Sample records for wave-sensitive lws opsins

  1. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids. PMID:18638376

  2. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew N Ward; Allison M Churcher; Kevin J Dick; Chris RJ Laver; Greg L Owens; Megan D Polack; Pam R Ward; Felix Breden; John S Taylor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

  3. Genomic organization of duplicated short wave-sensitive and long wave-sensitive opsin genes in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes have undergone multiple lineage-specific duplication events throughout the evolution of teleost fishes. LWS repertoire expansions in live-bearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) have equipped multiple species in this family with up to four LWS genes. Given that color vision, especially attraction to orange male coloration, is important to mate choice within poeciliids, LWS opsins have been proposed as candidate genes driving sexual selection in this family. To date the genomic organization of these genes has not been described in the family Poeciliidae, and little is known about the mechanisms regulating the expression of LWS opsins in any teleost. Results Two BAC clones containing the complete genomic repertoire of LWS opsin genes in the green swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri, were identified and sequenced. Three of the four LWS loci identified here were linked in a tandem array downstream of two tightly linked short wave-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin genes. The fourth LWS opsin gene, containing only a single intron, was not linked to the other three and is the product of a retrotransposition event. Genomic and phylogenetic results demonstrate that the LWS genes described here share a common evolutionary origin with those previously characterized in other poeciliids. Using qualitative RT-PCR and MSP we showed that each of the LWS and SWS2 opsins, as well as three other cone opsin genes and a single rod opsin gene, were expressed in the eyes of adult female and male X. helleri, contributing to six separate classes of adult retinal cone and rod cells with average ?max values of 365 nm, 405 nm, 459 nm, 499 nm, 534 nm and 568 nm. Comparative genomic analysis identified two candidate teleost opsin regulatory regions containing putative CRX binding sites and hormone response elements in upstream sequences of LWS gene regions of seven teleost species, including X. helleri. Conclusions We report the first complete genomic description of LWS and SWS2 genes in poeciliids. These data will serve as a reference for future work seeking to understand the relationship between LWS opsin genomic organization, gene expression, gene family evolution, sexual selection and speciation in this fish family. PMID:20353595

  4. Androgens Increase lws Opsin Expression and Red Sensitivity in Male Three-Spined Sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yi Ta; Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Anraku, Kazuhiko; Chen, I-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    Optomotor studies have shown that three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are more sensitive to red during summer than winter, which may be related to the need to detect the red breeding colour of males. This study aimed to determine whether this change of red light sensitivity is specifically related to reproductive physiology. The mRNA levels of opsin genes were examined in the retinae of sexually mature and immature fish, as well as in sham-operated males, castrated control males, or castrated males implanted with androgen 11-ketoandrostenedione (11 KA), maintained under stimulatory (L16:D8) or inhibitory (L8:D16) photoperiods. In both sexes, red-sensitive opsin gene (lws) mRNA levels were higher in sexually mature than in immature fish. Under L16:D8, lws mRNA levels were higher in intact than in castrated males, and were up-regulated by 11 KA treatment in castrated males. Moreover, electroretinogram data confirmed that sexual maturation resulted in higher relative red spectral sensitivity. Mature males under L16:D8 were more sensitive to red light than males under L8:D16. Red light sensitivity under L16:D8 was diminished by castration, but increased by 11 KA treatment. Thus, in sexually mature male sticklebacks, androgen is a key factor in enhancing sensitivity to red light via regulation of opsin gene expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that sex hormones can regulate spectral vision sensitivity. PMID:24963891

  5. Androgens increase lws opsin expression and red sensitivity in male three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi Ta; Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Yan, Hong Young; Anraku, Kazuhiko; Chen, I-Shiung; Borg, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Optomotor studies have shown that three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are more sensitive to red during summer than winter, which may be related to the need to detect the red breeding colour of males. This study aimed to determine whether this change of red light sensitivity is specifically related to reproductive physiology. The mRNA levels of opsin genes were examined in the retinae of sexually mature and immature fish, as well as in sham-operated males, castrated control males, or castrated males implanted with androgen 11-ketoandrostenedione (11 KA), maintained under stimulatory (L16:D8) or inhibitory (L8:D16) photoperiods. In both sexes, red-sensitive opsin gene (lws) mRNA levels were higher in sexually mature than in immature fish. Under L16:D8, lws mRNA levels were higher in intact than in castrated males, and were up-regulated by 11 KA treatment in castrated males. Moreover, electroretinogram data confirmed that sexual maturation resulted in higher relative red spectral sensitivity. Mature males under L16:D8 were more sensitive to red light than males under L8:D16. Red light sensitivity under L16:D8 was diminished by castration, but increased by 11 KA treatment. Thus, in sexually mature male sticklebacks, androgen is a key factor in enhancing sensitivity to red light via regulation of opsin gene expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that sex hormones can regulate spectral vision sensitivity. PMID:24963891

  6. Visual pigments and oil droplets in the retina of a passerine bird, the canary Serinus canaria: microspectrophotometry and opsin sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debipriya Das; Susan E. Wilkie; David M. Hunt; James K. Bowmaker

    1999-01-01

    The visual receptors of the passeriform bird Serinuscanaria, the canary, have been examined microspectrophotometrically and the sequences of the opsins determined. Rods have a maximum absorbance (?max) at 506 nm. Four spectral classes of single cone are present: long-wave-sensitive (LWS) containing a photopigment with ?max at 569 nm, middle-wave-sensitive (MWS) with ?max at 505 nm, short-wave-sensitive (SWS) with ?max at

  7. Opsin gene duplication and diversification in the guppy, a model for sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Margarete; Tripathi, Namita; Henz, Stefan R; Lindholm, Anna K; Weigel, Detlef; Breden, Felix; Dreyer, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Identification of genes that control variation in adaptive characters is a prerequisite for understanding the processes that drive sexual and natural selection. Male coloration and female colour perception play important roles in mate choice in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a model organism for studies of natural and sexual selection. We examined a potential source for the known variation in colour perception, by analysing genomic and complementary DNA sequences of genes that code for visual pigment proteins. We find high sequence variability, both within and between populations, and expanded copy number for long-wave sensitive (LWS) opsin genes. Alleles with non-synonymous changes that suggest dissimilar spectral tuning properties occur in the same population and even in the same individual, and the high frequency of non-synonymous substitutions argues for diversifying selection acting on these proteins. Therefore, variability in tuning amino acids is partitioned within individuals and populations of the guppy, in contrast to variability for LWS at higher taxonomic levels in cichlids, a second model system for differentiation owing to sexual selection. Since opsin variability parallels the extreme male colour polymorphism within guppy populations, we suggest that mate choice has been a major factor driving the coevolution of opsins and male ornaments in this species. PMID:17015333

  8. The opsins

    PubMed Central

    Terakita, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    The photosensitive molecule rhodopsin and its relatives consist of a protein moiety - an opsin - and a non-protein moiety - the chromophore retinal. Opsins, which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are found in animals, and more than a thousand have been identified so far. Detailed molecular phylogenetic analyses show that the opsin family is divided into seven subfamilies, which correspond well to functional classifications within the family: the vertebrate visual (transducin-coupled) and non-visual opsin subfamily, the encephalopsin/tmt-opsin subfamily, the Gq-coupled opsin/melanopsin subfamily, the Go-coupled opsin subfamily, the neuropsin subfamily, the peropsin subfamily and the retinal photoisomerase subfamily. The subfamilies diversified before the deuterostomes (including vertebrates) split from the protostomes (most invertebrates), suggesting that a common animal ancestor had multiple opsin genes. Opsins have a seven-transmembrane structure similar to that of other GPCRs, but are distinguished by a lysine residue that is a retinal-binding site in the seventh helix. Accumulated evidence suggests that most opsins act as pigments that activate G proteins in a light-dependent manner in both visual and non-visual systems, whereas a few serve as retinal photoisomerases, generating the chromophore used by other opsins, and some opsins have unknown functions. PMID:15774036

  9. Rod Monochromacy and the Coevolution of Cetacean Retinal Opsins

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A.; York, Vincent M.; Springer, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1), short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS) from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the “coastal” hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti) and in toothed whales (Odontoceti). Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1) Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales), (2) Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale), (3) Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale), (4) Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale), and (5) Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale). All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among mammalian species. PMID:23637615

  10. Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Robert W; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A; York, Vincent M; Springer, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1), short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS) from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti) and in toothed whales (Odontoceti). Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1) Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales), (2) Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale), (3) Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale), (4) Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale), and (5) Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale). All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among mammalian species. PMID:23637615

  11. Long-wavelength sensitive visual pigments of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): six opsins expressed in a single individual

    PubMed Central

    Weadick, Cameron J; Chang, Belinda SW

    2007-01-01

    Background The diversity of visual systems in fish has long been of interest for evolutionary biologists and neurophysiologists, and has recently begun to attract the attention of molecular evolutionary geneticists. Several recent studies on the copy number and genomic organization of visual pigment proteins, the opsins, have revealed an increased opsin diversity in fish relative to most vertebrates, brought about through recent instances of opsin duplication and divergence. However, for the subfamily of opsin genes that mediate vision at the long-wavelength end of the spectrum, the LWS opsins, it appears that most fishes possess only one or two loci, a value comparable to most other vertebrates. Here, we characterize the LWS opsins from cDNA of an individual guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a fish that is known exhibit variation in its long-wavelength sensitive visual system, mate preferences and colour patterns. Results We identified six LWS opsins expressed within a single individual. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these opsins descend from duplication events both pre-dating and following the divergence of the guppy lineage from that of the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, the closest species for which comparable data exists. Numerous amino acid substitutions exist among these different LWS opsins, many at sites known to be important for visual pigment function, including spectral sensitivity and G-protein activation. Likelihood analyses using codon-based models of evolution reveal significant changes in selective constraint along two of the guppy LWS opsin lineages. Conclusion The guppy displays an unusually high number of LWS opsins compared to other fish, and to vertebrates in general. Observing both substitutions at functionally important sites and the persistence of lineages across species boundaries suggests that these opsins might have functionally different roles, especially with regard to G-protein activation. The reasons why are currently unknown, but may relate to aspects of the guppy's behavioural ecology, in which both male colour patterns and the female mate preferences for these colour patterns experience strong, highly variable selection pressures. PMID:17288569

  12. Evolution of opsin expression in birds driven by sexual selection and habitat.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I

    2015-01-01

    Theories of sexual and natural selection predict coevolution of visual perception with conspecific colour and/or the light environment animals occupy. One way to test these theories is to focus on the visual system, which can be achieved by studying the opsin-based visual pigments that mediate vision. Birds vary greatly in colour, but opsin gene coding sequences and associated visual pigment spectral sensitivities are known to be rather invariant across birds. Here, I studied expression of the four cone opsin genes (Lws, Rh2, Sws2 and Sws1) in 16 species of New World warblers (Parulidae). I found levels of opsin expression vary both across species and between the sexes. Across species, female, but not male Sws2 expression is associated with an index of sexual selection, plumage dichromatism. This fits predictions of classic sexual selection models, in which the sensory system changes in females, presumably impacting female preference, and co-evolves with male plumage. Expression of the opsins at the extremes of the light spectrum, Lws and Uvs, correlates with the inferred light environment occupied by the different species. Unlike opsin spectral tuning, regulation of opsin gene expression allows for fast adaptive evolution of the visual system in response to natural and sexual selection, and in particular, sex-specific selection pressures. PMID:25429020

  13. Spatio-temporal characterization of retinal opsin gene expression during thyroid hormone-induced and natural development of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Kathy; Allison, W Ted; Veldhoen, Nik; Anholt, Bradley R; Helbing, Caren C; Hawryshyn, Craig W

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and spatial distribution of retinal cone photoreceptors change during thyroid hormone (TH)-induced and natural development of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These changes are thought to allow the fish to adapt to different photic environments throughout its life history. To date, the ontogeny of rainbow trout cone photoreceptors has been examined using physiological and morphological approaches. In this study, we extended these observations by measuring opsin gene expression in retinal quadrants during natural and TH-induced development. Gene expression during natural development was investigated in retinae from fish at both parr and smolt stages. The role of TH in modulating opsin gene expression was determined in TH-treated parr and control fish sampled after two, nine, and 22 days of treatment. Total RNA was isolated from each retinal quadrant and steady-state opsin mRNA levels were measured using reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis. Expression of ultraviolet-sensitive opsin (SWS1), rod opsin (RH1), middle wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2), and long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS) transcripts vary spatially in the parr retina. Smolts, compared to parr, had downregulated SWS1 expression in all quadrants, lower LWS expression dorsally, higher RH1 expression nasally, and higher RH2 expression dorsally. In TH-treated parr, SWS1 opsin expression was downregulated in the nasal quadrants by two days. SWS1 displayed the greatest degree of downregulation in all quadrants after nine days of treatment, with an increase in short wavelength-sensitive (SWS2) and RH2 opsin mRNA expression in the temporal quadrants. This study reveals that opsin genes display spatially significant differences within rainbow trout retina in their level of mRNA expression, and that regulation of opsin expression is a dynamic process that is influenced by TH. This is particularly evident for SWS1 gene expression in parr following TH-induced and natural development. PMID:16638170

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of opsins in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Kanta; Murakami, Naoto; Andoh, Tadashi; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kawamura, Shoji; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-02-10

    Green light irradiation facilitates the somatic growth of barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). However, the V. moseri visual system, which may be associated with somatic growth by acting on the endocrine system upon exposure to this particular wavelength, remains largely unexplored. Herein, we characterized the visual opsin repertoire of V. moseri to understand the molecular basis underlying this effect. The five types of visual opsins that are found in vertebrates were cloned from RNA that was extracted from the eyes of V. moseri. Notably, V. moseri possessed one pseudogene (RH2-A) and two intact (RH2-B and RH2-C) copies of "green-sensitive" opsin genes. The wavelengths of maximum absorption spectra (?max) for each of the reconstituted photopigments were 552nm for "red-sensitive" LWS, 506nm for RH2-B, 490nm for RH2-C, 482nm and 416nm for "blue-sensitive" SWS2A and SWS2B, respectively, 367nm for "ultraviolet-sensitive" SWS1, and 494nm for "dim-light sensitive rhodopsin" RH1. The ?max of SWS2A was longer than that of any other reported vertebrate SWS2 opsin. By measuring the expression level of these opsin genes with quantitative RT-PCR in 3-, 15-, and 27-month-old fish, we found that RH2-B and SWS2A were expressed at a constant level, whereas the expression of LWS, RH2-C, SWS2B, and SWS1 opsin genes decreased, and that of RH1 increased with age. Barfin flounders inhabit inshore waters at a young age and expand their habitat to deep sea areas as they age, and green light is relatively abundant in deep water compared to the lights of other wavelengths in shallow water. Our results indicate that gene repertoire and expression profile of the opsin genes of barfin flounder are adaptive to their habitat shift that occurs during development, with some opsins acquiring a distinct ?max. PMID:25433330

  15. ISO/LWS: Detector status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenaour, C.; Delettrez, C.; Griffin, M.; Ade, P.; Robinson, D.; Vickers, D.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory is to perform spectrometry in the wavelength range 45 to 200 microns using two resolution modes. The resolution will be around 200 in the medium resolution mode while it will reach 10(exp 4) in the high resolution mode. The sensitivity of this instrument will be close to 10(exp -18) W/sq. root Hz. A schematic view of the focal plane unit is presented. The detectors divide the wavelength range into ten spectral channels. The spectral range and position of each detector is indicated. Each detector will cover approximately a spectral bandwidth sufficient to allow for a 50 percent redundancy in the case of detector failure. There are three types of detectors. SW1 is a Ge:Be photoconductor covering the 45 to 55 micron region. LW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 are unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductors which cover the 50 to 120 micron region. LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5 are uniaxially stressed Ge:GA photoconductors covering the range from 100 to 200 microns. The stress applied to each detector will be adjusted in order to get the peak response in the corresponding wavelength range, and to minimize the dark current of the shorter wavelength stressed detectors. Stressed and unstressed detectors are located alternatively in order to receive the first and second order of the diffracted beam.

  16. Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: ?(d)). The ?(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria. PMID:22617953

  17. Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes. PMID:18160295

  18. The NASA living with a star (LWS) sentinels mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Lin; A. Szabo

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels mission is presently being defined by its Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). Sentinels is the third element of the LWS program. Its primary scientific objective is to discover, understand and model the connection between solar phenomena and the interplanetary\\/geospace disturbances, specifically, the heliospheric initiation, propagation and solar connection of those energetic

  19. A mouse M-opsin monochromat: Retinal cone photoreceptors have increased M-opsin expression when S-opsin is knocked out

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren L. Daniele; Christine Insinna; Rebecca Chance; Jinhua Wang; Sergei S. Nikonov; Edward N. Pugh

    2011-01-01

    Mouse cone photoreceptors, like those of most mammals including humans, express cone opsins derived from two ancient families: S-opsin (gene Opn1sw) and M-opsin (gene Opn1mw). Most C57Bl\\/6 mouse cones co-express both opsins, but in dorso-ventral counter-gradients, with M-opsin dominant in the dorsal retina and S-opsin in the ventral retina, and S-opsin 4-fold greater overall. We created a mouse lacking S-opsin

  20. Opsin vs opsin: New materials for biotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino

    2014-08-01

    The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular, bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called proteotronics. Proteotronics is here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

  1. Opsin vs opsin: new materials for biotechnological applications

    E-print Network

    E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani

    2014-08-09

    The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called \\textit{proteotronics}. Proteotronics is here here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

  2. Opsin vs opsin: New materials for biotechnological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alfinito, Eleonora, E-mail: eleonora.alfinito@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Università del Salento, via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); CNISM, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Reggiani, Lino, E-mail: lino.reggiani@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Ennio de Giorgi, Università del Salento, via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); CNISM, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, 00146 Roma (Italy)

    2014-08-14

    The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular, bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called proteotronics. Proteotronics is here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

  3. Shedding new light on opsin evolution

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Megan L.; Blasic, Joseph R.; Bok, Michael J.; Cameron, Evan G.; Pringle, Thomas; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2012-01-01

    Opsin proteins are essential molecules in mediating the ability of animals to detect and use light for diverse biological functions. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary history of opsins is key to understanding the evolution of light detection and photoreception in animals. As genomic data have appeared and rapidly expanded in quantity, it has become possible to analyse opsins that functionally and histologically are less well characterized, and thus to examine opsin evolution strictly from a genetic perspective. We have incorporated these new data into a large-scale, genome-based analysis of opsin evolution. We use an extensive phylogeny of currently known opsin sequence diversity as a foundation for examining the evolutionary distributions of key functional features within the opsin clade. This new analysis illustrates the lability of opsin protein-expression patterns, site-specific functionality (i.e. counterion position) and G-protein binding interactions. Further, it demonstrates the limitations of current model organisms, and highlights the need for further characterization of many of the opsin sequence groups with unknown function. PMID:22012981

  4. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be accumulated by the Project and manifested for specific flight opportunities as they become available. The SET Carrier is designed to present a standard set of interfaces to SET technology experiments and to be modular and flexible enough to interface to a variety of possible host spacecraft. The Carrier will have core components and mission unique components. Once the core carrier elements have been developed, only the mission unique components need to be defined and developed for any particular mission. This approach will minimize the mission specific cost and development schedule for a given flight opportunity. The standard set of interfaces provided by SET to experiments allows them to be developed independent of the particulars of a host spacecraft. The Carrier will provide the power, communication, and the necessary monitoring features to operate experiments. The Carrier will also provide all of the mechanical assemblies and harnesses required to adapt experiments to a particular host. Experiments may be hosted locally with the Carrier or remotely on the host spacecraft. The Carrier design will allow a single Carrier to support a variable number of experiments and will include features that support the ability to incrementally add experiments without disturbing the core architecture.

  5. The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Zhang; Johannes Vierock; Ofer Yizhar; Lief E. Fenno; Satoshi Tsunoda; Arash Kianianmomeni; Matthias Prigge; Andre Berndt; John C. Cushman; Juergen E. Polle; Jon K. Magnuson; Peter Hegemann; Karl Deisseroth

    2011-01-01

    The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics. Here we provide a Primer on these light-activated ion channels and pumps, describe a

  6. Leading Edge The Microbial Opsin Family

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Leading Edge Primer The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools Feng Zhang,1,2,9,* Johannes advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics on these and other light-sensitive proteins has resulted in a technology called optogenetics (Deisseroth, 2011

  7. Analysis of the Opsin Repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini Provides Insights into the Evolution of Opsin Genes in Panarthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an “arthropsin,” were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. PMID:25193307

  8. Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2014-09-01

    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an "arthropsin," were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. PMID:25193307

  9. The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Vierock, Johannes; Yizhar, Ofer; Fenno, Lief E.; Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kianianmomeni, Arash; Prigge, Matthias; Berndt, Andre; Cushman, John C.; Polle, Juergen E.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hegemann, Peter; Deisseroth, Karl

    2011-12-23

    The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics. Here we provide a Primer on these light-activated ion channels and pumps, describe a group of opsins bridging prior categories, and explore the convergence of molecular engineering and genomic discovery for the utilization and understanding of these remarkable molecular machines.

  10. The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Vierock, Johannes; Yizhar, Ofer; Fenno, Lief E.; Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kianianmomeni, Arash; Prigge, Matthias; Berndt, Andre; Cushman, John; Polle, Jürgen; Magnuson, Jon; Hegemann, Peter; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics. Here we provide a Primer on these light-activated ion channels and pumps, describe a group of opsins bridging prior categories, and explore the convergence of molecular engineering and genomic discovery for the utilization and understanding of these remarkable molecular machines. PMID:22196724

  11. The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Feng

    The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. ...

  12. Metazoan opsin evolution reveals a simple route to animal vision

    PubMed Central

    Feuda, Roberto; Hamilton, Sinead C.; McInerney, James O.; Pisani, Davide

    2012-01-01

    All known visual pigments in Neuralia (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Bilateria) are composed of an opsin (a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor), and a light-sensitive chromophore, generally retinal. Accordingly, opsins play a key role in vision. There is no agreement on the relationships of the neuralian opsin subfamilies, and clarifying their phylogeny is key to elucidating the origin of this protein family and of vision. We used improved methods and data to resolve the opsin phylogeny and explain the evolution of animal vision. We found that the Placozoa have opsins, and that the opsins share a common ancestor with the melatonin receptors. Further to this, we found that all known neuralian opsins can be classified into the same three subfamilies into which the bilaterian opsins are classified: the ciliary (C), rhabdomeric (R), and go-coupled plus retinochrome, retinal G protein-coupled receptor (Go/RGR) opsins. Our results entail a simple scenario of opsin evolution. The first opsin originated from the duplication of the common ancestor of the melatonin and opsin genes in a eumetazoan (Placozoa plus Neuralia) ancestor, and an inference of its amino acid sequence suggests that this protein might not have been light-sensitive. Two more gene duplications in the ancestral neuralian lineage resulted in the origin of the R, C, and Go/RGR opsins. Accordingly, the first animal with at least a C, an R, and a Go/RGR opsin was a neuralian progenitor. PMID:23112152

  13. Metazoan opsin evolution reveals a simple route to animal vision.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Hamilton, Sinead C; McInerney, James O; Pisani, Davide

    2012-11-13

    All known visual pigments in Neuralia (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Bilateria) are composed of an opsin (a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor), and a light-sensitive chromophore, generally retinal. Accordingly, opsins play a key role in vision. There is no agreement on the relationships of the neuralian opsin subfamilies, and clarifying their phylogeny is key to elucidating the origin of this protein family and of vision. We used improved methods and data to resolve the opsin phylogeny and explain the evolution of animal vision. We found that the Placozoa have opsins, and that the opsins share a common ancestor with the melatonin receptors. Further to this, we found that all known neuralian opsins can be classified into the same three subfamilies into which the bilaterian opsins are classified: the ciliary (C), rhabdomeric (R), and go-coupled plus retinochrome, retinal G protein-coupled receptor (Go/RGR) opsins. Our results entail a simple scenario of opsin evolution. The first opsin originated from the duplication of the common ancestor of the melatonin and opsin genes in a eumetazoan (Placozoa plus Neuralia) ancestor, and an inference of its amino acid sequence suggests that this protein might not have been light-sensitive. Two more gene duplications in the ancestral neuralian lineage resulted in the origin of the R, C, and Go/RGR opsins. Accordingly, the first animal with at least a C, an R, and a Go/RGR opsin was a neuralian progenitor. PMID:23112152

  14. C-opsin expressing photoreceptors in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Arnone, Maria I

    2013-07-01

    Today's progress in molecular analysis and, in particular, the increased availability of genome sequences have enabled us to investigate photoreceptor cells (PRCs) in organisms that were formerly inaccessible to experimental manipulation. Our studies of marine non-chordate deuterostomes thus aim to bridge a gap of knowledge regarding the evolution of deuterostome PRCs prior to the emergence of vertebrates' eyes. In this contribution, we will show evidence for expression of a c-opsin photopigment, which, according to our phylogenetic analysis, is closely related to an assemblage of chordate visual c-opsins. An antibody raised against sea urchins' c-opsin protein (Sp-Opsin1) recognizes epitopes in a variety of tissues of different echinoderms. While in sea urchins this c-opsin is expressed in locomotory and buccal tube feet, spines, pedicellaria, and epidermis, in brittlestars and starfish we found the immuno-reaction to be located exclusively in cells within the animals' spines. Structural characteristics of these c-opsin+ PRC types include the close vicinity/connection to nerve strands and a, so far unexplored, conspicuous association with the animals' calcite skeleton, which previously has been hypothesized to play a role in echinoderm photobiology. These features are discussed within the context of the evolution of photoreceptors in echinoderms and in deuterostomes generally. PMID:23667044

  15. The effect of selection on a long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohey Terai; Werner E. Mayer; Jan Klein; Herbert Tichy; Norihiro Okada

    2002-01-01

    In East African Lake Victoria >200 endemic species of haplochromine fishes have been described on the basis of morphological and behavioral differences. Yet molecular analysis has failed to reveal any species-specific differences among these fishes in either mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Although the genes could be shown to vary, the variations represent trans-species polymorphisms not yet assorted along species lines.

  16. ISO SWS\\/LWS observations of SN 1987A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lundqvist; J. Sollerman; C. Kozma; B. Larsson; J. Spyromilio; A. P. S. Crotts; J. Danziger; D. Kunze

    1999-01-01

    We report on observations of SN 1987A with ISO SWS\\/LWS made 9-11 years after the explosion. No emission from the supernova was seen. In particular, the upper limits on the fluxes of [Fe I] 24.05 mum and [Fe II] 25.99 mum on day 3 999 are ~ 1.1 Jy and ~ 1.4 Jy, respectively. Assuming a homogeneous distribution of (44)

  17. Opsin Expression in Human Epidermal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Ozdeslik, Rana N; Wicks, Nadine L; Najera, Julia A; Oancea, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to solar light containing visible and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful skin carcinogen. UVR elicits cellular responses in epidermal cells via several mechanisms: direct absorption of short-wavelength UVR photons by DNA, oxidative damage caused by long-wavelength UVR, and, as we recently demonstrated, via a retinal-dependent G protein-coupled signaling pathway. Because the human epidermis is exposed to a wide range of light wavelengths, we investigated whether opsins, light-activated receptors that mediate photoreception in the eye, are expressed in epidermal skin to potentially serve as photosensors. Here we show that four opsins—OPN1-SW, OPN2, OPN3 and OPN5—are expressed in the two major human epidermal cell types, melanocytes and keratinocytes, and the mRNA expression profile of these opsins does not change in response to physiological UVR doses. We detected two OPN3 splice variants present in similar amounts in both cell types and three OPN5 splice isoforms, two of which encode truncated proteins. Notably, OPN2 and OPN3 mRNA were significantly more abundant than other opsins and encoded full-length proteins. Our results demonstrate that opsins are expressed in epidermal skin cells and suggest that they might initiate light–induced signaling pathways, possibly contributing to UVR phototransduction. PMID:25267311

  18. The Comb Jelly Opsins and the Origins of Animal Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Oakley, Todd H.; Pisani, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Opsins mediate light detection in most animals, and understanding their evolution is key to clarify the origin of vision. Despite the public availability of a substantial collection of well-characterized opsins, early opsin evolution has yet to be fully understood, in large part because of the high level of divergence observed among opsins belonging to different subfamilies. As a result, different studies have investigated deep opsin evolution using alternative data sets and reached contradictory results. Here, we integrated the data and methods of three, key, recent studies to further clarify opsin evolution. We show that the opsin relationships are sensitive to outgroup choice; we generate new support for the existence of Rhabdomeric opsins in Cnidaria (e.g., corals and jellyfishes) and show that all comb jelly opsins belong to well-recognized opsin groups (the Go-coupled opsins or the Ciliary opsins), which are also known in Bilateria (e.g., humans, fruit flies, snails, and their allies) and Cnidaria. Our results are most parsimoniously interpreted assuming a traditional animal phylogeny where Ctenophora are not the sister group of all the other animals. PMID:25062921

  19. The comb jelly opsins and the origins of animal phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Oakley, Todd H; Pisani, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Opsins mediate light detection in most animals, and understanding their evolution is key to clarify the origin of vision. Despite the public availability of a substantial collection of well-characterized opsins, early opsin evolution has yet to be fully understood, in large part because of the high level of divergence observed among opsins belonging to different subfamilies. As a result, different studies have investigated deep opsin evolution using alternative data sets and reached contradictory results. Here, we integrated the data and methods of three, key, recent studies to further clarify opsin evolution. We show that the opsin relationships are sensitive to outgroup choice; we generate new support for the existence of Rhabdomeric opsins in Cnidaria (e.g., corals and jellyfishes) and show that all comb jelly opsins belong to well-recognized opsin groups (the Go-coupled opsins or the Ciliary opsins), which are also known in Bilateria (e.g., humans, fruit flies, snails, and their allies) and Cnidaria. Our results are most parsimoniously interpreted assuming a traditional animal phylogeny where Ctenophora are not the sister group of all the other animals. PMID:25062921

  20. The Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Sentinels Mission, the heliospheric element of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program, is still rapidly evolving, especially as the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team is progressing with its work. With the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the solar component, and the Geospace elements taking a more finalized form, it becomes clearer what scientific and measurement objectives will be necessary to establish the solar-geospace connection in order to achieve the goals of the LWS program. Possible, early formulation designs of the Sentinels mission will be presented that includes the Inner Heliospheric Mappers, a four spacecraft mission to observe the inner heliosphere between 0.25 and 1.0 AUs along with a Far Side Sentinel that will perform remote solar observations from nearly the opposite side of the Sun. Moreover, the complementarity of the various planned international missions (e.g., ESA Solar Orbiter, and Beppi Colombo) along with NASA planetary projects (e.g., Mars program and MESSENGER) will be discussed and how they can form a coherent system. Finally, the importance of already available heliospheric data will be emphasized.

  1. An opsin mutant with increased thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guifu; Gross, Alecia K; Oprian, Daniel D

    2003-02-25

    This report describes the biochemical characterization of a double mutant of rhodopsin (N2C,D282C) in which Cys residues engineered into the protein at positions 2 (in the amino-terminal extracellular domain) and 282 (in the extracellular loop between transmembrane helices 6 and 7) are shown to form a disulfide bond and increase the thermal stability of the unliganded or opsin form of the protein. Wild-type opsin does not survive detergent solubilization and purification at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C. In contrast, the N2C,D282C mutant opsin survives the purification protocol and loses less than 50% activity after incubation for 20 days under the same conditions. Less than 5% is lost after 20 days at 4 degrees C. While the disulfide bond clearly has a dramatic effect on protein stability, it has a minor impact on the activity of the pigment. The MII lifetime of the mutant (6.6 min) is similar to that of the wild type (7.9 min), and the specific activity of the light-activated mutant for activation of transducin is within 20% of the wild-type activity. Therefore, it seems likely that the disulfide bond does not perturb greatly the structure of the protein. For these reasons, we anticipate that the mutant may be of use in detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ligand binding reaction and for crystallization trials involving recombinant rhodopsin, especially the unliganded opsin form of the protein. PMID:12590586

  2. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod. PMID:25371434

  3. BN Danforth Opsin primers for bees/wasps (1/6/2005)

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    RCC GGA RAC GGT G-3' Opsin Rev4a 5'-GGT GGT RCC GGA RAC GGT GGA DGT-3' Opsin Rev4b 5'-GGT RCC GGA RAC GGT GGA DGT NGC RTC-3' PCR conditions: Opsin For/Opsin Rev: 94o C 1 min, 52o C 1 min, 72o C 1 min (35

  4. Living with a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET), Mission Carrier Overview and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patschke, Robert; Barth, Janet; Label, Ken; Mariano, Carolyn; Pham, Karen; Brewer, Dana; Cuviello, Michael; Kobe, David; Wu, Carl; Jarosz, Donald

    2004-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The three program elements of the LWS Program are Science Missions; Targeted Research and Technology; and Space Environment Testbeds (SETS). SET is an ideal platform for small experiments performing research on space environment effects on technologies and on the mitigation of space weather effects. A short description of the LWS Program will be given, and the SET will be described in detail, giving the mission objectives, available carrier services, and upcoming flight opportunities.

  5. Functional diversification of lepidopteran opsins following gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, A D

    2001-12-01

    A comparative approach was taken for identifying amino acid substitutions that may be under positive Darwinian selection and are correlated with spectral shifts among orthologous and paralogous lepidopteran long wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsins. Four novel LW opsin fragments were isolated, cloned, and sequenced from eye-specific cDNAs from two butterflies, Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae) and Precis coenia (Nymphalidae), and two moths, Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae) and Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae). These opsins were sampled because they encode visual pigments having a naturally occurring range of lambda(max) values (510-530 nm), which in combination with previously characterized lepidopteran opsins, provide a complete range of known spectral sensitivities (510-575 nm) among lepidopteran LW opsins. Two recent opsin gene duplication events were found within the papilionid but not within the nymphalid butterfly families through neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 13 lepidopteran opsin sequences. An elevated rate of evolution was detected in the red-shifted Papilio Rh3 branch following gene duplication, because of an increase in the amino acid substitution rate in the transmembrane domain of the protein, a region that forms the chromophore-binding pocket of the visual pigment. A maximum likelihood approach was used to estimate omega, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions per site. Branch-specific tests of selection (free-ratio) identified one branch with omega = 2.1044, but the small number of substitutions involved was not significantly different from the expected number of changes under the neutral expectation of omega = 1. Ancestral sequences were reconstructed with a high degree of certainty from these data. Reconstructed ancestral sequences revealed several instances of convergence to the same amino acid between butterfly and vertebrate cone pigments, and between independent branches of the butterfly opsin tree that are correlated with spectral shifts. PMID:11719576

  6. Reconstructing the ancestral butterfly eye: focus on the opsins.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Adriana D

    2008-06-01

    The eyes of butterflies are remarkable, because they are nearly as diverse as the colors of wings. Much of eye diversity can be traced to alterations in the number, spectral properties and spatial distribution of the visual pigments. Visual pigments are light-sensitive molecules composed of an opsin protein and a chromophore. Most butterflies have eyes that contain visual pigments with a wavelength of peak absorbance, lambda(max), in the ultraviolet (UV, 300-400 nm), blue (B, 400-500 nm) and long wavelength (LW, 500-600 nm) part of the visible light spectrum, respectively, encoded by distinct UV, B and LW opsin genes. In the compound eye of butterflies, each individual ommatidium is composed of nine photoreceptor cells (R1-9) that generally express only one opsin mRNA per cell, although in some butterfly eyes there are ommatidial subtypes in which two opsins are co-expressed in the same photoreceptor cell. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of opsin cDNAs from the five butterfly families, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, and comparative analysis of opsin gene expression patterns from four of the five families, I propose a model for the patterning of the ancestral butterfly eye that is most closely aligned with the nymphalid eye. The R1 and R2 cells of the main retina expressed UV-UV-, UV-B- or B-B-absorbing visual pigments while the R3-9 cells expressed a LW-absorbing visual pigment. Visual systems of existing butterflies then underwent an adaptive expansion based on lineage-specific B and LW opsin gene multiplications and on alterations in the spatial expression of opsins within the eye. Understanding the molecular sophistication of butterfly eye complexity is a challenge that, if met, has broad biological implications. PMID:18490396

  7. Extraordinary diversity of visual opsin genes in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Arikawa, Kentaro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-03-17

    Dragonflies are colorful and large-eyed animals strongly dependent on color vision. Here we report an extraordinary large number of opsin genes in dragonflies and their characteristic spatiotemporal expression patterns. Exhaustive transcriptomic and genomic surveys of three dragonflies of the family Libellulidae consistently identified 20 opsin genes, consisting of 4 nonvisual opsin genes and 16 visual opsin genes of 1 UV, 5 short-wavelength (SW), and 10 long-wavelength (LW) type. Comprehensive transcriptomic survey of the other dragonflies representing an additional 10 families also identified as many as 15-33 opsin genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed dynamic multiplications and losses of the opsin genes in the course of evolution. In contrast to many SW and LW genes expressed in adults, only one SW gene and several LW genes were expressed in larvae, reflecting less visual dependence and LW-skewed light conditions for their lifestyle under water. In this context, notably, the sand-burrowing or pit-dwelling species tended to lack SW gene expression in larvae. In adult visual organs: (i) many SW genes and a few LW genes were expressed in the dorsal region of compound eyes, presumably for processing SW-skewed light from the sky; (ii) a few SW genes and many LW genes were expressed in the ventral region of compound eyes, probably for perceiving terrestrial objects; and (iii) expression of a specific LW gene was associated with ocelli. Our findings suggest that the stage- and region-specific expressions of the diverse opsin genes underlie the behavior, ecology, and adaptation of dragonflies. PMID:25713365

  8. Extraordinary diversity of visual opsin genes in dragonflies

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Arikawa, Kentaro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-01-01

    Dragonflies are colorful and large-eyed animals strongly dependent on color vision. Here we report an extraordinary large number of opsin genes in dragonflies and their characteristic spatiotemporal expression patterns. Exhaustive transcriptomic and genomic surveys of three dragonflies of the family Libellulidae consistently identified 20 opsin genes, consisting of 4 nonvisual opsin genes and 16 visual opsin genes of 1 UV, 5 short-wavelength (SW), and 10 long-wavelength (LW) type. Comprehensive transcriptomic survey of the other dragonflies representing an additional 10 families also identified as many as 15–33 opsin genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed dynamic multiplications and losses of the opsin genes in the course of evolution. In contrast to many SW and LW genes expressed in adults, only one SW gene and several LW genes were expressed in larvae, reflecting less visual dependence and LW-skewed light conditions for their lifestyle under water. In this context, notably, the sand-burrowing or pit-dwelling species tended to lack SW gene expression in larvae. In adult visual organs: (i) many SW genes and a few LW genes were expressed in the dorsal region of compound eyes, presumably for processing SW-skewed light from the sky; (ii) a few SW genes and many LW genes were expressed in the ventral region of compound eyes, probably for perceiving terrestrial objects; and (iii) expression of a specific LW gene was associated with ocelli. Our findings suggest that the stage- and region-specific expressions of the diverse opsin genes underlie the behavior, ecology, and adaptation of dragonflies. PMID:25713365

