicate that the large conformational changes involved in converting rhodopsin to metarhodopsin II are not required for scrambling, and that the lipid translocation pathway either lies near the protein surface or involves membrane packing defects in the vicinity of the protein. In addition, we demonstrate that ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors scramble lipids, suggesting that rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors may play an unexpected moonlighting role in re-modelling cell membranes.

Goren, Michael A.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Menon, Indu; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

2014-10-01

351

Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Outer retinal injury has been well described in glaucoma. To better understand the source of this injury, we wanted to develop a reliable model of partial retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axotomy. Methods. Endodiathermy spots were placed along the inferior 180° adjacent to the optic nerve margin in the right eyes of four cynomolgus monkeys. Fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed at various intervals. Two animals were sacrificed at 3 months. Two animals were sacrificed at 4 months, at which time they underwent an injection of fluorescent microspheres to measure regional choroidal blood flow. Retinal immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), rhodopsin, S-cone opsin, and M/L-cone opsin were performed, as were axon counts of the optic nerves. Results. At 3 months, there was marked thinning of the inferior nerve fiber layer on SD-OCT. The mfERG waveforms were consistent with inner but not outer retinal injury. Greater than 95% reduction in axons was seen in the inferior optic nerves but no secondary degeneration superiorly. There was marked thinning of the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers in the inferior retinas. However, the photoreceptor histology was similar in the axotomized and nonaxotomized areas. Regional choroidal blood flow was not affected by the axotomy. Conclusions. Unlike experimental glaucoma, hemiretinal endodiathermy axotomy (HEA) of the RGCs produces no apparent anatomic, functional, or blood flow effects on the outer retina and choroid. PMID:23620427

Dashek, Ryan J.; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Hennes-Beean, Elizabeth A.; VerHoeve, James N.; Nork, T. Michael

2013-01-01

352

Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light  

PubMed Central

Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661?W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38?mW/cm2). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light. PMID:24909301

Kuse, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Kenjiro; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

2014-01-01

353

The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat (Felis catus), horse (Equus caballus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). These opsins were expressed in COS1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. The purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531, and 516 nm, respectively, which are precise to within +/-1 nm. We also regenerated the "true" red pigment of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has a lambdamax value at 559 +/- 4 nm. Multiple linear regression analyses show that S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S shift the lambdamax values of the red and green pigments in mammals toward blue by 7, 28, 7, 15, and 16 nm, respectively, and the reverse amino acid changes toward red by the same extents. The additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain the red-green color vision in a wide range of mammalian species, goldfish, American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), and pigeon (Columba livia). PMID:10511567

Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

1999-10-01

354

Evolution of clitellate phaosomes from rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells of polychaetes - a study in the leech Helobdella robusta (Annelida, Sedentaria, Clitellata)  

PubMed Central

Introduction In Annelida two types of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) are regarded as generally present, rhabdomeric and ciliary PRCs. In certain taxa, however, an additional type of PRC may occur, the so called phaosomal PRC. Whereas the former two types of PRCs are always organized as an epithelium with their sensory processes projecting into an extracellular cavity formed by the PRCs and (pigmented) supportive cells, phaosomes are seemingly intracellular vacuoles housing the sensory processes. Phaosomal PRCs are the only type of PRC found in one major annelid group, Clitellata. Several hypotheses have been put forward explaining the evolutionary origin of the clitellate phaosomes. To elucidate the evolution of clitellate PRC and eyes the leech Helobdella robusta, for which a sequenced genome is available, was chosen. Results TEM observations showed that extraocular and ocular PRCs are structurally identical. Bioinformatic analyses revealed predictions for four opsin genes, three of which could be amplified. All belong to the rhabdomeric opsin family and phylogenetic analyses showed them in a derived position within annelid opsins. Gene expression studies showed two of them expressed in the eye and in the extraocular PRCs. Polychaete eye-typic key enzymes for ommochromme and pterin shading pigments synthesis are not expressed in leech eyes. Conclusions By comparative gene-expression studies we herein provide strong evidence that the phaosomal PRCs typical of Clitellata are derived from the rhabdomeric PRCs characteristic for polychaete adult eyes. Thus, they represent a highly derived type of PRC that evolved in the stem lineage of Clitellata rather than another, primitive type of PRC in Metazoa. Evolution of these PRCs in Clitellata is related to a loss of the primary eyes and most of their photoreceptive elements except for the rhabdomeric PRCs. Most likely this happened while changing to an endobenthic mode of life. This hypothesis of PRC evolution is in accordance with a recently published phylogeny of Annelida based on phylogenomic data. The data provide a nice example how morphologically highly divergent light sensitive structures emerged from a standard type of photoreceptor cell. PMID:24007384

2013-01-01

355

Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. Results The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a ?max of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted ?max into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Conclusions Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type ancestor. The re-evolution of UVS from a VS type pigment has not previously been predicted elsewhere in the vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:24499383

2013-01-01

356

The northern slope of South China Sea: an ideal site for studying passive margin extension and breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of hydrocarbon exploration into deep waters of the northern SCS, structural details from continental slope to deepsea basin have been revealed. A striking feature is the dramatic change in Cenozoic extension along and across the strike as well as with the time. Along strike the slope is seperated by lithospheric faults into segments with different amount of Cenozoic extension. The breakup occurred in the no-extension eastern segment (the Chaoshan depression), the most strongly extended central segment (the Baiyun sag) but failed in the western segment of intermediate extension (the Qingdongnan basin). This pattern violates the expectation that breakup occurs at first where the extension reached the maximum. In the central segment, the style of extension varies significantly in dip direction. Differing from the belts of half grabens in the shelf, the extension is expressed as a large downwarp (the Baiyun sag) in the slope, and as irregularly shaped sags (the Liwan sag) near the continental-oceanic boundary (COB). The Baiyun sag (BYS) is the largest and deepest sag in the Pearl River Mouth basin (PRMB). Long-cable MCS revealed that at the center of the BYS the crust thinned to <7 km. Grabens and half-grabens are seen only along the SW border of the BYS in Paleogene and did not control the main subsidence of the sag. In Neogene, swarms of NWW-striking small faults developed in the SW and NE flanks of the sag. These features indicate that ductile extension had dominated the formation of the BYS. Suppose the SCS started opening at 30 Ma (although no breakup unconformity found at 30 Ma in the ODP#1148 well adjacent to the COB), the anomalous post-breakup subsidence in the BYS exceeds that predicted by classical model by 1~2 km and occurred most strongly in several periods. Similar anomalous post-breakup subsidence has been observed also in the shelf. The Liwan sag (LWS) SE of the BYS is an aggregate of NS-, NW-, EW-, and NE-elongated narrow and short sags. Its complex shape differs from that of any other sag in the northern SCS, also differs from that of the lower slope of SE Atlantic margin and the Gulf of Mexico where thrust belts developed by gravitational sliding. Multi-staged magmatic activities have contributed to but could not fully explain the structural complexities of the LWS. Perhaps basement structures have played an important role as the sag might be developed upon the relict Mesozoic West Pacific subduction system. In addition, two horizons of deep-seated waving reflectors are identified beneath the LWS, which are suspected to be respectively a detachment surface and the intra-crustal shear zones related to lower-crust flow. A good understanding of these features may help answering the fundamental question on what controls the style, magnitude, and segmentation of passive margin extension and breakup, what is the mechanism, and what differences between marginal sea and open oceans in their evolution and dynamics. Preliminary attempt has been made taking into account basement structure, kinematics of bounding blocks, lithospheric rheology, lower crustal flow, as well as enhanced sediment supply by monsoon strengthening. This study is funded by CNSF40976033.