  9. Sequences and Evolution of Human and Squirrel Monkey Blue Opsin Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C. Shimmin; Phuong Mai; Wen-Hsiung Li

    1997-01-01

    .   The sequences of the entire blue opsin gene in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) and the five introns of the human blue opsin gene were obtained. Intron 3 of these genes contains an Alu sequence and intron\\u000a 4 contains a partial mer13 sequence. A comparison of the squirrel monkey opsin sequence with published mammalian opsin sequences\\u000a shows that features

  10. Renewal of opsin in the photoreceptor cells of the mosquito

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Mosquito rhodopsin is a digitonin-soluble membrane protein of molecular weight 39,000 daltons, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rhodopsin undergoes a spectral transition from R515-520 to M480 after orange illumination. The visual pigment apoprotein, opsin, is the major membrane protein in the eye. Protein synthesis in the photoreceptor cells occurs in the perinuclear cytoplasm and the newly made protein is transported to the rhabdom. Light adaptation increases the rate of turnover of this rhabdomal protein. The turnover of electrophoretically isolated opsin is also stimulated by light adaptation. The changes observed in protein metabolism biochemically, are consistent with previous morphological observations of photoreceptor membrane turnover. The results agree with the hypothesis that the newly synthesized rhabdomal protein is opsin. PMID:512631

  11. Reduced opsin gene expression in a cave-dwelling fish

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Coleman, Seth W.; Perkins, Brian D.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2010-01-01

    Regressive evolution of structures associated with vision in cave-dwelling organisms is the focus of intense research. Most work has focused on differences between extreme visual phenotypes: sighted, surface animals and their completely blind, cave-dwelling counterparts. We suggest that troglodytic systems, comprising multiple populations that vary along a gradient of visual function, may prove critical in understanding the mechanisms underlying initial regression in visual pathways. Gene expression assays of natural and laboratory-reared populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) revealed reduced opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations compared with surface-dwelling conspecifics. Our results suggest that the reduction in opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations is not phenotypically plastic but reflects a hardwired system not rescued by exposure to light during retinal ontogeny. Changes in opsin gene expression may consequently represent a first evolutionary step in the regression of eyes in cave organisms. PMID:19740890

  12. Reduced opsin gene expression in a cave-dwelling fish.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Coleman, Seth W; Perkins, Brian D; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2010-02-23

    Regressive evolution of structures associated with vision in cave-dwelling organisms is the focus of intense research. Most work has focused on differences between extreme visual phenotypes: sighted, surface animals and their completely blind, cave-dwelling counterparts. We suggest that troglodytic systems, comprising multiple populations that vary along a gradient of visual function, may prove critical in understanding the mechanisms underlying initial regression in visual pathways. Gene expression assays of natural and laboratory-reared populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) revealed reduced opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations compared with surface-dwelling conspecifics. Our results suggest that the reduction in opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations is not phenotypically plastic but reflects a hardwired system not rescued by exposure to light during retinal ontogeny. Changes in opsin gene expression may consequently represent a first evolutionary step in the regression of eyes in cave organisms. PMID:19740890

  13. Parallel evolution of opsin gene expression in African cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Hofmann, Christopher M; Hofmann, Hans A; Carleton, Karen L

    2010-12-01

    Phenotypic evolution may occur either through alterations to the structure of protein-coding genes or their expression. Evidence for which of these two mechanisms more commonly contribute to the evolution of a phenotype can be garnered from examples of parallel and convergent evolution. The visual system of East African cichlid fishes is an excellent system with which to address this question. Cichlid fishes from Lakes Malawi (LM) and Victoria together exhibit three diverse palettes of coexpressed opsins and several important protein-coding mutations that both shift spectral sensitivity. Here we assess both opsin expression and protein-coding diversity among cichlids from a third rift lake, Lake Tanganyika (LT). We found that Tanganyikan cichlids exhibit three palettes of coexpressed opsins that largely overlap the short-, middle-, and long-wavelength-sensitive palettes of LM cichlids. Bayesian phenotypic clustering and ancestral state reconstructions both support the parallel evolution of the short- and middle-wavelength palettes among cichlids from LT and LM. In each case, these transitions occurred from different ancestors that expressed the same long-wavelength palette. We also identified similar but distinct patterns of correlated evolution between opsin expression, diet, and lens transmittance among cichlids from LT and LM as well. In contrast to regulatory changes, we identified few functional or potentially functional mutations in the protein-coding sequences of three variable opsins, with the possible exception of the SWS1 (ultraviolet) opsin. These results underscore the important contribution that gene regulation can make to rapid phenotypic evolution and adaptation. PMID:20601410

  14. A dual role for EDEM1 in the processing of rod opsin.

    PubMed

    Kosmaoglou, Maria; Kanuga, Naheed; Aguilà, Mònica; Garriga, Pere; Cheetham, Michael E

    2009-12-15

    Mutations in rod opsin, the archetypal G-protein-coupled receptor, cause retinitis pigmentosa. The majority of mutations, e.g. P23H, cause protein misfolding, resulting in ER retention, induction of the unfolded protein response and degradation by ERAD. If misfolded rod opsin escapes degradation, it aggregates and forms intracellular inclusions. Therefore, it is important to identify the chaperones that mediate the folding or degradation of rod opsin. ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like 1 (EDEM1) can enhance the release of terminally misfolded glycoproteins from the calnexin chaperone system. Here, we identify EDEM1 as a novel chaperone of rod opsin. EDEM1 expression promoted the degradation of P23H rod opsin and decreased its aggregation. By contrast, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EDEM1 increased both the amount of P23H rod opsin and its aggregation into inclusions. EDEM1 was detected in rod photoreceptor inner segments and EndoH-sensitive rod opsin co-immunoprecipitated with EDEM1 from retina, suggesting that rod opsin is a physiological EDEM1 client. Unexpectedly, EDEM1 binding to rod opsin was independent of mannose trimming and EDEM1 promoted the cell-surface expression of mutant rod opsin. Collectively, the data suggest that EDEM1 is a chaperone for rod opsin and that expression of EDEM1 can be used to promote correct folding, as well as enhanced degradation, of mutant proteins in the ER to combat protein-misfolding disease. PMID:19934218

  15. Variations in Opsin Coding Sequences Cause X-Linked Cone Dysfunction Syndrome with Myopia and Dichromacy

    PubMed Central

    McClements, Michelle; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Michaelides, Michel; Young, Terri; Neitz, Maureen; MacLaren, Robert E.; Moore, Anthony T.; Hunt, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the role of variant L opsin haplotypes in seven families with Bornholm Eye Disease (BED), a cone dysfunction syndrome with dichromacy and myopia. Methods. Analysis of the opsin genes within the L/M opsin array at Xq28 included cloning and sequencing of an exon 3-5 gene fragment, long range PCR to establish gene order, and quantitative PCR to establish gene copy number. In vitro expression of normal and variant opsins was performed to examine cellular trafficking and spectral sensitivity of pigments. Results. All except one of the BED families possessed L opsin genes that contained a rare exon 3 haplotype. The exception was a family with the deleterious Cys203Arg substitution. Two rare exon 3 haplotypes were found and, where determined, these variant opsin genes were in the first position in the array. In vitro expression in transfected cultured neuronal cells showed that the variant opsins formed functional pigments, which trafficked to the cell membranes. The variant opsins were, however, less stable than wild type. Conclusions. It is concluded that the variant L opsin haplotypes underlie BED. The reduction in the amount of variant opsin produced in vitro compared with wild type indicates a possible disease mechanism. Alternatively, the recently identified defective splicing of exon 3 of the variant opsin transcript may be involved. Both mechanisms explain the presence of dichromacy and cone dystrophy. Abnormal pigment may also underlie the myopia that is invariably present in BED subjects. PMID:23322568

  16. An S-opsin knockin mouse (F81Y) reveals a role for the native ligand 11-cis retinal in cone opsin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Insinna, Christine; Daniele, Lauren L.; Davis, Jason A.; Larsen, DeLaine D.; Kuemmel, Colleen; Wang, Jinhua; Nikonov, Sergei S.; Knox, Barry E.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2012-01-01

    In absence of their natural ligand 11-cis retinal, cone opsin GPCRs fail to traffic normally, a condition associated with photoreceptor degeneration and blindness. We created a mouse with a point mutation (F81Y) in cone S-opsin. As expected, cones with this knockin mutation respond to light with maximal sensitivity red-shifted from 360 nm to 420 nm, consistent with an altered interaction between the apoprotein and ligand, 11-cis retinal. However, cones expressing F81Y S-opsin showed an ~3-fold reduced absolute sensitivity that was associated with a corresponding reduction in S-opsin protein expression. The reduced S-opsin expression did not arise from decreased S-opsin mRNA or cone degeneration, but rather from enhanced ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of the nascent protein. Exogenously increased 11-cis retinal restored F81Y S-opsin protein expression to normal levels, suggesting that ligand binding in the ER facilitates proper folding. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy of normal retinas showed that Mueller cells, which synthesize a precursor of 11-cis retinal, are closely adjoined to the cone ER, so could deliver the ligand to the site of opsin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that the binding of 11-cis retinal in the ER is important for normal folding during cone opsin biosynthesis. PMID:22674284

  17. Characterisation and localisation of the opsin protein repertoire in the brain and retinas of a spider and an onychophoran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Opsins have been found in the majority of animals and their most apparent functions are related to vision and light-guided behaviour. As an increasing number of sequences have become available it has become clear that many opsin-like transcripts are expressed in tissues other than the eyes. Opsins can be divided into three main groups: rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and group 4 opsins. In arthropods, the main focus has been on the r-opsins involved in vision. However, with increased sequencing it is becoming clear that arthropods also possess opsins of the c-type, group 4 opsins and the newly discovered arthropsins but the functions of these opsins are unknown in arthropods and data on their localisation is limited or absent. Results We identified opsins from the spider Cupiennius salei and the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis and characterised the phylogeny and localisation of these transcripts. We recovered all known visual opsins in C. salei, and in addition found a peropsin, a c-opsin and an opsin resembling Daphnia pulex arthropsin. The peropsin was expressed in all eye types except the anterior median eyes. The arthropsin and the c-opsin were expressed in the central nervous system but not the eyes. In E. kanangrensis we found: a c-opsin; an opsin resembling D. pulex arthropsins; and an r-opsin with high sequence similarity to previously published onychophoran onychopsins. The E. kanangrensis c-opsin and onychopsin were expressed in both the eyes and the brain but the arthropsin only in the brain. Conclusion Our novel finding that opsins of both the ciliary and rhabdomeric type are present in the onychophoran and a spider suggests that these two types of opsins were present in the last common ancestor of the Onychophora and Euarthropoda. The expression of the c-opsin in the eye of an onychophoran indicates that c-opsins may originally have been involved in vision in the arthropod clade. The lack of c-opsin expression in the spider retina suggests that the role for c-opsin in vision was lost in the euarthropods. Our discovery of arthropsin in onychophorans and spiders dates the emergence of arthropsin to the common ancestor of Onychophora and Euarthropoda and their expression in the brain suggests a non-visual function. PMID:24010579

  18. Expression Dynamics and Protein Localization of Rhabdomeric Opsins in Platynereis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Randel, Nadine; Bezares-Calderón, Luis A.; Gühmann, Martin; Shahidi, Réza; Jékely, Gáspár

    2013-01-01

    The larval stages of polychaete annelids are often responsive to light and can possess one to six eyes. The early trochophore larvae of the errant annelid Platynereis dumerilii have a single pair of ventral eyespots, whereas older nectochaete larvae have an additional two pairs of dorsal eyes that will develop into the adult eyes. Early Platynereis trochophores show robust positive phototaxis starting on the first day of development. Even though the mechanism of phototaxis in Platynereis early trochophore larvae is well understood, no photopigment (opsin) expression has yet been described in this stage. In late trochophore larvae, a rhabdomeric-type opsin, r-opsin1, expressed in both the eyespots and the adult eyes has already been reported. Here, we identify another Platynereis rhabdomeric opsin, r-opsin3, that is expressed in a single photoreceptor in the eyespots in early trochophores, suggesting that it mediates early larval phototaxis. We also show that r-opsin1 and r-opsin3 are expressed in adjacent photoreceptor cells in the eyespots in later stages, indicating that a second eyespot-photoreceptor differentiates in late trochophore larvae. Using serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we identified and reconstructed both photoreceptors and a pigment cell in the late larval eyespot. We also characterized opsin expression in the adult eyes and found that the two opsins co-express there in several photoreceptor cells. Using antibodies recognizing r-opsin1 and r-opsin3 proteins, we demonstrate that both opsins localize to the rhabdomere in all six eyes. In addition, we found that r-opsin1 mRNA is localized to, and translated in, the projections of the adult eyes. The specific changes we describe in opsin transcription and translation and in the cellular complement suggest that the six larval eyes undergo spectral and functional maturation during the early planktonic phase of the Platynereis life cycle. PMID:23667045

  19. Implications of the ISO LWS spectrum of the prototypical ultraluminous galaxy: ARP 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M. L.; Melnick, G.; Cox, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Smith, H. A.; Lord, S. D.; Greenhouse, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    The low resolution far infrared spectrum of the galaxy Arp 220, obtained with the low wavelength spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), is presented. The spectrum is dominated by the OH, H2O, CH, NH3 and O I absorption lines. The upper limits on the far infrared fine structure lines indicate a softer radiation in Arp 220 than in starburst galaxies.

  20. Type II Opsins: Evolutionary Origin by Internal Domain Duplication?

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    considered nonhomologous: type I is known from prokaryotes and some eukaryotes, while type II is known only from Eumetazoan animals. Type II opsins are members of the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which facilitate signal transduction across cell membranes. While previous studies have concluded

  1. Evidence from opsin genes rejects nocturnality in ancestral primates

    E-print Network

    Yoder, Anne

    Evidence from opsin genes rejects nocturnality in ancestral primates Ying Tan* , Anne D. Yoder, 2005 It is firmly believed that ancestral primates were nocturnal, with nocturnality having been among lineages. These observations suggest that the ancestral primates were diurnal or cathemeral

  2. Diurnal rhythm of cone opsin expression in the teleost fish Haplochromis burtoni.

    PubMed

    Halstenberg, Sven; Lindgren, Kristin M; Samagh, Sanjum P S; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya; Balt, Steve; Fernald, Russell D

    2005-01-01

    The biochemical and morphological specializations of rod and cone photoreceptors reflect their roles in sight. The apoprotein opsin, which converts photons into chemical signals, functions at one end of these highly polarized cells, in the outer segment. Previous work has shown that the mRNA of rod opsin, the opsin specific to rods, is renewed in the outer segment with a diurnal rhythm in the retina of the teleost fish Haplochromis burtoni. Here we show that in the same species, all three cone opsin mRNAs (blue, green, and red) also have a diurnal rhythm of expression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer pairs specific for the cone photoreceptor opsin subtypes was used to detect opsin mRNA abundance in animals sacrificed at 3-h intervals around the clock. All three cone opsins were expressed with diurnal rhythms similar to each other but out of phase with the rod opsin rhythm. Specifically, cone opsin expression occurs at a higher level near the onset of the dark period, when cones are not used for vision. Finally, we found that the rhythm of cone opsin expression in fish appears to be light dependent, as prolonged darkness changes normal diurnal expression patterns. PMID:15935106

  3. Beauty in the eye of the beholder: the two blue opsins of lycaenid butterflies and the opsin gene-driven evolution of sexually dimorphic eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilou P. Sison-Mangus; Gary D. Bernard; Jochen Lampel; Adriana D. Briscoe

    2006-01-01

    Although previous investigations have shown that wing coloration is an important component of social signaling in butterflies, the contribution of opsin evolution to sexual wing color dichromatism and interspecific divergence remains largely unexplored. Here we report that the butterfly Lycaena rubidus has evolved sexually dimorphic eyes due to changes in the regulation of opsin expression patterns to match the contrasting

  4. The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Paul Chapple, J.; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110–C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease. PMID:25055872

  5. The Galactic Centre - A spectroscopic and imaging study with the LWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Smith, H. A.; Stacey, G. J.; Fischer, J.; Spinoglio, L.; Baluteau, J. P.; Cernicharo, J.; Bradford, C. M.

    1999-03-01

    We report observations of a fully sampled (spatially and spectrally) mapping of the central few arcminutes around the Galactic Centre, using the ISO LWS. The maps show the relative spatial distributions in about 20 different emission and absorption lines. The circumnuclear disc is clearly traced by some molecular lines, whilst the central region dominates in other atomic and ionised lines. Spectra are also be shown of several other interesting sources within the Galactic Centre cloud ensemble, including Sgr A West and the `Sickle' cluster.

  6. Beauty in the eye of the beholder: the two blue opsins of lycaenid butterflies and the opsin gene-driven evolution of sexually dimorphic eyes.

    PubMed

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Bernard, Gary D; Lampel, Jochen; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2006-08-01

    Although previous investigations have shown that wing coloration is an important component of social signaling in butterflies, the contribution of opsin evolution to sexual wing color dichromatism and interspecific divergence remains largely unexplored. Here we report that the butterfly Lycaena rubidus has evolved sexually dimorphic eyes due to changes in the regulation of opsin expression patterns to match the contrasting life histories of males and females. The L. rubidus eye contains four visual pigments with peak sensitivities in the ultraviolet (UV; lambdamax=360 nm), blue (B; lambdamax=437 nm and 500 nm, respectively) and long (LW; lambdamax=568 nm) wavelength range. By combining in situ hybridization of cloned opsin-encoding cDNAs with epi-microspectrophotometry, we found that all four opsin mRNAs and visual pigments are expressed in the eyes in a sex-specific manner. The male dorsal eye, which contains only UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, indeed expresses two short wavelength opsin mRNAs, UVRh and BRh1. The female dorsal eye, which also has the UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, also contains the LW visual pigment, and likewise expresses UVRh, BRh1 and LWRh mRNAs. Unexpectedly, in the female dorsal eye, we also found BRh1 co-expressed with LWRh in the R3-8 photoreceptor cells. The ventral eye of both sexes, on the other hand, contains all four visual pigments and expresses all four opsin mRNAs in a non-overlapping fashion. Surprisingly, we found that the 500 nm visual pigment is encoded by a duplicate blue opsin gene, BRh2. Further, using molecular phylogenetic methods we trace this novel blue opsin gene to a duplication event at the base of the Polyommatine+Thecline+Lycaenine radiation. The blue opsin gene duplication may help explain the blueness of blue lycaenid butterflies. PMID:16888057

  7. Coexpression of three opsins in cone photoreceptors of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Tomoki; Chen, Ying; Kono, Masahiro; Fabre, Eduard; Slavsky, Michael; DeGrip, Willem J; Ma, Jian-Xing; Crouch, Rosalie K; Makino, Clint L

    2014-07-01

    Although more than one type of visual opsin is present in the retina of most vertebrates, it was thought that each type of photoreceptor expresses only one opsin. However, evidence has accumulated that some photoreceptors contain more than one opsin, in many cases as a result of a developmental transition from the expression of one opsin to another. The salamander UV-sensitive (UV) cone is particularly notable because it contains three opsins (Makino and Dodd [1996] J Gen Physiol 108:27-34). Two opsin types are expressed at levels more than 100 times lower than the level of the primary opsin. Here, immunohistochemical experiments identified the primary component as a UV cone opsin and the two minor components as the short wavelength-sensitive (S) and long wavelength-sensitive (L) cone opsins. Based on single-cell recordings of 156 photoreceptors, the presence of three components in UV cones of hatchlings and terrestrial adults ruled out a developmental transition. There was no evidence for multiple opsin types within rods or S cones, but immunohistochemistry and partial bleaching in conjunction with single-cell recording revealed that both single and double L cones contained low levels of short wavelength-sensitive pigments in addition to the main L visual pigment. These results raise the possibility that coexpression of multiple opsins in other vertebrates was overlooked because a minor component absorbing at short wavelengths was masked by the main visual pigment or because the expression level of a component absorbing at long wavelengths was exceedingly low. PMID:24374736

  8. 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 11/14/06 11:27 AM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www=ng HR: 0800h AN: SH11A-0371 TI: 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings AU;2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www

  9. M-opsin protein degradation is inhibited by MG-132 in Rpe65?/? retinal explant culture

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kota; Ozaki, Taku; Ishiguro, Sei-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 65 kDa retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein, RPE65, is an essential enzyme for 11-cis-retinal synthesis in the eye. Mutations of the RPE65 gene in humans result in severe vision loss, and Rpe65?/? mice show early cone photoreceptor degeneration. We used an explant culture system to evaluate whether posttranslational downregulation of M-opsin protein in Rpe65?/? mice is caused by proteolytic degradation. Methods The eyes of three-week-old Rpe65?/? mice were incubated in culture medium. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the level of M-opsin protein, and immunofluorescence was used for protein localization. The transcriptional level of M-opsin was evaluated with real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR. Results Degradation of the M-opsin protein in Rpe65?/? mouse retina was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 but not by the lysosomal inhibitor pepstatin A and E64d. 9-cis-retinal, used as an analog of 11-cis-retinal, increased M-opsin protein but did not increase M-opsin mRNA. Moreover, 9-cis-retinal did not change the transcriptional levels of photoreceptor specific genes. Conclusions Our data suggest that M-opsin protein was degraded through a proteasome pathway and that M-opsin degradation was suppressed with 9-cis-retinal treatment in Rpe65?/? mice to some extent. PMID:22736942

  10. Ocular and extraocular expression of opsins in the rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Jan; Zaharoff, Alexander K; Leung, Nicole Y; Garm, Anders; Oakley, Todd H

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of work on the neuroethology of cubozoans is based largely on the capabilities of the photoreceptive tissues, and it is important to determine the molecular basis of their light sensitivity. The cubozoans rely on 24 special purpose eyes to extract specific information from a complex visual scene to guide their behavior in the habitat. The lens eyes are the most studied photoreceptive structures, and the phototransduction in the photoreceptor cells is based on light sensitive opsin molecules. Opsins are photosensitive transmembrane proteins associated with photoreceptors in eyes, and the amino acid sequence of the opsins determines the spectral properties of the photoreceptors. Here we show that two distinct opsins (Tripedalia cystophora-lens eye expressed opsin and Tripedalia cystophora-neuropil expressed opsin, or Tc-leo and Tc-neo) are expressed in the Tripedalia cystophora rhopalium. Quantitative PCR determined the level of expression of the two opsins, and we found Tc-leo to have a higher amount of expression than Tc-neo. In situ hybridization located Tc-leo expression in the retinal photoreceptors of the lens eyes where the opsin is involved in image formation. Tc-neo is expressed in a confined part of the neuropil and is probably involved in extraocular light sensation, presumably in relation to diurnal activity. PMID:24901369

  11. Ocular and Extraocular Expression of Opsins in the Rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Jan; Zaharoff, Alexander K.; Leung, Nicole Y.; Garm, Anders; Oakley, Todd H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of work on the neuroethology of cubozoans is based largely on the capabilities of the photoreceptive tissues, and it is important to determine the molecular basis of their light sensitivity. The cubozoans rely on 24 special purpose eyes to extract specific information from a complex visual scene to guide their behavior in the habitat. The lens eyes are the most studied photoreceptive structures, and the phototransduction in the photoreceptor cells is based on light sensitive opsin molecules. Opsins are photosensitive transmembrane proteins associated with photoreceptors in eyes, and the amino acid sequence of the opsins determines the spectral properties of the photoreceptors. Here we show that two distinct opsins (Tripedalia cystophora-lens eye expressed opsin and Tripedalia cystophora-neuropil expressed opsin, or Tc-leo and Tc-neo) are expressed in the Tripedalia cystophora rhopalium. Quantitative PCR determined the level of expression of the two opsins, and we found Tc-leo to have a higher amount of expression than Tc-neo. In situ hybridization located Tc-leo expression in the retinal photoreceptors of the lens eyes where the opsin is involved in image formation. Tc-neo is expressed in a confined part of the neuropil and is probably involved in extraocular light sensation, presumably in relation to diurnal activity. PMID:24901369

  12. Divergent Selection on Opsins Drives Incipient Speciation in Lake Victoria Cichlids

    E-print Network

    Divergent Selection on Opsins Drives Incipient Speciation in Lake Victoria Cichlids Yohey Terai1, et al. (2006) Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids for the genetics of vertebrate speciation and adaptive radiation [8]. Lake Victoria, the largest of the African

  13. Making the gradient: Thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina

    E-print Network

    Reh, Thomas A.

    Making the gradient: Thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina dorsal­ventral gradient. We previously reported that cone opsin patterning requires thyroid hormone 2, a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates transcription in con- junction with its ligand, thyroid hormone

  14. Opsin evolution and expression in Arthropod compound Eyes and Ocelli: Insights from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opsins are key proteins in animal photoreception. Together with a light-sensitive group, the chromophore, they form visual pigments which initiate the visual transduction cascade when photoactivated. The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. Studies on the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins have received considerable attention, but our knowledge about insect visual opsins is still limited. Up to now, researchers have focused on holometabolous insects, while general conclusions require sampling from a broader range of taxa. We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Results Phylogenetic analyses place all identified cricket sequences within the three main visual opsin clades of insects. We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue (445 nm) and UV (332 nm) spectral range. Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1) the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2) a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3) the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. In addition, we provide evidence for two ocellar photopigments with peak absorbances in the green (511 nm) and UV (350 nm) spectral range, and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Conclusions Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more specialized than has previously been assumed, suggesting that similar adaptations in other insect species might have been overlooked. The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally accepted pattern found in holometabolous insect taxa and awaits a functional explanation. From the opsin phylogeny, we conclude that gene duplications, which permitted differential opsin expression in insect ocelli and compound eyes, occurred independently in several insect lineages and are recent compared to the origin of the eyes themselves. PMID:22935102

  15. The ISO-LWS map of the Serpens cloud core. II. The line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, B.; Liseau, R.; Men'shchikov, A. B.

    2002-05-01

    We present spectrophotometric ISO imaging with the LWS and the CAM-CVF of the Serpens molecular cloud core. The LWS map is centred on the far infrared and submillimetre source FIRS 1/SMM 1 and its size is 8',x 8'. The fine structure line emission in [O I] 63 mu m and [C II] 157 mu m is extended on the arcminute scale and can be successfully modelled to originate in a PDR with G0 = 15 +/- 10 and n(H2) in the range of (104-105) cm-3. Extended emission might also be observed in the rotational line emission of H2O and high-J CO. However, lack of sufficient angular resolution prevents us from excluding the possibility that the emssion regions of these lines are point like, which could be linked to the embedded objects SMM 9/S 68 and SMM 4. Toward the Class 0 source SMM 1, the LWS observations reveal, in addition to fine structure line emission, a rich spectrum of molecular lines, superposed onto a strong, optically thick dust continuum (Larsson et al. \\cite{Lar00}). The sub-thermally excited and optically thick CO, H2O and OH lines are tracing an about 103 AU source with temperatures higher than 300 K and densities above 106 cm-3 (M=0.01 Msun). The molecular abundances, X=N(mol)/N(H2), are X=(1, 0.1, 0.02, ge 0.025) x 10-4 for CO, H2O, OH and 13CO, respectively. Our data are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratio of 3 for H2O. OH appears highly overabundant, which we tentatively ascribe to an enhanced (X-ray) ionisation rate in the Serpens cloud core (zeta >> 10-18 s-1). We show that geometry is of concern for the correct interpretation of the data and based on 2D-radiative transfer modelling of the disk/torus around SMM 1, which successfully reproduces the entire observed SED and the observed line profiles of low-to-mid-J CO isotopomers, we can exclude the disk to be the source of the LWS-molecular line emission. The same conclusion applies to models of dynamical collapse (``inside-out'' infall). The 6{' '} pixel resolution of the CAM-CVF permits us to see that the region of rotational H2 emission is offset from SMM 1 by 30{' '}, at position angle 340deg, which is along the known jet flow from the Class 0 object. This H2 gas is extinguished by AV = 4.5 mag and at a temperature of 10310 K, which suggests that the heating of the gas is achieved through relatively slow shocks. Although we are not able to establish any firm conclusion regarding the detailed nature of the shock waves, our observations of the molecular line emission from SMM 1 are to a limited extent explainable in terms of an admixture of J-shocks and of C-shocks, the latter with speeds of about (15-20) km s-1, whereas dynamical infall is not directly revealed by our data. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  16. 2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: Overview of Current Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, M. P.; LWS Tr&T Solar Wind Fst Team

    2008-12-01

    We present a summary of the research conducted by the members of the 2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) Team on the physical processes that heat and accelerate the solar wind. The Team applied a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations for their investigation of the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST Team examined magnetic reconnection, waves, and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements of solar wind source regions and streams, are being used to constrain the models. The consistency of candidate theoretical models with existing observational data for the solar wind will be discussed.

  17. Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

  18. Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: Loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long wavelength-opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Jackowska; Riyue Bao; Zhenyi Liu; Elizabeth C McDonald; Tiffany A Cook; Markus Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW)-opsin; however, these animals do not encode a blue (B)-opsin as most other insects. Here, we studied the spatial regulation of the Tribolium single LW- and UV-opsin gene paralogs in

  19. The retinal mosaics of opsin expression in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rister, Jens; Desplan, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Colour vision is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. It is the ability to discriminate objects based on the wavelength of emitted light independent of intensity. As it requires the comparison of at least two photoreceptor types with different spectral sensitivities, this process is often mediated by a mosaic made of several photoreceptor types. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the formation of retinal mosaics and the regulation of photopigment (opsin) expression in the fly, mouse and human retina. Despite distinct evolutionary origins, as well as major differences in morphology and phototransduction machineries, there are significant similarities in the stepwise cell-fate decisions that lead from progenitor cells to terminally differentiated photoreceptors that express a particular opsin. Common themes include i) the use of binary transcriptional switches that distinguish classes of photoreceptors, ii) the use of gradients of signaling molecules for regional specializations, iii) stochastic choices that pattern the retina and iv) the use of permissive factors with multiple roles in different photoreceptor types. PMID:21557510

  20. Spectral tuning by opsin coexpression in retinal regions that view different parts of the visual field.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian E; Loew, Ellis R; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2014-12-22

    Vision frequently mediates critical behaviours, and photoreceptors must respond to the light available to accomplish these tasks. Most photoreceptors are thought to contain a single visual pigment, an opsin protein bound to a chromophore, which together determine spectral sensitivity. Mechanisms of spectral tuning include altering the opsin, changing the chromophore and incorporating pre-receptor filtering. A few exceptions to the use of a single visual pigment have been documented in which a single mature photoreceptor coexpresses opsins that form spectrally distinct visual pigments, and in these exceptions the functional significance of coexpression is unclear. Here we document for the first time photoreceptors coexpressing spectrally distinct opsin genes in a manner that tunes sensitivity to the light environment. Photoreceptors of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra, mix different pairs of opsins in retinal regions that view distinct backgrounds. The mixing of visual pigments increases absorbance of the corresponding background, potentially aiding the detection of dark objects. Thus, opsin coexpression may be a novel mechanism of spectral tuning that could be useful for detecting prey, predators and mates. However, our calculations show that coexpression of some opsins can hinder colour discrimination, creating a trade-off between visual functions. PMID:25377457

  1. Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

    2009-12-01

    Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

  2. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and E150K mutation in the opsin gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Filipek, S?awomir; Alekseev, Andrei; Jastrzebska, Beata; Sun, Wenyu; Saperstein, David A; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2006-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders of the retina caused by mutation in genes of the photoreceptor proteins with an autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP), or X-linked pattern of inheritance. Although there are over 100 identified mutations in the opsin gene associated with RP, only a few of them are inherited with the arRP pattern. E150K is the first reported missense mutation associated with arRP. This opsin mutation is located in the second cytoplasmic loop of this G protein-coupled receptor. E150K opsin expressed in HEK293 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal displayed an absorption spectrum similar to the wild type (WT) counterpart and activated G protein transducin slightly faster than WT receptor. However, the majority of E150K opsin showed a higher apparent molecular mass in SDS-PAGE and was resistant to endoglycosidase H deglycosidase. Instead of being transported to the plasma membrane, E150K opsin is partially colocalized with the cis/medial Golgi compartment markers such as GM130 and Vti1b but not with the trans-Golgi network. In contrast to the endoplasmic reticulum-retained adRP mutant, P23H opsin, Golgi-retained E150K opsin did not influence the proper transport of the WT opsin when coexpressed in HEK293 cells. This result is consistent with the recessive pattern of inheritance of this mutation. Thus, our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism for retinal degeneration that results from deficient export of opsin from the Golgi apparatus. PMID:16737970

  3. Retinal Cone Photoreceptors of the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus: Development, Topography, Opsin Expression and Spectral Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Patrick; Glösmann, Martin; Peichl, Leo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of photoreceptor properties was performed in the retina of the nocturnal deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, using pigmented (wildtype) and albino animals. The aim was to establish whether the deer mouse is a more suitable model species than the house mouse for photoreceptor studies, and whether oculocutaneous albinism affects its photoreceptor properties. In retinal flatmounts, cone photoreceptors were identified by opsin immunostaining, and their numbers, spectral types, and distributions across the retina were determined. Rod photoreceptors were counted using differential interference contrast microscopy. Pigmented P. maniculatus have a rod-dominated retina with rod densities of about 450.000/mm2 and cone densities of 3000 - 6500/mm2. Two cone opsins, shortwave sensitive (S) and middle-to-longwave sensitive (M), are present and expressed in distinct cone types. Partial sequencing of the S opsin gene strongly supports UV sensitivity of the S cone visual pigment. The S cones constitute a 5-15% minority of the cones. Different from house mouse, S and M cone distributions do not have dorsoventral gradients, and coexpression of both opsins in single cones is exceptional (<2% of the cones). In albino P. maniculatus, rod densities are reduced by approximately 40% (270.000/mm2). Overall, cone density and the density of cones exclusively expressing S opsin are not significantly different from pigmented P. maniculatus. However, in albino retinas S opsin is coexpressed with M opsin in 60-90% of the cones and therefore the population of cones expressing only M opsin is significantly reduced to 5-25%. In conclusion, deer mouse cone properties largely conform to the general mammalian pattern, hence the deer mouse may be better suited than the house mouse for the study of certain basic cone properties, including the effects of albinism on cone opsin expression. PMID:24260509

  4. Explant cultures of Rpe65?/? mouse retina: a model to investigate cone opsin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Kono, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the absence of 11-cis retinal (e.g., Rpe65?/?), the chromophore for all pigments, cone opsins are mislocalized in vivo. Using the systemic application of 11-cis retinal, appropriate protein localization can be promoted. Here, we asked whether explant cultures of Rpe65?/? mouse retina are amenable to screening retinoids for their ability to promote opsin trafficking. Methods Retina-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cultures were prepared from 7-day-old Rpe65?/? Rho?/? or wild-type pups and cultured for 11 days. Explants were treated with retinoids throughout this period. Ultraviolet (UV)-opsin trafficking was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis, while its messenger RNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the interaction of retinoids with UV-opsin was probed in transducing-activation assays. Results In wild-type explant cultures, UV-opsin was restricted to the outer segments, whereas in those derived from Rpe65?/? Rho?/? mice, opsin trafficking was impaired. In Rpe65?/? Rho?/? explants, administration of 11-cis retinal, 11-cis retinol or retinoic acid (RA) reversed the opsin trafficking phenotype. RA analogs designed to act by binding to the retinoic acid receptor or the retinoid X-receptor, however, had no effect. RA was shown to interact with the UV–cone opsin, demonstrated by its ability to effect ligand-dependent activation of transducin by UV–cone opsin. All compounds tested increased cone opsin messenger RNA expression. Conclusions Cone-opsin trafficking defects were replicated in Rpe65?/? Rho?/? retina-RPE cultures, and were reversed by 11-cis retinal treatment. Comparing the effects of different retinoids on their ability to promote UV-opsin trafficking to outer segments confirmed the critical role of agents that bind in the retinoid binding pocket. Retinoids that act as transcription factors, however, were ineffective. Thus, organ cultures may be a powerful low-throughput screening tool to identify novel compounds to promote cone survival. PMID:23734084

  5. Three Different Cone Opsin Gene Array Mutational Mechanisms with Genotype–Phenotype Correlation and Functional Investigation of Cone Opsin Variants

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jessica C; Liew, Gerald; Quan, Ying-Hua; Ermetal, Burcu; Ueyama, Hisao; Davidson, Alice E; Schwarz, Nele; Kanuga, Naheed; Chana, Ravinder; Maher, Eamonn R; Webster, Andrew R; Holder, Graham E; Robson, Anthony G; Cheetham, Michael E; Liebelt, Jan; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Moore, Anthony T; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the OPN1LW (L-) and OPN1MW (M-)cone opsin genes underlie a spectrum of cone photoreceptor defects from stationary loss of color vision to progressive retinal degeneration. Genotypes of 22 families with a range of cone disorders were grouped into three classes: deletions of the locus control region (LCR); missense mutation (p.Cys203Arg) in an L-/M-hybrid gene; and exon 3 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interchange haplotypes in an otherwise normal gene array. Moderate-to-high myopia was observed in all mutation categories. Individuals with LCR deletions or p.Cys203Arg mutations were more likely to have nystagmus and poor vision, with disease progression in some p.Cys203Arg patients. Three disease-associated exon 3 SNP haplotypes encoding LIAVA, LVAVA, or MIAVA were identified in our cohort. These patients were less likely to have nystagmus but more likely to show progression, with all patients over the age of 40 years having marked macular abnormalities. Previously, the haplotype LIAVA has been shown to result in exon 3 skipping. Here, we show that haplotypes LVAVA and MIAVA also result in aberrant splicing, with a residual low level of correctly spliced cone opsin. The OPN1LW/OPN1MW:c.532A>G SNP, common to all three disease-associated haplotypes, appears to be principally responsible for this mutational mechanism. PMID:25168334

  6. New evidence for the role of heterochrony in the repeated evolution of cichlid opsin expression

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    -wavelength-sensitive profiles among unrelated cichlids in Lake Tanganyika (LT). To address these questions, we surveyed opsin the three East African Great Lakes: Lakes Tanganyika (LT), Malawi (LM), and Victoria (LV). Cichlids from

  7. Gene conversion and purifying selection shape nucleotide variation in gibbon L/M opsin genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine trichromatic color vision is a characteristic feature of catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). This is enabled by L and M opsin genes arrayed on the X chromosome and an autosomal S opsin gene. In non-human catarrhines, genetic variation affecting the color vision phenotype is reported to be absent or rare in both L and M opsin genes, despite the suggestion that gene conversion has homogenized the two genes. However, nucleotide variation of both introns and exons among catarrhines has only been examined in detail for the L opsin gene of humans and chimpanzees. In the present study, we examined the nucleotide variation of gibbon (Catarrhini, Hylobatidae) L and M opsin genes. Specifically, we focused on the 3.6~3.9-kb region that encompasses the centrally located exon 3 through exon 5, which encode the amino acid sites functional for the spectral tuning of the genes. Results Among 152 individuals representing three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus), all had both L and M opsin genes and no L/M hybrid genes. Among 94 individuals subjected to the detailed DNA sequencing, the nucleotide divergence between L and M opsin genes in the exons was significantly higher than the divergence in introns in each species. The ratio of the inter-LM divergence to the intra-L/M polymorphism was significantly lower in the introns than that in synonymous sites. When we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using the exon sequences, the L/M gene duplication was placed in the common ancestor of catarrhines, whereas when intron sequences were used, the gene duplications appeared multiple times in different species. Using the GENECONV program, we also detected that tracts of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes occurred mostly within the intron regions. Conclusions These results indicate the historical accumulation of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes in the introns in gibbons. Our study provides further support for the homogenizing role of gene conversion between the L and M opsin genes and for the purifying selection against such homogenization in the central exons to maintain the spectral difference between L and M opsins in non-human catarrhines. PMID:22017819

  8. Opsins and clusters of sensory G-protein-coupled receptors in the sea urchin genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Raible; Kristin Tessmar-Raible; Enrique Arboleda; Tobias Kaller; Peer Bork; Detlev Arendt; Maria I. Arnone

    2006-01-01

    Rhodopsin-type G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contribute the majority of sensory receptors in vertebrates. With 979 members, they form the largest GPCR family in the sequenced sea urchin genome, constituting more than 3% of all predicted genes. The sea urchin genome encodes at least six Opsin proteins. Of these, one rhabdomeric, one ciliary and two Go-type Opsins can be assigned to ancient

  9. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher RJ Laver; John S Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Background  PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence\\u000a has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and\\/or discrimination in\\u000a females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration\\u000a was generated with

  10. X-linked cone dystrophy caused by mutation of the red and green cone opsins.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jessica C; Webb, Tom R; Kanuga, Naheed; Robson, Anthony G; Holder, Graham E; Stockman, Andrew; Ripamonti, Caterina; Ebenezer, Neil D; Ogun, Olufunmilola; Devery, Sophie; Wright, Genevieve A; Maher, Eamonn R; Cheetham, Michael E; Moore, Anthony T; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    X-linked cone and cone-rod dystrophies (XLCOD and XLCORD) are a heterogeneous group of progressive disorders that solely or primarily affect cone photoreceptors. Mutations in exon ORF15 of the RPGR gene are the most common underlying cause. In a previous study, we excluded RPGR exon ORF15 in some families with XLCOD. Here, we report genetic mapping of XLCOD to Xq26.1-qter. A significant LOD score was detected with marker DXS8045 (Z(max) = 2.41 [theta = 0.0]). The disease locus encompasses the cone opsin gene array on Xq28. Analysis of the array revealed a missense mutation (c. 529T>C [p. W177R]) in exon 3 of both the long-wavelength-sensitive (LW, red) and medium-wavelength-sensitive (MW, green) cone opsin genes that segregated with disease. Both exon 3 sequences were identical and were derived from the MW gene as a result of gene conversion. The amino acid W177 is highly conserved in visual and nonvisual opsins across species. We show that W177R in MW opsin and the equivalent W161R mutation in rod opsin result in protein misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that W177R misfolding, unlike the P23H mutation in rod opsin that causes retinitis pigmentosa, is not rescued by treatment with the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis-retinal. Mutations in the LW/MW cone opsin gene array can, therefore, lead to a spectrum of disease, ranging from color blindness to progressive cone dystrophy (XLCOD5). PMID:20579627

  11. Opsin gene duplication and diversification in the guppy, a model for sexual selection

    E-print Network

    Weigel, Detlef

    to variability for LWS at higher taxonomic levels in cichlids, a second model system for differentiation owing correspond to phylogenetically distinct gene families (Yokoyama 2000; Trezise & Collin 2005). The five sites rule suggests that replacement at a few tuning sites can explain major shifts in maximum absorption

  12. The ISO LWS high-resolution spectral survey towards Sagittarius B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polehampton, Edward T.; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Brown, John M.; White, Glenn J.; Cernicharo, José; Grundy, Timothy W.

    2007-05-01

    A full spectral survey was carried out towards the giant molecular cloud complex, Sagittarius B2 (SgrB2), using the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) Fabry-Pérot mode. This provided complete wavelength coverage in the range 47-196?m (6.38-1.53THz) with a spectral resolution of 30-40kms-1. This is a unique data set covering wavelengths inaccessible from the ground. It is an extremely important region of the spectrum as it contains both the peak of the thermal emission from dust, and crucial spectral lines of key atomic (OI, CII, OIII, NII and NIII) and molecular species (NH3, NH2, NH, H2O, OH, H3O+, CH, CH2, C3, HF and H2D+). In total, 95 spectral lines have been identified and 11 features with absorption depth greater than 3? remain unassigned. Most of the molecular lines are seen in absorption against the strong continuum, whereas the atomic and ionic lines appear in emission (except for absorption in the OI 63?m and CII 158?m lines). SgrB2 is located close to the Galactic Centre and so many of the features also show a broad absorption profile due to material located along the line of sight. A full description of the survey data set is given with an overview of each detected species and final line lists for both assigned and unassigned features. Based on observations with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA. E-mail: e.t.polehampton@rl.ac.uk

  13. Correlative Sun-Earth-Connections Science Services in the Early Phase of LWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. E.; Burley, R. J.; Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R. A.; Fung, S. F.; Harris, B. T.; Hills, H. K.; Johnson, R. C.; Kessel, R. L.; Kovalick, T. J.; Leckner, H. A.

    2002-05-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis [Workshop] Web (CDAWeb) supports graphics and data retrieval from a unique database of current multi-mission Sun-Earth-Connections (SEC) data. The Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb) serves satellite orbits and various multi-mission conjunctions queries. CDAWeb now acts as the US Cluster Science Data Center to serve Cluster Prime Parameters to authorized Cluster science investigators. These systems make current data quickly accessible to a wide research community and immediately available in the context of simultaneous data from almost all other current space physics missions. These systems are among the first working prototypes for delivering the class of integrated, multi-mission data view essential to the programs like Living with a Star (LWS). These systems' databases, capabilities, and usage continue to grow. CDAWeb served 160,000 plots and listings plus 206,000 file downloads in the year 2001, SSCWeb served 39,000 listings, query results and plots. CDAWeb now has 6 years where data from more 100 data sets is available for every day. Over the last year, CDAWeb has been extended to ~500 GBytes and added new datasets from Wind, Polar and other missions. CDAWeb remains hosted at three mirror sites (in Germany-MPE, England-RAL and Japan-ISAS) as well as by the primary site at Goddard. New higher-resolution data, new direct project data flows, new tools and our plans for evolution will be shown and demonstrated. Supported by the NASA Office of Space Science, CDAWeb and SSCWeb are joint efforts of the NASA GSFC Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) and the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). These services are only possible in turn by data flows from various project data facilities and the work of the instrument science teams on the many missions now supported.

  14. Spectral sensitivity in Onychophora (velvet worms) revealed by electroretinograms, phototactic behaviour and opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Holger; Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Stevenson, Paul A; Mayer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Onychophorans typically possess a pair of simple eyes, inherited from the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda (Onychophora+Tardigrada+Arthropoda). These visual organs are thought to be homologous to the arthropod median ocelli, whereas the compound eyes probably evolved in the arthropod lineage. To gain insights into the ancestral function and evolution of the visual system in panarthropods, we investigated phototactic behaviour, opsin gene expression and the spectral sensitivity of the eyes in two representative species of Onychophora: Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae) and Principapillatus hitoyensis (Peripatidae). Our behavioural analyses, in conjunction with previous data, demonstrate that both species exhibit photonegative responses to wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to green light (370-530?nm), and electroretinograms reveal that the onychophoran eye is maximally sensitive to blue light (peak sensitivity ?480?nm). Template fits to these sensitivities suggest that the onychophoran eye is monochromatic. To clarify which type of opsin the single visual pigment is based on, we localised the corresponding mRNA in the onychophoran eye and brain using in situ hybridization. Our data show that the r-opsin gene (onychopsin) is expressed exclusively in the photoreceptor cells of the eye, whereas c-opsin mRNA is confined to the optic ganglion cells and the brain. Together, our findings suggest that the onychopsin is involved in vision, whereas c-opsin might have a photoreceptive, non-visual function in onychophorans. PMID:25617459

  15. Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and colour preferences in a killifish

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley M.; Stanis, Shannon; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in colour patterns, colour preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at different-coloured objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight and dawn, and highest at midday and dusk, and this diurnal variation was many times greater than variation between habitats. Pecking preference was affected by both diurnal and habitat variation but did not correlate with opsin expression. Rather, pecking preference matched lighting conditions, with higher preferences for blue at noon and for red at dawn/dusk, when these wavelengths are comparatively scarce. Similarly, blue pecking preference was higher in tannin-stained water where blue wavelengths are reduced. In conclusion, L. goodei exhibits strong diurnal cycles of opsin expression, but these are not tightly correlated with light intensity or colour. Temporally variable pecking preferences probably result from lighting environment rather than from opsin production. These results may have implications for the colour pattern diversity observed in these fish. PMID:23698009

  16. A spinal opsin controls early neural activity and drives a behavioral light response.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Drew; Hoagland, Adam; Berlin, Shai; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2015-01-01

    Nonvisual detection of light by the vertebrate hypothalamus, pineal, and retina is known to govern seasonal and circadian behaviors. However, the expression of opsins in multiple other brain structures suggests a more expansive repertoire for light regulation of physiology, behavior, and development. Translucent zebrafish embryos express extraretinal opsins early on, at a time when spontaneous activity in the developing CNS plays a role in neuronal maturation and circuit formation. Though the presence of extraretinal opsins is well documented, the function of direct photoreception by the CNS remains largely unknown. Here, we show that early activity in the zebrafish spinal central pattern generator (CPG) and the earliest locomotory behavior are dramatically inhibited by physiological levels of environmental light. We find that the photosensitivity of this circuit is conferred by vertebrate ancient long opsin A (VALopA), which we show to be a G?(i)-coupled receptor that is expressed in the neurons of the spinal network. Sustained photoactivation of VALopA not only suppresses spontaneous activity but also alters the maturation of time-locked correlated network patterns. These results uncover a novel role for nonvisual opsins and a mechanism for environmental regulation of spontaneous motor behavior and neural activity in a circuit previously thought to be governed only by intrinsic developmental programs. PMID:25484291

  17. Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and colour preferences in a killifish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ashley M; Stanis, Shannon; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2013-07-22

    Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in colour patterns, colour preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at different-coloured objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight and dawn, and highest at midday and dusk, and this diurnal variation was many times greater than variation between habitats. Pecking preference was affected by both diurnal and habitat variation but did not correlate with opsin expression. Rather, pecking preference matched lighting conditions, with higher preferences for blue at noon and for red at dawn/dusk, when these wavelengths are comparatively scarce. Similarly, blue pecking preference was higher in tannin-stained water where blue wavelengths are reduced. In conclusion, L. goodei exhibits strong diurnal cycles of opsin expression, but these are not tightly correlated with light intensity or colour. Temporally variable pecking preferences probably result from lighting environment rather than from opsin production. These results may have implications for the colour pattern diversity observed in these fish. PMID:23698009

  18. Reproducible and Sustained Regulation of G?s Signalling Using a Metazoan Opsin as an Optogenetic Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena J. Bailes; Ling-Yu Zhuang; Robert J. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed to regulate neuronal excitability, optogenetics is increasingly also used to control other cellular processes with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic modulation of all major G-protein signalling pathways (Gq, Gi and Gs) has been achieved using variants of mammalian rod opsin. We show here that the light response driven by such rod opsin-based tools dissipates under repeated exposure, consistent with

  19. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes. PMID:18571688

  20. Contributions of rhodopsin, cone opsins, and melanopsin to postreceptoral pathways inferred from natural image statistics

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A.; Cao, Dingcai

    2014-01-01

    Visual neural representation is constrained by the statistical properties of the environment. Prior analysis of cone pigment excitations for natural images revealed three principal components corresponding to the major retinogeniculate pathways identified by anatomical and physiological studies in primates. Here, principal component analyses were conducted on the excitations of rhodopsin, cone opsins, and melanopsin for nine hyperspectral images under 21 natural illuminants. The results suggested that rhodopsin and melanopsin may contribute to the three major retinogeniculate pathways. Rhodopsin and melanopsin may provide additional constraints in natural scene statistics, leading to new components that cannot be revealed by analysis based on cone opsin excitations only. PMID:24695161

  1. Molecular Evidence that Only Two Opsin Subfamilies, the Blue Light- (SWS2) and Green Light-Sensitive (RH2), Drive Color Vision in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Søviknes, Anne Mette; Drivenes, Øyvind; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2014-01-01

    Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision) including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively). The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost. PMID:25551396

  2. Dysfunction of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 in rod photoreceptor cells and the role of opsin mislocalization in rapid cell death.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanda S; Jimeno, David; Khanobdee, Kornnika; Song, Xiaodan; Chen, Bryan; Nusinowitz, Steven; Williams, David S

    2010-12-01

    Due to extensive elaboration of the photoreceptor cilium to form the outer segment, axonemal transport (IFT) in photoreceptors is extraordinarily busy, and retinal degeneration is a component of many ciliopathies. Functional loss of heterotrimeric kinesin-2, a major anterograde IFT motor, causes mislocalized opsin, followed by rapid cell death. Here, we have analyzed the nature of protein mislocalization and the requirements for the death of kinesin-2-mutant rod photoreceptors. Quantitative immuno EM showed that opsin accumulates initially within the inner segment, and then in the plasma membrane. The light-activated movement of arrestin to the outer segment is also impaired, but this defect likely results secondarily from binding to mislocalized opsin. Unlike some other retinal degenerations, neither opsin-arrestin complexes nor photoactivation were necessary for cell loss. In contrast, reduced rod opsin expression provided enhanced rod and cone photoreceptor survival and function, as measured by photoreceptor cell counts, apoptosis assays, and ERG analysis. The cell death incurred by loss of kinesin-2 function was almost completely negated by Rho?/?. Our results indicate that mislocalization of opsin is a major cause of photoreceptor cell death from kinesin-2 dysfunction and demonstrate the importance of accumulating mislocalized protein per se, rather than specific signaling properties of opsin, stemming from photoactivation or arrestin binding. PMID:20926680

  3. Live-cell imaging evidence for the ciliary transport of rod photoreceptor opsin by heterotrimeric kinesin-2.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Deepti; Colin, Emilie; Louie, Carrie M; Williams, David S

    2012-08-01

    Primary cilia detect extracellular signals through membrane receptors and channels. The outer segment of a vertebrate photoreceptor cell represents the most elaborate of all primary cilia, containing extraordinarily large amounts of the visual receptor protein, opsin. Because of its high abundance, opsin represents a potential model system for the study of ciliary membrane receptors, including their transport. Here, we have analyzed the movement of ciliary opsin to test whether the highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT), as driven by heterotrimeric kinesin-2, is required. Results show that opsin can enter and move along the primary cilium of a nonphotoreceptor cell (an hTERT-RPE1 epithelial cell), suggesting that it can co-opt the basic anterograde motor system of cilia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis of cilia of hTERT-RPE1 cells showed that the movement of ciliary opsin was comparable to that of the IFT protein, IFT88. Moreover, the movement of opsin in these cilia, as well as in cilia of mouse rod photoreceptor cells, was reduced significantly when KIF3A, the obligate motor subunit of heterotrimeric kinesin-2, was deficient. These studies therefore provide evidence from live-cell analysis that the conserved heterotrimeric kinesin-2 is required for the normal transport of opsin along the ciliary plasma membrane. PMID:22855808

  4. Live-cell imaging evidence for the ciliary transport of rod photoreceptor opsin by heterotrimeric kinesin-2

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Deepti; Colin, Emilie; Louie, Carrie M.; Williams, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia detect extracellular signals through membrane receptors and channels. The outer segment of a vertebrate photoreceptor cell represents the most elaborate of all primary cilia, containing extraordinarily large amounts of the visual receptor protein, opsin. Because of its high abundance, opsin represents a potential model system for the study of ciliary membrane receptors, including their transport. Here, we have analyzed the movement of ciliary opsin to test whether the highly-conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT), as driven by heterotrimeric kinesin-2, is required. Results show that opsin can enter and move along the primary cilium of a non-photoreceptor cell (an hTERT-RPE1 epithelial cell), suggesting that it can co-opt the basic anterograde motor system of cilia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of cilia of hTERT-RPE1 cells showed that the movement of ciliary opsin was comparable to that of the IFT protein, IFT88. Moreover, the movement of opsin in these cilia, as well as in cilia of mouse rod photoreceptor cells, was reduced significantly when KIF3A, the obligate motor subunit of heterotrimeric kinesin-2, was deficient. These studies therefore provide evidence from live-cell analysis that the conserved heterotrimeric kinesin-2 is required for the normal transport of opsin along the ciliary plasma membrane. PMID:22855808

  5. Coupling and decoupling of evolutionary mode between X- and Y-chromosomal red-green opsin genes in owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Takenaka, Naomi; Hirai, Momoki; Kawamura, Shoji

    2005-06-01

    We previously discovered Y-chromosomal red-green opsin genes in two types of owl monkeys with different chromosomal characteristics. In one type, the Y-linked opsin gene is a single-copy intact gene and in the other, the genes exist as multiple pseudogenes on a Y/autosome fusion chromosome. In the present study, we first distinguished the two types of monkeys as distinct allopatric species on the basis of karyotypic characteristics: Aotus lemurinus griseimembra (Karyotype III, diploid chromosome number [2n]=53) and Aotus azarae boliviensis (Karyotype VI; male 2n=49; female 2n=50), belonging to the northern and southern species groups, respectively, separated by the Amazon River system. Our sequence analysis revealed a common L1-Alu-Alu insertion between the two species in the 3'-flanking region of the X-linked opsin genes. The insertion was absent in the Y-linked opsin genes and in the human red and green opsin genes, indicating that it occurred in the X copy before the split into northern and southern species and after the X to Y duplication, i.e. duplication preceded speciation. We also show that in the northern species, the Y-linked opsin gene has evolved concomitantly with the X-linked copy whereas in the southern species, the Y-autosome fusion possibly led to decoupling evolutionary processes between X- and Y-linked copies and subsequent degeneration and duplications of the Y-linked opsin gene. PMID:15922519

  6. Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi ADAM R. SMITH. The Fisherian model suggests that Correspondence: Adam R. Smith, Fax: (301) 314 6262; E-mail: adasmi@umd.edu Ó,* LINDSAY D'ANNUNZIO,* ABBI E. SMITH,* ANIT SHARMA,* CHRISTOPHER M. HOFMANN,* N. J. MARSHALL§ and KAREN L

  7. The Major Opsin in Bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera): A Promising Nuclear Gene for Higher Level Phylogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Mardulyn; Sydney A. Cameron

    1999-01-01

    We report the phylogenetic utility of the nuclear gene encoding the long-wavelength opsin (LW Rh) for tribes of bees. Aligned nucleotide sequences were examined in multiple taxa from the four tribes comprising the corbiculate bees within the subfamily Apinae. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation in a 502-bp fragment (approx 40% of the coding region) strongly supported the monophyly of each

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role reversal complements sex role reversal Andrew Everett1* , Xiaoling Tong1 , Adriana D Briscoe2 and Antónia Monteiro1 forms, wet and dry, that vary in wing ornament brightness and in the identity of the sex that performs

  9. Color discrimination in the red range with only one long-wavelength sensitive opsin.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, Guillermo; Kelber, Almut; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2006-05-01

    The basic precondition for color vision is the presence of at least two receptor types with different spectral sensitivities. The sensitivity of a receptor is mostly defined by the opsin-based visual pigment expressed in it. We show here, through behavioral experiments, that the nymphalid butterfly Heliconius erato, although it expresses short and medium wavelength opsins and only one long wavelength opsin, discriminates colors in the long-wavelength range (590 nm, 620 nm and 640 nm), whereas another nymphalid, Vanessa atalanta, despite having color vision, is unable to do so. In the eyes of H. erato we identified filtering pigments very close to the rhabdom which differ between ommatidia and produce the yellow and red ommatidial reflection seen under orthodromic illumination. The eyes of V. atalanta lack the filtering pigments, and reflect a homogeneous orange. We hypothesize that the filtering pigments found in the eyes of H. erato may shift the spectral sensitivity peak of the long wavelength receptors in some ommatidia towards longer wavelengths. The comparison of the signals between the two new receptor types makes color discrimination in the red range possible. To our knowledge, this is the first behavioral proof of color vision based on receptors expressing the same opsin. PMID:16651559

  10. Light and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vigh; I. Vigh-Teichmann

    1981-01-01

    An antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta, Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis and viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctata, Didelphis virginiana, Erinaceus roumanicus, Myotis myotis, rabbit,

  11. Honeybee Blue-and Ultraviolet-Sensitive Opsins: Cloning, Heterologous Expression in Drosophila, and

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    mating partners. With the exception of the use of oil droplets or screening pigments in some photore to other inverte- brate and vertebrate visual pigments. The Apis blue opsin cDNA encodes a protein of 377 amino acids that is most closely related to other invertebrate visual pigments that are thought

  12. The Major Opsin in Bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera): A Promising Nuclear Gene for Higher Level Phylogenetics

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    The Major Opsin in Bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera): A Promising Nuclear Gene for Higher Level provide important new data from the nuclear genome for phylogeny reconstruction. 1999 Academic Press Key phylogeny. INTRODUCTION There is a great need for comparative data from the nuclear genome to test

  13. Electrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E150K Opsin

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    linking recessive RP to a mutation in the opsin gene involved a nonsense mutation at codon 249 within exonElectrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E-coupled recep- tor responsible for capturing light. Mutations in the gene encod- ing this protein can lead

  14. Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S Received group of hered- itary disorders of the retina caused by mutation in genes of the photoreceptor proteins with an autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP), or X-linked pattern of inheritance. Although

  15. The NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission Physics Dept & Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley CA 97420-7450

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. Sentinels will play a particularly important role in support of NASA's new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), in providing key newThe NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission R. P. Lin Physics Dept & Space Sciences

  16. New evidence for the role of heterochrony in the repeated evolution of cichlid opsin expression.

    PubMed

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Adam R; Sharma, Anit; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Lake Malawi (LM) cichlids have undergone heterochronic shifts in the expression of their cone opsin genes, the genes responsible for color vision. These shifts have generated species with short-, middle-, and long-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors and visual systems. However, it is unclear when during the evolution of African cichlids these shifts occurred, or whether they could account for similar short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive profiles among unrelated cichlids in Lake Tanganyika (LT). To address these questions, we surveyed opsin expression in developing fry of two African cichlids, Astatotilapia burtoni from LT and Melanochromis auratus from LM. We found that A. burtoni expresses a series of three different single-cone opsins over the course of development, while M. auratus exhibits variation in the expression of only two. Neither A. burtoni nor M. auratus exhibits much variation in the expression of its double-cone opsins. These patterns reveal that A. burtoni exhibits progressive development in the sensitivity of its single-cone photoreceptors, but direct development in the sensitivity of its double-cone photoreceptors. M. auratus exhibits neotenic development in the sensitivity of both photoreceptor sets. Given the intermediate phylogenetic placement of A. burtoni between cichlids from LT and LM, our results suggest that the ancestor of LM's cichlids exhibited a progressive developmental pattern of opsin expression. These results indicate that the heterochronic shifts which produced the short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive profiles of LM's cichlids occurred recently, and suggest that the presence of similar profiles among LT's cichlids are due to parallel heterochronic shifts. PMID:21410875

  17. Expression of UV, blue-, long-wavelength-sensitive opsins and melatonin in extraretinal photoreceptors of the optic lobes of hawkmoths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Lampel; Adriana D. Briscoe; Lutz T. Wasserthal

    2005-01-01

    Lepidopterans display biological rhythms associated with egg laying, eclosion and flight activity but the photoreceptors that mediate these behavioural patterns are largely unknown. To further our progress in identifying candidate light-input channels for the lepidopteran circadian system, we have developed polyclonal antibodies against ultraviolet (UV)-, blue- and extraretinal long-wavelength (LW)-sensitive opsins and examined opsin immunoreactivity in the adult optic lobes

  18. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

  19. Imaging neural spiking in brain tissue using FRET-opsin protein voltage sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yiyang; Wagner, Mark J.; Li, Jin Zhong; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded fluorescence voltage sensors offer the possibility of directly visualizing neural spiking dynamics in cells targeted by their genetic class or connectivity. Sensors of this class have generally suffered performance-limiting tradeoffs between modest brightness, sluggish kinetics, and limited signaling dynamic range in response to action potentials. Here we describe sensors that use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to combine the rapid kinetics and substantial voltage-dependence of rhodopsin family voltage-sensing domains with the brightness of genetically engineered protein fluorophores. These FRET-opsin sensors significantly improve upon the spike detection fidelity offered by the genetically encoded voltage sensor, Arclight, while offering faster kinetics and higher brightness. Using FRET-opsin sensors we imaged neural spiking and sub-threshold membrane voltage dynamics in cultured neurons and in pyramidal cells within neocortical tissue slices. In live mice, rates and optical waveforms of cerebellar Purkinje neurons’ dendritic voltage transients matched expectations for these cells’ dendritic spikes. PMID:24755708

  20. Inherent instability of the retinitis pigmentosa P23H mutant opsin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Jastrzebska, Beata; Cao, Pengxiu; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Benlian; Sun, Wenyu; Yuan, Yiyuan; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-03-28

    The P23H opsin mutation is the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Even though the pathobiology of the resulting retinal degeneration has been characterized in several animal models, its complex molecular mechanism is not well understood. Here, we expressed P23H bovine rod opsin in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression was low due to enhanced protein degradation. The mutant opsin was glycosylated, but the polysaccharide size differed from that of the normal protein. Although P23H opsin aggregated in the nervous system of C. elegans, the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis-retinal stabilized it during biogenesis, producing a variant of rhodopsin called P23H isorhodopsin. In vitro, P23H isorhodopsin folded correctly, formed the appropriate disulfide bond, could be photoactivated but with reduced sensitivity, and underwent Meta II decay at a rate similar to wild type isorhodopsin. In worm neurons, P23H isorhodopsin initiated phototransduction by coupling with the endogenous Gi/o signaling cascade that induced loss of locomotion. Using pharmacological interventions affecting protein synthesis and degradation, we showed that the chromophore could be incorporated either during or after mutant protein translation. However, regeneration of P23H isorhodopsin with chromophore was significantly slower than that of wild type isorhodopsin. This effect, combined with the inherent instability of P23H rhodopsin, could lead to the structural cellular changes and photoreceptor death found in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These results also suggest that slow regeneration of P23H rhodopsin could prevent endogenous chromophore-mediated stabilization of rhodopsin in the retina. PMID:24515108

  1. Inherent Instability of the Retinitis Pigmentosa P23H Mutant Opsin*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Jastrzebska, Beata; Cao, Pengxiu; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Benlian; Sun, Wenyu; Yuan, Yiyuan; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The P23H opsin mutation is the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Even though the pathobiology of the resulting retinal degeneration has been characterized in several animal models, its complex molecular mechanism is not well understood. Here, we expressed P23H bovine rod opsin in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression was low due to enhanced protein degradation. The mutant opsin was glycosylated, but the polysaccharide size differed from that of the normal protein. Although P23H opsin aggregated in the nervous system of C. elegans, the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis-retinal stabilized it during biogenesis, producing a variant of rhodopsin called P23H isorhodopsin. In vitro, P23H isorhodopsin folded correctly, formed the appropriate disulfide bond, could be photoactivated but with reduced sensitivity, and underwent Meta II decay at a rate similar to wild type isorhodopsin. In worm neurons, P23H isorhodopsin initiated phototransduction by coupling with the endogenous Gi/o signaling cascade that induced loss of locomotion. Using pharmacological interventions affecting protein synthesis and degradation, we showed that the chromophore could be incorporated either during or after mutant protein translation. However, regeneration of P23H isorhodopsin with chromophore was significantly slower than that of wild type isorhodopsin. This effect, combined with the inherent instability of P23H rhodopsin, could lead to the structural cellular changes and photoreceptor death found in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These results also suggest that slow regeneration of P23H rhodopsin could prevent endogenous chromophore-mediated stabilization of rhodopsin in the retina. PMID:24515108

  2. Honeybee Blue and Ultraviolet-Sensitive Opsins: Cloning, Heterologous Expression in Drosophila, and Physiological Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Townson; Belinda S. W. Chang; Ernesto Salcedo; Linda V. Chadwell; Naomi E. Pierce; Steven G. Britt

    1998-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) visual system contains three classes of retinal photoreceptor cells that are maximally sensi- tive to light at 440 nm (blue), 350 nm (ultraviolet), and 540 nm (green). We performed a PCR-based screen to identify the genes encoding the Apis blue- and ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsins. We obtained cDNAs that encode proteins having a high degree of sequence

  3. Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M; Hart, Nathan S; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Malmstrøm, Martin; Tørresen, Ole K; Jentoft, Sissel; Cheney, Karen L; Marshall, N Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. In teleost fishes, the most species-rich vertebrate group, opsins are particularly diverse and key to the successful colonization of habitats ranging from the bioluminescence-biased but basically dark deep sea to clear mountain streams. In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. We then identify multiple novel amino acid substitutions that are likely to have contributed to the adaptive differentiation between SWS2 copies. Finally, using the dusky dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, we show that the newly discovered SWS2A duplicates can contribute to visual adaptation in two ways: by gaining sensitivities to different wavelengths of light and by being differentially expressed between ontogenetic stages. Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification. PMID:25548152

  4. IFT20 is required for opsin trafficking and photoreceptor outer segment development

    PubMed Central

    Keady, Brian T.; Le, Yun Zheng; Pazour, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The light-detecting outer segments of vertebrate photoreceptors are cilia. Like other cilia, all materials needed for assembly and maintenance are synthesized in the cell body and transported into the cilium. The highly elaborated nature of the outer segment and its high rate of turnover necessitate unusually high levels of transport into the cilium. In this work, we examine the role of the IFT20 subunit of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) particle in photoreceptor cells. IFT20 was deleted in developing cones by a cone-specific Cre and in mature rods and cones by a tamoxifen-activatable Cre. Loss of IFT20 during cone development leads to opsin accumulation in the inner segment even when the connecting cilium and outer segment are still intact. With time this causes cone cell degeneration. Similarly, deletion of IFT20 in mature rods causes rapid accumulation of rhodopsin in the cell body, where it is concentrated at the Golgi complex. We further show that IFT20, acting both as part of the IFT particle and independent of the particle, binds to rhodopsin and RG-opsin. Since IFT20 dynamically moves between the Golgi complex and the connecting cilium, the current work suggests that rhodopsin and opsins are cargo for IFT transport. PMID:21307337

  5. P23H opsin knock-in mice reveal a novel step in retinal rod disc morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Sanae; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Retinal rod photoreceptor cells have double membrane discs located in their outer segments (ROS) that are continuously formed proximally from connecting cilia (CC) and phagocytized distally by the retinal pigmented epithelium. The major component of these rod discs, the light-sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin (Rho), consists of an opsin protein linked to 11-cis-retinal. The P23H mutation of rod opsin (P23H opsin) is the most common cause of human blinding autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). A mouse model of adRP with this mutation (Rho(P23H/+)) shows low levels of P23H opsin protein, partial misalignment of discs and progressive retinal degeneration. However, the impact of mutant P23H opsin on the formation of abnormal discs is unclear and it is still unknown whether this mutant pigment can mediate phototransduction. Using transretinal ERG recordings, we demonstrate that P23H mutant Rho can trigger phototransduction but Rho(P23H/P23H) rods are ?17 000-fold less sensitive to light than Rho(+/+) rods and produce abnormally fast photo-responses. By analyzing homozygous Rho(P23H/P23H) knock-in mice, we show that P23H opsin is transported to ciliary protrusions where it forms sagittally elongated discs. Transmission electron microscopy of postnatal day (PND) 14 Rho(P23H/+) mouse retina revealed disordered sagittally oriented discs before the onset of retinal degeneration. Surprisingly, we also observed smaller, immature sagittally oriented discs in PND14 Rho(+/)(-) and Rho(+/+) mice that were not seen in older animals. These findings provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of the P23H mutant opsin and reveal a novel early sagittally aligned disc formation step in normal ROS disc expansion. PMID:24214395

  6. Genetic deletion of S-opsin prevents rapid cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Enemchukwu, Nduka O; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily; Watt, Carl B; Pugh, Edward N; Fu, Yingbin

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in RPE65 or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) disrupt 11-cis-retinal synthesis and cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe hereditary blindness occurring in early childhood. The pathology is attributed to a combination of 11-cis-retinal deficiency and photoreceptor degeneration. The mistrafficking of cone membrane-associated proteins including cone opsins (M- and S-opsins), cone transducin (G?t2), G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) and guanylate cyclase 1 (GC1) has been suggested to play a role in cone degeneration. However, their precise role in cone degeneration is unclear. Here we investigated the role of S-opsin (Opn1sw) in cone degeneration in Lrat(-) (/-), a murine model for LCA, by genetic ablation of S-opsin. We show that deletion of just one allele of S-opsin from Lrat(-) (/-) mice is sufficient to prevent the rapid cone degeneration for at least 1 month. Deletion of both alleles of S-opsin prevents cone degeneration for an extended period (at least 12 months). This genetic prevention is accompanied by a reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in Lrat(-) (/-) photoreceptors. Despite cone survival in Opn1sw(-/-)Lrat(-) (/-) mice, cone membrane-associated proteins (e.g. G?t2, GRK1 and GC1) continue to have trafficking problems. Our results suggest that cone opsins are the 'culprit' linking 11-cis-retinal deficiency to cone degeneration in LCA. This result has important implications for the current gene therapy strategy that emphasizes the need for a combinatorial therapy to both improve vision and slow photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:25416279

  7. Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Matsushita, Yuka; Ozawa, Norihiro; Ashino, Ryuichi; Nakata, Makiko; Kasagi, Satoshi; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo; Melin, Amanda D; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    New World monkeys exhibit prominent colour vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the ‘three-sites’ rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are known exceptions, presumably due to novel mutations. The spectral separation of the two L/M photopigments is 1.5 times greater than expected based on the ‘three-sites’ rule. Yet the consequence of this for the visual ecology of the species is unknown, as is the evolutionary mechanism by which spectral shift was achieved. In this study, we first examine L/M opsins of two other Atelinae species, the long-haired spider monkeys (A. belzebuth) and the common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). By a series of site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a mutation Y213D (tyrosine to aspartic acid at site 213) in the ancestral opsin of the two alleles enabled N294K, which occurred in one allele of the ateline ancestor and increased the spectral separation between the two alleles. Second, by modelling the chromaticity of dietary fruits and background leaves in a natural habitat of spider monkeys, we demonstrate that chromatic discrimination of fruit from leaves is significantly enhanced by these mutations. This evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism in atelines illustrates a previously unappreciated dynamism of opsin genes in shaping primate colour vision. PMID:24612406

  8. Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ruth M; Fontinha, Bruno M; Kirchmaier, Stephan; Steger, Julia; Bloch, Susanne; Inoue, Daigo; Panda, Satchidananda; Rumpel, Simon; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The functional principle of the vertebrate brain is often paralleled to a computer: information collected by dedicated devices is processed and integrated by interneuron circuits and leads to output. However, inter- and motorneurons present in today's vertebrate brains are thought to derive from neurons that combined sensory, integration, and motor function. Consistently, sensory inter-motorneurons have been found in the simple nerve nets of cnidarians, animals at the base of the evolutionary lineage. We show that light-sensory motorneurons and light-sensory interneurons are also present in the brains of vertebrates, challenging the paradigm that information processing and output circuitry in the central brain is shielded from direct environmental influences. We investigated two groups of nonvisual photopigments, VAL- and TMT-Opsins, in zebrafish and medaka fish; two teleost species from distinct habitats separated by over 300 million years of evolution. TMT-Opsin subclasses are specifically expressed not only in hypothalamic and thalamic deep brain photoreceptors, but also in interneurons and motorneurons with no known photoreceptive function, such as the typeXIV interneurons of the fish optic tectum. We further show that TMT-Opsins and Encephalopsin render neuronal cells light-sensitive. TMT-Opsins preferentially respond to blue light relative to rhodopsin, with subclass-specific response kinetics. We discovered that tmt-opsins co-express with val-opsins, known green light receptors, in distinct inter- and motorneurons. Finally, we show by electrophysiological recordings on isolated adult tectal slices that interneurons in the position of typeXIV neurons respond to light. Our work supports "sensory-inter-motorneurons" as ancient units for brain evolution. It also reveals that vertebrate inter- and motorneurons are endowed with an evolutionarily ancient, complex light-sensory ability that could be used to detect changes in ambient light spectra, possibly providing the endogenous equivalent to an optogenetic machinery. PMID:23776409

  9. Co-Expression of VAL- and TMT-Opsins Uncovers Ancient Photosensory Interneurons and Motorneurons in the Vertebrate Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ruth M.; Fontinha, Bruno M.; Kirchmaier, Stephan; Steger, Julia; Bloch, Susanne; Inoue, Daigo; Panda, Satchidananda; Rumpel, Simon; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The functional principle of the vertebrate brain is often paralleled to a computer: information collected by dedicated devices is processed and integrated by interneuron circuits and leads to output. However, inter- and motorneurons present in today's vertebrate brains are thought to derive from neurons that combined sensory, integration, and motor function. Consistently, sensory inter­motorneurons have been found in the simple nerve nets of cnidarians, animals at the base of the evolutionary lineage. We show that light-sensory motorneurons and light-sensory interneurons are also present in the brains of vertebrates, challenging the paradigm that information processing and output circuitry in the central brain is shielded from direct environmental influences. We investigated two groups of nonvisual photopigments, VAL- and TMT-Opsins, in zebrafish and medaka fish; two teleost species from distinct habitats separated by over 300 million years of evolution. TMT-Opsin subclasses are specifically expressed not only in hypothalamic and thalamic deep brain photoreceptors, but also in interneurons and motorneurons with no known photoreceptive function, such as the typeXIV interneurons of the fish optic tectum. We further show that TMT-Opsins and Encephalopsin render neuronal cells light-sensitive. TMT-Opsins preferentially respond to blue light relative to rhodopsin, with subclass-specific response kinetics. We discovered that tmt-opsins co-express with val-opsins, known green light receptors, in distinct inter- and motorneurons. Finally, we show by electrophysiological recordings on isolated adult tectal slices that interneurons in the position of typeXIV neurons respond to light. Our work supports “sensory-inter-motorneurons” as ancient units for brain evolution. It also reveals that vertebrate inter- and motorneurons are endowed with an evolutionarily ancient, complex light-sensory ability that could be used to detect changes in ambient light spectra, possibly providing the endogenous equivalent to an optogenetic machinery. PMID:23776409

  10. Expression of a mutant opsin gene increases the susceptibility of the retina to light damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Lam, T T; Tso, M O; Naash, M I

    1997-01-01

    The question of whether the expression of mutant opsin predisposes the retina to light damage was addressed using transgenic mice that express rhodopsin with three point mutations near the N-terminus of the molecule. The mutations involve the substitution of histidine for proline at position 23 (P23H), glycine for valine at position 20 (V20G), and leucine for proline at position 27 (P27L). These mice express equal amounts of mutant and wild-type transcripts, and develop a progressive photoreceptor degeneration that is similar to that seen in human retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The P23H mutation is associated with the most frequently occurring form of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in the United States. Transgenic and normal littermates were exposed to illuminance of 300 foot-candles (ft-c) for 24 h, then placed in darkness for either 6 h, 6 days, or 14 days. Histological and biochemical techniques were used to evaluate the outer retina in light-exposed and control animals reared on 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. The results indicate that light exposure accelerates the pathological changes associated with the transgene expression. Compared with transgenic animals reared in ambient cyclic light, retinas from light-exposed mice had a reduced rhodopsin content, fewer photoreceptor cell bodies, and less preservation of retinal structure. Data obtained from normal mice did not differ for the lighting regimens used. These findings suggest that the expression of VPP mutations in the opsin gene predisposes the transgenic photoreceptors to be more susceptible to light damage. The data also suggest that reducing photic exposure may be beneficial to any patient with RP mediated by an opsin mutation. PMID:9057268

  11. Jellyfish vision starts with cAMP signaling mediated by opsin-Gs cascade

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Takano, Kosuke; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Ohtsu, Kohzoh; Tokunaga, Fumio; Terakita, Akihisa

    2008-01-01

    Light sensing starts with phototransduction in photoreceptor cells. The phototransduction cascade has diverged in different species, such as those mediated by transducin in vertebrate rods and cones, by Gq-type G protein in insect and molluscan rhabdomeric-type visual cells and vertebrate photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and by Go-type G protein in scallop ciliary-type visual cells. Here, we investigated the phototransduction cascade of a prebilaterian box jellyfish, the most basal animal having eyes containing lens and ciliary-type visual cells similar to vertebrate eyes, to examine the similarity at the molecular level and to obtain an implication of the origin of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. We showed that the opsin-based pigment functions as a green-sensitive visual pigment and triggers the Gs-type G protein-mediated phototransduction cascade in the ciliary-type visual cells of the box jellyfish lens eyes. We also demonstrated the light-dependent cAMP increase in the jellyfish visual cells and HEK293S cells expressing the jellyfish opsin. The first identified prebilaterian cascade was distinct from known phototransduction cascades but exhibited significant partial similarity with those in vertebrate and molluscan ciliary-type visual cells, because all involved cyclic nucleotide signaling. These similarities imply a monophyletic origin of ciliary phototransduction cascades distributed from prebilaterian to vertebrate. PMID:18832159

  12. The evolution of irradiance detection: melanopsin and the non-visual opsins

    PubMed Central

    Peirson, Stuart N.; Halford, Stephanie; Foster, Russell G.