Zhou, D.; Sun, Z.; Pang, X.; Wu, X.; Xu, H.; Qiu, N.

2011-12-01

357

Photochemical activation of TRPA1 channels in neurons and animals  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics is a powerful research tool because it enables high-resolution optical control of neuronal activity. However, current optogenetic approaches are limited to transgenic systems expressing microbial opsins and other exogenous photoreceptors. Here, we identify optovin, a small molecule that enables repeated photoactivation of motor behaviors in wild type animals. Surprisingly, optovin's behavioral effects are not visually mediated. Rather, photodetection is performed by sensory neurons expressing the cation channel TRPA1. TRPA1 is both necessary and sufficient for the optovin response. Optovin activates human TRPA1 via structure-dependent photochemical reactions with redox-sensitive cysteine residues. In animals with severed spinal cords, optovin treatment enables control of motor activity in the paralyzed extremities by localized illumination. These studies identify a light-based strategy for controlling endogenous TRPA1 receptors in vivo, with potential clinical and research applications in non-transgenic animals, including humans. PMID:23396078

Kokel, David; Cheung, Chung Yan J.; Mills, Robert; Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda; Huang, Liyi; Setola, Vincent; Sprague, Jared; Jin, Shan; Jin, Youngnam N.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Bruni, Giancarlo; Woolf, Clifford; Roth, Bryan L.; Hamblin, Michael R; Zylka, Mark J.; Milan, David J.; Peterson, Randall T.

2013-01-01

358

Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritan color-vision deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone-pigment gene. An unexplained feature of the disorder is that individuals with the same mutation manifest different degrees of deficiency. To date, it has not been possible to examine whether any loss of S-cone function is accompanied by physical disruption in the cone mosaic. Two related tritan subjects with the same novel mutation in their S-cone-opsin gene, but different degrees of deficiency, were examined. Adaptive optics was used to obtain high-resolution retinal images, which revealed distinctly different S-cone mosaics consistent with their discrepant phenotypes. In addition, a significant disruption in the regularity of the overall cone mosaic was observed in the subject completely lacking S-cone function. These results taken together with other recent findings from molecular genetics indicate that, with rare exceptions, tritan deficiency is progressive in nature.

Baraas, Rigmor C.; Carroll, Joseph; Gunther, Karen L.; Chung, Mina; Williams, David R.; Foster, David H.; Neitz, Maureen

2007-05-01

359

Extraretinal photoreceptors in the brain of the crayfish Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

Two clusters of red-brown pigmented cell somata lie among other cell somata along the anterior margin of the cerebral ganglion in the crayfish Cherax destructor. Electron micrographs show these cells to contain round electron dense pigment granules and that the cell membranes of two or more adjacent cells fold together to form rhabdom-like structures. The pigmented cells specifically bind a monoclonal antibody against the major species of opsin in R1-7 retinula cells of the compound eye of Cherax. When stimulated with light, the pigmented cells respond with a receptor potential-like depolarization. The axons of the pigmented cells terminate in the neuropil of the protocerebral bridge, together with neuronal elements that label with antibodies against serotonin and substance P. We suggest that the brain photoreceptors of the crayfish are important in the entrainment of circadian rhythms. PMID:1695916

Sandeman, D C; Sandeman, R E; de Couet, H G

1990-06-01

360

A proposed role for all-trans retinal in regulation of rhodopsin regeneration in human rods.  

PubMed

In order to account for the multi-phasic dynamics of photopigment regeneration in human rods, we developed a new model of the retinoid cycle. We first examined the relative roles of the classical and channeling mechanisms of metarhodopsin decay in establishing these dynamics. We showed that neither of these mechanisms alone, nor a linear combination of the two, can adequately account for the dynamics of rhodopsin regeneration at all bleach levels. Our new model adds novel inhibitory interactions in the cycle of regeneration of rhodopsin that are consistent with the 3D structure of rhodopsin. Our analyses show that the dynamics of human rod photopigment regeneration can be accounted for by end-product regulation of the channeling mechanism where all-trans retinal (tral) inhibits the binding of 11-cis retinal to the opsin.tral complex. PMID:17052741

Navid, A; Nicholas, S C; Hamer, R D

2006-12-01

361

The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.  

PubMed

Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies. PMID:17692298

Finlay, Barbara L

2008-02-01

362

Enlightening the brain: Linking deep brain photoreception with behavior and physiology  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates respond to light with more than just their eyes. In this article we speculate on the intriguing possibility that a link remains between non-visual opsins and neurohormonal systems that control neuronal circuit formation and activity in mammals. Historically, the retina and pineal gland were considered the only significant light-sensing tissues in vertebrates. However, over the last century evidence has accumulated arguing that extra-ocular tissues in vertebrates influence behavior through non-image-forming photoreception. One such class of extra-ocular light detectors are the long mysterious deep brain photoreceptors. Here we review recent findings on the cellular identity and the function of deep brain photoreceptors controlling behavior and physiology in zebrafish, and discuss their implications. PMID:23712321

Fernandes, Antonio M.; Fero, Kandice; Driever, Wolfgang; Burgess, Harold A.

2014-01-01

363

Sustained protection against photoreceptor degeneration in tubby mice by intravitreal injection of nanoceria.  