    2009-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24 h cycles that persist in the absence of external time cues. These rhythms provide an internal representation of day length and optimize physiology and behaviour to the varying demands of the solar cycle. These clocks require daily adjustment to local time and the primary time cue (zeitgeber) used by most vertebrates is the daily change in the amount of environmental light (irradiance) at dawn and dusk, a process termed photoentrainment. Attempts to understand the photoreceptor mechanisms mediating non-image-forming responses to light, such as photoentrainment, have resulted in the discovery of a remarkable array of different photoreceptors and photopigment families, all of which appear to use a basic opsin/vitamin A-based photopigment biochemistry. In non-mammalian vertebrates, specialized photoreceptors are located within the pineal complex, deep brain and dermal melanophores. There is also strong evidence in fish and amphibians for the direct photic regulation of circadian clocks in multiple tissues. By contrast, mammals possess only ocular photoreceptors. However, in addition to the image-forming rods and cones of the retina, there exists a third photoreceptor system based on a subset of melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs). In this review, we discuss the range of vertebrate photoreceptors and their opsin photopigments, describe the melanopsin/pRGC system in some detail and then finally consider the molecular evolution and sensory ecology of these non-image-forming photoreceptor systems. PMID:19720649

  13. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa E150K opsin mice exhibit photoreceptor disorganization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Jastrzebska, Beata; Mustafi, Debarshi; Sawada, Osamu; Maeda, Tadao; Genoud, Christel; Engel, Andreas; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the E150K mutation in the rod opsin gene associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) has yet to be determined. We generated knock-in mice carrying a single nucleotide change in exon 2 of the rod opsin gene resulting in the E150K mutation. This novel mouse model displayed severe retinal degeneration affecting rhodopsin’s stabilization of rod outer segments (ROS). Homozygous E150K (KK) mice exhibited early-onset retinal degeneration, with disorganized ROS structures, autofluorescent deposits in the subretinal space, and aberrant photoreceptor phagocytosis. Heterozygous (EK) mice displayed a delayed-onset milder retinal degeneration. Further, mutant receptors were mislocalized to the inner segments and perinuclear region. Though KK mouse rods displayed markedly decreased phototransduction, biochemical studies of the mutant rhodopsin revealed only minimally affected chromophore binding and G protein activation. Ablation of the chromophore by crossing KK mice with mice lacking the critical visual cycle protein LRAT slowed retinal degeneration, whereas blocking phototransduction by crossing KK mice with GNAT1-deficient mice slightly accelerated this process. This study highlights the importance of proper higher-order organization of rhodopsin in the native tissue and provides information about the signaling properties of this mutant rhodopsin. Additionally, these results suggest that patients heterozygous for the E150K mutation should be periodically reevaluated for delayed-onset retinal degeneration. PMID:23221340

  14. Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Ajna S.; Ozturk, Nuri; Fahey, Bryony; Plachetzki, David C.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Sancar, Aziz; Oakley, Todd H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Many larval sponges possess pigment ring eyes that apparently mediate phototactic swimming. Yet sponges are not known to possess nervous systems or opsin genes, so the unknown molecular components of sponge phototaxis must differ fundamentally from those in other animals, inspiring questions about how this sensory system functions. Here we present molecular and biochemical data on cryptochrome, a candidate gene for functional involvement in sponge pigment ring eyes. We report that Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge, possesses two cryptochrome/photolyase genes, Aq-Cry1 and Aq-Cry2. The mRNA of one gene (Aq-Cry2) is expressed in situ at the pigment ring eye. Additionally, we report that Aq-Cry2 lacks photolyase activity and contains a flavin-based co-factor that is responsive to wavelengths of light that also mediate larval photic behavior. These results suggest that Aq-Cry2 may act in the aneural, opsin-less phototaxic behavior of a sponge. PMID:22442365

  15. Spatial distribution of opsin-encoding mRNAs in the tiered larval retinas of the sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Cook, Tiffany A.; Buschbeck, Elke K.

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus, have a cluster of six stemmata (E1-6) and one eye patch on each side of the head. Each eye has two retinas: a distal retina that is closer to the lens, and a proximal retina that lies directly underneath. The distal retinas of E1 and E2 are made of a dorsal and a ventral stack of at least twelve photoreceptor layers. Could this arrangement be used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration, with shorter wavelengths detected by the distal layers and longer wavelengths by the proximal layers? To answer this question we molecularly identified opsins and their expression patterns in these eyes. We found three opsin-encoding genes. The distal retinas of all six eyes express long-wavelength opsin (TmLW) mRNA, whereas the proximal retinas express ultraviolet opsin (TmUV I) mRNA. In the proximal retinas of E1 and E2, the TmUV I mRNA is expressed only in the dorsal stack. A second ultraviolet opsin mRNA (TmUV II), is expressed in the proximal retinas of E1 and E2 (both stacks). The finding that longer-wavelength opsins are expressed distally to shorter-wavelength opsins makes it unlikely that this retinal arrangement is used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration. In addition, we also described opsin expression patterns in the medial retina of E1 and in the non-tiered retina of the lensless eye patch. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of multiple UV opsins being expressed in the same stemma. PMID:19915119

  16. Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith Karen L. Carleton

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith · Karen L. Carleton speciation (Kornfield and Smith 2000; Danley and Kocher 2001; Gen- ner and Turner 2005). Lakes Malawi00239-010-9355-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. A. R. Smith

  17. Pharmacological Chaperone-mediated in Vivo Folding and Stabilization of the P23H-opsin Mutant Associated with

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    and the Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, PL-02109 Warsaw, Poland Protein conformational disorders, which include cer- tain types of retinitis pigmentosa, are a set of inherited human diseases in which-opsin. The rescued protein forms pigment, ac- quires mature glycosylation, and is transported to the cell surface

  18. Teasing apart the many effects of lighting environment on opsin expression and foraging preference in bluefin killifish.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Rebecca C; Noa, Leslie A; Strellner, Reid S

    2010-07-01

    Coloration and color vision covary with lighting in many taxa. Determining the mechanisms underlying these patterns is difficult because lighting environments can have multiple effects on signaling that occur at multiple timescales. Lighting environments can (1) immediately affect signal propagation and transmission, which determine the radiance spectrum reaching the receiver; (2) induce variation in visual systems via developmental plasticity; and (3) lead to genetic differences in visual systems due to a history of selection in different habitats. We tease apart these effects on pecking preference and examine the relationship between pecking preference and opsin expression. Using killifish from two visually distinct populations (clear vs. tea-stained water), we performed crosses (genetics), raised animals under different lighting conditions (developmental plasticity), and assayed the preference to peck at different-colored dots under different lighting conditions (immediate effects). Pecks are interpreted as foraging preference. Developmental plasticity affected both pecking preference and opsin expression. Lighting environments also had immediate effects on pecking preference, but these depended on the lighting conditions animals experienced during development. Genetic effects were detected in opsin expression, but there were no corresponding effects on pecking preference. Overall, only 3.36% of the variation in pecking preference was accounted for by opsin expression. PMID:20497054

  19. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2a? and RH2a? paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (?) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2a? opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At least some of this variation may reflect an adaptive response to differences in light environment. Interestingly, these patterns only became apparent through the use of Clade models, not through the use of the more widely employed Branch-site models; we suggest that this difference stems from the increased flexibility associated with Clade models. Our results thus bear both on studies of cichlid visual system evolution and on studies of gene family evolution in general. PMID:23078361

  20. Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, a representative of the earliest branch of animals that emit light, provided an opportunity to examine the genome of an organism that uses this class of luciferase for bioluminescence and to look for genes involved in light reception. To determine when photoprotein genes first arose, we examined the genomic sequence from other early-branching taxa. We combined our genomic survey with gene trees, developmental expression patterns, and functional protein assays of photoproteins and opsins to provide a comprehensive view of light production and light reception in Mnemiopsis. Results The Mnemiopsis genome has 10 full-length photoprotein genes situated within two genomic clusters with high sequence conservation that are maintained due to strong purifying selection and concerted evolution. Photoprotein-like genes were also identified in the genomes of the non-luminescent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the non-luminescent cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, and phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that photoprotein genes arose at the base of all animals. Photoprotein gene expression in Mnemiopsis embryos begins during gastrulation in migrating precursors to photocytes and persists throughout development in the canals where photocytes reside. We identified three putative opsin genes in the Mnemiopsis genome and show that they do not group with well-known bilaterian opsin subfamilies. Interestingly, photoprotein transcripts are co-expressed with two of the putative opsins in developing photocytes. Opsin expression is also seen in the apical sensory organ. We present evidence that one opsin functions as a photopigment in vitro, absorbing light at wavelengths that overlap with peak photoprotein light emission, raising the hypothesis that light production and light reception may be functionally connected in ctenophore photocytes. We also present genomic evidence of a complete ciliary phototransduction cascade in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This study elucidates the genomic organization, evolutionary history, and developmental expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, introduces a novel dual role for ctenophore photocytes in both bioluminescence and phototransduction, and raises the possibility that light production and light reception are linked in this early-branching non-bilaterian animal. PMID:23259493

  1. Mislocalized Opsin and cAMP Signaling: A Mechanism for Sprouting by Rod Cells in Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Nan; Beuve, Annie; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In human retinal degeneration, rod photoreceptors reactively sprout neurites. The mechanism is unknown in part because of the paucity of animal models displaying this feature of human pathology. We tested the role of cAMP and opsin in sprouting by tiger salamander rod cells, photoreceptors that can produce reactive growth. Methods. In vitro systems of isolated photoreceptor cells and intact neural retina were used. cAMP signaling was manipulated with nucleotide analogues, enzyme stimulators, agonists for adenosine and dopamine receptors, and the opsin agonist, ?-ionone. Levels of cAMP were determined by radioimmunoassay, and protein levels by Western blot and quantitative immunocytochemistry. Neuritic growth was assayed by image analysis and conventional and confocal microscopy. Results. cAMP analogues and stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) directly or through G-protein–coupled receptors resulted in significant increases in neuritic growth of isolated rod, but not cone, cells. The signaling pathway included protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB). Opsin, a G-linked receptor, is present throughout the plasmalemma of isolated cells; its activation also induced sprouting. In neural retina, rod sprouting was significantly increased by ?-ionone with concomitant increases in cAMP, pCREB, and synaptic proteins. Notably, opsin stimulated sprouting only when mislocalized to the plasmalemma of the rod cell body. Conclusions. cAMP causes neuritic sprouting in rod, but not cone, cells through the AC-PKA-CREB pathway known to be associated with synaptic plasticity. We propose that in retinal disease, mislocalized rod opsin gains access to cAMP signaling, which leads to neuritic sprouting. PMID:22899763

  2. Metal Mesh Fabrication and Testing for Infrared Astronomy and ISO Science Programs; ISO GO Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This research program addresses astrophysics research with the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), including efforts to supply ISO-LWS with superior metal mesh filters. This grant has, over the years, enabled Dr. Smith in his role as a Co-Investigator on the satellite, the PI (Principal Investigator) on the Extragalactic Science Team, and a member of the Calibration and performance working groups. The emphasis of the budget in this proposal is in support of Dr. Smith's Infrared Space Observatory research. This program began (under a different grant number) while Dr. Smith was at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, and was transferred to SAO with a change in number. While Dr. Smith was a visiting Discipline Scientist at NASA HQ the program was in abeyance, but it has resumed in full since his return to SAO. The Infrared Space Observatory mission was launched in November, 1996, and since then has successfully completed its planned lifetime mission. Data are currently being calibrated to the 2% level.

  3. Mapping the Moho with seismic surface waves: Sensitivity, resolution, and recommended inversion strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Adam, Joanne; Meier, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Seismic surface waves have been used to study the Earth's crust since the early days of modern seismology. In the last decade, surface-wave crustal imaging has been rejuvenated by the emergence of new, array techniques (ambient-noise and teleseismic interferometry). The strong sensitivity of both Rayleigh and Love waves to the Moho is evident from a mere visual inspection of their dispersion curves or waveforms. Yet, strong trade-offs between the Moho depth and crustal and mantle structure in surface-wave inversions have prompted doubts regarding their capacity to resolve the Moho. Although the Moho depth has been an inversion parameter in numerous surface-wave studies, the resolution of Moho properties yielded by a surface-wave inversion is still somewhat uncertain and controversial. We use model-space mapping in order to elucidate surface waves' sensitivity to the Moho depth and the resolution of their inversion for it. If seismic wavespeeds within the crust and upper mantle are known, then Moho-depth variations of a few kilometres produce large (over 1 per cent) perturbations in phase velocities. However, in inversions of surface-wave data with no a priori information (wavespeeds not known), strong Moho-depth/shear-speed trade-offs will mask about 90 per cent of the Moho-depth signal, with remaining phase-velocity perturbations 0.1-0.2 per cent only. In order to resolve the Moho with surface waves alone, errors in the data must thus be small (up to 0.2 per cent for resolving continental Moho). If the errors are larger, Moho-depth resolution is not warranted and depends on error distribution with period, with errors that persist over broad period ranges particularly damaging. An effective strategy for the inversion of surface-wave data alone for the Moho depth is to, first, constrain the crustal and upper-mantle structure by inversion in a broad period range and then determine the Moho depth in inversion in a narrow period range most sensitive to it, with the first-step results used as reference. We illustrate this strategy with an application to data from the Kaapvaal Craton. Prior information on crustal and mantle structure reduces the trade-offs and thus enables resolving the Moho depth with noisier data; such information should be sought and used whenever available (as has been done, explicitly or implicitly, in many previous studies). Joint analysis or inversion of surface-wave and other data (receiver functions, topography, gravity) can reduce uncertainties further and facilitate Moho mapping. Alone or as a part of multi-disciplinary datasets, surface-wave data offer unique sensitivity to the crustal and upper-mantle structure and are becoming increasingly important in the seismic imaging of the crust and the Moho. Reference Lebedev, S., J. Adam, T. Meier. Mapping the Moho with seismic surface waves: A review, resolution analysis, and recommended inversion strategies. Tectonophysics, "Moho" special issue, 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.12.030, 2013.

  4. Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yohey; Seehausen, Ole; Sasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Mizoiri, Shinji; Sugawara, Tohru; Sato, Tetsu; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Konijnendijk, Nellie; Mrosso, Hillary D J; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Shichida, Yoshinori; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-12-01

    Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong divergent natural selection fixed opsin proteins with different predicted light absorbance properties at opposite ends of an environmental gradient. By expressing them and measuring absorbance, we show that the reciprocal fixation adapts populations to divergent light environments. The divergent evolution of the visual system coincides with divergence in male breeding coloration, consistent with incipient ecological by-product speciation. PMID:17147472

  5. Principles for applying optogenetic tools derived from direct comparative analysis of microbial opsins

    PubMed Central

    Mattis, Joanna; Tye, Kay M; Ferenczi, Emily A; Ramakrishnan, Charu; O’Shea, Daniel J; Prakash, Rohit; Gunaydin, Lisa A; Hyun, Minsuk; Fenno, Lief E; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yizhar, Ofer; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Diverse optogenetic tools have allowed versatile control over neural activity. Many depolarizing and hyperpolarizing tools have now been developed in multiple laboratories and tested across different preparations, presenting opportunities but also making it difficult to draw direct comparisons. This challenge has been compounded by the dependence of performance on parameters such as vector, promoter, expression time, illumination, cell type and many other variables. As a result, it has become increasingly complicated for end users to select the optimal reagents for their experimental needs. For a rapidly growing field, critical figures of merit should be formalized both to establish a framework for further development and so that end users can readily understand how these standardized parameters translate into performance. Here we systematically compared microbial opsins under matched experimental conditions to extract essential principles and identify key parameters for the conduct, design and interpretation of experiments involving optogenetic techniques. PMID:22179551

  6. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24173561

  7. Extraordinarily low evolutionary rates of short wavelength-sensitive opsin pseudogenes

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Starmer, William T.; Liu, Yang; Tada, Takashi; Britt, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic organisms such as cichlids, coelacanths, seals, and cetaceans are active in UV-blue color environments, but many of them mysteriously lost their abilities to detect these colors. The loss of these functions is a consequence of the pseudogenization of their short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) opsin genes without gene duplication. We show that the SWS1 gene (BdenS1?) of the deep-sea fish, pearleye (Benthalbella dentata), became a pseudogene in a similar fashion about 130 million years ago (Mya) yet it is still transcribed. The rates of nucleotide substitution (~1.4 × 10?9 /site/year) of the pseudogenes of these aquatic species as well as some prosimian and bat species are much smaller than the previous estimates for the globin and immunoglobulin pseudogenes. PMID:24125953

  8. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-10-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2.

    PubMed

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24173561

  10. Coexpression of opsin- and VIP-like-immunoreactivity in CSF-contacting neurons of the avian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae Silver; P. Witkovsky; P. Horvath; V. Alones; C. J. Barnstable; M. N. Lehman

    1988-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF) cells in both the septal and the tuberal areas in the brain of the ring dove are labeled by RET-P1, a monoclonal antibody to opsin that reacts with inner and outer segment membranes of rod photoreceptors in a variety of vertebrates. Immunoblot analysis of proteins from diverse brain regions, however, revealed bands of anti-RET-P1 immunoreactivity that did

  11. Bacterio-opsin gene overe×pression fails to elevate fungal disease resistance in transgenic poplar ( Populus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rozi Mohamed; Richard Meilan; Michael E. Ostry; Charles H. Michler; Steven H. Strauss

    2001-01-01

    Overexpression of the bacterio-opsin (b0) gene in tobacco had previously been shown to induce hypersensitiveresponse-like lesions, increase viral and bacterial disease resistance, and stimulate pathogenesis-related gene expression. To see if this gene enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens of poplar, we generated a total of 35 transgenic lines in two clones of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray x Populus deltoides

  12. Sea urchin tube feet are photosensory organs that express a rhabdomeric-like opsin and PAX6.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P; Carleton, Karen L; Böttger, Stefanie A; Barry, Thomas M; Walker, Charles W

    2011-11-22

    All echinoderms have unique hydraulic structures called tube feet, known for their roles in light sensitivity, respiration, chemoreception and locomotion. In the green sea urchin, the most distal portion of these tube feet contain five ossicles arranged as a light collector with its concave surface facing towards the ambient light. These ossicles are perforated and lined with pigment cells that express a PAX6 protein that is universally involved in the development of eyes and sensory organs in other bilaterians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of a rhabdomeric-like opsin within these tube feet. Morphologically, nerves that could serve to transmit information to the test innervate the tube feet, and the differential expression of opsin transcripts in the tube feet is inversely, and significantly, related to the amount of light that tube feet are exposed to depending on their location on the test. The expression of these genes, the differential expression of opsin based on light exposure and the unique morphological features at the distal portion of the tube foot strongly support the hypothesis that in addition to previously identified functional roles of tube feet they are also photosensory organs that detect and respond to changes in the underwater light field. PMID:21450733

  13. Adult stemmata of the butterfly Vanessa cardui express UV and green opsin mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Adriana D; White, Richard H

    2005-01-01

    Adult stemmata are distinctive insect photoreceptors located on the posterior surfaces of the optic lobes. They originate as larval eyes that migrate inward during metamorphosis. We used a combination of light microscopy and in situ hybridization to examine their anatomical organization in the butterfly Vanessa cardui and to test for the presence of visual pigments, the light sensitive components of the visual transduction pathway. The bilateral cluster of six internal stemmata is located near the ventral edge of the lamina. They retain the dark screening pigment and overlying crystalline cones of the larval stemmata. We found two opsin mRNAs expressed in the stemmata that are also expressed, respectively, in UV-sensitive and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells in the compound eye. A third mRNA that is expressed in blue-sensitive photoreceptor cells of the compound eye was not expressed in the stemmata. Our results reinforce the idea that the adult stemmata are not merely developmental remnants of larval eyes, but remain functional, possibly as components of the circadian input channel. PMID:15503147

  14. The Transporter-Opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Daniel C.; Shlykov, Maksim A.; Västermark, Åke; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Arora, Sumit; Sun, Eric I.; Saier, Milton H.

    2013-01-01

    Visual Rhodopsins (VR) are recognized members of the large and diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but their evolutionary origin and relationships to other proteins, are not known. In an earlier publication (Shlykov et al., 2012), we characterized the 4-Toulene Sulfonate Uptake Permease (TSUP) family of transmembrane proteins, showing that these 7 or 8 TMS proteins arose by intragenic duplication of a 4 TMS-encoding gene, sometimes followed by loss of a terminal TMS. In this study, we show that the TSUP, GPCR and Microbial Rhodopsin (MR) families are related to each other and to six other currently recognized transport protein families. We designate this superfamily the Transporter-Opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) Superfamily. Despite their 8 TMS origins, members of most constituent families exhibit 7 TMS topologies that are well conserved, and these arose by loss of either the N-terminal (more frequent) or the C-terminal (less frequent) TMS, depending on the family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed familial relationships within the superfamily and protein relationships within each of the nine families. The statistical analyses leading to the conclusion of homology were confirmed using HMMs, Pfam, and 3D superimpositions. Proteins functioning by dissimilar mechanisms (channels, primary active transporters, secondary active transporters, group translocators and receptors) are interspersed on a phylogenetic tree of the TOG superfamily, suggesting that changes in the transport and energy-coupling mechanisms occurred multiple times during the evolution of this superfamily. PMID:23981446

  15. The Effect of Cone Opsin Mutations on Retinal Structure and the Integrity of the Photoreceptor Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Gardner, Jessica C.; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Nordgren, Rick; Genead, Mohamed; Connor, Thomas B.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Sharon, Dror; Hunt, David M.; Banin, Eyal; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Moore, Anthony T.; Williams, David R.; Fishman, Gerald; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen; Michaelides, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retinal structure and photoreceptor mosaic integrity in subjects with OPN1LW and OPN1MW mutations. Methods. Eleven subjects were recruited, eight of whom have been previously described. Cone and rod density was measured using images of the photoreceptor mosaic obtained from an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Total retinal thickness, inner retinal thickness, and outer nuclear layer plus Henle fiber layer (ONL+HFL) thickness were measured using cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. Molecular genetic analyses were performed to characterize the OPN1LW/OPN1MW gene array. Results. While disruptions in retinal lamination and cone mosaic structure were observed in all subjects, genotype-specific differences were also observed. For example, subjects with “L/M interchange” mutations resulting from intermixing of ancestral OPN1LW and OPN1MW genes had significant residual cone structure in the parafovea (?25% of normal), despite widespread retinal disruption that included a large foveal lesion and thinning of the parafoveal inner retina. These subjects also reported a later-onset, progressive loss of visual function. In contrast, subjects with the C203R missense mutation presented with congenital blue cone monochromacy, with retinal lamination defects being restricted to the ONL+HFL and the degree of residual cone structure (8% of normal) being consistent with that expected for the S-cone submosaic. Conclusions. The photoreceptor phenotype associated with OPN1LW and OPN1MW mutations is highly variable. These findings have implications for the potential restoration of visual function in subjects with opsin mutations. Our study highlights the importance of high-resolution phenotyping to characterize cellular structure in inherited retinal disease; such information will be critical for selecting patients most likely to respond to therapeutic intervention and for establishing a baseline for evaluating treatment efficacy. PMID:23139274

  16. Possible Involvement of Cone Opsins in Distinct Photoresponses of Intrinsically Photosensitive Dermal Chromatophores in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shyh-Chi; Robertson, R. Meldrum; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal specialized pigment cells (chromatophores) are thought to be one type of extraretinal photoreceptors responsible for a wide variety of sensory tasks, including adjusting body coloration. Unlike the well-studied image-forming function in retinal photoreceptors, direct evidence characterizing the mechanism of chromatophore photoresponses is less understood, particularly at the molecular and cellular levels. In the present study, cone opsin expression was detected in tilapia caudal fin where photosensitive chromatophores exist. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed co-existence of different cone opsins within melanophores and erythrophores. By stimulating cells with six wavelengths ranging from 380 to 580 nm, we found melanophores and erythrophores showed distinct photoresponses. After exposed to light, regardless of wavelength presentation, melanophores dispersed and maintained cell shape in an expansion stage by shuttling pigment granules. Conversely, erythrophores aggregated or dispersed pigment granules when exposed to short- or middle/long-wavelength light, respectively. These results suggest that diverse molecular mechanisms and light-detecting strategies may be employed by different types of tilapia chromatophores, which are instrumental in pigment pattern formation. PMID:23940562

  17. Probing Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration in a New Mouse Model of the Common Form of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa due to P23H Opsin Mutations*?

    PubMed Central

    Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1–10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

  18. Probing mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in a new mouse model of the common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to P23H opsin mutations.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-03-25

    Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1-10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

  19. natURE mEthOdS | VOL.9 NO.12 | DECEMBER2012 | 1171 Optogenetics with microbial opsin genes has enabled high-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    RESOURCE natURE mEthOdS | VOL.9 NO.12 | DECEMBER2012 | 1171 Optogenetics with microbial opsin genes-scanning microscopy (tPLSm) hardware, the integration of two-photon excitation with optogenetics has thus far required enable broad adoption of integrated optogenetic and tPLSm technologies across experimental fields

  20. X-linked cone dystrophy and colour vision deficiency arising from a missense mutation in a hybrid L/M cone opsin gene

    PubMed Central

    McClements, Michelle; Davies, Wayne I L; Michaelides, Michel; Carroll, Joseph; Rha, Jungate; Mollon, John D; Neitz, Maureen; MacLaren, Robert E; Moore, Anthony T; Hunt, David M

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a male subject who presents with a complex phenotype of myopia associated with cone dysfunction and a protan vision deficiency. Retinal imaging demonstrates extensive cone disruption, including the presence of non-waveguiding cones, an overall thinning of the retina, and an irregular mottled appearance of the hyper reflective band associated with the inner segment ellipsoid portion of the photoreceptor. Mutation screening revealed a novel p.Glu41Lys missense mutation in a hybrid L/M opsin gene. Spectral analysis shows that the mutant opsin fails to form a pigment in vitro and fails to be trafficked to the cell membrane in transfected Neuro2a cells. Extensive sequence and quantitative PCR analysis identifies this mutant gene as the only gene present in the affected subject’s L/M opsin gene array, yet the presence of protanopia indicates that the mutant opsin must retain some activity in vivo. To account for this apparent contradiction, we propose that a limited amount of functional pigment is formed within the normal cellular environment of the intact photoreceptor, and that this requires the presence of chaperone proteins that promote stability and normal folding of the mutant protein. PMID:23337435

  1. Assessing the use of genomic DNA as a predictor of the maximum absorbance wavelength of avian SWS1 opsin visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Odeen, Anders; Hart, Nathan S; Håstad, Olle

    2009-02-01

    Recently, in vitro mutation studies have made it possible to predict the wavelengths of maximum absorbance (lambdamax) of avian UV/violet sensitive visual pigments (SWS1) from the identity of a few key amino acid residues in the opsin gene. Given that the absorbance spectrum of a cone's visual pigment and of its pigmented oil droplet can be predicted from just the lambdamax, it may become possible to predict the entire spectral sensitivity of a bird using genetic samples from live birds or museum specimens. However, whilst this concept is attractive, it must be validated to assess the reliability of the predictions of lambdamax from opsin amino acid sequences. In this paper, we have obtained partial sequences covering three of the known spectral tuning sites in the SWS1 opsin and predicted lambdamax of all bird species for which the spectral absorbance has been measured using microspectrophotometry. Our results validate the use of molecular data from genomic DNA to predict the gross differences in lambdamax between the violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive subtypes of SWS1 opsin. Additionally, we demonstrate that a bird, the bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus L., can have more than one SWS1 visual pigment in its retina. PMID:19048261

  2. The influence of ontogeny and light environment on the expression of visual pigment opsins in the retina of the black bream, Acanthopagrus butcheri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Shand; Wayne L. Davies; Nicole Thomas; Lois Balmer; Jill A. Cowing; Marie Pointer; Livia S. Carvalho; Ann E. O. Trezise; Shaun P. Collin; Lyn D. Beazley; David M. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The correlation between ontogenetic changes in the spectral absorption characteristics of retinal photoreceptors and expression of visual pigment opsins was investigated in the black bream, Acanthopagrus butcheri. To establish whether the spectral qualities of environmental light affected the complement of visual pigments during ontogeny, comparisons were made between fishes reared in: (1) broad spectrum aquarium conditions; (2) short wavelength-reduced

  3. Supplementary Figure S1. Light-associated motor responses of worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons. a, Vigorously crawling TG animals pre-incubated with 10 M 9-cis-retinal and expressing

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    . a, Vigorously crawling TG animals pre-incubated with 10 µM 9-cis-retinal and expressing (b each. Error bars indicate S.E.M. b, L4 TG animals expressing (b)opsin in neurons were pre- incubated expressing (b)opsin in neurons and pre-incubated with 9-cis-retinal. Illumination (1,000 lux, 488 ± 20 nm, 1s

  4. Molecular characterization and expression of the UV opsin in bumblebees: three ommatidial subtypes in the retina and a new photoreceptor organ in the lamina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Spaethe; Adriana D. Briscoe

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet-sensitive photoreceptors have been shown to be important for a variety of visual tasks performed by bees, such as orientation, color and polarization vision, yet little is known about their spatial distribution in the compound eye or optic lobe. We cloned and sequenced a UV opsin mRNA transcript from Bombus impatiens head- specific cDNA and, using western blot analysis, detected

  5. Six Opsins from the Butterfly Papilio glaucus: Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Paralogous Origins of Red-Sensitive Visual Pigments in Insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana D. Briscoe

    2000-01-01

    .   It has been hypothesized that the UV-, blue-, and green-sensitive visual pigments of insects were present in the common ancestor\\u000a of crustaceans and insects, whereas red-sensitive visual pigments evolved later as a result of convergent evolution. This\\u000a hypothesis is examined with respect to the placement of six opsins from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio glaucus (PglRh1–6) in relationship to 46

  6. Assessing the use of genomic DNA as a predictor of the maximum absorbance wavelength of avian SWS1 opsin visual pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Ödeen; Nathan S. Hart; Olle Håstad

    2009-01-01

    Recently, in vitro mutation studies have made it possible to predict the wavelengths of maximum absorbance (?max) of avian UV\\/violet sensitive visual pigments (SWS1) from the identity of a few key amino acid residues in the opsin gene.\\u000a Given that the absorbance spectrum of a cone’s visual pigment and of its pigmented oil droplet can be predicted from just\\u000a the

  7. Opsin gene sequence variation across phylogenetic and population histories in Mysis (Crustacea: Mysida) does not match current light environments or visual-pigment absorbance spectra.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Pahlberg, Johan; Viljanen, Martta; Donner, Kristian; Väinölä, Risto

    2012-05-01

    The hypothesis that selection on the opsin gene is efficient in tuning vision to the ambient light environment of an organism was assessed in 49 populations of 12 Mysis crustacean species, inhabiting arctic marine waters, coastal littoral habitats, freshwater lakes ('glacial relicts') and the deep Caspian Sea. Extensive sequence variation was found within and among taxa, but its patterns did not match expectations based on light environments, spectral sensitivity of the visual pigment measured by microspectrophotometry or the history of species and populations. The main split in the opsin gene tree was between lineages I and II, differing in six amino acids. Lineage I was present in marine and Caspian Sea species and in the North American freshwater Mysis diluviana, whereas lineage II was found in the European and circumarctic fresh- and brackish-water Mysis relicta, Mysis salemaai and Mysis segerstralei. Both lineages were present in some populations of M. salemaai and M. segerstralei. Absorbance spectra of the visual pigment in nine populations of the latter three species showed a dichotomy between lake (?(max) =554-562 nm) and brackish-water (Baltic Sea) populations (?(max) = 521-535 nm). Judged by the shape of spectra, this difference was not because of different chromophores (A2 vs. A1), but neither did it coincide with the split in the opsin tree (lineages I/II), species identity or current light environments. In all, adaptive evolution of the opsin gene in Mysis could not be demonstrated, but its sequence variation did not conform to a neutral expectation either, suggesting evolutionary constraints and/or unidentified mechanisms of spectral tuning. PMID:22429275

  8. Genetic transformation of Rangpur lime ( Citrus limonia osbeck) with the bO (bacterio-opsin) genen and its initial evaluation for Phytophthora nicotianae resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Azevedo; F. A. A. Mourão Filho; B. M. J. Mendes; W. A. B. Almeida; E. H. Schinor; R. Pio; J. M. Barbosa; S Guidetti-Gonzalez; H. Carrer; E. Lam

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing the bacterio-opsin (bO) gene can spontaneously activate programmed cell death (ped) and may enhance broad-spectrum pathogen resistance by activating\\u000a an intrinsic defense pathway in plant species such as tobacco and potato. In this work, we produced transgenic Rangpur lime\\u000a plants with thebO gene, viaAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and evaluated these plants forPhytophthora nicotianae resistance. Two transgenic lines were

  9. Genetic transformation of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia osbeck) with thebO (bacterio-opsin) genen and its initial evaluation forPhytophthora nicotianae resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Azevedo; F. A. A. Mourão Filho; B. M. J. Mendes; W. A. B. Almeida; E. H. Schinor; R. Pio; J. M. Barbosa; S. GUIDETTI-GONZALEZ; H. Carrer; E. Lam

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing the bacterio-opsin (bO) gene can spontaneously activate programmed cell death (pcd) and may enhance broad-spectrum pathogen resistance by activating an intrinsic defense pathway in plant species such as tobacco and potato. In this work, we produced transgenic Rangpur lime plants with the bO gene, via Agro- bacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and evaluated these plants for Phyto- phthora nicotianae

  10. Complex distribution of avian color vision systems revealed by sequencing the SWS1 opsin from total DNA.

    PubMed

    Odeen, Anders; Hastad, Olle

    2003-06-01

    To gain insights into the evolution and ecology of visually acute animals such as birds, biologists often need to understand how these animals perceive colors. This poses a problem, since the human eye is of a different design than that of most other animals. The standard solution is to examine the spectral sensitivity properties of animal retinas through microspectophotometry-a procedure that is rather complicated and therefore only has allowed examinations of a limited number of species to date. We have developed a faster and simpler molecular method, which can be used to estimate the color sensitivities of a bird by sequencing a part of the gene coding for the ultraviolet or violet absorbing opsin in the avian retina. With our method, there is no need to sacrifice the animal, and it thereby facilitates large screenings, including rare and endangered species beyond the reach of microspectrophotometry. Color vision in birds may be categorized into two classes: one with a short-wavelength sensitivity biased toward violet (VS) and the other biased toward ultraviolet (UVS). Using our method on 45 species from 35 families, we demonstrate that the distribution of avian color vision is more complex than has previously been shown. Our data support VS as the ancestral state in birds and show that UVS has evolved independently at least four times. We found species with the UVS type of color vision in the orders Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, in agreement with previous findings. However, species within the families Corvidae and Tyrannidae did not share this character with other passeriforms. We also found UVS type species within the Laridae and Struthionidae families. Raptors (Accipitridae and Falconidae) are of the violet type, giving them a vision system different from their passeriform prey. Intriguing effects on the evolution of color signals can be expected from interactions between predators and prey. Such interactions may explain the presence of UVS in Laridae and Passeriformes. PMID:12716987

  11. Expression of Novel Opsins and Intrinsic Light Responses in the Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cell Line RGC-5. Presence of OPN5 in the Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Paula S.; Valdez, Diego J.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A.; Guido, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate retina is known to contain three classes of photoreceptor cells: cones and rods responsible for vision, and intrinsically photoresponsive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) involved in diverse non-visual functions such as photic entrainment of daily rhythms and pupillary light responses. In this paper we investigated the potential intrinsic photoresponsiveness of the rat RGC line, RGC-5, by testing for the presence of visual and non-visual opsins and assessing expression of the immediate-early gene protein c-Fos and changes in intracellular Ca2+mobilization in response to brief light pulses. Cultured RGC-5 cells express a number of photopigment mRNAs such as retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR), encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3), neuropsin (Opn5) and cone opsin (Opn1mw) but not melanopsin (Opn4) or rhodopsin. Opn5 immunoreactivity was observed in RGC-5 cells and in the inner retina of rat, mainly localized in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Furthermore, white light pulses of different intensities and durations elicited changes both in intracellular Ca2+ levels and in the induction of c-Fos protein in RGC-5 cell cultures. The results demonstrate that RGC-5 cells expressing diverse putative functional photopigments display intrinsic photosensitivity which accounts for the photic induction of c-Fos protein and changes in intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The presence of Opn5 in the GCL of the rat retina suggests the existence of a novel type of photoreceptor cell. PMID:22022612

  12. Gene duplication and spectral diversification of cone visual pigments of zebrafish.

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Akito; Hamaoka, Takanori; Yamada, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a powerful animal model for the study of vision but the genomic organization and variation of its visual opsins have not been fully characterized. We show here that zebrafish has two red (LWS-1 and LWS-2), four green (RH2-1, RH2-2, RH2-3, and RH2-4), and single blue (SWS2) and ultraviolet (SWS1) opsin genes in the genome, among which LWS-2, RH2-2, and RH2-3 are novel. SWS2, LWS-1, and LWS-2 are located in tandem and RH2-1, RH2-2, RH2-3, and RH2-4 form another tandem gene cluster. The peak absorption spectra (lambdamax) of the reconstituted photopigments from the opsin cDNAs differed markedly among them: 558 nm (LWS-1), 548 nm (LWS-2), 467 nm (RH2-1), 476 nm (RH2-2), 488 nm (RH2-3), 505 nm (RH2-4), 355 nm (SWS1), 416 nm (SWS2), and 501 nm (RH1, rod opsin). The quantitative RT-PCR revealed a considerable difference among the opsin genes in the expression level in the retina. The expression of the two red opsin genes and of three green opsin genes, RH2-1, RH2-3, and RH2-4, is significantly lower than that of RH2-2, SWS1, and SWS2. These findings must contribute to our comprehensive understanding of visual capabilities of zebrafish and the evolution of the fish visual system and should become a basis of further studies on expression and developmental regulation of the opsin genes. PMID:12618404

  13. Gravitational-wave sensitivity curves

    E-print Network

    Christopher J. Moore; Robert H. Cole; Christopher P. L. Berry

    2014-12-11

    There are several common conventions in use by the gravitational-wave community to describe the amplitude of sources and the sensitivity of detectors. These are frequently confused. We outline the merits of and differences between the various quantities used for parameterizing noise curves and characterizing gravitational-wave amplitudes. We conclude by producing plots that consistently compare different detectors. Similar figures can be generated on-line for general use at \\url{http://rhcole.com/apps/GWplotter}.