PubMed

We previously reported that nanoceria can slow retinal degeneration in the tubby mouse for two weeks by multiple systemic injections. However, the long-term protection of retinal structure and function by directly deliver of nanoceria to the eye had not been explored. In this study, 172 ng of nanoceria in 1 ?l saline (1 mm) were intravitreally injected into tubby P7 pups and assays were performed at P28, P49, P80 and P120. The expression of antioxidant associated genes and photoreceptor-specific genes was significantly up regulated, the mislocalization of rod and cone opsins was decreased, and retinal structure and function were protected. These findings demonstrate that nanoceria can function as catalytic antioxidants in vivo and may be broad spectrum therapeutic agents for multiple types of ocular diseases. PMID:22959465

Cai, Xue; Sezate, Steven A; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F

2012-12-01

364

Melatonin signaling controls circadian swimming behavior in marine zooplankton.  

PubMed

Melatonin, the "hormone of darkness," is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

2014-09-25

365

New insights into retinoid metabolism and cycling within the retina.  

PubMed

The retinoid cycle is a series of biochemical reactions within the eye that is responsible for synthesizing the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, for visual function. The chromophore is bound to G-protein coupled receptors, opsins, within rod and cone photoreceptor cells forming the photosensitive visual pigments. Integral to the sustained function of photoreceptors is the continuous generation of chromophore by the retinoid cycle through two separate processes, one that supplies both rods and cones and another that exclusively supplies cones. Recent findings such as RPE65 localization within cones and the pattern of distribution of retinoid metabolites within mouse and human retinas have challenged previous proposed schemes. This review will focus on recent findings regarding the transport of retinoids, the mechanisms by which chromophore is supplied to both rods and cones, and the metabolism of retinoids within the posterior segment of the eye. PMID:23063666

Tang, Peter H; Kono, Masahiro; Koutalos, Yiannis; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Crouch, Rosalie K

2013-01-01

366

Sustained protection against photoreceptor degeneration in tubby mice by intravitreal injection of nanoceria  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that nanoceria can slow retinal degeneration in the tubby mouse for two weeks by multiple systemic injections. However, the long-term protection of retinal structure and function by directly deliver of nanoceria to the eye had not been explored. In this study, 172 ng of nanoceria in l?l saline (1 mM) were intravitreally injected into tubby P7 pups and assays were performed at P28, P49, P80 and P120. The expression of antioxidant associated genes and photoreceptor-specific genes were significantly up regulated, the mislocalization of rod and cone opsins was decreased, and retinal structure and function were protected. These findings demonstrate that nanoceria can function as catalytic antioxidants in vivo and may be broad spectrum therapeutic agents for multiple types of ocular diseases. PMID:22959465

Cai, Xue; Sezate, Steven A.; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F.

2014-01-01

367

Identification of nonvisual photomotor response cells in the vertebrate hindbrain.  

PubMed

Nonvisual photosensation enables animals to sense light without sight. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of nonvisual photobehaviors are poorly understood, especially in vertebrate animals. Here, we describe the photomotor response (PMR), a robust and reproducible series of motor behaviors in zebrafish that is elicited by visual wavelengths of light but does not require the eyes, pineal gland, or other canonical deep-brain photoreceptive organs. Unlike the relatively slow effects of canonical nonvisual pathways, motor circuits are strongly and quickly (seconds) recruited during the PMR behavior. We find that the hindbrain is both necessary and sufficient to drive these behaviors. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we identify a discrete set of neurons within the hindbrain whose responses to light mirror the PMR behavior. Pharmacological inhibition of the visual cycle blocks PMR behaviors, suggesting that opsin-based photoreceptors control this behavior. These data represent the first known light-sensing circuit in the vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:23447595

Kokel, David; Dunn, Timothy W; Ahrens, Misha B; Alshut, Rüdiger; Cheung, Chung Yan J; Saint-Amant, Louis; Bruni, Giancarlo; Mateus, Rita; van Ham, Tjakko J; Shiraki, Tomoya; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Daisuke; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J; Mikut, Ralf; von Lintig, Johannes; Engert, Florian; Peterson, Randall T

2013-02-27

368

Genetic network of the eye in Platyhelminthes: expression and functional analysis of some players during planarian regeneration.  

PubMed

Planarians are the free-living members (order Tricladida) of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are triploblastic, acoelomate, unsegmented and located at the base of the Lophotrochozoa clade. Besides their huge regenerative capacity, planarians have simple eyes, considered similar to the prototypic eye suggested by Charles Darwin in his book 'On the Origin of Species'. The conserved genetic network that determines the initial steps of eye development across metazoans supports a monophyletic origin of the various eye types present in the animal kingdom. Here we summarise the pattern of expression of certain genes involved in the eye network that have been isolated in planarians, such as Otx, Pax-6, Six, Rax and opsin. We describe the effects of RNA interference-mediated loss of function on eye regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these findings for the evolution of the eye gene network. PMID:11992724

Saló, Emili; Pineda, David; Marsal, Maria; Gonzalez, Javier; Gremigni, Vittorio; Batistoni, Renata

2002-04-01

369

Melatonin Signaling Controls Circadian Swimming Behavior in Marine Zooplankton  

PubMed Central

Summary Melatonin, the “hormone of darkness,” is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

2014-01-01

370

Nephrocystins and MKS proteins interact with IFT particle and facilitate transport of selected ciliary cargos.  

PubMed

Cilia are required for the development and function of many organs. Efficient transport of protein cargo along ciliary axoneme is necessary to sustain these processes. Despite its importance, the mode of interaction between the intraflagellar ciliary transport (IFT) mechanism and its cargo proteins remains poorly understood. Our studies demonstrate that IFT particle components, and a Meckel-Gruber syndrome 1 (MKS1)-related, B9 domain protein, B9d2, bind each other and contribute to the ciliary localization of Inversin (Nephrocystin 2). B9d2, Inversin, and Nephrocystin 5 support, in turn, the transport of a cargo protein, Opsin, but not another photoreceptor ciliary transmembrane protein, Peripherin. Interestingly, the components of this mechanism also contribute to the formation of planar cell polarity in mechanosensory epithelia. These studies reveal a molecular mechanism that mediates the transport of selected ciliary cargos and is of fundamental importance for the differentiation and survival of sensory cells. PMID:21602787

Zhao, Chengtian; Malicki, Jarema

2011-07-01

371

Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations  

PubMed Central

Optogenetic tools enable the causal examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the examination of how different synapses or pathways interact to support computation. Here we report two new channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, obtained through the de novo sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of algae. Chrimson is 45 nm red-shifted relative to any previous channelrhodopsin, important for scenarios where red light would be preferred; we show minimal visual system mediated behavioral artifact in optogenetically stimulated Drosophila. Chronos has faster kinetics than any previous channelrhodopsin, yet is effectively more light-sensitive. Together, these two reagents enable crosstalk-free two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations in mouse brain slice. PMID:24509633