  14. Gravitational-wave sensitivity curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. J.; Cole, R. H.; Berry, C. P. L.

    2015-01-01

    There are several common conventions in use by the gravitational-wave community to describe the amplitude of sources and the sensitivity of detectors. These are frequently confused. We outline the merits of and differences between the various quantities used for parameterizing noise curves and characterizing gravitational-wave amplitudes. We conclude by producing plots that consistently compare different detectors. Similar figures can be generated on-line for general use at http://rhcole.com/apps/GWplotter.

  15. Gravitational-wave sensitivity curves

    E-print Network

    Moore, C. J.; Cole, R. H.; Berry, C. P. L.

    2014-12-08

    (2pif)2 h˜(f)h˜?(f) (23) = ? ? 0 df pic2 4G f 2Sh(f) , (24) 6 where the definition (21) has been used. The integrand in (24) is defined as the spectral energy density, the energy per unit volume of space, per unit frequency (Hellings and Downs, 1983... pi d? df = f 2 f? , (30) where an overdot represents the time derivative and ?? = 2pif . The squared SNR scales with Ncycles, so it would be expected that hc(f) ? ? Ncycles|h˜(f)|. The form for hc can be derived from the Fourier transform...

  16. Ablation of the X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (Rp2) Gene in Mice Results in Opsin Mislocalization and Photoreceptor Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linjing; Khan, Naheed; Hurd, Toby; Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Cheng, Christiana; Molday, Robert; Heckenlively, John R.; Swaroop, Anand; Khanna, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Mutations in the RP2 gene are associated with 10% to 15% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), a debilitating disorder characterized by the degeneration of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. The molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of photoreceptor degeneration in XLRP-RP2 has not been elucidated, and no treatment is currently available. This study was undertaken to investigate the pathogenesis of RP2-associated retinal degeneration. Methods. We introduced loxP sites that flank exon 2, a mutational hotspot in XLRP-RP2, in the mouse Rp2 gene. We then produced Rp2-null allele using transgenic mice that expressed Cre-recombinase under control of the ubiquitous CAG promoter. Electroretinography (ERG), histology, light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to ascertain the effect of ablation of Rp2 on photoreceptor development, function, and protein trafficking. Results. Although no gross abnormalities were detected in the Rp2null mice, photopic (cone) and scotopic (rod) function as measured by ERG showed a gradual decline starting as early as 1 month of age. We also detected slow progressive degeneration of the photoreceptor membrane discs in the mutant retina. These defects were associated with mislocalization of cone opsins to the nuclear and synaptic layers and reduced rhodopsin content in the outer segment of mutant retina prior to the onset of photoreceptor degeneration. Conclusions. Our studies suggest that RP2 contributes to the maintenance of photoreceptor function and that cone opsin mislocalization represents an early step in XLRP caused by RP2 mutations. The Rp2null mice should serve as a useful preclinical model for testing gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:23745007

  17. Long-wave sensitivity in deep-sea stomiid dragonfish with far-red bioluminescence: evidence for a dietary origin of the chlorophyll-derived retinal photosensitizer of Malacosteus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, R H; Mullineaux, C W; Partridge, J C

    2000-01-01

    Both residual downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence, which are the two main sources of illumination available in the deep sea, have limited wavebands concentrated around 450-500 nm. Consequently, the wavelengths of maximum absorption (lambdamax) of the vast majority of deep-sea fish visual pigments also cluster in this part of the spectrum. Three genera of deep-sea loose-jawed dragonfish (Aristostomias, Pachystomias and Malacosteus), however, in addition to the blue bioluminescence typical of most deep-sea animals, also produce far-red light (maximum emission >700 nm) from suborbital photophores. All three genera are sensitive in this part of the spectrum, to which all other animals of the deep sea are blind, potentially affording them a private waveband for illuminating prey and for interspecific communication that is immune from detection by predators and prey. Aristostomias and Pachystomias enhance their long-wave visual sensitivity by the possession of at least three visual pigments that are long-wave shifted (lambdamax values ca. 515, 550 and 590 nm) compared with those of other deep-sea fishes. Malacosteus, on the other hand, although it does possess two of these red-shifted pigments (lambdamax values ca. 520 and 540 nm), lacks the most long-wave-sensitive pigments found in the other two genera. However, it further enhances its long-wave sensitivity with a chlorophyll-derived photosensitizer within its outer segments. The fluorescence emission and excitation spectra of this pigment are very similar to spectra obtained from mesopelagic copepods, which are an important component of diet of Malacosteus, suggesting a dietary origin for this pigment. PMID:11079412

  18. Opsin vs opsin: new materials for biotechnological applications

    E-print Network

    Alfinito, E

    2014-01-01

    The continuous research of new diagnostical methods, early, low invasive and much efficient is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices and in particular sensors, able to use the excellent ability of proteins to selectively react to a specific stimulus, in a fast, reproducible and reversible way. To explore these specific features, a theoretical/computational model called INPA (impedance network protein analogue) is used. The specific characteristic of this approach is to give in a glance a description of the protein not lingering on the complex details of its biochemialc nature but instead privileging its activity.

  19. LWS design replacement study: Optimum design and tradeoff analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design for two long-wavelength (LW) focal-plane and cooler assemblies, including associated preamplifiers and post-amplifiers is presented. The focal-planes and associated electronic assemblies are intended as direct replacement hardware to be installed into the existing 24-channel multispectral scanner used with the NASA Earth Observations Aircraft Program. An organization skilled in the art of LWIR systems can fabricate and deliver the two long-wavelength focal-plane assemblies described in this report when provided with the data and drawings developed during the performance of this contract. The concepts developed during the study including the alternative approaches and selection of components are discussed. Modifications to the preliminary design as reported in a preliminary design review meeting have also been included.

  20. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated infrared filters for use at wavelengths greater than or equal to 15 microns. Unlike conventional dielectric filters used at the short wavelengths, ours are made from stacked metal grids, spaced at a very small fraction of the performance wavelengths. The individual lattice layers are gold, the spacers are polyimide, and they are assembled using integrated circuit processing techniques; they resemble some metallic photonic band-gap structures. We simulate the filter performance accurately, including the coupling of the propagating, near-field electromagnetic modes, using computer aided design codes. We find no anomalous absorption. The geometrical parameters of the grids are easily altered in practice, allowing for the production of tuned filters with predictable useful transmission characteristics. Although developed for astronomical instrumentation, the filters are broadly applicable in systems across infrared and terahertz bands.

  1. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  2. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes. PMID:18598396

  3. Cone visual pigments of aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2005-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the retina and, in deeper-dwelling animals, are blue shifted in lambda(max). PMID:16469194

  4. The transcription factor GTF2IRD1 regulates the topology and function of photoreceptors by modulating photoreceptor gene expression across the retina.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Zhang, Xiaodong; Berlinicke, Cindy; Wan, Jun; Yerrabelli, Anitha; Conner, Elizabeth A; Kjellstrom, Sten; Bush, Ronald; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Swaroop, Anand; Chen, Shiming; Zack, Donald J

    2014-11-12

    The mechanisms that specify photoreceptor cell-fate determination, especially as regards to short-wave-sensitive (S) versus medium-wave-sensitive (M) cone identity, and maintain their nature and function, are not fully understood. Here we report the importance of general transcription factor II-I repeat domain-containing protein 1 (GTF2IRD1) in maintaining M cone cell identity and function as well as rod function. In the mouse, GTF2IRD1 is expressed in cell-fate determined photoreceptors at postnatal day 10. GTF2IRD1 binds to enhancer and promoter regions in the mouse rhodopsin, M- and S-opsin genes, but regulates their expression differentially. Through interaction with the transcription factors CRX and thyroid hormone receptor ? 2, it enhances M-opsin expression, whereas it suppresses S-opsin expression; and with CRX and NRL, it enhances rhodopsin expression. In an apparent paradox, although GTF2IRD1 is widely expressed in multiple cell types across the retina, knock-out of GTF2IRD1 alters the retinal expression of only a limited number of annotated genes. Interestingly, however, the null mutation leads to altered topology of cone opsin expression in the retina, with aberrant S-opsin overexpression and M-opsin underexpression in M cones. Gtf2ird1-null mice also demonstrate abnormal M cone and rod electrophysiological responses. These findings suggest an important role for GTF2IRD1 in regulating the level and topology of rod and cone gene expression, and in maintaining normal retinal function. PMID:25392503

  5. The LWS Geospace Storm Investigations Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Geospace mission of the Living With a Star program is a family of investigations focusing on the compelling science questions that advance our ability to specify, understand, and predict the societal impact of solar variance. Two key areas have been identified as combining both importance to society and potential for scientific progress: 1) characterization and understanding of the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of energetic electrons and ions in the inner magnetosphere, and 2) characterization and understanding of the ionosphere and irregularities that affect communications, navigation and radar systems. Under these broad categories specific science questions have emerged as the priority science objectives for the first Geospace Investigations: How and why do relativistic electrons in the outer zone and slot region vary during geomagnetic storms? How does the long- and short-term variability of the Sun affect the global-scale behavior of the ionospheric electron density and irregularities, especially during magnetic storms and at mid-latitudes? The first Geospace mission will attempt to answer these questions.

  6. The Ionospheric-Thermospheric Component of the LWS-Geospace Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kintner

    2005-01-01

    The Geospace Mission Definition Team report made a persuasive case for investigating the ionosphere-thermosphere system with both LEO in situ instruments and GEO ionospheric imaging. The GMDT science objectives were derived from the Living With a Star Science Architecture Team's consideration of space weather effects that concern society. The two highest priority ionospheric objectives are \\

  7. LWS Proposal to Provide Scientific Guidance and Modeling Support for the Ionospheric Mapping Mission. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A data assimilation system for specifying the thermospheric density has been developed over the last several years. This system ingests GRACE/CHAMP-type in situ as well as SSULI/SSUSI remote sensing observations while making use of a physical model, the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere Model (CTIM) (Fuller-Rowel1 et al., 1996). The Kalman filter was implemented as the backbone to the data assimilation system, which provides a statistically 'best' estimate as well as an estimate of the error in its state. The system was tested using a simulated thermosphere and observations. CHAMP data were then used to provide the system with a real data source. The results of this study are herein.

  8. Flight Experiments for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS-SET): Relationship to Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on flight validation experiments for technologies to determine solar effects. The experiments are intended to demonstrate tolerance to a solar variant environment. The technologies tested are microelectronics, photonics, materials, and sensors.

  9. 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, M. P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Landi, E.; Markovskii, S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Doschek, G. A.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Ng, C.; Raymond, J. C.; Vasquez, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) team was created to apply a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations to the understanding of how the fast and slow solar wind are heated and accelerated. Four proposals were selected for this FST team. They will investigate the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST team will examine magnetic reconnection and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements, will be used to put firm constraints on the models. The work of the Solar Wind FST team is in its initial stages. The organization, planning, and findings resulting from the first FST team meeting will be reported.

  10. WITHERS -NASA LWS TR&T 2007 -PAGE 1 OF 33 Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    - Introduction 2 - Mars Ionospheric Observations During Solar Flares 3 - GPS Range Errors 4 - D Region Absorption TR&T 2007 - PAGE 2 OF 33 Title: Simulations of the effects of extreme solar flares on technological systems at Mars Short title: Extreme solar flares at Mars Summary of proposal: We propose to simulate

  11. Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Jameson; Susan M. Highnote; Linda M. Wasserman

    2001-01-01

    Traditional color vision theory posits that three types of retinal photopigments transduce light into a trivariate neural\\u000a color code, thereby explaining color-matching behaviors. Thisprinciple of trichromacy is in need of reexamination in view of molecular genetics results suggesting that a substantial percentage of women possess\\u000a more than three classes of retinal photopigments. At issue is the question of whether four-photopigment

  12. Opsin Genes and Visual Ecology in a Nocturnal Folivorous Lemur

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA e-mail: carrie.veilleux@utexas.edu R. L. Jacobs, USA M. E. Cummings Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA #12;consumed by Avahi and background foliage in Ranomafana National Park

  13. Plasticity of opsin gene expression in cichlids from Lake Malawi

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    -caught fish to lab-reared F1 that had been raised in a UV minus, reduced intensity light environment. All Introduction An organism's ability to adapt to its environment over the course of a lifetime has important

  14. Palmitoylation stabilizes unliganded rod opsin Akiko Maedaa,b,1

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    -palmitoylated on two adja- cent C-terminal Cys residues at its cytoplasmic surface. Surpris- ingly, absence light-induced retinal degen- eration that first involved rod and then cone cells. After brief bright phagocytic macrophages. When Palm-/- mice were crossed with Lrat-/- mice lacking leci- thin:retinol acyl

  15. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a detector of configurable positive operator-valued measures

    E-print Network

    Graciana Puentes; Jeff S. Lundeen; Matthijs P. A. Branderhorst; Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; Brian J. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley

    2009-02-09

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures (POVMs). The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting POVMs can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  16. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a detector of configurable positive operator-valued measures

    E-print Network

    Puentes, Graciana; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures (POVMs). The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting POVMs can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  17. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-02-27

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities. PMID:19257725

  18. Modelling rock-avalanche induced impact waves: Sensitivity of the model chains to model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to impacts from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an impact. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. Usually natural hazards are assessed as single hazardous processes, for the above mentioned reasons, however, development of assessment and reproduction methods of the hazardous process chain for the purpose of hazard map generation have to be brought forward. A combination of physical process models have already been suggested and illustrated by means of lake outburst in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where on April 11th 2010 an ice-avalanche of approx. 300'000m3 triggered an impact wave, which overtopped the 22m freeboard of the rock-dam for 5 meters and caused and outburst flood which travelled 23 km to the city of Carhuaz. We here present a study, where we assessed the sensitivity of the model chain from ice-avalanche and impact wave to single parameters considering rock-/ice-avalanche modeling by RAMMS and impact wave modeling by IBER. Assumptions on the initial rock-/ice-avalanche volume, calibration of the friction parameters in RAMMS and assumptions on erosion considered in RAMMS were parameters tested regarding their influence on overtopping parameters that are crucial for outburst flood modeling. Further the transformation of the RAMMS-output (flow height and flow velocities on the shoreline of the lake) into an inflow-hydrograph for IBER was also considered a possible source of uncertainties. Overtopping time, volume, and wave height as much as mean and maximum discharge were considered decisive parameters for the outburst flood modeling and were therewith assumed dependent values. The resulting 54 runs were evaluated by an ANOVA-analysis for each dependent variable. Results show, that the model chain is able to correctly reproduce the 5m-overtopping wave. Further the dependency from the input parameters could be assessed for every dependent variable. It was e.g. shown, that RAMMS-calibration has the strongest influence on all variations, it is more crucial then the uncertainties introduced by assumptions on the initial rock-avalanche volume. The study shows, that from a hazard-assessment point of view, combinations of model chains are acceptable and permissible.

  19. Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akiko; Oshima, Noriko

    2006-09-01

    Although motile iridophores in the longitudinal stripes of neon tetra skin are under control of the sympathetic nervous system, they also respond to light directly and show circadian color changes. Using neon tetra skin, we found that the photoresponse of iridophores depends on light intensity, and that light near 500 nm is most effective. RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of mRNAs encoding rhodopsin and two kinds of cone opsins (Pi-green1 and Pi-green2) in neon tetra skin where the light-sensitive iridophores exist. These mRNAs are also expressed in the lateral eyes. The cone opsin genes, Pi-green1 and Pi-green2, show high similarity with the g101 and g103 genes of unique green cone opsins (belonging to the MWS/LWS group) of the blind Mexican cavefish. These results show that Pi-green1, Pi-green2, and/or rhodopsin may play important roles in the photoresponse of neon tetra iridophores, which are most sensitive to light near 500 nm. PMID:17043404

  20. Detection of the 62 micron Crystalline Water Ice Feature in Emission toward HH7 with ISO-LWS

    E-print Network

    Sergio Molinari; Cecilia Ceccarelli; Glenn White; Paolo Saraceno; Brunella Nisini; Teresa Giannini; Emmanuel Caux

    1999-06-09

    We report the detection of the 62 micron feature of crystalline water ice in emission towards the bow-shaped Herbig-Haro object HH 7. Significant amounts of far infrared continuum emission are also detected between 10 and 200 micron, so that Herbig-Haro objects cease to be pure emission-line objects at FIR wavelengths. The formation of crystalline water ice mantles requires grain temperatures T > 100 K at the time of mantle formation, suggesting that we are seeing material processed by the HH 7 shock front. The deduced ice mass is \\~2e-5 solar masses corresponding to a water column density N~ 1e18 cm-3; an estimate of the [H2O]/[H] abundance yields values close to the interstellar gas-phase oxygen abundance. The relatively high dust temperature and the copious amounts of gas-phase water needed to produce the observed quantity of crystalline water ice, suggest a scenario where both dissociative and non-dissociative shocks co-exist. The timescale for ice mantle formation is of the order of ~400 years, so that the importance of gas-phase water cooling as a shock diagnostic may be greatly diminished.

  1. S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David M; Peichl, Leo

    2014-03-01

    S cones expressing the short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) class of visual pigment generally form only a minority type of cone photoreceptor within the vertebrate duplex retina. Hence, their primary role is in color vision, not in high acuity vision. In mammals, S cones may be present as a constant fraction of the cones across the retina, may be restricted to certain regions of the retina or may form a gradient across the retina, and in some species, there is coexpression of SWS1 and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class of pigment in many cones. During retinal development, SWS1 opsin expression generally precedes that of LWS opsin, and evidence from genetic studies indicates that the S cone pathway may be the default pathway for cone development. With the notable exception of the cartilaginous fishes, where S cones appear to be absent, they are present in representative species from all other vertebrate classes. S cone loss is not, however, uncommon; they are absent from most aquatic mammals and from some but not all nocturnal terrestrial species. The peak spectral sensitivity of S cones depends on the spectral characteristics of the pigment present. Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum (>380 nm) on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution. In all cases, the shift was generated by just one or a few replacements in tuning-relevant residues. Only in the avian lineage has tuning moved in the opposite direction, with the reinvention of UV-sensitive pigments. PMID:23895771

  2. SS-wave sensitivity to upper mantle structure: Implications for the mapping of transition zone discontinuity topographies

    E-print Network

    Chevrot, Sébastien

    April 2003; published 12 June 2003. [1] Studies of the depths of the upper mantle discontinuities have to upper mantle structure: Implications for the mapping of transition zone discontinuity topographies of the upper mantle discontinuities provide constraints on the temperature and chemistry in the transition zone

  3. Adaptive Molecular Evolution in the Opsin Genes of Rapidly Speciating Cichlid Species

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    in the rods of freshwater teleosts. Among the cot- toids of Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake, rhodopsin in cone spectral sensitivity associated with disparities in photic environment. Both deep-dwelling Lake Baikal cottoids and coelacanths show a marked shortwave shift in cone spectral sensitivities (Bowmaker et

  4. Adult stemmata of the butterfly Vanessa cardui express UV and green opsin mRNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana D. Briscoe; Richard H. White

    2005-01-01

    Adult stemmata are distinctive insect photoreceptors located on the posterior surfaces of the optic lobes. They originate as larval eyes that migrate inward during metamorphosis. We used a combination of light microscopy and in situ hybridization to examine their anatomical organization in the butterfly Vanessa cardui and to test for the presence of visual pigments, the light sensitive components of

  5. Informational lesions: optical perturbation of spike timing and neural synchrony via microbial opsin gene fusions

    E-print Network

    Han, Xue

    Synchronous neural activity occurs throughout the brain in association with normal and pathological brain functions. Despite theoretical work exploring how such neural coordination might facilitate neural computation and ...

  6. Evolution of the vertebrate eye: opsins, photoreceptors, retina and eye cup

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.; Collin, Shaun P.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin appreciated the conceptual difficulty in accepting that an organ as wonderful as the vertebrate eye could have evolved through natural selection. He reasoned that if appropriate gradations could be found that were useful to the animal and were inherited, then the apparent difficulty would be overcome. Here, we review a wide range of findings that capture glimpses of the gradations that appear to have occurred during eye evolution, and provide a scenario for the unseen steps that have led to the emergence of the vertebrate eye. PMID:18026166

  7. Principles for applying optogenetic tools derived from direct comparative analysis of microbial opsins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Mattis; Kay M Tye; Emily A Ferenczi; Charu Ramakrishnan; Daniel J O'Shea; Rohit Prakash; Lisa A Gunaydin; Minsuk Hyun; Lief E Fenno; Viviana Gradinaru; Ofer Yizhar; Karl Deisseroth

    2011-01-01

    Diverse optogenetic tools have allowed versatile control over neural activity. Many depolarizing and hyperpolarizing tools have now been developed in multiple laboratories and tested across different preparations, presenting opportunities but also making it difficult to draw direct comparisons. This challenge has been compounded by the dependence of performance on parameters such as vector, promoter, expression time, illumination, cell type and

  8. Short-wavelength sensitive opsin (SWS1) as a new marker for vertebrate phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    van Hazel, Ilke; Santini, Francesco; Müller, Johannes; Chang, Belinda SW

    2006-01-01

    Background Vertebrate SWS1 visual pigments mediate visual transduction in response to light at short wavelengths. Due to their importance in vision, SWS1 genes have been isolated from a surprisingly wide range of vertebrates, including lampreys, teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The SWS1 genes exhibit many of the characteristics of genes typically targeted for phylogenetic analyses. This study investigates both the utility of SWS1 as a marker for inferring vertebrate phylogenetic relationships, and the characteristics of the gene that contribute to its phylogenetic utility. Results Phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate SWS1 genes produced topologies that were remarkably congruent with generally accepted hypotheses of vertebrate evolution at both higher and lower taxonomic levels. The few exceptions were generally associated with areas of poor taxonomic sampling, or relationships that have been difficult to resolve using other molecular markers. The SWS1 data set was characterized by a substantial amount of among-site rate variation, and a relatively unskewed substitution rate matrix, even when the data were partitioned into different codon sites and individual taxonomic groups. Although there were nucleotide biases in some groups at third positions, these biases were not convergent across different taxonomic groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that SWS1 may be a good marker for vertebrate phylogenetics due to the variable yet consistent patterns of sequence evolution exhibited across fairly wide taxonomic groups. This may result from constraints imposed by the functional role of SWS1 pigments in visual transduction. PMID:17107620

  9. The role of water in retinal complexation to bacterio-opsin.

    PubMed

    Rousso, I; Brodsky, I; Lewis, A; Sheves, M

    1995-06-01

    A system is described that allows for the delineation of the factors that effect the complexation of retinal to the apoprotein of bacteriorhodopsin. This complexation is investigated in various states of hydration, in H2O and D2O, at a variety of pH levels, with mutant membranes and labeled retinals. The complexation reaction was also investigated using absorption spectroscopy and vibrational spectra using difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrate the crucial role of water in controlling the protein conformations that lead to protein/ligand binding reactions and begin to shed new light on the protein control of a reaction that normally cannot take place in an aqueous medium. PMID:7775444

  10. Global Measurements of the Magnetic Field of the Inner Heliosphere with the Mileura Wide- Field Array in Support of LWS Sentinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, J. C.; D, O.; Salah, J. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Mileura Wide-Field Array Low Frequency Demonstrator (MWA) is an 80-300 MHz interferometric radio array consisting of 8000 antennas distributed in 16-antenna tiles over several square kilometers in Mileura Station, Western Australia. Selected by the NSF in June 2006, antenna deployment will begin in 2007, and the array is scheduled to become operational within three years. The primary goal of MWA-LFD is to demonstrate the capabilities of a digital array for conducting groundbreaking heliospheric and astrophysical science through wide fields of view, high sensitivity, and multiple beam capabilities. The heliospheric science goals of MWA are to characterize the density, velocity, and magnetic field of the inner heliosphere, from the outer corona to interplanetary space, and to image and localize solar radio bursts. The recently released Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team report describes the value of supporting observations from ground-based instruments such as the MWA. We will present the MWA and discuss how we will use the array to reconstruct the magnetic connection between the corona and the inner heliosphere, both during quiet times and in the presence of CMEs. In particular, we will demonstrate how observing simultaneously the Faraday rotation of polarized radio emission from hundreds of galaxies within 80 Rs of the Sun will be used to trace the magnetic field topology out to the planned Sentinels orbit. These measurements will provide a global context for the Sentinels observations.

  11. MODELING LARGE WOOD STRUCTURES IN SAND BED STREAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-stream large wood structures (LWS) are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The LWS improve aquatic habitat quality and protect banks from erosion. While most reports describe the LWS in the Northwest as successful, LWS in one Mississippi sand-bed stream had an unacceptable failure...

  12. RELAX: Detecting Relaxed Selection in a Phylogenetic Framework.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Murrell, Ben; Smith, Martin D; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Relaxation of selective strength, manifested as a reduction in the efficiency or intensity of natural selection, can drive evolutionary innovation and presage lineage extinction or loss of function. Mechanisms through which selection can be relaxed range from the removal of an existing selective constraint to a reduction in effective population size. Standard methods for estimating the strength and extent of purifying or positive selection from molecular sequence data are not suitable for detecting relaxed selection, because they lack power and can mistake an increase in the intensity of positive selection for relaxation of both purifying and positive selection. Here, we present a general hypothesis testing framework (RELAX) for detecting relaxed selection in a codon-based phylogenetic framework. Given two subsets of branches in a phylogeny, RELAX can determine whether selective strength was relaxed or intensified in one of these subsets relative to the other. We establish the validity of our test via simulations and show that it can distinguish between increased positive selection and a relaxation of selective strength. We also demonstrate the power of RELAX in a variety of biological scenarios where relaxation of selection has been hypothesized or demonstrated previously. We find that obligate and facultative ?-proteobacteria endosymbionts of insects are under relaxed selection compared with their free-living relatives and obligate endosymbionts are under relaxed selection compared with facultative endosymbionts. Selective strength is also relaxed in asexual Daphnia pulex lineages, compared with sexual lineages. Endogenous, nonfunctional, bornavirus-like elements are found to be under relaxed selection compared with exogenous Borna viruses. Finally, selection on the short-wavelength sensitive, SWS1, opsin genes in echolocating and nonecholocating bats is relaxed only in lineages in which this gene underwent pseudogenization; however, selection on the functional medium/long-wavelength sensitive opsin, M/LWS1, is found to be relaxed in all echolocating bats compared with nonecholocating bats. PMID:25540451

  13. From the ultrasonic to the infrared: molecular evolution and the sensory biology of bats

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Great advances have been made recently in understanding the genetic basis of the sensory biology of bats. Research has focused on the molecular evolution of candidate sensory genes, genes with known functions [e.g., olfactory receptor (OR) genes] and genes identified from mutations associated with sensory deficits (e.g., blindness and deafness). For example, the FoxP2 gene, underpinning vocal behavior and sensorimotor coordination, has undergone diversification in bats, while several genes associated with audition show parallel amino acid substitutions in unrelated lineages of echolocating bats and, in some cases, in echolocating dolphins, representing a classic case of convergent molecular evolution. Vision genes encoding the photopigments rhodopsin and the long-wave sensitive opsin are functional in bats, while that encoding the short-wave sensitive opsin has lost functionality in rhinolophoid bats using high-duty cycle laryngeal echolocation, suggesting a sensory trade-off between investment in vision and echolocation. In terms of olfaction, bats appear to have a distinctive OR repertoire compared with other mammals, and a gene involved in signal transduction in the vomeronasal system has become non-functional in most bat species. Bitter taste receptors appear to have undergone a “birth-and death” evolution involving extensive gene duplication and loss, unlike genes coding for sweet and umami tastes that show conservation across most lineages but loss in vampire bats. Common vampire bats have also undergone adaptations for thermoperception, via alternative splicing resulting in the evolution of a novel heat-sensitive channel. The future for understanding the molecular basis of sensory biology is promising, with great potential for comparative genomic analyses, studies on gene regulation and expression, exploration of the role of alternative splicing in the generation of proteomic diversity, and linking genetic mechanisms to behavioral consequences. PMID:23755015

  14. Mechanisms of Opsin Activation* (Received for publication, March 7, 1996, and in revised form, May 14, 1996)

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    aldehyde and all-trans-retinal being the most active and trans-C12 aldehyde being the least active. Certain cis-isomers, 11-cis-13-demethyl-retinal and 9-cis-C17 aldehyde, were also active. Most of the retinal

  15. Complex Distribution of Avian Color Vision Systems Revealed by Sequencing the SWS1 Opsin from Total DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Odeen

    To gain insights into the evolution and ecology of visually acute animals such as birds, biologists often need to understand how these animals perceive colors. This poses a problem, since the human eye is of a different design than that of most other animals. The standard solution is to examine the spectral sensitivity properties of animal retinas through microspectophotometry—a procedure

  16. Advantage of dichromats over trichromats in discrimination of color-camouflaged stimuli in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsuko; Mikami, Akichika; Kawamura, Shoji; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Widayati, Kanthi A; Suryobroto, Bambang; Teramoto, Migaku; Mori, Yusuke; Nagano, Kunitoshi; Fujita, Kazuo; Kuroshima, Hika; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-12-01

    Due to a middle- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) cone opsin polymorphism, there is considerable phenotypic variation in the color vision of New World monkeys. Many females have trichromatic vision, whereas some females and all males have dichromatic vision. The selective pressures that maintain this polymorphism are unclear. In the present study we compared the performance of dichromats and trichromats in a discrimination task. We examined tri- and dichromatic individuals of two species: brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We also examined one protanomalous chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The subjects' task was to discriminate a circular pattern from other patterns in which textural elements differed in orientation and thickness from the background. After they were trained with stimuli of a single color, the subjects were presented with color-camouflaged stimuli with a green/red mosaic overlaid onto the pattern. The dichromatic monkeys and the protanomalous chimpanzee selected the correct stimulus under camouflaged conditions at rates significantly above chance levels, while the trichromats did not. These findings demonstrate that dichromatic nonhuman primates possess a superior visual ability to discriminate color-camouflaged stimuli, and that such an ability may confer selective advantages with respect to the detection of cryptic foods and/or predators. PMID:16342068

  17. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  18. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  19. Introduction Color vision enables animals to reliably detect and recognize

    E-print Network

    ), whereas another nymphalid, Vanessa atalanta, despite having color vision, is unable to do so. In the eyes, both S opsin or one M opsin and one S opsin: Vanessa cardui (Briscoe et al., 2003); Danaus plexippus either broadband light (300­700·nm) as in Vanessa cardui (Briscoe et al., 2003), or relatively narrow

  20. One Look at Postmodern Religious Education: A Portrait of Ananda School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Barbara Wang

    This descriptive study examined Ananda School (Nevada City, California) grades K-7, or as it is now called, Living Wisdom School (LWS). The specific goal was to examine the model of spiritual development embodied in the LWS program, its interpersonal dynamics, and its curriculum. The study sought to understand how the school operates within the…

  1. Design of Large Wood Structures in Sand-Bed Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large woody structures (LWS) are potentially an efficient and cost effective way to protect streambanks from erosion while enhancing aquatic habitat. While LWS have been successful in some cases in the Pacific Northwest when ballasted with rock, the failure rate in sand-bed streams typical of the mi...

  2. Local helioseismology: methods and challenges

    E-print Network

    Braun, Douglas C.

    / SOHO 27 1 #12;outline meeting the challenges of random and systematic errors with use of numerical subsurface structure of sunspots 11/12/2012 GONG 2012 / LWS/SDO-5 / SOHO 27 2 #12;Example 1: (systematic shift whch vary with height See Baldner & Schou (2012, ApJ) 11/12/2012 GONG 2012 / LWS/SDO-5 / SOHO 27

  3. Differential gene expression in mouse retina related to regional differences in vulnerability to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Krisztina; Stone, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In the C57BL/6J mouse retina, hyperoxia-induced degeneration of photoreceptors shows strong regional variation, beginning at a locus ~0.5 mm inferior to the optic disc. To identify gene expression differences that might underlie this variability in vulnerability, we have used microarray techniques to describe regional (superior-inferior) variations in gene expression in the retina. Methods Young adult C57BL/6J mice raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h at 5 lx and 12 h in darkness) were exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen for two weeks). Retinas were collected from hyperoxia-exposed and control animals without fixation and divided into superior and inferior halves. RNA was extracted from each sample, purified, and hybridized to Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix). The consistency of the microarray results was assessed using quantitative PCR for selected genes. Expression data were analyzed to identify genes and ncRNAs whose differential expression between the superior and inferior retina could be associated with relative vulnerability to hyperoxia. Results In control retinas, only two genes showed a fold difference in expression >2 between the superior and inferior retina; another 25 showed a fold difference of 1.5–2.0. Of these 27, the functions of six genes, including ventral anterior homeobox containing gene 2 (Vax2) and T-box 5 (Tbox5), are related to parameters of anatomic development and the functions of five are related to sensory perception. Among the latter, short-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1sw) was more strongly expressed in the inferior retina and medium-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1mw) in the superior retina. This is consistent with known differences in S- and M-cone distribution, confirming our separation of retinal regions. The highest fold difference was reported for membrane metalloendopeptidase (Mme), a member from the metallothionein group of cytoprotective proteins. To identify genes whose regulation by hyperoxia was significantly different between the inferior and superior retina, we calculated the “fold margin” (FM, the difference between hyperoxia-induced regulation in the inferior and superior retina) for each gene, and identified genes for which abs(FM) > 0.5. Genes thus identified numbered 112, and included many immune-, cell defense-, and inflammation- related genes. Conclusions Gene expression analysis revealed relatively subtle differences between inferior and superior regions of control C57BL/6J retinas, with only 27 genes showing an expression difference >1.5 fold. Among these, genes related to cytoprotection and apoptosis were included, along with genes related to central projections and cone-type differences. After hyperoxia-induced photoreceptor degeneration had begun, the number of genes that showed significant expression differences between the inferior and superior retina more than quadrupled, with genes related to immune processes, defense processes, and inflammation being numerically dominant. PMID:20454693

  4. Wavelets method for the time fractional diffusion-wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, M. H.; Hooshmandasl, M. R.; Maalek Ghaini, F. M.; Cattani, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient and accurate computational method based on the Legendre wavelets (LWs) is proposed for solving the time fractional diffusion-wave equation (FDWE). To this end, a new fractional operational matrix (FOM) of integration for the LWs is derived. The LWs and their FOM of integration are used to transform the problem under consideration into a linear system of algebraic equations, which can be simply solved to achieve the solution of the problem. The proposed method is very convenient for solving such problems, since the initial and boundary conditions are taken into account automatically.

  5. C II 158 ??bservations of a Sample of Late-type Galaxies from the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, K.; Volk, H.; Heinrichsen, I.; Hippelein, H.; Metcalfe, L.; Pierini, D.; Popescu, C.; Tuffs, R.; Xu, C.

    1999-01-01

    We have observed 19 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) obtaining spectra around the [CII] 157.741 ??ine structure line.

  6. [C II] 158-micrometer Observations of a Sample of Late-type Galaxies from the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, K. J.; Volk, H. J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Hippelein, H.; Metcalfe, L.; Pierini, D.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Xu, C.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed 19 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) obtaining spectral around the (C II) 157.741-micrometer fine structure line.

  7. Targeted Research and Technology Within NASA's Living With a Star Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  8. Probing Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration in a New Mouse Model of the Common Form of Autosomal

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exactH opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1

  9. THE RHODOPSIN SYSTEM OF THE SQUID

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Ruth; St. George, Robert C. C.

    1958-01-01

    Squid rhodopsin (?max 493 mµ)—like vertebrate rhodopsins—contains a retinene chromophore linked to a protein, opsin. Light transforms rhodopsin to lumi- and metarhodopsin. However, whereas vertebrate metarhodopsin at physiological temperatures decomposes into retinene and opsin, squid metarhodopsin is stable. Light also converts squid metarhodopsin to rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is therefore regenerated from metarhodopsin in the light. Irradiation of rhodopsin or metarhodopsin produces a steady state by promoting the reactions, See PDF for Equation Squid rhodopsin contains neo-b (11-cis) retinene; metarhodopsin all-trans retinene. The interconversion of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin involves only the stereoisomerization of their chromophores. Squid metarhodopsin is a pH indicator, red (?max 500 mµ) near neutrality, yellow (?max 380 mµ) in alkaline solution. The two forms—acid and alkaline metarhodopsin—are interconverted according to the equation, Alkaline metarhodopsin + H+ ?acid metarhodopsin, with pK 7.7. In both forms, retinene is attached to opsin at the same site as in rhodopsin. However, metarhodopsin decomposes more readily than rhodopsin into retinene and opsin. The opsins apparently fit the shape of the neo-b chromophore. When light isomerizes the chromophore to the all-trans configuration, squid opsin accepts the all-trans chromophore, while vertebrate opsins do not and hence release all-trans retinene. Light triggers vision by affecting directly the shape of the retinene chromophore. This changes its relationship with opsin, so initiating a train of chemical reactions. PMID:13491819

  10. Into the blue: Gene duplication and loss underlie color vision adaptations in a deep-sea chimaera, the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Wayne L.; Carvalho, Livia S.; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Hunt, David M.; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2009-01-01

    The cartilaginous fishes reside at the base of the gnathostome lineage as the oldest extant group of jawed vertebrates. Recently, the genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaerid holocephalan, has been sequenced and therefore becomes the first cartilaginous fish to be analyzed in this way. The chimaeras have been largely neglected and very little is known about the visual systems of these fishes. By searching the elephant shark genome, we have identified gene fragments encoding a rod visual pigment, Rh1, and three cone visual pigments, the middle wavelength-sensitive or Rh2 pigment, and two isoforms of the long wavelength-sensitive or LWS pigment, LWS1 and LWS2, but no evidence for the two short wavelength-sensitive cone classes, SWS1 and SWS2. Expression of these genes in the retina was confirmed by RT-PCR. Full-length coding sequences were used for in vitro expression and gave the following peak absorbances: Rh1 496 nm, Rh2 442 nm, LWS1 499 nm, and LWS2 548 nm. Unusually, therefore, for a deep-sea fish, the elephant shark possesses cone pigments and the potential for trichromacy. Compared with other vertebrates, the elephant shark Rh2 and LWS1 pigments are the shortest wavelength-shifted pigments of their respective classes known to date. The mechanisms for this are discussed and we provide experimental evidence that the elephant shark LWS1 pigment uses a novel tuning mechanism to achieve the short wavelength shift to 499 nm, which inactivates the chloride-binding site. Our findings have important implications for the present knowledge of color vision evolution in early vertebrates. PMID:19196633

  11. Derivation of Human Differential Photoreceptor-like Cells from the Iris by Defined Combinations of CRX, RX and NEUROD

    PubMed Central

    Seko, Yuko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Kaneda, Makoto; Nakatani, Kei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Noshiro, Yuuki; Kurokawa, Reiko; Okano, Hideyuki; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Examples of direct differentiation by defined transcription factors have been provided for beta-cells, cardiomyocytes and neurons. In the human visual system, there are four kinds of photoreceptors in the retina. Neural retina and iris-pigmented epithelium (IPE) share a common developmental origin, leading us to test whether human iris cells could differentiate to retinal neurons. We here define the transcription factor combinations that can determine human photoreceptor cell fate. Expression of rhodopsin, blue opsin and green/red opsin in induced photoreceptor cells were dependent on combinations of transcription factors: A combination of CRX and NEUROD induced rhodopsin and blue opsin, but did not induce green opsin; a combination of CRX and RX induced blue opsin and green/red opsin, but did not induce rhodopsin. Phototransduction-related genes as well as opsin genes were up-regulated in those cells. Functional analysis; i.e. patch clamp recordings, clearly revealed that generated photoreceptor cells, induced by CRX, RX and NEUROD, responded to light. The response was an inward current instead of the typical outward current. These data suggest that photosensitive photoreceptor cells can be generated by combinations of transcription factors. The combination of CRX and RX generate immature photoreceptors: and additional NEUROD promotes maturation. These findings contribute substantially to a major advance toward eventual cell-based therapy for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:22558175

  12. Chlamyrhodopsin represents a new type of sensory photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Deininger, W; Kröger, P; Hegemann, U; Lottspeich, F; Hegemann, P

    1995-01-01

    In order to find optimal light conditions for photosynthetic growth, the green alga Chlamydomonas uses a visual system. An optical device, a rhodopsin photoreceptor and an electrical signal transduction chain that mediates between photoreceptor and flagella comprise this system. Here we present an improved strategy for the preparation of eyespot membranes. These membranes contain a retinal binding protein, which has been proposed to be the apoprotein of the phototaxis receptor. The retinal binding protein, which we named chlamyopsin, was purified and opsin-specific antibodies were raised. Using these antibodies, the opsin was localized in the eyespot region of whole cells during growth and cell division. The opsin cDNA was purified and sequenced. The sequence reveals that chlamyopsin is not a typical seven helix receptor. It shows some homology to invertebrate opsins but not to opsins from halobacteria. It contains many polar and charged residues and might function as a light-gated ion channel complex. It is likely that this lower plant rhodopsin diverged from animal opsins early in opsin evolution. Images PMID:8846778

  13. Number and Distribution of Mouse Retinal Cone Photoreceptors: Differences between an Albino (Swiss) and a Pigmented (C57/BL6) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-López, Manuel; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J.; Nieto-López, Leticia; García-Ayuso, Diego; Villegas-Pérez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We purpose here to analyze and compare the population and topography of cone photoreceptors in two mouse strains using automated routines, and to design a method of retinal sampling for their accurate manual quantification. In whole-mounted retinas from pigmented C57/BL6 and albino Swiss mice, the longwave-sensitive (L) and the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsins were immunodetected to analyze the population of each cone type. In another group of retinas both opsins were detected with the same fluorophore to quantify all cones. In a third set of retinas, L-opsin and Brn3a were immunodetected to determine whether L-opsin+cones and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have a parallel distribution. Cones and RGCs were automatically quantified and their topography illustrated with isodensity maps. Our results show that pigmented mice have a significantly higher number of total cones (all-cones) and of L-opsin+cones than albinos which, in turn, have a higher population of S-opsin+cones. In pigmented animals 40% of cones are dual (cones that express both opsins), 34% genuine-L (cones that only express the L-opsin), and 26% genuine-S (cones that only express the S-opsin). In albinos, 23% of cones are genuine-S and the proportion of dual cones increases to 76% at the expense of genuine-L cones. In both strains, L-opsin+cones are denser in the central than peripheral retina, and all-cones density increases dorso-ventrally. In pigmented animals S-opsin+cones are scarce in the dorsal retina and very numerous in the ventral retina, being densest in its nasal aspect. In albinos, S-opsin+cones are abundant in the dorsal retina, although their highest densities are also ventral. Based on the densities of each cone population, we propose a sampling method to manually quantify and infer their total population. In conclusion, these data provide the basis to study cone degeneration and its prevention in pathologic conditions. PMID:25029531

  14. Living With a Star, the Geospace Mission Definition Team and Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, Paul M., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Spann, Jim; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the Sun-Earth system, including how and why the sun varies, how the earth responds, and the impacts on humanity, research is needed that has a integrated and systematic approach. The Living With a Star (LWS) program represents an important element in this regard both to continued progress in space science in general and in Aeronomy in particular. A fundamental question in Aeronomy is how the variable sun affects the ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. The LWS program focuses on those areas of scientific understanding that promote progress in areas that have human impact and can be investigated with space borne instruments. The Geospace Mission Definition Team is charged with investigating the science priorities identified by the LWS Science Architecture Team and developing an approach to making the necessary measurements in concert with other missions and programs. An important aspect of this approach is that all LWS measurement programs are operating simultaneously for several years. We will review some of the areas that the LWS SAT have emphasized in Aeronomy, including understanding the effects of solar variability on ionospheric density and irregularities, the effects of solar variability on the mass density of the atmosphere at LEO altitudes, and the effects of solar variability on near-surface temperatures and on ozone distribution.

  15. Supporting Information Section S1: Known Spectral Tuning Sites

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    , Seehausen O (2005) Colour vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids of the genus Pundamilia. Mol Ecol selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids. PLoS Biol 4: 2244-2251. Section S

  16. Single-Copy Nuclear Genes Recover Cretaceous-Age Divergences in Bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRYAN N. DANFORTH; S E ´ AN G. BRADY; SEDONIA SIPES; ADAM PEARSON

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the higher level phylogeny of the bee family Halictidae based on the coding regions of three single-copy nuclear genes (long-wavelength (LW) opsin, wingless, and elongation factor 1-? (EF-1?)). Our combined data set consisted of 2,234 aligned nucleotide sites (702 base pairs (bp) for LW opsin, 405 bp for wingless, and 1,127 bp for EF-1?) and 779 parsimony-informative sites.

  17. Hypothalamic differences in expression of genes involved in monoamine synthesis and signaling pathways after insulin injection in chickens from lines selected for high and low body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kim, Sungwon; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Sumners, Lindsay H; Siegel, Paul B; Dorshorst, Benjamin J; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-04-01

    Long-term selection for juvenile body weight from a common founder population resulted in two divergent chicken lines (low-weight selected line (LWS), high-weight selected line (HWS)) that display distinct food intake and blood glucose responses to exogenous neuropeptides and insulin. The objective of this study was to elucidate putative targets affecting food intake and energy homeostasis by sequencing hypothalamic RNA from LWS and HWS chickens after insulin injection. Ninety-day-old female LWS and HWS chickens were injected with either vehicle or insulin and hypothalamus collected at 1 h postinjection. Through RNA sequencing, a total of 361 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. There was greater expression of genes, mainly tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC), and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), involved in serotonin and dopamine biosynthesis and signaling in LWS than in HWS vehicle-injected chickens. In contrast, after insulin injection, these genes were more highly expressed in HWS than in LWS. We identified 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) existing only in the HWS and 121 SNPs specific to LWS and 5119 SNPs close to fixation (with absolute frequency difference ?0.9). Four were located in genes encoding enzymes associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways, such as DDC, TH, and solute carrier family 18, member 2 (VMAT). These data implicate differences in biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine in hypothalamic physiology between the chicken lines, and these differences might be associated with polymorphisms during long-term selection. Changes in serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling pathways in response to insulin injection suggest a role in whole-body energy homeostasis. PMID:25582322

  18. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  19. Encephalic photoreception and phototactic response in the troglobiont Somalian blind cavefish Phreatichthys andruzzii

    PubMed Central

    Tarttelin, Emma E.; Frigato, Elena; Bellingham, James; Di Rosa, Viviana; Berti, Roberto; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Lucas, Robert J.; Bertolucci, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Many physiological and behavioural responses to changes in environmental lighting conditions are mediated by extraocular photoreceptors. Here we investigate encephalic photoreception in Phreatichthys andruzzii, a typical cave-dwelling fish showing an extreme phenotype with complete anophthalmy and a reduction in size of associated brain structures. We firstly identified two P. andruzzii photopigments, orthologues of rod opsin and exo-rod opsin. In vitro, both opsins serve as light-absorbing photopigments with ?max around 500 nm when reconstituted with an A1 chromophore. When corrected for the summed absorption from the skin and skull, the spectral sensitivity profiles shifted to longer wavelengths (rod opsin: 521 nm; exo-rod opsin: 520 nm). We next explored the involvement of both opsins in the negative phototaxis reported for this species. A comparison of the spectral sensitivity of the photophobic response with the putative A2 absorbance spectra corrected for skin/skull absorbance indicates that the A2 versions of either or both of these pigments could explain the observed behavioural spectral sensitivity. PMID:22837464

  20. Human Cone Visual Pigment Deletions Spare Sufficient Photoreceptors to Warrant Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Carroll, Joseph; Sumaroka, Alexander; Luo, Xunda; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Dubra, Alfredo; Land, Megan; Michaelides, Michel; Gardner, Jessica C.; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Moore, Anthony T.; Sisk, Robert A.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Kohl, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human X-linked blue-cone monochromacy (BCM), a disabling congenital visual disorder of cone photoreceptors, is a candidate disease for gene augmentation therapy. BCM is caused by either mutations in the red (OPN1LW) and green (OPN1MW) cone photoreceptor opsin gene array or large deletions encompassing portions of the gene array and upstream regulatory sequences that would predict a lack of red or green opsin expression. The fate of opsin-deficient cone cells is unknown. We know that rod opsin null mutant mice show rapid postnatal death of rod photoreceptors. Using in vivo histology with high-resolution retinal imaging, we studied a cohort of 20 BCM patients (age range 5–58) with large deletions in the red/green opsin gene array. Already in the first years of life, retinal structure was not normal: there was partial loss of photoreceptors across the central retina. Remaining cone cells had detectable outer segments that were abnormally shortened. Adaptive optics imaging confirmed the existence of inner segments at a spatial density greater than that expected for the residual blue cones. The evidence indicates that human cones in patients with deletions in the red/green opsin gene array can survive in reduced numbers with limited outer segment material, suggesting potential value of gene therapy for BCM. PMID:24067079

  1. The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

  2. FIELD EVALUJATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

  4. The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the evolution of red-green color vision in vertebrates, we inferred the amino acid sequences of the ancestral pigments of 11 selected visual pigments: the LWS pigments of cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus), frog (Xenopus laevis), chicken (Gallus gallus), chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), goat (Capra hircus), and human (Homo sapiens);and the MWS pigments of cave fish, gecko (Gekko gekko), mouse (Mus musculus), squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and human. We constructed these ancestral pigments by introducing the necessary mutations into contemporary pigments and evaluated their absorption spectra using an in vitro assay. The results show that the common ancestor of vertebrates and most other ancestors had LWS pigments. Multiple regression analyses of ancestral and contemporary MWS and LWS pigments show that single mutations S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, A308S, and double mutations S180A/H197Y shift the lambda(max) of the pigments by -7, -28, -8, -15, -27, and 11 nm, respectively. It is most likely that this "five-sites" rule is the molecular basis of spectral tuning in the MWS and LWS pigments during vertebrate evolution. PMID:11545071

  5. Numerical analysis of effects of large wood structures on channel morphology and fish habitat suitability in Little Topashaw Creek

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A depth-averaged two dimensional (2D) model has been applied to simulate the effect of large wood structures (LWS) on flow, sediment transport, bed change, and fish habitat suitability in a deeply-incised sharp bend in the Little Topashaw Creek, North Central Mississippi. The hydrodynamic simulation...

  6. Paleomolecular biology unravels the evolutionary mystery of vertebrate UV vision

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    vision plays an important role in our lives. But, to the eyes of a hummingbird or goldfish, we humans, SWS2, RH1, RH2, and LWS MWS (Fig. 1B). Some species (e.g., chicken and goldfish) have all five types

  7. The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

    2001-08-01

    To better understand the evolution of red-green color vision in vertebrates, we inferred the amino acid sequences of the ancestral pigments of 11 selected visual pigments: the LWS pigments of cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus), frog (Xenopus laevis), chicken (Gallus gallus), chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), goat (Capra hircus), and human (Homo sapiens);and the MWS pigments of cave fish, gecko (Gekko gekko), mouse (Mus musculus), squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and human. We constructed these ancestral pigments by introducing the necessary mutations into contemporary pigments and evaluated their absorption spectra using an in vitro assay. The results show that the common ancestor of vertebrates and most other ancestors had LWS pigments. Multiple regression analyses of ancestral and contemporary MWS and LWS pigments show that single mutations S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, A308S, and double mutations S180A/H197Y shift the lambda(max) of the pigments by -7, -28, -8, -15, -27, and 11 nm, respectively. It is most likely that this "five-sites" rule is the molecular basis of spectral tuning in the MWS and LWS pigments during vertebrate evolution. PMID:11545071

  8. Comparative life cycle analysis for green façades and living wall systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Ottelé; Katia Perini; A. L. A. Fraaij; E. M. Haas; R. Raiteri

    2011-01-01

    Greening the building envelope focusing on green façades with vegetation is a good example of a new construction practice. Plants and partly growing materials in case of living wall systems (LWS) have a number of functions that are beneficial, for example: increasing the biodiversity and ecological value, mitigation of urban heat island effect, outdoor and indoor comfort, insulating properties, improvement

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 MARCH 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1942 Real-time observation of laser-driven

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    .veisz@mpq.mpg.de. Polarizers Beamsplitter Lens Microscope objective Magnetic field around bunch and Faraday rotation of probe beam polarization LWS-20 800 nm 65 mJ 8.5 fs z y x z y x Drive beam direction Magnetic field Probe with 300 µm exit diameter (blue). The probe beam (black arrows) propagates perpendicularly to the main beam

  10. Near infrared imaging and {o I} spectroscopy of IC 443 using two micron all sky survey and infrared space observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cutri, C. M.; Reach, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    We present near-infrared J (1.25 mum), H (1.65 mum), and K-s (2.17 mum) imaging of the entire supernova remnant IC 443 from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) LWS observations of [O I] for 11 positions in the northeast.

  11. Application of artificial neural networks for damage indices classification with the use of Lamb waves for the aerospace structures.

    E-print Network

    of guided waves. Aircraft structural elements have to stand high safety standards, therefore an inc to a complex structure, for instance, an aircraft component with riveted joints and stringers characterized in the literature. In this paper, comparison a number of damage indices applied to LWs testing in aircraft aluminum

  12. flSRERliS 1lES"E~fC'l BUR U ~~~~~:=;';';';;;;"~-

    E-print Network

    Service Fishery Lea!1et 63 Chicago 5 , Ill. ~isSU8d June 19 The Body Oil FroID Menhaden (Brevoortia The body oil of menhaden (B'I'evoortia tyrarmlls) lws long been available as an industrial product fish oils including menhaden. The study of menhaden fish oil was nndertaken with the belief

  13. Fed and fasted chicks from lines divergently selected for low or high body weight have differential hypothalamic appetite-associated factor mRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    We have demonstrated that chicken lines which have undergone intense divergent selection for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight (anorexic and obese containing, respectively) have differential food intake threshold responses to a range of intracerebroventricular injected neurotransmitters. The study reported herein was designed to measure endogenous appetite-associated factor mRNA profiles between these lines in an effort to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in their differential eating patterns. Whole hypothalamus was collected from 5 day-old chicks that had been fasted for 180min or had free access to food. Total RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed, and real-time PCR performed. Although mRNAs encoding orexigenic neuropeptides including agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), prolactin-releasing peptide, and visfatin did not differ in expression between the lines, NPY receptor 5 mRNA was greater in fed LWS than HWS chicks, but fasting decreased the magnitude of difference. Anorexigenic factors including amylin, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and ghrelin were not differentially expressed between lines, while mRNA abundance of calcitonin, CRF receptor 1, leptin receptor, neuropeptide S, melanocortin receptor 3, and oxytocin were greater in LWS than HWS chicks. Pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA was lower in LWS than HWS chicks, while fasting decreased its expression in both lines. These results suggest that there are differences in gene expression of appetite-associated factors between LWS and HWS lines that might be associated with their differential food intake and thus contribute to differences in severity of anorexia, body weight, adiposity, and development of obesity. PMID:25677648

  14. The Eyes Have It: Regulatory and Structural Changes Both Underlie Cichlid Visual Pigment Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. Justin; Cronin, Thomas W.; Seehausen, Ole; Carleton, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology is to unravel the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie functional diversification and adaptation. We investigated how changes in gene regulation and coding sequence contribute to sensory diversification in two replicate radiations of cichlid fishes. In the clear waters of Lake Malawi, differential opsin expression generates diverse visual systems, with sensitivities extending from the ultraviolet to the red regions of the spectrum. These sensitivities fall into three distinct clusters and are correlated with foraging habits. In the turbid waters of Lake Victoria, visual sensitivity is constrained to longer wavelengths, and opsin expression is correlated with ambient light. In addition to regulatory changes, we found that the opsins coding for the shortest- and longest-wavelength visual pigments have elevated numbers of potentially functional substitutions. Thus, we present a model of sensory evolution in which both molecular genetic mechanisms work in concert. Changes in gene expression generate large shifts in visual pigment sensitivity across the collective opsin spectral range, but changes in coding sequence appear to fine-tune visual pigment sensitivity at the short- and long-wavelength ends of this range, where differential opsin expression can no longer extend visual pigment sensitivity. PMID:20027211

  15. Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are expressed in the blue (?max?=?453 nm) and violet receptors (?max?=?425 nm), respectively. To reveal accurate absorption profiles and the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of these visual pigments, we successfully modified our honeybee opsin expression system based on HEK293s cells, and expressed PrB and PrV, the first lepidopteran opsins ever expressed in cultured cells. We reconstituted the expressed visual pigments in vitro, and analysed them spectroscopically. Both reconstituted visual pigments had two photointerconvertible states, rhodopsin and metarhodopsin, with absorption peak wavelengths 450 nm and 485 nm for PrB and 420 nm and 482 nm for PrV. We furthermore introduced site-directed mutations to the opsins and found that two amino acid substitutions, at positions 116 and 177, were crucial for the spectral tuning. This tuning mechanism appears to be specific for invertebrates and is partially shared by other pierid and lycaenid butterfly species. PMID:21124838

  16. Optogenetics for Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Bradley S.; Marc, Robert E.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetics is the use of genetic methods combined with optical technology to achieve gain or loss of function within neuronal circuits. The field of optogenetics has been rapidly expanding in efforts to restore visual function to blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Most work in the field includes a group of light-sensitive retinaldehyde-binding proteins known as opsins. Opsins couple photon absorption to molecular signaling chains that control cellular ion currents. Targeting of opsin genes to surviving retinal cells is fundamental to the success of optogenetic therapy. Viral delivery, primarily adeno-associated virus, using intravitreal injection for inner retinal cells and subretinal injection for outer retinal cells, has proven successful in many models. Challenges in bioengineering remain for optogenetics including relative insensitivity of opsins to physiologic light levels of stimulation and difficulty with viral delivery in primate models. However, targeting optogenetic therapy may present an even greater challenge. Neural and glial remodeling seen in advanced stages of RP result in reorganization of remaining neural retina, and optogenetic therapy may not yield functional results. Remodeling also poses a challenge to the selection of cellular targets, with bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells all playing distinct physiologic roles, and affected by remodeling differently. Although optogenetics has drawn closer to clinical utility, advances in opsin engineering, therapeutic targeting and ultimately in molecular inhibition of remodeling will play critical roles in the continued clinical advancement of optogenetic therapy. PMID:25667740

  17. Evidence for a phototransduction cascade in an early brachiopod embryo.

    PubMed

    Passamaneck, Yale J; Martindale, Mark Q

    2013-07-01

    Bilaterian photoreceptor cells are characterized by the expression of opsins, signal transduction genes, and ion channels, which together facilitate behavioral responses to light. We have previously identified a ciliary opsin gene from the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa, whose expression in gastrula stage embryos coincides with a photoresponse behavior, suggesting the presence of a functional phototransduction system in these early embryos. To further evaluate the potential for light reception in these embryos, we surveyed transcriptome data to identify phototransduction genes and evaluated their expression. In addition to the previously described ciliary opsin gene, we have identified two Go-class opsins that are also expressed in gastrula stage embryos. Representative members from all classes of G?-protein genes were also expressed, with a G?12-class gene being localized in the same anterior ectodermal domain as the opsin transcripts. Both CNG-class and TRP-class ion channels were expressed in the gastrula stage embryos, as were GRK and arrestin genes, which are associated with inhibition of rhodopsin activity. Taken together, these data support the presence of a functional phototransduction system in the early brachiopod embryo. PMID:23630970

  18. Molecular evidence for color discrimination in the Atlantic sand fiddler crab, Uca pugilator

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Premraj; Rollmann, Stephanie M.; Cook, Tiffany A.; Layne, John E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Fiddler crabs are intertidal brachyuran crabs that belong to the genus Uca. Approximately 97 different species have been identified, and several of these live sympatrically. Many have species-specific body color patterns that may act as signals for intra- and interspecific communication. To understand the behavioral and ecological role of this coloration we must know whether fiddler crabs have the physiological capacity to perceive color cues. Using a molecular approach, we identified the opsin-encoding genes and determined their expression patterns across the eye of the sand fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. We identified three different opsin-encoding genes (UpRh1, UpRh2 and UpRh3). UpRh1 and UpRh2 are highly related and have similarities in their amino acid sequences to other arthropod long- and medium-wavelength-sensitive opsins, whereas UpRh3 is similar to other arthropod UV-sensitive opsins. All three opsins are expressed in each ommatidium, in an opsin-specific pattern. UpRh3 is present only in the R8 photoreceptor cell, whereas UpRh1 and UpRh2 are present in the R1-7 cells, with UpRh1 expression restricted to five cells and UpRh2 expression present in three cells. Thus, one photoreceptor in every ommatidium expresses both UpRh1 and UpRh2, providing another example of sensory receptor coexpression. These results show that U. pugilator has the basic molecular machinery for color perception, perhaps even trichromatic vision. PMID:21113005

  19. Spectral and temporal sensitivity of cone-mediated responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbin V.; Weick, Michael; Demb, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    The retina uses two photoreceptor types to encode the wide range of light intensities in the natural environment. Rods mediate vision in dim light, whereas cones mediate vision in bright light. Mouse photoreceptors include only 3% cones, and the majority of these co-express two opsins (S, M), with peak sensitivity to either ultraviolet (360 nm) or green light (508 nm). The M:S opsin ratio varies across the retina but has not been characterized functionally, preventing quantitative study of cone-mediated vision. Furthermore, physiological and behavioral measurements suggested that mouse retina supports relatively slow temporal processing (peak sensitivity, ~2–5 Hz), compared to primates; however, past studies used visible wavelengths that are inefficient at stimulating mouse S opsin. Here, we measured the M:S opsin expression ratio across the mouse retina, as reflected by ganglion cell responses, in vitro, and probed cone-mediated ganglion cell temporal properties using ultraviolet light stimulation and linear systems analysis. From recordings in mice lacking rod function (Gnat1?/?, Rho?/?), we estimate ~70% M-opsin expression in far dorsal retina, dropping to <5% M-opsin expression throughout ventral retina. In mice lacking cone function (Gnat2cpfl3), light-adapted rod-mediated responses peaked at ~5–7 Hz. In wild-type mice, cone-mediated responses peaked at ~10 Hz, with substantial responsiveness up to ~30 Hz. Therefore, despite the small percentage of cones, cone-mediated responses in mouse ganglion cells are fast and robust, similar to those in primates. These measurements enable quantitative analysis of cone-mediated responses at all levels of the visual system. PMID:21613480

  20. Expression of developmentally defined retinal phenotypes in the histogenesis of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, F.; Lopes, M. B.; Garcia-Fernandez, J. M.; Foster, R. G.; De Grip, W. J.; Rosemberg, S.; Newman, S. A.; VandenBerg, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular tumor of childhood, is a malignant neoplasm that arises during retinal development. The embryonal cell target for neoplastic transformation is not yet clearly defined. To better understand the histogenetic potential of this tumor, the expression of photoreceptor and glial cell-associated proteins were examined in 22 primary retinoblastomas. Interphotoreceptor retinol-binding protein (IRBP), cone and rod opsins were selected as the photoreceptor specific proteins due to their different temporal patterns of expression during normal retinal development. Neoplastic Müller cell differentiation, and non-neoplastic reactive astrocytes were identified using cellular retinaldehyde binding-protein (CRAlBP), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), respectively. Photoreceptor proteins were present in 16 cases and showed different cellular patterns of expression. IRBP and cone opsin were usually abundant. Although rod opsin was clearly identified in eight tumors, its expression was more restricted than either IRBP or cone opsin. This differential pattern of expression, opposite to the normal pattern of photoreceptor gene expression in the adult retina, corresponded to a marked decrease in mRNA for rod opsin. Cone opsin and IRBP colocalized in fleurettes demonstrating that neoplastic human cone cells are capable of IRBP synthesis. Müller cell differentiation was present in 12 of the 16 cases in which photoreceptor proteins were detected. In contrast, GFAP was only present in reactive, stromal astrocytes associated with blood vessels. Our data suggest that the retinoblastoma has the histogenetic potential of the immature neural retinal epithelium which can give rise to both photoreceptor and Müller cell lineages. The differential expression of cone and rod phenotypes in retinoblastoma is consistent with the "default" mechanism of cone cell differentiation. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1386715

  1. X chromosome: gene for color blindness, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spot>Color vision Location: chromosome X gene name: OPN1MW/OPN1LW (green opsin; red opsin) The two genes that produce red and green light-sensitive proteins are located on the X chromosome. Mutations in these genes can cause color blindness. Color blindness is a common inherited sex-linked disorder that affects a personÂ?s ability to see or recognize certain colors. Eight to ten percent of all males and one half of a percent of all females are color-blind.

  2. Chemistry and Biology of Vision*

    PubMed Central

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception in humans occurs through absorption of electromagnetic radiation from 400 to 780 nm by photoreceptors in the retina. A photon of visible light carries a sufficient amount of energy to cause, when absorbed, a cis,trans-geometric isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore, a vitamin A derivative bound to rhodopsin and cone opsins of retinal photoreceptors. The unique biochemistry of these complexes allows us to reliably and reproducibly collect continuous visual information about our environment. Moreover, other nonconventional retinal opsins such as the circadian rhythm regulator melanopsin also initiate light-activated signaling based on similar photochemistry. PMID:22074921

  3. In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Optogenetics combines optical and genetic methods to rapidly and reversibly control neural activities or other cellular functions. Using genetic methods, specific cells or anatomical pathways can be sensitized to light through exogenous expression of microbial light activated opsin proteins. Using optical methods, opsin expressing cells can be rapidly and reversibly controlled by pulses of light of specific wavelength. With the high spatial temporal precision, optogenetic tools have enabled new ways to probe the causal role of specific cells in neural computation and behavior. Here, we overview the current state of the technology, and provide a brief introduction to the practical considerations in applying optogenetics in vivo to analyze neural circuit functions. PMID:22896801

  4. Description of the dynamic infrared background/target simulator (DIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, Ignacio

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the Dynamic Infrared Background/Target Simulator (DIBS) is to project dynamic infrared scenes to a test sensor; e.g., a missile seeker that is sensitive to infrared energy. The projected scene will include target(s) and background. This system was designed to present flicker-free infrared scenes in the 8 micron to 12 micron wavelength region. The major subassemblies of the DIBS are the laser write system (LWS), vanadium dioxide modulator assembly, scene data buffer (SDB), and the optical image translator (OIT). This paper describes the overall concept and design of the infrared scene projector followed by some details of the LWS and VO2 modulator. Also presented are brief descriptions of the SDB and OIT.

  5. NASA's Living with a Star Program: The Geospace Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Giles, Barbara; Zanetti, Lawrence; Spann, James; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star Program (LWS) to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. Three program elements are the Science Missions; a Theory, Modeling, and Data Analysis program; and a Space Environment Testbeds program. Because many of the effects of solar variability on humanity are observed in Geospace regions of space, the science research for all three elements of the LWS Program have significant components in Geospace regions.

  6. Laser output power stabilization for direct laser writing system by using an acousto-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Ik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Song, Jae-Bong; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2007-10-01

    We present experimental results on the output power stabilization of an Ar(+) laser for a direct laser writing system (LWS). Instability of the laser output power in the LWS cause resolution fluctuations of being fabricated diffractive optical elements or computer-generated holograms. For the purpose of reducing the power fluctuations, we have constituted a feedback loop with an acousto-optic modulator, a photodetector, and a servo controller. In this system, we have achieved the stability of +/-0.20% for 12 min and the relative intensity noise level of 2.1 x 10(-7) Hz(-12) at 100 Hz. In addition, we applied our system to a 2 mW internal mirror He-Ne laser. As a consequence, we achieved the output power stability of +/-0.12% for 25 min. PMID:17979409

  7. Laser output power stabilization for direct laser writing system by using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Song, Jae-Bong; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2007-10-01

    We present experimental results on the output power stabilization of an Ar+ laser for a direct laser writing system (LWS). Instability of the laser output power in the LWS cause resolution fluctuations of being fabricated diffractive optical elements or computer-generated holograms. For the purpose of reducing the power fluctuations, we have constituted a feedback loop with an acousto-optic modulator, a photodetector, and a servo controller. In this system, we have achieved the stability of ±0.20% for 12min and the relative intensity noise level of 2.1×10-7Hz-1/2 at 100Hz. In addition, we applied our system to a 2mW internal mirror He-Ne laser. As a consequence, we achieved the output power stability of ±0.12% for 25min.

  8. ANTENNA RADIATION NEAR THE LOCAL PLASMA FREQUENCY BY LANGMUIR WAVE EIGENMODES

    SciTech Connect

    Malaspina, David M. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ergun, Robert E., E-mail: David.Malaspina@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: cairns@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: ree@lasp.colorado.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Langmuir waves (LWs) in the solar wind are generated by electron beams associated with solar flares, interplanetary shock fronts, planetary bow shocks, and magnetic holes. In principle, LWs localized as eigenmodes of density fluctuations can emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation by an antenna mechanism near the local plasma frequency f{sub p} and twice the local plasma frequency. In this work, analytic expressions are derived for the radiated electric and magnetic fields and power generated near f{sub p} by LW eigenmodes. The EM wave power emitted near f{sub p} is predicted as a function of the eigenmode length scale L, maximum electric field, driving electron beam speed, and the ambient plasma density and temperature. The escape to a distant observer of f{sub p} radiation from a localized Langmuir eigenmode is also briefly explored as a function of the plasma conditions.

  9. Simultaneous observation of ionospheric plasma bubbles and mesospheric gravity waves during the SpreadFEx Campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Takahashi; M. J. Taylor; P.-D. Pautet; A. F. Medeiros; D. Gobbi; C. M. Wrasse; J. Fechine; M. A. Abdu; I. S. Batista; E. Paula; D. Arruda; S. L. Vadas; F. S. Sabbas; D. C. Fritts

    2009-01-01

    During the Spread F Experiment campaign, under NASA Living with a Star (LWS) program, carried out in the South American Magnetic Equator region from 22 September to 8 November 2005, two airglow CCD imagers, located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W, geomag. 11° S) and near Brasilia (14.8° S, 47.6° W, geomag. 10° S) were operated simultaneously and measured the

  10. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Neufeld; Jonas Zmuidzinas; Peter Schilke; Thomas G. Phillips

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the\\u000aLong Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we\\u000ahave detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2 - 1 line of HF in absorption toward the\\u000afar-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically\\u000asignificant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model

  11. Genetic selection for body weight in chickens has altered responses of the brain's AMPK system to food intake regulation effect of ghrelin, but not obestatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingwen Xu; Paul B. Siegel; D. Michael Denbow

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ghrelin and obestatin regulation of food intake are different in mammals and chickens. We investigated central effects of ghrelin and obestatin in lines of chickens selected 50 generations for high (HWS) or low (LWS) body weight. We hypothesized that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in 5-day-old chicks is mediated by the AMP-activated protein

  12. Wachstumslenkende operative Behandlung der juvenilen Skoliose mit USS paediatric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Pfandlsteiner; Peter Wallnoefer; Cornelius Wimmer

    2010-01-01

    Zusammenfassung\\u000a Operationsziel  Mit dem USS-paediatric-Instrumentarium können bei jugendlichen Patienten, bei denen noch ein Wachstum zu erwarten ist, Skoliosekorrekturen\\u000a an der Brust- (BWS) und Lendenwirbelsäule (LWS) unter Erhaltung der Wachstumsfähigkeit der Wirbelsäule durchgeführt werden.\\u000a In Abständen von 4–6 Monaten erfolgt das Nachspannen des Doppelstabsystems (Distraktion). Das System bietet die Möglichkeit,\\u000a kleine Patienten, die für ein VEPTR-Instru mentarium (\\

  13. A Sun-to-Earth Campaign Joining Observations from the Great Observatory with Worldwide Satellite and Ground-Based Resources to Investigate System Science Frontiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Kozyra; K. Shibata; R. J. Barnes; S. Basu; J. M. Davila; N. J. Fox; N. Gopalswamy; M. M. Kuznetsova; D. Pallamraju; L. J. Paxton; A. Ridley; M. Weiss; C. A. Young; L. J. Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    An Internet-based cross-disciplinary analysis campaign that will make heavy use of Great Observatory missions as well as international satellite and ground-based assets is being undertaken with joint support from the CAWSES, IHY, LWS, and ICESTAR programs planned for late April or early May 2006. An evolving list of open science questions that serve as sun-to-Earth focus areas for the worldwide

  14. REGENERATIVE MEDICINE Tracking Stem Cell Differentiation in the Setting

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Key Words. Embryonic stem cells · Optogenetics · Channelrhodopsin-2 · Neuronal differentiation of stem cells and in the survival and function of mature neurons. Here, we introduce a microbial opsinREGENERATIVE MEDICINE Tracking Stem Cell Differentiation in the Setting of Automated Optogenetic

  15. Cell Tissue Res (2005) 319: 175179 DOI 10.1007/s00441-004-0994-3

    E-print Network

    . Briscoe . Richard H. White Adult stemmata of the butterfly Vanessa cardui express UV and green opsin m in the butterfly Vanessa cardui and to test for the presence of visual pigments, the light sensitive components . Photoreceptor . Visual pigment . Vanessa cardui (Insecta) Introduction The larval photoreceptor organs

  16. Not all butterfly eyes are created equal: Rhodopsin absorption spectra, molecular identification, and localization of ultraviolet-, blue-, and green-sensitive rhodopsin-encoding mRNAs in the retina ofVanessa cardui

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana D. Briscoe; Gary D. Bernard; Allan S. Szeto; Lisa M. Nagy; Richard H. White

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of spectral sensitivities, visual pigment spectra, and opsin gene sequences have indicated that all butterfly eyes contain ultraviolet-, blue-, and green-sensitive rhodopsins. Some species also contain a fourth or fifth type, related in amino acid sequence to green-sensitive insect rhodopsins, but red shifted in absorbance. By combining electron microscopy, epi- microspectrophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction cloning, we found that

  17. Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with ?max = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

  18. Supplemental Data Connecting the Navigational Clock

    E-print Network

    Supplemental Data Connecting the Navigational Clock to Sun Compass Input in Monarch Butterfly Brain replicates out of 500 in which a particular node is supported. Red indicates cloned monarch opsin cDNAs. Gen butterfly (A­C). Flight records in the presence of a UV-interference filter are colored red. The UV

  19. Longitudinal evaluation of expression of virally delivered transgenes in gerbil cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Matthew C.; Mancuso, Katherine; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Hauswirth, William W.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of foreign opsin genes to cone photoreceptors using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a potential tool for studying the basic mechanisms underlying cone based vision and for treating vision disorders. We used an in vivo retinal imaging system to monitor, over time, expression of virally-delivered genes targeted to cone photoreceptors in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Gerbils have a well-developed photopic visual system, with 11-14% of their photoreceptors being cones. We used replication deficient serotype 5 rAAV to deliver a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). In an effort to direct expression of the gene specifically to either S or M cones, the transgene was under the control of either the human X-chromosome opsin gene regulatory elements, i.e., an enhancer termed the Locus Control Region (LCR) and L promoter, or the human S-opsin promoter. Longitudinal fluorescence images reveal that gene expression is first detectable about 14 days post-injection, reaches a peak after about 3 months, and is observed more than a year post-injection if the initial viral concentration is sufficiently high. The regulatory elements are able to direct expression to a subpopulation of cones while excluding expression in rods and non-photoreceptor retinal cells. When the same viral constructs are used to deliver a human long-wavelength opsin gene to gerbil cones, stimulation of the introduced human photopigment with long-wavelength light produces robust cone responses. PMID:18598398

  20. Parallel amino acid replacements in the rhodopsins of the rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) associated with shifts in habitat depth

    E-print Network

    Palumbi, Stephen

    Parallel amino acid replacements in the rhodopsins of the rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) associated is by amino acid replacement. In opsins, the seven transmembrane domains form a binding pocket, 1995; Sakmar, 2002; Yokoyama & Takenaka, 2004). Changes in the amino acid sequence within

  1. Frontispiece: direct measurement of the isomerization barrier of the isolated retinal chromophore.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Jonathan; Musbat, Lihi; Sheves, Mordechai; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Clemmer, David E; Toker, Yoni

    2015-04-13

    Isomerization In their Communication on page?4748?ff., Y. Toker and co-workers report the energy barrier for the isomerization of the retinal protonated Schiff base chromophore and show that it is significantly lower than that within opsin proteins. PMID:25851817

  2. 48 Scientific American, November 2010 Photograph/Illustration by Artist Name November 2010, ScientificAmerican.com 49Photograph by Darren Braun

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    moving animals--which electrodes and other traditional methods do not allow. Although optogenetics optogenetics, researchers can probe how the nervous system works in unprecedented detail. Their findings could development of microbial opsins and optogenetics. #12;50 Scientific American, November 2010 memories

  3. 2012NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. natURE mEthOdS | ADVANCEONLINEPUBLICATION |

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    | Optogenetics with microbial opsin genes has enabled high- speed control of genetically specified cell with optogenetics has thus far required specialized equipment or scanning and has not yet been widely adopted. here and bistable control. together these advances may help enable broad adoption of integrated optogenetic and t

  4. Photostimulator for optogenetic retinal prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Grossman; K. Nikolic; V. Poher; B. McGovern; E. Drankasis; M. Neil; C. Toumazou; P. Degenaar

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that neurons can be photostimulated via genetic incorporation of artificial opsins offers potential for many new forms of neural prosthesis. In this work, we demonstrate a photostimulator which has both the irradiance requirement and the spatial resolution for retinal prosthesis. We characterise its electrical and optical properties and show its ability to accurately stimulate individual action potentials.