Klapoetke, Nathan C; Murata, Yasunobu; Kim, Sung Soo; Pulver, Stefan R.; Birdsey-Benson, Amanda; Cho, Yong Ku; Morimoto, Tania K; Chuong, Amy S; Carpenter, Eric J; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Yinlong; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong; Chow, Brian Y; Surek, Barbara; Melkonian, Michael; Jayaraman, Vivek; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Boyden, Edward S

2014-01-01

372

Targeting of GFP to newborn rods by Nrl promoter and temporal expression profiling of flow-sorted photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

The Maf-family transcription factor Nrl is a key regulator of photoreceptor differentiation in mammals. Ablation of the Nrl gene in mice leads to functional cones at the expense of rods. We show that a 2.5-kb Nrl promoter segment directs the expression of enhanced GFP specifically to rod photoreceptors and the pineal gland of transgenic mice. GFP is detected shortly after terminal cell division, corresponding to the timing of rod genesis revealed by birthdating studies. In Nrl?/? retinas, the GFP+ photoreceptors express S-opsin, consistent with the transformation of rod precursors into cones. We report the gene profiles of freshly isolated flow-sorted GFP+ photoreceptors from wild-type and Nrl?/? retinas at five distinct developmental stages. Our results provide a framework for establishing gene regulatory networks that lead to mature functional photoreceptors from postmitotic precursors. Differentially expressed rod and cone genes are excellent candidates for retinopathies. PMID:16505381

Akimoto, Masayuki; Cheng, Hong; Zhu, Dongxiao; Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Khanna, Ritu; Filippova, Elena; Oh, Edwin C. T.; Jing, Yuezhou; Linares, Jose-Luis; Brooks, Matthew; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Mears, Alan J.; Hero, Alfred; Glaser, Tom; Swaroop, Anand

2006-01-01

373

Importance of Achromatic Contrast in Short-Range Fruit Foraging of Primates  

PubMed Central

Trichromatic primates have a ‘red-green’ chromatic channel in addition to luminance and ‘blue-yellow’ channels. It has been argued that the red-green channel evolved in primates as an adaptation for detecting reddish or yellowish objects, such as ripe fruits, against a background of foliage. However, foraging advantages to trichromatic primates remain unverified by behavioral observation of primates in their natural habitats. New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are an excellent model for this evaluation because of the highly polymorphic nature of their color vision due to allelic variation of the L-M opsin gene on the X chromosome. In this study we carried out field observations of a group of wild, frugivorous black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi frontatus, Gray 1842, Platyrrhini), consisting of both dichromats (n?=?12) and trichromats (n?=?9) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We determined the color vision types of individuals in this group by genotyping their L-M opsin and measured foraging efficiency of each individual for fruits located at a grasping distance. Contrary to the predicted advantage for trichromats, there was no significant difference between dichromats and trichromats in foraging efficiency and we found that the luminance contrast was the main determinant of the variation of foraging efficiency among red-green, blue-yellow and luminance contrasts. Our results suggest that luminance contrast can serve as an important cue in short-range foraging attempts despite other sensory cues that could be available. Additionally, the advantage of red-green color vision in primates may not be as salient as previously thought and needs to be evaluated in further field observations. PMID:18836576

Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Melin, Amanda D.; Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Vorobyev, Misha; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Kawamura, Shoji

2008-01-01

374

Lake and sea populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with different visual-pigment absorbance spectra use the same A1 chromophore.  

PubMed

Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindström, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

2014-01-01

375

Exorhodopsin and melanopsin systems in the pineal complex and brain at early developmental stages of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).  

PubMed

The complexity of the nonvisual photoreception systems in teleosts has just started to be appreciated, with colocalization of multiple photoreceptor types with unresolved functions. Here we describe an intricate expression pattern of melanopsins in early life stages of the marine flat fish Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), a period when the unpigmented brain is directly exposed to environmental photons. We show a refined and extensive expression of melanopsins in the halibut brain already at the time of hatching, long before the eyes are functional. We detect melanopsin in the habenula, suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsal thalamus, and lateral tubular nucleus of first feeding larvae, suggesting conserved functions of the melanopsins in marine teleosts. The complex expression of melanopsins already at larval stages indicates the importance of nonvisual photoreception early in development. Most strikingly, we detect expression of both exorhodopsin and melanopsin in the pineal complex of halibut larvae. Double-fluorescence labeling showed that two clusters of melanopsin-positive cells are located lateral to the central rosette of exorhodopsin-positive cells. The localization of different photopigments in the pineal complex suggests that two parallel photoreceptor systems may be active. Furthermore, the dispersed melanopsin-positive cells in the spinal cord of halibut larvae at the time of hatching may be primary sensory cells or interneurons representing the first example of dispersed high-order photoreceptor cells. The appearance of nonvisual opsins early in the development of halibut provides an alternative model for studying the evolution and functional significance of nonvisual opsins. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:4003-4022, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044160

Eilertsen, Mariann; Drivenes, Oyvind; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Bradley, Clarrisa A; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Helvik, Jon Vidar

2014-12-15

376

Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Genes Under the Pressure of Gene Conversion  

PubMed Central

Neofunctionalization occurs when a neofunctionalized allele is fixed in one of duplicated genes. This is a simple fixation process if duplicated genes accumulate mutations independently. However, the process is very complicated when duplicated genes undergo concerted evolution by gene conversion. Our simulations demonstrate that the process could be described with three distinct stages. First, a newly arisen neofunctionalized allele increases in frequency by selection, but gene conversion prevents its complete fixation. These two factors (selection and gene conversion) that work in opposite directions create an equilibrium, and the time during which the frequency of the neofunctionalized allele drifts around the equilibrium value is called the temporal equilibrium stage. During this temporal equilibrium stage, it is possible that gene conversion is inactivated by mutations, which allow the complete fixation of the neofunctionalized allele. And then, permanent neofunctionalization is achieved. This article develops basic population genetics theories on the process to permanent neofunctionalization under the pressure of gene conversion. We obtain the probability and time that the frequency of a newly arisen neofunctionalized allele reaches the equilibrium value. It is also found that during the temporal equilibrium stage, selection exhibits strong signature in the divergence in the DNA sequences between the duplicated genes. The spatial distribution of the divergence likely has a peak around the site targeted by selection. We provide an analytical expression of the pattern of divergence and apply it to the human red- and green-opsin genes. The theoretical prediction well fits the data when we assume that selection is operating for the two amino acid differences in exon 5, which are believed to account for the major part of the functional difference between the red and green opsins. PMID:18245342

Teshima, Kosuke M.; Innan, Hideki

2008-01-01

377

Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

2001-01-01

378

Evolution of mammalian Opn5 as a specialized UV-absorbing pigment by a single amino acid mutation.  