  5. Optetrode: a multichannel readout for optogenetic control in freely moving mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polina Anikeeva; Aaron S Andalman; Ilana Witten; Melissa Warden; Inbal Goshen; Logan Grosenick; Lisa A Gunaydin; Loren M Frank; Karl Deisseroth

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in optogenetics have improved the precision with which defined circuit elements can be controlled optically in freely moving mammals; in particular, recombinase-dependent opsin viruses, used with a growing pool of transgenic mice expressing recombinases, allow manipulation of specific cell types. However, although optogenetic control has allowed neural circuits to be manipulated in increasingly powerful ways, combining optogenetic stimulation

  6. www.elsevier.com/locate/brainres Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-print Network

    Aston-Jones, Gary

    in optogenetics and pharmacogenetics Gary Aston-Jonesa,n , Karl Deisserothb,c a Department of Neurosciences Keywords: Optogenetics Pharmacogenetics Channelrhodopsin DREADD Designer receptor Viral transduction s t r a c t Optogenetics with microbial opsin genes, and pharmacogenetics with designer receptors

  7. Direct Innervation of GnRH Neurons by Encephalic Photoreceptors in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Colin J.; Silverman, Ann-Judith; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    In nonmammalian vertebrates, photic cues that regulate the timing of seasonal reproductive cyclicity are detected by nonretinal, nonpineal deep brain photoreceptors. It has long been assumed that the underlying mechanism involves the transmission of photic information from the photoreceptor to a circadian system, and thence to the reproductive axis. An alternative hypothesis is that there is direct communication between the brain photoreceptor and the reproductive axis. In the present study, light and confocal microscopy reveal that gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and processes are scattered among photoreceptor cells (identified by their opsin-immunoreactivity) in the lateral septum (SL). In the median eminence (ME), opsin and GnRH immunoreactive fibers overlap extensively. Single and double label ultrastructural immunocytochemistry indicate that in the SL and preoptic area (POA), opsin positive terminals form axo-dendritic synapses onto GnRH dendrites. In the ME, opsin and GnRH terminals lie adjacent to each other, make contact with tanycytes, or terminate on the hypophyseal portal capillaries. These results reveal that brain photoreceptors communicate directly with GnRH-neurons; this represents a means by which photoperiodic information reaches the reproductive axis. PMID:11220777

  8. Introduction The butterfly eye is a marvel of evolution. Butterfly vision, like that

    E-print Network

    1805 Introduction The butterfly eye is a marvel of evolution. Butterfly vision, like that of other of the butterfly visual pigments, the three major spectral classes are encoded by ancient duplications, which produced distinct UV, B and LW opsin genes. Unlike those of bees, the eyes of butterflies are anatomically

  9. A butterfly eye's view of birds Francesca D. Frentiu1

    E-print Network

    A butterfly eye's view of birds Francesca D. Frentiu1 and Adriana D. Briscoe2 * Summary The striking color patterns of butterflies and birds have long interested biologists. But how these animals see. Color vision has evolved in butterflies through opsin gene duplications, through positive selection

  10. Regulation of photoreceptor gene expression by the retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I.; Lou, Chih-Hong; Nekkalapudi, Srivamsi; Kelly, Lisa E.; Sater, Amy K.; El-Hodiri, Heithem M.

    2010-01-01

    The retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product is essential for eye development. However little is known about its molecular function. It has been demonstrated that Rx binds to photoreceptor conserved element (PCE-1), a highly conserved element found in the promoter region of photoreceptor-specific genes such as rhodopsin and red cone opsin. We verify that Rx is co-expressed with rhodopsin and red cone opsin in maturing photoreceptors and demonstrate that Rx binds to the rhodopsin and red cone opsin promoters in vivo. We also find that Rx can cooperate with the Xenopus analogs of Crx and Nrl, otx5b and XLMaf (respectively), to activate a Xenopus opsin promoter-dependent reporter. Finally, we demonstrate that reduction of Rx expression in tadpoles results in decreases in expression of several PCE-1 containing photoreceptor genes, abnormal photoreceptor morphology, and impaired vision. Our data suggests that Rx, in combination with other transcription factors, is necessary for normal photoreceptor gene expression, maintenance, and function. This establishes a direct role for Rx in regulation of genes expressed in a differentiated cell type. PMID:20060393

  11. In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

    E-print Network

    Han, Xue

    ). These opsin proteins can be easily expressed in specific cells through genetic modification, and have been and genetic methods to rapidly and reversibly control neural activities or other cellular functions. Using genetic methods, specific cells or anatomical pathways can be sensitized to light through exogenous

  12. 27. We thank G. Superti-Furga and J. Krijnse-Locker for providing monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3-27, Src-GFP,

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    vertebrate irises. In the chick, intrinsic iris photo- sensitivity is present during a brief devel- opmental have been deposited in the Biomolecular Interaction Network Database with accession codes 151863- tential photopigment. The opsin family mem- ber melanopsin has been found to be essential to inner retinal

  13. Eel visual pigments revisited: the fate of retinal cones during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, James K; Semo, Ma'ayan; Hunt, David M; Jeffery, Glen

    2008-01-01

    During their complex life history, anguilliform eels go through a major metamorphosis when developing from a fresh water yellow eel into a deep-sea silver eel. In addition to major changes in body morphology, the visual system also adapts from a fresh water teleost duplex retina with rods and cones, to a specialized deep-sea retina containing only rods. The history of the rods is well documented with an initial switch from a porphyropsin to a rhodopsin (P523(2) to P501(1)) and then a total change in gene expression with the down regulation of a "freshwater" opsin and its concomitant replacement by the expression of a typical "deep-sea" opsin (P501(1) to P482(1)). Yellow eels possess only two spectral classes of single cones, one sensitive in the green presumably expressing an RH2 opsin gene and the second sensitive in the blue expressing an SWS2 opsin gene. In immature glass eels, entering into rivers from the sea, the cones contain mixtures of rhodopsins and porphyropsins, whereas the fully freshwater yellow eels have cone pigments that are almost pure porphyropsins with peak sensitivities at about 540-545 nm and 435-440 nm, respectively. However, during the early stages of metamorphosis, the pigments switch to rhodopsins with the maximum sensitivity of the "green"-sensitive cone shifting to about 525 nm, somewhat paralleling, but preceding the change in rods. During metamorphosis, the cones are almost completely lost. PMID:18321400

  14. Development/Plasticity/Repair NeuroD1 Regulates Expression of Thyroid Hormone

    E-print Network

    Reh, Thomas A.

    Development/Plasticity/Repair NeuroD1 Regulates Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor 2 and Cone patterning of opsin expression in cone photoreceptors is critical for normal color vision. Thyroid hormone of the thyroid hor- mone receptors, thyroid hormone receptor 2 (TR 2), and its heterodimer partner, retinoid X

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01779.x

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    EXPANSION IN A GYNOGENETIC FISH, THE AMAZON MOLLY (POECILIA FORMOSA): A TEST OF THE HYBRID-SENSORY EXPANSION. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support

  16. Nilsson [6] has referred to eyes such as these as `burglar alarms'. None of

    E-print Network

    Maine, Eleanor

    those of chitons, is a `true' motion detector: that is, they do not compare sequential stimulation to the vertebrate opsins [7]. Chitons, which are only distant relatives of gastropods and bivalves, have no head­210. 2. Crozier, W.J., and Arey, L.B. (1918). On the significance of the reaction to shading in chiton

  17. Light reception Photoreceptors

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    filter and opsin pigment. Oil drops bias sensitivity to longer wavelengths #12;Dichromat perception logic Rhodopsin recovery slow fast Pigment density high low #12;Evolution of eyes Best acuity interspersed rods and cones #12;Cell circuitry in the retina R = rod (1 pigment) C = cone (often >1 pigment

  18. 338 | VOL.11 NO.3 | MARCH2014 | nAture methods optogenetic tools enable examination of how specific cell

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    in neurobehavioral studies in Drosophila melanogaster. chronos has faster kinetics than previous channelrhodopsins cross-talk in mouse brain slice. Microbial opsins, which are light-driven ion pumps and light- gated ion channels that can be genetically expressed in excitable cells, enable the optical activation or inhibition

  19. Retinal-binding proteins mirror prokaryotic dynamics in multipond solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Gomariz, María; Martínez-García, Manuel; Santos, Fernando; Constantino, Marco; Meseguer, Inmaculada; Antón, Josefa

    2015-02-01

    Microbial opsin (i.e. retinal-binding protein) dynamics has been studied along a salinity gradient in Santa Pola solar salterns (Alicante, Spain) by using culture-independent approaches and statistical analyses. Five ponds of salinities ranging from 18% to above 40% were sampled nine times along a year. Forty-three opsin-like sequences were retrieved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clustered into 18 different phylogroups, indicating that their diversity was higher than expected according to previous data. Moreover, the statistical correlation between environmental factors controlling microbial community structure and dynamics of environmental rhodopsin proteins indicated almost identical temporal fluctuations between the opsin-related sequences and their corresponding putative 'producers' in nature. Although most sequences were related to others previously detected in hypersaline environments, some pond-specific opsins putatively belonged to previously uncharacterized hosts. Furthermore, we propose that subtle changes in the bacteriorhodopsin 'retinal proton binding pocket', which is key in the photocycle function, could be the molecular basis behind a fine 'photocycle-tuning' mechanism to avoid inter/intraspecies light-competition in hypersaline environments. PMID:25387432

  20. Immunocytochemical demonstration of visual pigments in the degenerate retinal and pineal photoreceptors of the blind cave salamander ( Proteus anguinus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjanca Kos; Boris Bulog; Ágoston Szél; Pál Röhlich

    2001-01-01

    Visual pigments in the regressed eye and pineal of the depigmented neotenic urodele, the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus), were studied by immunocytochemistry with anti-opsin antibodies. The study included light- and electron-microscopic investigations of both the eye and the pineal organ. A comparison was made with the black pigmented subspecies Proteus anguinus parkelj (black proteus), which has a normal

  1. Solar Sentinels: Report of the Science and Technology Definition Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of NASA s Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun Earth system that directly affect life and society. Along with the other elements of LWS, Solar Sentinels aims to discover, understand, and model the heliospheric initiation, propagation, and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. The Solar Sentinels mission will address the following questions: (1) How, where, and under what circumstances are solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies and how do they propagate through the heliosphere? And (2) How are solar wind structures associated with these SEPs, like CMEs, shocks, and high-speed streams, initiated, propagate, evolve, and interact in the inner heliosphere? The Sentinels STDT recommends implementing this mission in two portions, one optimized for inner heliospheric in-situ measurements and the other for solar remote observations. Sentinels will greatly enhance the overall LWS science return.

  2. Cone topography and spectral sensitivity in two potentially trichromatic marsupials, the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) and quenda (Isoodon obesulus)

    PubMed Central

    Arrese, Catherine A; Oddy, Alison Y; Runham, Philip B; Hart, Nathan S; Shand, Julia; Hunt, David M; Beazley, Lyn D

    2005-01-01

    The potential for trichromacy in mammals, thought to be unique to primates, was recently discovered in two Australian marsupials. Whether the presence of three cone types, sensitive to short- (SWS), medium- (MWS) and long- (LWS) wavelengths, occurs across all marsupials remains unknown. Here, we have investigated the presence, distribution and spectral sensitivity of cone types in two further species, the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) and quenda (Isoodon obesulus). Immunohistochemistry revealed that SWS cones in the quokka are concentrated in dorso-temporal retina, while in the quenda, two peaks were identified in naso-ventral and dorso-temporal retina. In both species, MWS/LWS cone spatial distributions matched those of retinal ganglion cells. Microspectrophotometry (MSP) confirmed that MWS and LWS cones are spectrally distinct, with mean wavelengths of maximum absorbance at 502 and 538?nm in the quokka, and at 509 and 551?nm, in the quenda. Although small SWS cone outer segments precluded MSP measurements, molecular analysis identified substitutions at key sites, accounting for a spectral shift from ultraviolet in the quenda to violet in the quokka. The presence of three cone types, along with previous findings in the fat-tailed dunnart and honey possum, suggests that three spectrally distinct cone types are a feature spanning the marsupials. PMID:15888411

  3. Aggregation of frog rhodopsin to oligomers and their dissociation to monomer: application of BN- and SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Shukolyukov, S A

    2009-06-01

    After solubilization of frog rod outer segments (ROS) with mild detergents (digitonin, n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside, Chaps, Triton X-100) and subsequent one-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D BN-PAGE), the position of rhodopsin (Rh) on the gradient gel does not match the monomer with molecular weight of 40 kDa but appears self-associated into aggregate of Rh (RhA) with molecular mass varying in different detergents from 85 to 125 kDa. Short-term treatment (~2 h) of the excised BN-PAGE strip containing RhA by denaturing detergent mixture (10% SDS + 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT)) followed by 2D SDS-PAGE revealed dissociation of the RhA into opsin monomer and unidentified proteins. Long-term treatment (approximately 2 days) of RhA that included extraction, denaturation, concentration, and electrophoresis induced, along with dissociation of RhA into opsin monomer + unidentified proteins, also formation of opsin dimers, trimers, and higher oligomers owing to a secondary aggregation of opsin. Direct solubilization of the ROS by harsh SDS + DTT detergent mixture followed by 1D SDS-PAGE revealed only opsin monomer that upon heating disappeared, transforming into higher oligomers owing to secondary aggregation. The data show that degree of Rh oligomerization depends on specific conditions in which it stays. In the native state in the photoreceptor membrane as well as in mild detergents frog Rh exists mainly as dimers or higher oligomers. After solubilization with denaturing detergents, RhA can dissociate into monomers that then spontaneously self-associate into higher oligomers under the influence of various factors (for example, heating). PMID:19645663

  4. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  5. Gene Therapy Rescues Cone Structure and Function in the 3-Month-Old rd12 Mouse: A Model for Midcourse RPE65 Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Wensheng; Dai, Xufeng; Kong, Fansheng; Zheng, Qinxiang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lü, Fan; Chang, Bo; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hauswirth, William. W.; Qu, Jia; Pang, Ji-jing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. RPE65 function is necessary in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to generate chromophore for all opsins. Its absence results in vision loss and rapid cone degeneration. Recent Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA with RPE65 mutations) phase I clinical trials demonstrated restoration of vision on RPE65 gene transfer into RPE cells overlying cones. In the rd12 mouse, a naturally occurring model of RPE65-LCA early cone degeneration was observed; however, some peripheral M-cones remained. A prior study showed that AAV-mediated RPE65 expression can prevent early cone degeneration. The present study was conducted to test whether the remaining cones in older rd12 mice can be rescued. Methods. Subretinal treatment with the scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 vector was initiated at postnatal day (P)14 and P90. After 2 months, electroretinograms were recorded, and cone morphology was analyzed by using cone-specific peanut agglutinin and cone opsin–specific antibodies. Results. Cone degeneration started centrally and spread ventrally, with cells losing cone-opsin staining before that for the PNA-lectin–positive cone sheath. Gene therapy starting at P14 resulted in almost wild-type M- and S-cone function and morphology. Delaying gene-replacement rescued the remaining M-cones, and most important, more M-cone opsin–positive cells were identified than were present at the onset of gene therapy, suggesting that opsin expression could be reinitiated in cells with cone sheaths. Conclusions. The results support and extend those of the previous study that gene therapy can stop early cone degeneration, and, more important, they provide proof that delayed treatment can restore the function and morphology of the remaining cones. These results have important implications for the ongoing LCA2 clinical trials. PMID:21169527

  6. Alouatta Trichromatic Color Vision: Cone Spectra and Physiological Responses Studied with Microspectrophotometry and Single Unit Retinal Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.; Saito, Cézar A.; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K.; Lee, Barry B.

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10–20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression. PMID:25405863

  7. Contrasting levels of DNA polymorphism at the autosomal and X-linked visual color pigment loci in humans and squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimmin, L C; Miller, J; Tran, H N; Li, W H

    1998-04-01

    The X-linked color pigment (opsin) locus is known to be highly polymorphic in the squirrel monkey and other New World monkeys. To see whether this is also the case for the autosomal (blue) opsin locus, we obtained 32 squirrel monkey and 30 human blue opsin gene sequences. No amino acid polymorphism was found in either the squirrel monkey sample or the human sample, contrary to the situation at the X-linked opsin locus. This sharp contrast in the level of polymorphism might be due to differences in gene expression between the autosomal and the X-linked loci. At the X-linked locus, heterozygote advantage can occur because, owing to X-inactivation, the two alleles in a heterozygote are expressed in different cone cells, producing two types of cone cell, whereas at the autosomal locus, heterozygote advantage cannot occur because the two alleles in a heterozygote are expressed in the same cone cells, producing only one type of cone cell (i.e., phenotypically a homozygote). From the sequence data, the levels of nucleotide diversity (pi, i.e., the number of nucleotide differences per site) are estimated: for the human sample, pi = 0.00% per nondegenerate site, 0.00% per twofold degenerate site, and 0.04% per fourfold degenerate site in the coding regions and 0.01% per site in intron 4; for the squirrel monkey sample, pi = 0.00% per nondegenerate site, 0.00% per twofold degenerate site, and 0.15% per fourfold degenerate site in the coding regions and 0.17% per site in intron 4. The blue opsin genes from the common and pygmy chimpanzees, the gorilla, the capuchin, and the howler monkey were also sequenced. Features critical to the function of the opsin are well conserved in all known mammalian sequences. However, the interhelical loops are, on average, actually more conservative than the transmembrane helical regions. In addition, these sequence data and those from some other genes indicate that the common and pygmy chimpanzees are not closely related, their divergence data being from one third to one half the date of the human-chimpanzee divergence. PMID:9549095

  8. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a ‘living fossil’ species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum. PMID:22628477

  9. Rhodopsin-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Schalken, J J; Winkens, H J; Van Vugt, A H; De Grip, W J; Broekhuyse, R M

    1989-01-01

    We present the first evidence that purified rhodopsin can induce experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in monkeys. Injection of a highly purified lipid-free rhodopsin preparation provokes severe chorioretinitis with concomitant anterior uveitis. The onset of disease is earlier, its frequency is higher, and the inflammation is considerably more severe than in EAU induced under similar conditions by opsin. The first inflammatory cells are observed in the ciliary body and pars plana. Within a few days the inflammation extends into the anterior chamber, choroid, and retina. Retinitis predominates in the central area, while chorioretinitis is observed in the periphery, both accompanied by damage to and elimination of the photoreceptor cells. The monkeys develop high cellular and humoral immune responses against rhodopsin and opsin. The cellular response maximum just precedes the onset of EAU. This may indicate that cellular immunity has an important role in the pathogenesis of rhodopsin-induced EAU. Images PMID:2706205

  10. WP1: transgenic opto-animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U?arowska, E.; Czajkowski, Rafa?; Konopka, W.

    2014-11-01

    We aim to create a set of genetic tools where permanent opsin expression (ChR or NpHR) is precisely limited to the population of neurons that express immediate early gene c-fos during a specific temporal window of behavioral training. Since the c-fos gene is only expressed in neurons that form experience-dependent ensemble, this approach will result in specific labeling of a small subset of cells that create memory trace for the learned behavior. To this end we employ two alternative inducible gene expression systems: Tet Expression System and Cre/lox System. In both cases, the temporal window for opsin induction is controlled pharmacologically, by doxycycline or tamoxifen, respectively. Both systems will be used for creating lines of transgenic animals.

  11. Molecular ecology and adaptation of visual photopigments in craniates.

    PubMed

    Davies, Wayne I L; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M

    2012-07-01

    In craniates, opsin-based photopigments expressed in the eye encode molecular 'light sensors' that constitute the initial protein in photoreception and the activation of the phototransduction cascade. Since the cloning and sequencing of the first vertebrate opsin gene (bovine rod opsin) nearly 30?years ago (Ovchinnikov Yu 1982, FEBS Letters, 148, 179-191; Hargrave et al. 1983, Biophysics of Structure & Mechanism, 9, 235-244; Nathans & Hogness 1983, Cell, 34, 807-814), it is now well established that variation in the subtypes and spectral properties of the visual pigments that mediate colour and dim-light vision is a prevalent mechanism for the molecular adaptation to diverse light environments. In this review, we discuss the origins and spectral tuning of photopigments that first arose in the agnathans to sample light within the ancient aquatic landscape of the Early Cambrian, detailing the molecular changes that subsequently occurred in each of the opsin classes independently within the main branches of extant jawed gnathostomes. Specifically, we discuss the adaptive changes that have occurred in the photoreceptors of craniates as they met the ecological challenges to survive in quite differing photic niches, including brightly lit aquatic surroundings; the deep sea; the transition to and from land; diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal environments; and light-restricted fossorial settings. The review ends with a discussion of the limitations inherent to the 'nocturnal-bottleneck' hypothesis relevant to the evolution of the mammalian visual system and a proposition that transition through a 'mesopic-bottleneck' may be a more appropriate model. PMID:22650357

  12. A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiro Wakakuwa; Doekele G. Stavenga; Masumi Kurasawa; Kentaro Arikawa

    2004-01-01

    The full primary structure of a long-wavelength absorbing visual pigment of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, was determined by molecular cloning. In situ hybridization of the opsin mRNA of the novel visual pigment (PrL) demonstrated that it is expressed in the two distal photoreceptor cells (R3 and R4) as well as in the proximal photoreceptors (R5-8) in all

  13. Physiological characterization of the compound eye in monarch butterflies with focus on the dorsal rim area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Stalleicken; Thomas Labhart; Henrik Mouritsen

    2006-01-01

    The spectral, angular and polarization sensitivities of photoreceptors in the compound eye of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) are examined using electrophysiological methods. Intracellular recordings reveal a spectrally homogenous population of UV\\u000a receptors with optical axes directed upwards and ?10° to the contralateral side. Based on optical considerations and on the\\u000a opsin expression pattern (Sauman et al. 2005), we conclude

  14. Analysis of Kinesin2 Function in Photoreceptor Cells Using Synchronous Cre-loxP Knockout of Kif3a with RHO-Cre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jimeno; Leonard Feiner; Concepcion Lillo; Karen Teofilo; Lawrence S. B. Goldstein; Eric A. Pierce; David S. Williams

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine the relationship between the presence of kinesin-2 and photoreceptor cell viability and opsin trans- port, by generating RHO-Cre transgenic mice and breeding them to mice with a floxed kinesin-2 motor gene. METHODS. Different lines of RHO-Cre transgenic mice were generated and characterized by transgene expression, histol- ogy, and electrophysiology. Mice from one line, showing uni- form transgene

  15. Channelrhodopsin-1: A Light-Gated Proton Channel in Green Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Nagel; Doris Ollig; Markus Fuhrmann; Suneel Kateriya; Anna Maria Musti; Ernst Bamberg; Peter Hegemann

    2002-01-01

    Phototaxis and photophobic responses of green algae are mediated by rhodopsins with microbial-type chromophores. We report a complementary DNA sequence in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that encodes a microbial opsin-related protein, which we term Channelopsin-1. The hydrophobic core region of the protein shows homology to the light-activated proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. Expression of Channelopsin-1, or only the hydrophobic core, in

  16. Illumination of the Melanopsin Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satchidananda Panda; Surendra K. Nayak; Brice Campo; John R. Walker; John B. Hogenesch; Tim Jegla

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, a small population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) plays a key role in the regulation of nonvisual photic responses, such as behavioral responses to light, pineal melatonin synthesis, pupillary light reflex, and sleep latency. These ipRGCs also express melanopsin (Opn4), a putative opsin-family photopigment that has been shown to play a role in mediating these nonvisual

  17. The Spectral Properties and Photosensitivities of Analogue Photopigments Regenerated with 10- and 14-Substituted Retinal Analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Crescitelli; R. S. H. Liu

    1988-01-01

    Analogues of 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinal with substitutions at positions 10 and 14 were used to regenerate analogue photopigments with two opsins: that of the transmuted (cone-like) 521-pigment of Gekko gekko and that of the rhodopsin of Porichthys notatus. The spectral absorbances and photosensitivities of the regenerated photopigments were determined and compared, first, between the two systems of analogue photopigments, and

  18. The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The ?max of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice. PMID:25101636

  19. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The ?max of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice. PMID:25101636

  20. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission and Related Missions of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.; Mauk, Barry H.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Fox, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Living With a Star (LWS) Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission in the context of the broader Geospace program. Missions to Geospace offer an opportunity to observe in situ the fundamental processes that operate throughout the solar system and in particular those that generate hazardous space weather effects in the vicinity of Earth. The recently selected investigations on NASA's LWS program's RBSP will provide the measurements needed to characterize and quantify the processes that supply and remove energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Instruments on the RBSP spacecraft will observe charged particles that comprise the Earth's radiation belts over the full energy range from 1 eV to more than 10 MeV (including composition), the plasma waves which energize them, the electric fields which transport them, and the magnetic fields which guide their motion. The two-point measurements by the RBSP spacecraft will enable researchers to discriminate between spatial and temporal effects, and therefore between the various proposed mechanisms for particle acceleration and loss. The measurements taken by the RBSP spacecraft will be used in data modeling projects in order to improve the understanding of these fundamental processes and allow better predictions to be made. NASA's LWS program has also recently selected three teams to study concepts for Missions of Opportunity that will augment the RBSP program, by (1) providing an instrument for a Canadian spacecraft in the Earth's radiation belts, (2) quantifying the flux of particles precipitating into the Earth's atmosphere from the Earth's radiation belts, and (3) remotely sensing both spatial and temporal variations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere.

  1. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes. PMID:25433647

  2. Ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Håstad, Olle; Partridge, Julian C; Odeen, Anders

    2009-06-01

    Gulls (Laridae excluding Sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (UV) instead of violet. However, the apparent UV-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the SWS1 opsin confers UV sensitivity. Unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit UV to the retina, gulls might in effect be similar to violet-sensitive birds in spectral sensitivity even if they have an ultraviolet sensitive (UVS) SWS1 visual pigment. We report that the spectral transmission of the cornea and lens of great black-backed Larus marinus and herring gulls L. argentatus allow UV-sensitivity, having a lambda(T0.5) value, 344 nm, similar to the ocular media of UV sensitive birds. By molecular sequencing of the second alpha-helical transmembrane region of the SWS1 opsin gene we could also infer that 15 herring gulls and 16 yellow-legged gulls L. michahellis, all base-pair identical, are genetically UV-sensitive. PMID:19308422

  3. Non-invasive activation of optogenetic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Elisabeth; Berglund, Ken; Klein, Marguerita E.; Augustine, George J.; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2014-03-01

    The manipulation of genetically targeted neurons with light (optogenetics) continues to provide unprecedented avenues into studying the function of the mammalian brain. However, potential translation into the clinical arena faces a number of significant hurdles, foremost among them the need for insertion of optical fibers into the brain to deliver light to opsins expressed on neuronal membranes. In order to overcome these hardware-related problems, we have developed an alternative strategy for delivering light to opsins which does not involve fiber implants. Rather, the light is produced by a protein, luciferase, which oxidizes intravenously applied substrate, thereby emitting bioluminescence. In proof-ofprinciple studies employing a fusion protein of a light-generating luciferase to a light-sensing opsin (luminopsin), we showed that light emitted by Gaussia luciferase is indeed able to activate channelrhodopsin, allowing modulation of neuronal activity when expressed in cultured neurons. Here we assessed applicability of the concept in vivo in mice expressing luminopsins from viral vectors and from genetically engineered transgenes. The experiments demonstrate that intravenously applied substrate reaches neurons in the brain, causing the luciferase to produce bioluminescence which can be imaged in vivo, and that activation of channelrhodopsin by bioluminescence is sufficient to affect behavior. Further developments of such technology based on combining optogenetics with bioluminescence - i.e. combining lightsensing molecules with biologically produced light through luciferases - should bring optogenetics closer to clinical applications.

  4. AAV delivery of wild-type rhodopsin preserves retinal function in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haoyu; James, Thomas; Schwein, Alison; Shabashvili, Arseniy E; Hauswirth, William W; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Lewin, Alfred S

    2011-05-01

    Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations in RHO, the gene for rod photoreceptor opsin. Earlier, a study on mice carrying mutated rhodopsin transgenes on either RHO?+?/?+? or RHO?+?/- backgrounds suggested that the amount of wild-type rhodopsin affected survival of photoreceptors. Therefore, we treated P23H RHO transgenic mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) expressing a cDNA clone of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal opsin from the mouse opsin promoter. Analysis of the electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of RHO301 slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice: at 6 months, a-wave amplitudes were increased by 100% and b-wave amplitudes by 79%. In contrast, nontransgenic mice injected with AAV5 RHO301 demonstrated a decrease in the ERG, confirming the damaging effect of rhodopsin overproduction in normal photoreceptors. In P23H mice, the increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure: the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in RHO301-treated eyes was increased by 80% compared with control eyes. These findings suggest that the wild-type RHO gene can be delivered to rescue retinal degeneration in mice carrying a RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin can suppress the effect of the mutated protein. These findings make it possible to treat ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO with the expression of wild-type RHO. PMID:21126223

  5. AAV Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Preserves Retinal Function in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Haoyu; James, Thomas; Schwein, Alison; Shabashvili, Arseniy E.; Hauswirth, William W.; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations in RHO, the gene for rod photoreceptor opsin. Earlier, a study on mice carrying mutated rhodopsin transgenes on either RHO?+?/?+? or RHO?+?/– backgrounds suggested that the amount of wild-type rhodopsin affected survival of photoreceptors. Therefore, we treated P23H RHO transgenic mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) expressing a cDNA clone of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal opsin from the mouse opsin promoter. Analysis of the electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of RHO301 slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice: at 6 months, a-wave amplitudes were increased by 100% and b-wave amplitudes by 79%. In contrast, nontransgenic mice injected with AAV5 RHO301 demonstrated a decrease in the ERG, confirming the damaging effect of rhodopsin overproduction in normal photoreceptors. In P23H mice, the increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure: the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in RHO301-treated eyes was increased by 80% compared with control eyes. These findings suggest that the wild-type RHO gene can be delivered to rescue retinal degeneration in mice carrying a RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin can suppress the effect of the mutated protein. These findings make it possible to treat ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO with the expression of wild-type RHO. PMID:21126223

  6. Self-Organized Criticality: A Guide to Water-Protein Landscape Evolution

    E-print Network

    J. C. Phillips

    2012-02-23

    We focus here on the scaling properties of small interspecies differences between red cone opsin transmembrane proteins, using a hydropathic elastic roughening tool previously applied to the rhodopsin rod transmembrane proteins. This tool is based on a non-Euclidean hydropathic metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments, which thereby encapsulates universal non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of water films enveloping globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank. Whereas the rhodopsin blue rod water films are smoothest in humans, the red cone opsins' water films are optimized in cats and elephants, consistent with protein species landscapes that evolve differently in different contexts. We also analyze red cone opsins in the chromatophore-containing family of chameleons, snakes, zebrafish and goldfish, where short- and long-range (BLAST and hydropathic) aa correlations are found with values as large as 97-99%. We use hydropathic amino acid (aa) optimization to estimate the maximum number Nmax of color shades that the human eye can discriminate, and obtain 10^6 experiment.

  7. Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving non-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats Mohan; Montgomery, Kate L.; Towne, Chris; Lee, Soo Yeun; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain1. Our ability to excite and inhibit these neurons has been limited by pharmacological and electrical stimulation constraints; non-invasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving non-transgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic2 strategy to bidirectionally control nociceptors of non-transgenic mice. Intra-sciatic nerve injection of adeno-associated viruses encoding an excitatory opsin enabled light-inducible stimulation of acute pain, place aversion, and optogenetically mediated reductions in withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, viral delivery of an inhibitory opsin enabled light-inducible inhibition of acute pain perception, and reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. Light was delivered transdermally enabling these behaviors to be induced in freely moving animals. This approach may have utility in basic and translational pain research, and enable rapid drug screening and testing of newly engineered opsins. PMID:24531797

  8. Spectral Sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei Keys

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, Lydia M.; Schmid, Axel; Fredman, David; Eriksson, Bo Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Summary The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei walks towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study a black target (size 42 × 70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range of 365 to 695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (HW in the range of 6 – 10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40 % and 80%. In a second trial the transmission was reduced to 5%, using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity the spiders showed a spectral sensivity in the range from 380 to 670 nm. In the second trial the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range of 449 to 599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders. PMID:23948480

  9. Self-organized criticality and color vision: A guide to water-protein landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2013-02-01

    We focus here on the scaling properties of small interspecies differences between red cone opsin transmembrane proteins, using a hydropathic elastic roughening tool previously applied to the rhodopsin rod transmembrane proteins. This tool is based on a non-Euclidean hydropathic metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments, which thereby encapsulates universal non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of water films enveloping globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank. Whereas the rhodopsin blue rod water films are smoothest in humans, the red cone opsins’ water films are optimized for smoothness in cats and elephants, consistent with protein species landscapes that evolve differently in different contexts. We also analyze red cone opsins in the chromatophore-containing family of chameleons, snakes, zebrafish and goldfish, where short- and long-range (BLAST and hydropathic) amino acid (aa) correlations are found with values as large as 97%-99%. We use hydropathic aa optimization to estimate the maximum number Nmax of color shades that the human eye can discriminate, and obtain 106

  10. Identification and characterization of visual pigments in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), an order of limbless vertebrates with rudimentary eyes.

    PubMed

    Mohun, S M; Davies, W L; Bowmaker, J K; Pisani, D; Himstedt, W; Gower, D J; Hunt, D M; Wilkinson, M

    2010-10-15

    In comparison with the other amphibian orders, the Anura (frogs) and Urodela (salamanders), knowledge of the visual system of the snake-like Gymnophiona (caecilians) is relatively sparse. Most caecilians are fossorial with, as far as is known any surface activity occurring mainly at night. They have relatively small, poorly developed eyes and might be expected to possess detectable changes in the spectral sensitivity of their visual pigments. Microspectrophotometry was used to determine the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors in three species of caecilian, Rhinatrema bivittatum, Geotrypetes seraphini and Typhlonectes natans. Only rod opsin visual pigment, which may be associated with scotopic (dim light) vision when accompanied by other 'rod-specific' components of the phototransduction cascade, was found to be present. Opsin sequences were obtained from the eyes of two species of caecilian, Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis and T. natans. These rod opsins were regenerated in vitro with 11-cis retinal to give pigments with spectral sensitivity peaks close to 500 nm. No evidence for cone photoreception, associated with diurnal and colour vision, was detected using molecular and physiological methods. Additionally, visual pigments are short-wavelength shifted in terms of the maximum absorption of light when compared with other amphibian lineages. PMID:20889838

  11. Transcriptome profiling of developing photoreceptor subtypes reveals candidate genes involved in avian photoreceptor diversification.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jennifer M; Lawrence, Karen A; Hadzic, Tarik; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-03-01

    Avian photoreceptors are a diverse class of neurons, comprised of four single cones, the two members of the double cone, and rods. The signaling events and transcriptional regulators driving the differentiation of these diverse photoreceptors are largely unknown. In addition, many distinctive features of photoreceptor subtypes, including spectral tuning, oil droplet size and pigmentation, synaptic targets, and spatial patterning, have been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these attributes have not been explored. To identify genes specifically expressed in distinct chicken (Gallus gallus) photoreceptor subtypes, we developed fluorescent reporters that label photoreceptor subpopulations, isolated these subpopulations by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and subjected them to next-generation sequencing. By comparing the expression profiles of photoreceptors labeled with rhodopsin, red opsin, green opsin, and violet opsin reporters, we have identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that may underlie the distinctive features of these photoreceptor subtypes. These genes are involved in a variety of processes, including phototransduction, transcriptional regulation, cell adhesion, maintenance of intra- and extracellular structure, and metabolism. Of particular note are a variety of differentially expressed transcription factors, which may drive and maintain photoreceptor diversity, and cell adhesion molecules, which may mediate spatial patterning of photoreceptors and act to establish retinal circuitry. These analyses provide a framework for future studies that will dissect the role of these various factors in the differentiation of avian photoreceptor subtypes. PMID:25349106

  12. High Angular Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Young Stars in Orion BN/KL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhill, L. J.; Gezari, D. Y.; Danchi, W. C.; Najita, J.; Monnier, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present Keck LWS images of the Orion BN/KL star forming region obtained in the first multi-wavelength study to have 0.3--0.5 resolution from 4.7 (micro)m to 22 (micro)m. The young stellar objects designed infrared source n and radio source I are believed to dominate the BN/KL region. They have detected extended emission from a probable accretion disk around source n but infer a stellar luminosity on the order of only 2000 L(sub (center-dot)).

  13. Oxygen in dense interstellar gas. The oxygen abundance of the star forming core ? Ophiuchi A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseau, R.; Justtanont, K.