PubMed

Opn5 is one of the recently identified opsin groups that is responsible for nonvisual photoreception in animals. We previously showed that a chicken homolog of mammalian Opn5 (Opn5m) is a Gi-coupled UV sensor having molecular properties typical of bistable pigments. Here we demonstrated that mammalian Opn5m evolved to be a more specialized photosensor by losing one of the characteristics of bistable pigments, direct binding of all-trans-retinal. We first confirmed that Opn5m proteins in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis, mouse, and human are also UV-sensitive pigments. Then we found that only mammalian Opn5m proteins lack the ability to directly bind all-trans-retinal. Mutational analysis showed that these characteristics were acquired by a single amino acid replacement at position 168. By comparing the expression patterns of Opn5m between mammals and chicken, we found that, like chicken Opn5m, mammalian Opn5m was localized in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer of the retina. However, the mouse and primate (common marmoset) opsins were distributed not in the posterior hypothalamus (including the region along the third ventricle) where chicken Opn5m is localized, but in the preoptic hypothalamus. Interestingly, RPE65, an essential enzyme for forming 11-cis-retinal in the visual cycle is expressed near the preoptic hypothalamus of the mouse and common marmoset brain but not near the region of the chicken brain where chicken Opn5m is expressed. Therefore, mammalian Opn5m may work exclusively as a short wavelength sensor in the brain as well as in the retina with the assistance of an 11-cis-retinal-supplying system. PMID:24403072

Yamashita, Takahiro; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yumoto, Akane; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Tomonari, Sayuri; Sakai, Kazumi; Fujita, Hirofumi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Noji, Sumihare; Nakamura, Katsuki; Shichida, Yoshinori

2014-02-14

379

Exploring RPE as a Source of Photoreceptors: Differentiation and Integration of Transdifferentiating Cells Grafted into Embryonic Chick Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the possibility of generating photoreceptors through programming RPE transdifferentiation by examining cell differentiation after transplantation into the developing chick eye. Methods RPE was isolated, and the cells were dissociated, cultured, and guided to transdifferentiate by infection with retrovirus expressing neuroD (RCAS-neuroD), using RCAS–green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a control. The cells were then harvested and microinjected into the developing eyes of day 5 to day 7 chick embryos, and their development and integration were analyzed. Results Cells from the control culture integrated into the host RPE. When grafted cells were present in large number, multilayered RPE-like tissues were formed, and the extra tissues consisted of grafted cells and host cells. None of the cells from the control culture expressed photoreceptorspecific genes. In contrast, most cells from RCAS-neuroD–infected culture remained depigmented. A large number of them expressed photoreceptor-specific genes, such as visinin and opsins. Antibodies against red opsin decorated the apical tips and the cell bodies of the grafted, transdifferentiating cells. In the subretinal space, visinin+ cells aligned along the RPE or an RPE-like structure. When integrated into the host outer nuclear layer, grafted cells emanated elaborate, axonal arborization into the outer plexiform layer of the host retina. Conclusions Cultured RPE cells retained their remarkable regenerative capabilities. Cells guided to transdifferentiate along the photoreceptor pathway by neuroD developed a highly ordered cellular structure and could integrate into the outer nuclear layer. These data suggest that, through genetic programming, RPE cells could be a potential source of photoreceptor cells. PMID:17065528

Liang, Lina; Yan, Run-Tao; Ma, Wenxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Wang, Shu-Zhen

2006-01-01

380

Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines  

PubMed Central

Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex. PMID:22024316

2011-01-01

381

Violet Light Down-Regulates the Expression of Specific Differentiation Markers through Rhodopsin in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Several recent reports have demonstrated that photoreceptors are expressed in human skin. The rod and cone photoreceptor-like proteins are expressed in human skin and rhodopsin, long wavelength-opsin, and short wavelength-opsin are also present in cultured murine melanocytes. Furthermore, the photopigment rhodopsin is expressed in human melanocytes and is involved in ultraviolet A phototransduction which induces early melanin synthesis. In this study, we investigated whether rhodopsin is expressed and plays any physiological roles in the normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). We found that rhodopsin was expressed and localized on the plasma membrane in NHEKs, and only violet light among several wavelengths within the visible range significantly increased the expression of rhodopsin mRNA. We further found that rhodopsin over-expression decreased the mRNA expression levels of keratinocyte differentiation markers, such as keratin-1 and keratin-10, and violet light also decreased the mRNA expression levels of keratinocyte differentiation markers and these decreased expression levels were recovered by a rhodopsin-directed siRNA. Moreover, we further demonstrated that violet light significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and that it more effectively decreased the phosphorylation of CREB when rhodopsin was over-expressed. In addition, we observed that pertussis toxin, a G?i protein inhibitor, restored the rhodopsin-induced decrease in the differentiation markers in NHEKs. Taken together, these results suggest that rhodopsin down-regulates the expression levels of specific keratinocyte differentiation markers via the G?i signaling pathway in NHEKs. PMID:24069221

Kim, Hyoung-June; Son, Eui Dong; Jung, Ji-Yong; Choi, Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook

2013-01-01

382

Detection of G Protein-selective G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) Conformations in Live Cells*  

PubMed Central

Although several recent studies have reported that GPCRs adopt multiple conformations, it remains unclear how subtle conformational changes are translated into divergent downstream responses. In this study, we report on a novel class of FRET-based sensors that can detect the ligand/mutagenic stabilization of GPCR conformations that promote interactions with G proteins in live cells. These sensors rely on the well characterized interaction between a GPCR and the C terminus of a G? subunit. We use these sensors to elucidate the influence of the highly conserved (E/D)RY motif on GPCR conformation. Specifically, Glu/Asp but not Arg mutants of the (E/D)RY motif are known to enhance basal GPCR signaling. Hence, it is unclear whether ionic interactions formed by the (E/D)RY motif (ionic lock) are necessary to stabilize basal GPCR states. We find that mutagenesis of the ?2-AR (E/D)RY ionic lock enhances interaction with Gs. However, only Glu/Asp but not Arg mutants increase G protein activation. In contrast, mutagenesis of the opsin (E/D)RY ionic lock does not alter its interaction with transducin. Instead, opsin-specific ionic interactions centered on residue Lys-296 are both necessary and sufficient to promote interactions with transducin. Effective suppression of ?2-AR basal activity by inverse agonist ICI 118,551 requires ionic interactions formed by the (E/D)RY motif. In contrast, the inverse agonist metoprolol suppresses interactions with Gs and promotes Gi binding, with concomitant pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Taken together, these studies validate the use of the new FRET sensors while revealing distinct structural mechanisms for ligand-dependent GPCR function. PMID:23629648

Malik, Rabia U.; Ritt, Michael; DeVree, Brian T.; Neubig, Richard R.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

2013-01-01

383

Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies  

PubMed Central

Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (?max values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrophotometry on the eyes of five Limenitis butterfly species and found a 31-nm range of variation in the ?max values of the L-sensitive photopigments (514–545 nm). We cloned partial Limenitis L opsin gene sequences and found a significant excess of replacement substitutions relative to polymorphisms among species. Mapping of these L photopigment ?max values onto a phylogeny revealed two instances within Lepidoptera of convergently evolved L photopigment lineages whose ?max values were blue-shifted. A codon-based maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that, associated with the two blue spectral shifts, four amino acid sites (Ile17Met, Ala64Ser, Asn70Ser, and Ser137Ala) have evolved substitutions in parallel and exhibit significant dN/dS >1. Homology modeling of the full-length Limenitis arthemis astyanax L opsin placed all four substitutions within the chromophore-binding pocket. Strikingly, the Ser137Ala substitution is in the same position as a site that in primates is responsible for a 5- to 7-nm blue spectral shift. Our data show that some of the same amino acid sites are under positive selection in the photopigments of both butterflies and primates, spanning an evolutionary distance >500 million years. PMID:17494749

Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

2007-01-01

384

Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping  

PubMed Central

To better understand the connectivity of the brain, it is important to map both structural and functional connections between neurons and cortical regions. In recent years, a set of optogenetic tools have been developed that permit selective manipulation and investigation of neural systems. These tools have enabled the mapping of functional connections between stimulated cortical targets and other brain regions. Advantages of the approach include the ability to arbitrarily stimulate brain regions that express opsins, allowing for brain mapping independent of behavior or sensory processing. The ability of opsins to be rapidly and locally activated allows for investigation of connectivity with spatial resolution on the order of single neurons and temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. We review recently developed functional mapping methods that use optogenetic single-point stimulation in the rodent brain and employ cellular electrophysiology, evoked motor movements, voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs), calcium indicators, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess activity. In particular we highlight results using red-shifted organic VSDs that permit high temporal resolution imaging in a manner spectrally separated from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation. VSD maps stimulated by ChR2 were dependent on intracortical synaptic activity and were able to reflect circuits used for sensory processing. Although the methods reviewed are powerful, challenges remain with respect to finding approaches that permit selective high temporal resolution assessment of stimulated activity in animals that can be followed longitudinally. PMID:23596383

Lim, Diana H.; LeDue, Jeffrey; Mohajerani, Majid H.; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Murphy, Timothy H.

2013-01-01

385

Effects of different colors of light on melatonin suppression and expression analysis of Aanat1 and melanopsin in the eye of a tropical damselfish.  

PubMed

Ocular melatonin production exhibits a daily rhythm with a decrease during photophase and an increase during scotophase (nocturnal pattern) in teleost fish due to day-night changes in the activity of the rate-limiting melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Acute light exposure during scotophase suppresses AANAT activity and melatonin production in the eyes, suggesting that external light signals are a principal regulator of ocular melatonin synthesis. To better understand the photic regulation of ocular melatonin synthesis in teleost fish, this study sought to characterize the effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis in the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, which shows a nocturnal pattern and light-induced inhibition of ocular melatonin production during scotophase. Exposure to three different wavelengths of light (half-peak bandwidth=435-475 nm with a peak of 455 nm, 495-565 nm with a peak of 530 nm, and 607-647 nm with a peak of 627 nm for the blue, green, and red LEDs) for 2h during scotophase resulted in the blue wavelength significantly decreasing ocular melatonin content within 30 min after light exposure. This result clearly indicates that the effective range of visible light on ocular melatonin suppression is distributed within the wavelengths of blue light and that a blue light-sensitive opsin is involved in ocular melatonin suppression in the fish. A PCR-based cloning method revealed the expression of melanopsin, a putative blue light-sensitive nonvisual opsin, in the eyes. Furthermore, in situ hybridization using the sapphire devil Aanat1 and melanopsin RNA probes showed mRNA expressions of both genes in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer of the fish retina. These results suggest that melanopsin is a possible candidate photoreceptor involved in ocular melatonin suppression by an external light signal in the sapphire devil. PMID:24859252

Takeuchi, Yuki; Imamura, Satoshi; Sawada, Yuji; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

2014-08-01

386

PDA (Prolonged Depolarizing Afterpotential) - Defective Mutants: The Story of nina's and ina's—pinta and santa maria, Too  

PubMed Central

Our objective is to present a comprehensive view of the PDA (prolonged depolarizing afterpotential)-defective Drosophila mutants, nina's and ina's, from the discussion of the PDA and the PDA-based mutant screening strategy to summaries of the knowledge gained through the studies of mutants generated using the strategy. The PDA is a component of the light-evoked photoreceptor potential that is generated when a substantial fraction of rhodopsin is photoconverted to its active form, metarhodopsin. The PDA-based mutant screening strategy was adopted to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of ERG (electroretinogram)-based screening for identifying phototransduction-defective mutants. Using this strategy, two classes of PDA-defective mutants were identified and isolated, nina and ina, each comprising multiple complementation groups. The nina mutants are characterized by allele-dependent reduction in the major rhodopsin, Rh1, whereas the ina mutants display defects in some aspects of functions related to the transduction channel, TRP (transient receptor potential). The signaling proteins that have been identified and elucidated through the studies of nina mutants include the Drosophila opsin protein (NINAE), the chaperone protein for nascent opsin (NINAA), and the multifunctional protein, NINAC, required in multiple steps of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade. Also identified by the nina mutants are some of the key enzymes involved in the biogenesis of the rhodopsin chromophore. As for the ina mutants, they led to the discovery of the scaffold protein, INAD, responsible for the nucleation of the supramolecular signaling complex. Also identified by the ina mutants is one of the key members of the signaling complex, INAC (ePKC), and two other proteins that are likely to be important, though their roles in the signaling cascade have not yet been fully elucidated. In most of these cases, the protein identified is the first member of its class to be so recognized. PMID:22283778

Pak, William L.; Shino, Shikoh; Leung, Hung-Tat

2012-01-01

387

Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels  

PubMed Central

Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable tethered ligands (PTLs) have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, maleimide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (MAQ), contains a maleimide (M) to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A) linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q). MAQ was originally used to photocontrol SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photoblock by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel’s physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild-type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable conditional subunit technique provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild-type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23596388

Sandoz, Guillaume; Levitz, Joshua

2013-01-01

388

PDA (prolonged depolarizing afterpotential)-defective mutants: the story of nina's and ina's--pinta and santa maria, too.  

PubMed

Our objective is to present a comprehensive view of the PDA (prolonged depolarizing afterpotential)-defective Drosophila mutants, nina's and ina's, from the discussion of the PDA and the PDA-based mutant screening strategy to summaries of the knowledge gained through the studies of mutants generated using the strategy. The PDA is a component of the light-evoked photoreceptor potential that is generated when a substantial fraction of rhodopsin is photoconverted to its active form, metarhodopsin. The PDA-based mutant screening strategy was adopted to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of ERG (electroretinogram)-based screening for identifying phototransduction-defective mutants. Using this strategy, two classes of PDA-defective mutants were identified and isolated, nina and ina, each comprising multiple complementation groups. The nina mutants are characterized by allele-dependent reduction in the major rhodopsin, Rh1, whereas the ina mutants display defects in some aspects of functions related to the transduction channel, TRP (transient receptor potential). The signaling proteins that have been identified and elucidated through the studies of nina mutants include the Drosophila opsin protein (NINAE), the chaperone protein for nascent opsin (NINAA), and the multifunctional protein, NINAC, required in multiple steps of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade. Also identified by the nina mutants are some of the key enzymes involved in the biogenesis of the rhodopsin chromophore. As for the ina mutants, they led to the discovery of the scaffold protein, INAD, responsible for the nucleation of the supramolecular signaling complex. Also identified by the ina mutants is one of the key members of the signaling complex, INAC (ePKC), and two other proteins that are likely to be important, though their roles in the signaling cascade have not yet been fully elucidated. In most of these cases, the protein identified is the first member of its class to be so recognized. PMID:22283778

Pak, William L; Shino, Shikoh; Leung, Hung-Tat

2012-06-01

389

Identification of the 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in retinal Müller cells as multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT)  

PubMed Central

Absorption of a photon by a rhodopsin or cone-opsin pigment isomerizes its 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11-cis-RAL) chromophore to all-trans-retinaldehyde (all-trans-RAL), which dissociates after a brief period of activation. Light sensitivity is restored to the resulting apo-opsin when it recombines with another 11-cis-RAL. Conversion of all-trans-RAL to 11-cis-RAL is carried out by an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium. A second visual cycle is present in Müller cells of the retina. The retinol isomerase for this noncanonical pathway is dihydroceramide desaturase (DES1), which catalyzes equilibrium isomerization of retinol. Because 11-cis-retinol (11-cis-ROL) constitutes only a small fraction of total retinols in an equilibrium mixture, a subsequent step involving selective removal of 11-cis-ROL is required to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids for production of visual chromophore. Selective esterification of 11-cis-ROL is one possibility. Crude homogenates of chicken retinas rapidly convert all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-cis-REs) with minimal formation of other retinyl-ester isomers. This enzymatic activity implies the existence of an 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in Müller cells. Here, we evaluated multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT) as a candidate for this 11-cis-RE-synthase. MFAT exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency as a synthase of 11-cis-REs versus other retinyl-ester isomers. Further, we show that MFAT is expressed in Müller cells. Finally, homogenates of cells coexpressing DES1 and MFAT catalyzed the conversion of all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-RP, similar to what we observed with chicken-retina homogenates. MFAT is therefore an excellent candidate for the retinyl-ester synthase that cooperates with DES1 to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids by mass action. PMID:24799687

Kaylor, Joanna J.; Cook, Jeremy D.; Makshanoff, Jacob; Bischoff, Nicholas; Yong, Jennifer; Travis, Gabriel H.

2014-01-01

390

Lake and Sea Populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with Different Visual-Pigment Absorbance Spectra Use the Same A1 Chromophore  

PubMed Central

Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20–30 nm red-shifted in “lake” compared with “sea” populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindstrom, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

2014-01-01

391

The heat-shock response co-inducer arimoclomol protects against retinal degeneration in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited diseases that cause blindness due to the progressive death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are currently no effective treatments for RP. Inherited mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein of rod photoreceptor cells, are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP. The majority of mutations in rhodopsin, including the common P23H substitution, lead to protein misfolding, which is a feature in many neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have shown that upregulating molecular chaperone expression can delay disease progression in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the potential of the heat-shock protein co-inducer arimoclomol to ameliorate rhodopsin RP. In a cell model of P23H rod opsin RP, arimoclomol reduced P23H rod opsin aggregation and improved viability of mutant rhodopsin-expressing cells. In P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat models, pharmacological potentiation of the stress response with arimoclomol improved electroretinogram responses and prolonged photoreceptor survival, as assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness in the retina. Furthermore, treated animal retinae showed improved photoreceptor outer segment structure and reduced rhodopsin aggregation compared with vehicle-treated controls. The heat-shock response (HSR) was activated in P23H retinae, and this was enhanced with arimoclomol treatment. Furthermore, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced in P23H transgenic rats, was also enhanced in the retinae of arimoclomol-treated animals, suggesting that arimoclomol can potentiate the UPR as well as the HSR. These data suggest that pharmacological enhancement of cellular stress responses may be a potential treatment for rhodopsin RP and that arimoclomol could benefit diseases where ER stress is a factor. PMID:24853414

Parfitt, D A; Aguila, M; McCulley, C H; Bevilacqua, D; Mendes, H F; Athanasiou, D; Novoselov, S S; Kanuga, N; Munro, P M; Coffey, P J; Kalmar, B; Greensmith, L; Cheetham, M E

2014-01-01

392

Suppressing thyroid hormone signaling preserves cone photoreceptors in mouse models of retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Cone phototransduction and survival of cones in the human macula is essential for color vision and for visual acuity. Progressive cone degeneration in age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and recessive cone dystrophies is a major cause of blindness. Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, which regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, plays a central role in cone opsin expression and patterning in the retina. Here, we investigated whether TH signaling affects cone viability in inherited retinal degeneration mouse models. Retinol isomerase RPE65-deficient mice [a model of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with rapid cone loss] and cone photoreceptor function loss type 1 mice (severe recessive achromatopsia) were used to determine whether suppressing TH signaling with antithyroid treatment reduces cone death. Further, cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel B subunit-deficient mice (moderate achromatopsia) and guanylate cyclase 2e-deficient mice (LCA with slower cone loss) were used to determine whether triiodothyronine (T3) treatment (stimulating TH signaling) causes deterioration of cones. We found that cone density in retinol isomerase RPE65-deficient and cone photoreceptor function loss type 1 mice increased about sixfold following antithyroid treatment. Cone density in cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel B subunit-deficient and guanylate cyclase 2e-deficient mice decreased about 40% following T3 treatment. The effect of TH signaling on cone viability appears to be independent of its regulation on cone opsin expression. This work demonstrates that suppressing TH signaling in retina dystrophy mouse models is protective of cones, providing insights into cone preservation and therapeutic interventions. PMID:24550448

Ma, Hongwei; Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie; Redmond, T. Michael; Baehr, Wolfgang; Ding, Xi-Qin

2014-01-01

393

Investigating local and long-range neuronal network dynamics by simultaneous optogenetics, reverse microdialysis and silicon probe recordings in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background The advent of optogenetics has given neuroscientists the opportunity to excite or inhibit neuronal population activity with high temporal resolution and cellular selectivity. Thus, when combined with recordings of neuronal ensemble activity in freely moving animals optogenetics can provide an unprecedented snapshot of the contribution of neuronal assemblies to (patho)physiological conditions in vivo. Still, the combination of optogenetic and silicone probe (or tetrode) recordings does not allow investigation of the role played by voltage- and transmitter-gated channels of the opsin-transfected neurons and/or other adjacent neurons in controlling neuronal activity. New method and results We demonstrate that optogenetics and silicone probe recordings can be combined with intracerebral reverse microdialysis for the long-term delivery of neuroactive drugs around the optic fiber and silicone probe. In particular, we show the effect of antagonists of T-type Ca2+ channels, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and metabotropic glutamate receptors on silicone probe-recorded activity of the local opsin-transfected neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus, and demonstrate the changes that the block of these thalamic channels/receptors brings about in the network dynamics of distant somatotopic cortical neuronal ensembles. Comparison with existing methods This is the first demonstration of successfully combining optogenetics and neuronal ensemble recordings with reverse microdialysis. This combination of techniques overcomes some of the disadvantages that are associated with the use of intracerebral injection of a drug-containing solution at the site of laser activation. Conclusions The combination of reverse microdialysis, silicone probe recordings and optogenetics can unravel the short and long-term effects of specific transmitter- and voltage-gated channels on laser-modulated firing at the site of optogenetic stimulation and the actions that these manipulations exert on distant neuronal populations. PMID:25004203

Taylor, Hannah; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Carcak, Nihan; Onat, Filiz; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Lambert, Regis; Leresche, Nathalie; Crunelli, Vincenzo; David, Francois

2014-01-01

394

Molecular Line Emissions from the Circumstellar Outflows of Oxygen-Rich Late-Type Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I modeled the far infrared water and CO line emission from the circumstellar outflows of oxygen-rich late-type stars. The gas density, temperature, outflow velocity, and water abundance are determined self consistently, as a function of distance from the star. I then used the escape probability approximation to compute the level population in 84 water and 60 CO rotational states, and consequently obtained the line luminosity of a large number of far infrared rotational transitions. In agreement with previous modeling outflows, I find water rotational cooling to be the most important except in regions where it is photo-dissociated by the interstellar UV radiation. In contrast with previous modeling efforts, I find my predicted water line luminosity to be substantially lower. This is the result of my use of a more realistic water rotational cooling function and of my self consistent calculation of the temperature profile. For future reference, I have computed line luminosities for 21 models with different combinations of mass-loss rates and outflow velocities. I also present the first detection of thermal water emission from circumstellar outflows, observed by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the recently launched Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Applying the model developed here to the four SWS observed lines of the star W Hydrae, and to previous ground based observations of the CO (J = 4-3) line, I estimated the mass-loss rate of W Hya to be (1.6-4.8) ×10-6Msolar yr-1. Using the results from the M=3×10-6Msolar yr-1 model, I compared my predicted line fluxes with the thermal water lines observed by the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) of ISO and with previous ground observations of CO (J = 3-2), CO (J = 2-1), and CO (J = 1-0) lines. I find my prediction to agree with these observations to within a factor of two. Finally, I present Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) observations of another star, NML Cyg. My model, however, underestimates the observed fluxes of the four water lines, over wide ranges of parameter space. This is likely due to the oversimplifying assumptions of the model which have been observed to be violated by NML Cyg.

Chen, Wei-Liang

1998-11-01

395

Visual ecology of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri)  

PubMed Central

Background The transition from water to land was a key event in the evolution of vertebrates that occurred over a period of 15–20 million years towards the end of the Devonian. Tetrapods, including all land-living vertebrates, are thought to have evolved from lobe-finned (sarcopterygian) fish that developed adaptations for an amphibious existence. However, while many of the biomechanical and physiological modifications necessary to achieve this feat have been studied in detail, little is known about the sensory adaptations accompanying this transition. In this study, we investigated the visual system and visual ecology of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the most primitive of all the lungfish and possibly the closest living relative to the ancestors of tetrapods. Results Juvenile Neoceratodus have five spectrally distinct retinal visual pigments. A single type of rod photoreceptor contains a visual pigment with a wavelength of maximum absorbance (?max) at 540 nm. Four spectrally distinct single cone photoreceptors contain visual pigments with ?max at 366 (UVS), 479 (SWS), 558 (MWS) and 623 nm (LWS). No double cones were found. Adult lungfish do not possess UVS cones and, unlike juveniles, have ocular media that prevent ultraviolet light from reaching the retina. Yellow ellipsoidal/paraboloidal pigments in the MWS cones and red oil droplets in the LWS cones narrow the spectral sensitivity functions of these photoreceptors and shift their peak sensitivity to 584 nm and 656 nm, respectively. Modelling of the effects of these intracellular spectral filters on the photoreceptor colour space of Neoceratodus suggests that they enhance their ability to discriminate objects, such as plants and other lungfishes, on the basis of colour. Conclusion The presence of a complex colour vision system based on multiple cone types and intracellular spectral filters in lungfishes suggests that many of the ocular characteristics seen in terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, such as birds and turtles, may have evolved in shallow water prior to the transition onto land. Moreover, the benefits of spectral filters for colour discrimination apply equally to purely aquatic species as well as semi-aquatic and terrestrial animals. The visual system of the Australian lungfish resembles that of terrestrial vertebrates far more closely than that of other sarcopterygian fish. This supports the idea that lungfishes, and not the coelacanth, are the closest living relatives of the ancestors of tetrapods. PMID:19091135

Hart, Nathan S; Bailes, Helena J; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

2008-01-01

396

The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

200