    2009-06-01

    Context: Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe, but its chemistry in the interstellar medium is still not understood well. Aims: To critically examine the entire oxygen budget, we initially attempt to estimate the abundance of atomic oxygen, O, in the only region where molecular oxygen, O{2}, has been detected to date. Methods: We analysed ISOCAM-CVF spectral image data toward ? Oph A to derive the temperatures and column densities of H{2} at the locations of ISO-LWS observations of two [O I] ^3P{J} lines. The intensity ratios of the (J = 1-2) 63 ?m to (J = 0-1) 145 ?m lines largely exceed ten, attesting to these lines being optically thin. This is confirmed by radiative transfer calculations, making these lines suitable for abundance determinations. For that purpose, we calculated line strengths and compared them to the LWS observations. Results: Excess [O I] emission is observed to be associated with the molecular outflow from VLA 1623. For this region, we determine the physical parameters, T and N(H{2}), from the CAM observations, and the gas density, n(H{2}), is determined from the flux ratio of the [O i] 63 ?m and [O i] 145 ?m lines. For the oxygen abundance, our analysis essentially leads to three possibilities: (1) extended low-density gas with standard ISM O-abundance, (2) compact high-density gas with standard ISM O-abundance, and (3) extended high-density gas with reduced oxygen abundance, [O/H] 2 × 10-5. Conclusions: As option (1) disregards valid [O i] 145 ?m data, we do not find it very compelling; instead, we favour option (3), as lower abundances are expected as a result of chemical cloud evolution, but we are not able to dismiss option (2) entirely. Observations at higher angular resolution than offered by the LWS are required to decide between these possibilities. Based on observations with the CAM-CVF (Cesarsky et al. 1996) and the LWS (Clegg et al. 1996) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO (Kessler et al. 1996).

  14. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

  15. The [CII] and [OI] emission lines in NGC6946 and NGC1313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contursi, A.; Brauher, J.; Helou, G.

    The [CII (158 ?m)] fine structure line, which is the principal cooling line of the atomic gas, in two nearby galaxies observed with LWS on board ISO is compared to dust and HI gas emission and heating intensity. The relation between photoelectric effect on different grains populations, dust and gas heating found for a sample of 60 normal galaxies for which global [CII] measurements are available, still holds on scale of ~1.5 kpc. We also succeed in detecting cooling from a low density diffuse atomic gas associated with the diffuse optical disk in both galaxies, accounting typically for ~ 30-40% of the total [CII] emission.

  16. Instrumentation for optical remote sensing from space; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, November 27-29, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeley, John S. (editor); Lear, John W. (editor); Russak, Sidney L. (editor); Monfils, Andre (editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as the development of the Imaging Spectrometer for Shuttle and space platform applications; the in-flight calibration of pushbroom remote sensing instruments for the SPOT program; buttable detector arrays for 1.55-1.7 micron imaging; the design of the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite; and SAGE II design and in-orbit performance. Consideration is also given to the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B/C instruments; the Venus Radar Mapper multimode radar system design; various ISO instruments (ISOCAM, ISOPHOT, and SWS and LWS); and instrumentation for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility.

  17. ISM Parameters in the Normal Galaxy NGC 5713

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, S. D.; Malhotra, S.; Lim, T.; Helou, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Dinerstein, H.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Hunter, D. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Lu, N. Y.; Rubin, R. H.; Stacey, G. J.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Werner, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We report ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) observations fo the Sbc(s) pec galaxy NGC 5713. We have obtained strong detections of the fine-structure forbidden transitions [C(sub ii)] 158(micro)m, [O(sub i)]63(micro)m, and [O(sub iii)] 88(micro)m, and significant upper limits for[N(sub ii)]122(micro)m, [O(sub iii)] 52(micro)m, and [N(sub iii)] 57(micro)m. We also detect the galaxy's dust continuum emission between 43 and 197 microns.

  18. Designing 2D arrays for SHM of planar structures: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures that aims at detecting and localizing impact or damage at any point of the structure requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. 2-D ultrasonic phased arrays, due to their beam-steering capability and all azimuth angle coverage are a very promising tool for structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures using Lamb waves (LW). Linear phased arrays that have been proposed for that purpose, produce mirrored image characterized by azimuth dependent resolution, which prevents unequivocal damage localization. 2D arrays do not have this drawback and they are even capable of mode selectivity when generating and receiving LWs. Performance of 2D arrays depends on their topology as well as the number of elements (transducers) used and their spacing in terms of wavelength. In this paper we propose a consistent methodology for three-step: theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of a diversity of 2D array topologies in SHM applications. In the first step, the theoretical evaluation is performed using frequency-dependent structure transfer function (STF). STF that defines linear propagation of different LWs modes through the dispersive medium enables theoretical investigation of the particular array performance for a predefined tone-burst excitation signal. A dedicated software tool has been developed for the numerical evaluation of 2D array directional characteristics (beampattern) in a specific structure. The simulations are performed using local interaction simulation approach (LISA), implemented using NVIDIA CUDA graphical computation unit (GPU), which enables time-efficient 3D simulations of LWs propagation. Beampatterns of a 2D array can be to some extend evaluated analytically and using numerical simulations; in most cases, however, they require experimental verification. Using scanning laser vibrometer is proposed for that purpose, in a setup where LWs, excited by PZT transmitters of the investigated array are sensed in multiple points corresponding to the locations of the 2D array receiving elements. A virtual receiving sub-array is created in this way and the performance of various array architectures in the reception mode can be evaluated experimentally without the need of physical prototype; a change of topology requires only straightforward modification of the measurement points distribution at the tested structure. For illustration, beampatterns of three symmetrical 2D topologies, i.e., circular, star-shaped and spiralshaped, will be examined in the paper and compared in terms of their beam-width and side-lobes level. The effect of apodization applied to the array elements will be also investigated.

  19. Space Weather Monitoring with DSCOVR and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, A.

    2013-05-01

    With the NOAA/NASA DSCOVR spacecraft launched around 2015, continued near-Earth solar wind monitoring will be assured. However, to provide more than the current 30-45 minutes warning time of incoming solar transients, newer platforms are required. Solar sail missions would orbit an artificial 1st Lagrange point nearly doubling the current warning time. Four or five LWS Solar Sentinels orbiting the Sun inside 0.5 AU would provide warning times close to 1 day. The required scientific understanding is already at hand to take full advantage of such new missions. DSCOVR and these new missions will be discussed in detail.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa and the efficacy of pharmacological rescue.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Mark P; Holden, David C; Joshi, Parth; Clark, Charles L; Lee, Andrew H; Kaushal, Shalesh

    2010-02-01

    Variants of rhodopsin, a complex of 11-cis retinal and opsin, cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a degenerative disease of the retina. Trafficking defects due to rhodopsin misfolding have been proposed as the most likely basis of the disease, but other potentially overlapping mechanisms may also apply. Pharmacological therapies for RP must target the major disease mechanism and contend with overlap, if it occurs. To this end, we have explored the molecular basis of rhodopsin RP in the context of pharmacological rescue with 11-cis retinal. Stable inducible cell lines were constructed to express wild-type opsin; the pathogenic variants T4R, T17M, P23A, P23H, P23L, and C110Y; or the nonpathogenic variants F220L and A299S. Pharmacological rescue was measured as the fold increase in rhodopsin or opsin levels upon addition of 11-cis retinal during opsin expression. Only Pro23 and T17M variants were rescued significantly. C110Y opsin was produced at low levels and did not yield rhodopsin, whereas the T4R, F220L, and A299S proteins reached near-wild-type levels and changed little with 11-cis retinal. All of the mutant rhodopsins exhibited misfolding, which increased over a broad range in the order F220L, A299S, T4R, T17M, P23A, P23H, P23L, as determined by decreased thermal stability in the dark and increased hydroxylamine sensitivity. Pharmacological rescue increased as misfolding decreased, but was limited for the least misfolded variants. Significantly, pathogenic variants also showed abnormal photobleaching behavior, including an increased ratio of metarhodopsin-I-like species to metarhodopsin-II-like species and aberrant photoproduct accumulation with prolonged illumination. These results, combined with an analysis of published biochemical and clinical studies, suggest that many rhodopsin variants cause disease by affecting both biosynthesis and photoactivity. We conclude that pharmacological rescue is promising as a broadly effective therapy for rhodopsin RP, particularly if implemented in a way that minimizes the photoactivity of the mutant proteins. PMID:19913029

  1. The spectral properties and photosensitivities of analogue photopigments regenerated with 10- and 14-substituted retinal analogues.

    PubMed

    Crescitelli, F; Liu, R S

    1988-02-23

    Analogues of 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinal with substitutions at positions 10 and 14 were used to regenerate analogue photopigments with two opsins: that of the transmuted (cone-like) 521-pigment of Gekko gekko and that of the rhodopsin of Porichthys notatus. The spectral absorbances and photosensitivities of the regenerated photopigments were determined and compared, first, between the two systems of analogue photopigments, and second, in the responses to the two opsins. Unlike the 10-fluoropigments, the comparable 14-compounds were significantly red-shifted by 19-30 nm and their sensitivity to light was similar to that of the parent 11-cis- and 9-cis-pigments. These were the results for both analogue pigments. In contrast, the 10-pigments were spectrally located close to the wavelengths of the parent compounds and the photosensitivity was significantly reduced, especially in the case of the 9-cis-analogues. Evidence was obtained for a steric hindrance effect at position 14, for no regeneration was obtained when methyl or ethyl groups were at this carbon. In the 10-substituted retinals, steric hindrance was noted only for the gecko; only the fluorosubstituted, but not the chloro-, the methyl- or the ethyl-substituted, retinals reacted. With the fish opsin, pigments were regenerated with all but the ethyl-substituted retinal. The gecko opsin appears to have a more restricted binding site. Another feature of the gecko was related to the chloride bathochromic and hyperchromic effects, in which the 521-pigment prepared in a chloride-deficient state has a blue-shifted spectrum compared with the spectrum obtained after the addition of chloride, and its extinction is raised by the addition of chloride to give a mean ratio of 1.23 for the two extinctions, one with, the other without, added chloride. The 11-cis-10-F-analogue pigment gave both chloride effects and the hyperchromic ratio was the same as that recorded for the native visual pigment. In contrast, the pigment formed with 11-cis-14-F-retinal gave a hyperchromic ratio significantly greater than 1.23. A similar contrast in the responses to chloride was obtained with the analogue photopigments regenerated with the 9-cis-10-F- and 9-cis-14-F-chromophores. This difference between the two systems is interpreted as the result of a specific configurational feature of the gecko opsin when in the chloride-deficient state that is relevant to the binding of the retinal analogue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2895933

  2. Epigenetic control of expression of the human L- and M- pigment genes.

    PubMed

    Deeb, S S; Bisset, D; Fu, L

    2010-09-01

    Epigenetics alters gene expression by chromatin modification without changing the sequence of DNA. DNA methylation is an essential signal for epigenetic gene regulation. Methylation of cytosine bases at CpG dinucleotides in DNA results in chromatin condensation resulting in suppression of gene expression. DNA methylation has been shown to play important roles in cell differentiation, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. We compared the CpG methylation patterns of the promoters of the L-opsin gene (OPN1LW) and the M-opsin gene (OPN1MW), plus a DNase I hypersensitive (DHS) site located about 8 kb (kilobases) upstream of the OPN1LW gene. Comparisons were made using the human retinoblastoma cell line WERI, which expresses the L and M opsin genes when treated with thyroid hormone (T3), and a lymphoblastoid cell line GM06990 that does not express these genes. The results showed that the great majority of the 14 CpGs located within the proximal 200 bp (base pairs) of each promoter, plus 20 bp of the 5'-untranslated region, were hypo-methylated in WERI-Rb-1 cells, whether or not treated with T3, but almost totally methylated in the lymphoblastoid cell line. Three of the CpGs that are located beyond 200 bp from the transcription start site of OPN1LW were hyper-methylated in both WERI and lymphoblastoid cells. Significant differential methylation was also observed within the DHS region (24 CpGs). This DHS region contains a highly conserved motif that binds CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), referred to as a 'chromatin insulator or boundary element', that has been shown to regulate gene expression at several genome locations. The results suggest that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to regulation of expression of the L- and M-opsin genes during differentiation, as well as to the retinal L:M cone ratio. In addition, thyroid hormone induction of the opsin genes does not appear to alter DNA methylation. PMID:20883327

  3. Comparison of force-related performance indicators between heavyweight and lightweight rowers.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Matthew M; Lyttle, Andrew; Elliott, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine biomechanical variables relating to the force production of men's Lightweight (LW) and Heavyweight (HW) rowing pairs. Seven HW and seven LW coxless pairs were studied under a range of stroke rates, from 20 spm to race rating (average of 33.7 spm for the HWs and 33.9 spm for the LWs). Each crew was equipped with biomechanical apparatus allowing the measurement of gate force, horizontal oar angle, and boat velocity. The HW crews exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for all variables examined, at all rates. Peak handle force was 26.2% to 30.2% higher in the HW group. Average handle force ranged from 18.7% to 22.1% higher than the LW group. Work per stroke was found to be 26% to 28% higher for the HW crews, and Power Per Kilogram was also greater for the HW crews, from 24.0% to 29.2%. The LWs were observed to be consistently, but not significantly, slower than the HWs (from 96.9% at the race situation, to 98.7% at 28 spm). These observations are important when considering biomechanical performance indicators in rowing, as significant changes in performance indicators may lead to only minimal alteration in boat velocity. PMID:21162363

  4. The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

  5. Constraints on the Sun-Heliosphere Magnetic Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    The solar magnetic field is the primary agent that drives solar activity and couples the Sun to the Heliosphere. Although the details of this coupling depend on the quantitative properties of the field, many important aspects of the corona - solar wind connection can be understood by considering only the topological properties of those regions on the Sun where the field extends from the photosphere out to interplanetary space, the so-called open field regions that are often observed as "coronal holes". From the well-known assumptions that underlie the standard quasi-steady corona-wind theoretical models, and that are likely to hold for the Sun, as well, we derive several constraints on the possible topology and dynamics of coronal open and closed field regions. We show how magnetic reconnection plays the central role in establishing these constraints. We discuss the implications of our results on observations, and make a number of predictions for the upcoming LWS missions. This work was supported by the LWS TR&T Program and is part of the research by the Focus Team on Connecting the Sun to the Heliosphere.

  6. Photoelectric effect on dust grains across the L1721 cloud in the rho Ophiuchi molecular complex

    E-print Network

    E. Habart; L. Verstraete; F. Boulanger; G. Pineau des Forets; F. Le Peintre; J. P. Bernard

    2001-04-09

    We present ISO-LWS measurements of the main gas cooling lines, C+ 158 mum and O 63 mum towards a moderate opacity molecular cloud (Av=3), L1721, illuminated by the B2 star nu Sco (X = 5-10). These data are combined with an extinction map and IRAS dust emission images to test our understanding of gas heating and cooling in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). This nearby PDR is spatially resolved in the IRAS images; variations in the IRAS colors across the cloud indicate an enhanced abundance of small dust grains within the PDR. A spatial correlation between the gas cooling lines and the infrared emission from small dust grains illustrates the dominant role of small dust grains in the gas heating through the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric efficiency, determined from the observations by ratioing the power radiated by gas and small dust grains, is in the range 2 to 3% in close agreement with recent theoretical estimates. The brightness profiles across the PDR in the C+ 158 mum and O 63 mum lines are compared with model calculations where the density profile is constrained by the extinction data and where the gas chemical and thermal balances are solved at each position. We show that abundance variations of small dust grains across the PDR must be considered to account for the LWS observations.

  7. The Living With A Star Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Giles, B.; Poland, A.; Zanetti, L.; Mauk, B.

    2003-04-01

    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to address effectively those aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. LWS has solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric elements, and efforts are underway to forge a connection with the atmospheric and Earth science community. An understanding of the Sun’s dynamics, as well as the nature and sources of solar variations will be provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, currently in the early phase of development. The payload includes a helioseismology investigation and multi-spectral coronal imaging, as well as an extreme ultraviolet irradiance spectrometer that will provide measurements critical to characterization of the ionospheric-thermospheric response to variations in solar energy input. Recently the Geospace Mission Definition Team has released their report outlining a family of science investigations that address the near-Earth interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, and the upper atmosphere. The recommended elements are contained in two coupled investigations: a Radiation Belt Investigation whose flight components consist of two Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) and an energetic neutral atom imager. The RBSP will measure relativistic electrons, electric and magnetic fields, wave fields, ring current ions and radiation belt ions; the imager will provide information on the global distribution and dynamics of the ring current ion population. The Ionosphere-Thermosphere Investigation consists of two identical spacecraft in low-Earth orbit and a mid-latitude far-ultraviolet imager in geosynchronous orbit on a mission of opportunity. The Ionosphere-Thermosphere Storm Probes will make in-situ measurements of plasma density, drifts, irregularities, neutral densities and winds, as well as currents, wave fields, and precipitating particles. The mid latitude imager will map the oxygen to nitrogen ratio and the square of the electron density, providing global context for the in-situ measurements. An initial set of Space Environment Testbed proposals is under evaluation, with the goal of improving engineering approaches to accommodation or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. Much of the knowledge obtained by the LWS Program will be transferred to the space weather community in the form of scientific models, which will provide the basis for operational models, design tools, and decision aids to be used by those concerned with designing around or operating through hazardous space weather conditions. Definition and strategy panels have been formed to provide direction for the Targeted Research and Technology and the Solar Sentinels programs. LWS has adopted an open data policy for all missions. Since the program emphasizes cross-disciplinary and correlative studies, multiple studies of the data environment are also underway. This presentation will provide an update of the status of all elements in the LWS Program.

  8. Linear interference and the Northern Annular Mode response to tropical SST forcing: Sensitivity to model configuration

    E-print Network

    linearly with forcing strength. But wave amplitude alone is not sufficient to predict the NAM response diabatic heating, off-equatorial forcing of planetary waves, sensitivity to tropospheric jet structure to tropical SSTs are controlled by the total wave activity entering the subpolar stratosphere, which depends

  9. Retinal photoreceptors of two subterranean tuco-tuco species (Rodentia, Ctenomys): morphology, topography, and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Cristian E; Vielma, Alex; Glösmann, Martin; Palacios, Adrian G; Peichl, Leo

    2010-10-01

    Traditionally, vision was thought to be useless for animals living in dark underground habitats, but recent studies in a range of subterranean rodent species have shown a large diversity of eye features, from small subcutaneous eyes to normal-sized functional eyes. We analyzed the retinal photoreceptors in the subterranean hystricomorph rodents Ctenomys talarum and Ctenomys magellanicus to elucidate whether adaptation was to their near-lightless burrows or rather to their occasional diurnal surface activity. Both species had normally developed eyes. Overall photoreceptor densities were comparatively low (95,000-150,000/mm(2) in C. magellanicus, 110,000-200,000/mm(2) in C. talarum), and cone proportions were rather high (10-31% and 14-31%, respectively). The majority of cones expressed the middle-to-longwave-sensitive (L) opsin, and a 6-16% minority expressed the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin. In both species the densities of L and S cones were higher in ventral than in dorsal retina. In both species the tuning-relevant amino acids of the S opsin indicate sensitivity in the near UV rather than the blue/violet range. Photopic spectral electroretinograms were recorded. Unexpectedly, their sensitivity profiles were best fitted by the linear summation of three visual pigment templates with lambda(max) at 370 nm (S pigment, UV), at 510 nm (L pigment), and at 450 nm (an as-yet unexplained mechanism). Avoiding predators and selecting food during the brief aboveground excursions may have exerted pressure to retain robust cone-based vision in Ctenomys. UV tuning of the S cone pigment is shared with a number of other hystricomorphs. PMID:20737597

  10. Contribution of glutamic acid in the conserved E/DRY triad to the functional properties of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keita; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-07-15

    Rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor specialized for photoreception and contains a light-absorbing chromophore retinal that binds to the lysine residue of opsin through a protonated Schiff base linkage. Light converts rhodopsin to an equilibrium mixture of the active state metarhodopsin II (MII) and its precursor, metarhodopsin I (MI), which have deprotonated and protonated Schiff base chromophores, respectively. This equilibrium was thought to depend on the pKa of not the Schiff base chromophore but glutamic acid E134 in the highly conserved E/DRY triad in helix III. We performed mutational analyses of E134 and nearby residues to examine whether the equilibrium is really dependent on the pKa of E134 and to obtain clues about the contribution of E134 to the G protein activation characteristics of rhodopsin. All the single mutants at position 134 except for E134D lost the characteristic pH-dependent equilibrium, indicating that the carboxyl group of E134 is responsible for the equilibrium. Interestingly, mutation at position 134 caused little change in the MI or MII spectra or G protein activation efficiency of MII, while it caused a shift of the MI-MII equilibrium. The mutants containing hydrophobic or amide-containing residues at position 134 formed an equilibrium in favor of MII, resulting in an increase in light-induced G protein activation efficiency. On the other hand, the wild type exhibited an opsin activity lower than those of the mutants, which exhibited reasonable light-dependent activities. These results strongly suggest that the evolutionary significance of E134 is not an increase in G protein activity but rather suppression of the opsin activity. PMID:24960425

  11. Not all butterfly eyes are created equal: rhodopsin absorption spectra, molecular identification, and localization of ultraviolet-, blue-, and green-sensitive rhodopsin-encoding mRNAs in the retina of Vanessa cardui.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Adriana D; Bernard, Gary D; Szeto, Allan S; Nagy, Lisa M; White, Richard H

    2003-04-14

    Surveys of spectral sensitivities, visual pigment spectra, and opsin gene sequences have indicated that all butterfly eyes contain ultraviolet-, blue-, and green-sensitive rhodopsins. Some species also contain a fourth or fifth type, related in amino acid sequence to green-sensitive insect rhodopsins, but red shifted in absorbance. By combining electron microscopy, epi-microspectrophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction cloning, we found that the compound eye of Vanessa cardui has the typical ultrastructural features of the butterfly retina but contains only the three common insect rhodopsins. We estimated lambda-max values and relative densities of the rhodopsins in the Vanessa retina (0.72, P530; 0.12, P470; and 0.15, P360) from microspectrophotometric measurements and calculations based on a computational model of reflectance spectra. We isolated three opsin-encoding cDNA fragments that were identified with P530, P470, and P360 by homology to the well-characterized insect rhodopsin families. The retinal mosaic was mapped by opsin mRNA in situ hybridization and found to contain three kinds of ommatidia with respect to their patterns of short wavelength rhodopsin expression. In some ommatidia, P360 or P470 was expressed in R1 and R2 opposed receptor cells; in others, one cell expressed P360, whereas its complement expressed P470. P530 was expressed in the other seven cells of all ommatidia. P470-expressing cells were abundant in the ventral retina but nearly absent dorsally. Our results indicated that there are major differences between the color vision systems of nymphalid and papilionid butterflies: the nymphalid Vanessa has a simpler, trichromatic, system than do the tetrachromatic papilionids that have been studied. PMID:12619069

  12. Early Degeneration of Photoreceptor Synapse in Ccl2/Cx3cr1-Deficient Mice on Crb1rd8 Background

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Tuo, Jingsheng; Cao, Xiaoguan; Shen, Defen; Li, Wei; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor ribbon synapse releases glutamate to postsynaptic targets. The synaptic ribbon may play multiple roles in ribbon synapse development, synaptic vesicle recycling, and synaptic transmission. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients appear to have fewer or no detectable synaptic ribbons as well as abnormal swelling in the photoreceptor terminals in the macula. However, reports on changes of photoreceptor synapses in AMD are scarce and photoreceptor type and quantity affected in early AMD is still unclear. Here, we employed multiple anatomical techniques to investigate these questions in Ccl2?/?/Cx3cr1?/? mouse on Crb1rd8 background (DKO rd8) at one month of age. We found that approximately 17% of photoreceptors over the focal lesion were lost. Immunostaining for synapse-associated proteins (CtBP2, synaptophysin, and vesicular glutamate transporter 1) showed significantly reduced expression and ectopic localization. Cone opsins demonstrated dramatic reduction in expression (S-opsins) and extensive mislocalization (M-opsins). Quantitative ultrastructural analysis confirmed a significant decrease in the number of cone terminals and nuclei, numerous vacuoles in remaining cone terminals, reduction in the number of synaptic ribbons in photoreceptor terminals, and ectopic rod ribbon synapses. In addition, glutamate receptor immunoreactivity on aberrant sprouting of rod bipolar cells and horizontal cells were identified at the ectopic synapses. These results indicate that synaptic alterations occur at the early stages of disease and cones are likely more susceptible to damage caused by DKO rd8 mutation. They provide a new insight into potential mechanism of vision function lost due to synaptic degeneration before cell death in the early Stages of AMD. PMID:23592324

  13. The phylogenetic distribution of ultraviolet sensitivity in birds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colour vision in birds can be categorized into two classes, the ultraviolet (UVS) and violet sensitive (VS). Their phylogenetic distributions have traditionally been regarded as highly conserved. However, the complicated nature of acquiring spectral sensitivities from cone photoreceptors meant that until recently, only a few species had actually been studied. Whether birds are UVS or VS can nowadays be inferred from a wide range of species via genomic sequencing of the UV/violet SWS1 cone opsin gene. Results We present genomic sequencing results of the SWS1 gene from 21 avian orders. Amino acid residues signifying UV sensitivity are found in the two most important spectral tuning sites 86 and 90 of Pteroclidiformes and Coraciiformes, in addition to the major clades, Palaeognathae, Charadriiformes, Trogoniformes, Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, where they where previously known to occur. We confirm that the presumed UVS-conferring amino acid combination F86, C90 and M93 is common to Palaeognathae and unique to this clade, despite available spectrometric evidence showing the ostrich retina to be VS. Conclusions By mapping our results together with data from previous studies on a molecular phylogeny we show that avian colour vision shifted between VS and UVS at least 14 times. Single nucleotide substitutions can explain all these shifts. The common ancestor of birds most likely had a VS phenotype. However, the ancestral state of the avian SWS1 opsin’s spectral tuning sites cannot be resolved, since the Palaeognathae are F86, C90 while the Neognathae are ancestrally S86, S90. The phylogenetic distribution of UVS and VS colour vision in birds is so complex that inferences of spectral sensitivities from closely related taxa should be used with caution. PMID:23394614

  14. The maturation of photoreceptors in the avian retina Is stimulated by thyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andy J.; Bongini, Rachel; Bastaki, Nasma; Sherwood, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    During retinal development, the cell-fate of photoreceptors is committed long before maturation, which entails the expression of opsins and functional transduction of light. The mechanisms that delay the maturation of photoreceptors remain unknown. We have recently reported that immature photoreceptors express the LIM domain transcription factors Islet2 and Lim3, as well as the cell-surface glycoprotein axonin1 (Fischer et al., 2008a). As the photoreceptors mature to form outer segments and express photopigments, the expression of the Islet2, Lim3 and axonin1 is diminished. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Thyroid Hormone (TH) influences the maturation of photoreceptors. We studied the maturation of photoreceptors across the gradient of maturity that exists in far peripheral regions of the postnatal chicken retina (Ghai et al., 2008). We found that intraocular injections of TH down-regulated Islet2, Lim3 and axonin1 in photoreceptors in far peripheral regions of the retina. By contrast, TH stimulated the up-regulation of red-green opsin, violet opsin, rhodopsin and calbindin in photoreceptors. We found a correlation between the onset of RLIM (RING finger LIM-domain binding protein) and down-regulation of Islet2 and Lim3 in maturing photoreceptors; RLIM is known to interfere with the transcriptional activity of LIM-domain transcription factors. We conclude that TH stimulates the maturation of photoreceptors in the avian retina. We propose that TH inhibits the expression of Islet2 and Lim3, which thereby permits photoreceptor maturation and the onset of photopigment-expression. PMID:21256198

  15. Superior temporal resolution of Chronos versus channelrhodopsin-2 in an optogenetic model of the auditory brainstem implant.

    PubMed

    Hight, Ariel Edward; Kozin, Elliott D; Darrow, Keith; Lehmann, Ashton; Boyden, Edward; Brown, M Christian; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary auditory brainstem implant (ABI) performance is limited by reliance on electrical neurostimulation with its accompanying channel cross talk and current spread to non-auditory neurons. A new generation ABI based on optogenetic technology may ameliorate limitations fundamental to electrical stimulation. The most widely studied opsin is channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2); however, its relatively slow kinetic properties may prevent the encoding of auditory information at high stimulation rates. In the present study, we compare the temporal resolution of light-evoked responses of ChR2 to a recently developed fast opsin, Chronos, to ChR2 in a murine ABI model. Viral mediated gene transfer via a posterolateral craniotomy was used to express Chronos or ChR2 in the cochlear nucleus (CN). Following a four to eight week incubation period, blue light (473 nm) was delivered via an optical fiber placed directly on the surface of the infected CN, and neural activity was recorded in the contralateral inferior colliculus (IC). Both ChR2 and Chronos evoked sustained responses to all stimuli, even at high pulse rates. In addition, optical stimulation evoked excitatory responses throughout the tonotopic axis of the IC. Synchrony of the light-evoked response to stimulus rates of 14-448 pulses/s was higher in Chronos compared to ChR2 mice (p < 0.05 at 56, 168, and 224 pulses/s). Our results demonstrate that Chronos has the ability to drive the auditory system at higher stimulation rates than ChR2 and may be a more ideal opsin for manipulation of auditory pathways in future optogenetic-based neuroprostheses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Lasker Award". PMID:25598479

  16. From Blue Light to Clock Genes in Zebrafish ZEM-2S Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Bruno C. R.; Moraes, Maria Nathália C. M.; Poletini, Maristela O.; Lima, Leonardo H. R. G.; Castrucci, Ana Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Melanopsin has been implicated in the mammalian photoentrainment by blue light. This photopigment, which maximally absorbs light at wavelengths between 470 and 480 nm depending on the species, is found in the retina of all classes of vertebrates so far studied. In mammals, melanopsin activation triggers a signaling pathway which resets the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Unlike mammals, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio do not rely only on their eyes to perceive light, in fact their whole body may be capable of detecting light and entraining their circadian clock. Melanopsin, teleost multiple tissue (tmt) opsin and others such as neuropsin and va-opsin, are found in the peripheral tissues of Danio rerio, however, there are limited data concerning the photopigment/s or the signaling pathway/s directly involved in light detection. Here, we demonstrate that melanopsin is a strong candidate to mediate synchronization of zebrafish cells. The deduced amino acid sequence of melanopsin, although being a vertebrate opsin, is more similar to invertebrate than vertebrate photopigments, and melanopsin photostimulation triggers the phosphoinositide pathway through activation of a Gq/11-type G protein. We stimulated cultured ZEM-2S cells with blue light at wavelengths consistent with melanopsin maximal absorption, and evaluated the time course expression of per1b, cry1b, per2 and cry1a. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that blue light is capable of slightly modulating per1b and cry1b genes, and drastically increasing per2 and cry1a expression. Pharmacological assays indicated that per2 and cry1a responses to blue light are evoked through the activation of the phosphoinositide pathway, which crosstalks with nitric oxide (NO) and mitogen activated protein MAP kinase (MAPK) to activate the clock genes. Our results suggest that melanopsin may be important in mediating the photoresponse in Danio rerio ZEM-2S cells, and provide new insights about the modulation of clock genes in peripheral clocks. PMID:25184495

  17. Homologs of vertebrate Opn3 potentially serve as a light sensor in nonphotoreceptive tissue

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Takada, Eiichiro; Nagata, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2013-01-01

    Most opsins selectively bind 11-cis retinal as a chromophore to form a photosensitive pigment, which underlies various physiological functions, such as vision and circadian photoentrainment. Recently, opsin 3 (Opn3), originally called encephalopsin or panopsin, and its homologs were identified in various tissues including brain, eye, and liver in both vertebrates and invertebrates, including human. Because Opn3s are mainly expressed in tissues that are not considered to contain sufficient amounts of 11-cis retinal to form pigments, the photopigment formation ability of Opn3 has been of interest. Here, we report the successful expression of Opn3 homologs, pufferfish teleost multiple tissue opsin (PufTMT) and mosquito Opn3 (MosOpn3) and show that these proteins formed functional photopigments with 11-cis and 9-cis retinals. The PufTMT- and MosOpn3-based pigments have absorption maxima in the blue-to-green region and exhibit a bistable nature. These Opn3 homolog-based pigments activate Gi-type and Go-type G proteins light dependently, indicating that they potentially serve as light-sensitive Gi/Go-coupled receptors. We also demonstrated that mammalian cultured cells transfected with the MosOpn3 or PufTMT became light sensitive without the addition of 11-cis retinal and the photosensitivity retained after the continuous light exposure, showing a reusable pigment formation with retinal endogenously contained in culture medium. Interestingly, we found that the MosOpn3 also acts as a light sensor when constituted with 13-cis retinal, a ubiquitously present retinal isomer. Our findings suggest that homologs of vertebrate Opn3 might function as photoreceptors in various tissues; furthermore, these Opn3s, particularly the mosquito homolog, could provide a promising optogenetic tool for regulating cAMP-related G protein-coupled receptor signalings. PMID:23479626

  18. WONOEP appraisal: optogenetic tools to suppress seizures and explore the mechanisms of epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Laura Mantoan; Golshani, Peyman; Takahashi, Koji; Dufour, Suzie; Valiante, Taufik; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-11-01

    Optogenetics is a novel technology that combines optics and genetics by optical control of microbial opsins, targeted to living cell membranes. The versatility and the electrophysiologic characteristics of the light-sensitive ion-channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), and the light-sensitive proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) make these optogenetic tools potent candidates in controlling neuronal firing in models of epilepsy and in providing insights into the physiology and pathology of neuronal network organization and synchronization. Opsins allow selective activation of excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons, or subclasses of interneurons, to study their activity patterns in distinct brain-states in vivo and to dissect their role in generation of synchrony and seizures. The influence of gliotransmission on epileptic network function is another topic of great interest that can be further explored by using light-activated Gq protein-coupled opsins for selective activation of astrocytes. The ever-growing optogenetic toolbox can also be combined with emerging techniques that have greatly expanded our ability to record specific subtypes of cortical and hippocampal neurons in awake behaving animals such as juxtacellular recording and two-photon guided whole-cell recording, to identify the specific subtypes of neurons that are altered in epileptic networks. Finally, optogenetic tools allow rapid and reversible suppression of epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) activity upon photoactivation. This review outlines the most recent advances achieved with optogenetic techniques in the field of epilepsy by summarizing the presentations contributed to the 13th ILAE WONOEP meeting held in the Laurentian Mountains, Quebec, in June 2013. PMID:25303540

  19. Alpha-retinals as rhodopsin chromophores--preference for the 9-Z configuration and partial agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Bovee-Geurts, Petra H M; Lugtenburg, Johan; DeGrip, Willem J

    2008-01-01

    The visual pigment rhodopsin, the photosensory element of the rod photoreceptor cell in the vertebrate retina, shows in combination with an endogenous ligand, 11-Z retinal, an astonishing photochemical performance. It exhibits an unprecedented quantum yield (0.67) in a highly defined and ultrafast photoisomerization process. This triggers the conformational changes leading to the active state Meta(rhodopsin) II. Retinal is covalently bound to Lys-296 of the protein opsin in a protonated Schiff base. The resulting positive charge delocalization over the terminal part of the polyene chain of retinal creates a conjugation defect that upon photoexcitation moves to the opposite end of the polyene. Shortening the polyene as in 4,5-dehydro,5,6-dihydro (alpha), 5,6-dihydro or 7,8-dihydro-analogs might facilitate photoisomerization of a 9-Z and a 11-Z bond. Here we describe pigment analogs generated with bovine opsin and 11-Z or 9-Z 4,5-dehydro,5,6-dihydro-retinal that were further characterized by UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The preference of opsin for native 11-Z retinal over the 9-Z isomer is reversed in 4,5-dehydro,5,6-dihydro-retinal. 9-Z 4,5-dehydro,5,6-dihydro-retinal readily generated a photosensitive pigment. This modification has no effect on the quantum yield, but affects the Batho<-->blueshifted intermediate (BSI) equilibrium and leads to a strong decrease in the G-protein activation rate because of a downshift of the pK(a) of the Meta I<-->Meta II equilibrium. PMID:18346085

  20. NIGHT BLINDNESS AND THE MECHANISM OF CONSTITUTIVE SIGNALING OF MUTANT G90D RHODOPSIN

    PubMed Central

    Dizhoor, Alexander M.; Woodruff, Michael L.; Olshevskaya, Elena V.; Cilluffo, Marianne C.; Cornwall, M. Carter; Sieving, Paul A.; Fain, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    The G90D rhodopsin mutation is known to produce congenital night blindness in humans. This mutation produces a similar condition in mice, since rods of animals heterozygous (D+) or homozygous (D+/+) for this mutation have decreased dark current and sensitivity, reduced Ca2+, and accelerated values of ?REC and ?D, similar to light-adapted WT rods. Our experiments indicate that G90D pigment activates the cascade, producing an equivalent background light of about 130 Rh* rod?1 for D+ and 890 Rh* rod?1 for D+/+. The active species of the G90D pigment could be unregenerated G90D opsin or G90D rhodopsin, either spontaneously activated (as Rh*) or in some other form. Addition of 11-cis retinal in lipid vesicles, which produces regeneration of both WT and G90D opsin in intact rods and ROS membranes, had no effect on the waveform or sensitivity of dark-adapted G90D responses, indicating that the active species is not G90D opsin. The noise spectrum of a dark-adapted G90D and WT rods are similar, and the G90D noise variance is much less than of a WT rod exposed to background light of about the same intensity as the G90D equivalent light, indicating that Rh* is not the active species. We hypothesize that G90D rhodopsin undergoes spontaneous changes in molecular conformation which activate the transduction cascade with low gain. Our experiments provide the first indication that a mutant form of the rhodopsin molecule bound to its 11-cis chromophore can stimulate the visual cascade spontaneously at a rate large enough to produce visual dysfunction. PMID:18987202

  1. Experimental retinal detachment in the cone-dominant ground squirrel retina: morphology and basic immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Linberg, Kenneth A; Sakai, Tsutomu; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2002-01-01

    The cellular responses of the cone-dominant ground squirrel retina to retinal detachment were examined and compared to those in rod-dominant species. Retinal detachments were made in California ground squirrels. The retinas were prepared for light, electron, and confocal microscopy. Tissue sections were labeled with antibodies to cone opsins, rod opsin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, synaptophysin, cytochrome oxidase, and calbindin D 28K. Wax sections were probed with the MIB-1 antibody to detect proliferating cells. By 10 h postdetachment many photoreceptor cells in the ground squirrel already show structural signs of apoptosis. At 1 day many photoreceptors have collapsed inner segments (IS), yet others still have short stacks of outer segment discs. At 3 days there is a marked increase in the number of dying photoreceptors. Rod and medium-/long-wavelength opsins are redistributed in the cell membrane to their synaptic terminals. At 7 days photoreceptor cell death has slowed. Some regions of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) have few photoreceptor somata. IS remnants are rare on surviving photoreceptors. At 28 days these trends are even more dramatic. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells do not expand into the subretinal space. The outer limiting membrane (OLM) appears flat and uninterrupted. Müller cells remain remarkably unreactive; they show essentially no proliferation, only negligible hypertrophy, and there is no increase in their expression of GFAP or vimentin. Horizontal cells show no dendritic sprouting in response to detachment. The speed and extent of photoreceptor degeneration in response to detachment is greater in ground squirrel than in cat retina-only a small number of rods and cones survive at 28 days of detachment. Moreover, the almost total lack of Müller cell and RPE reactivity in the ground squirrel retina is a significant difference from results in other species. PMID:12507327

  2. Origins and antiquity of X-linked triallelic color vision systems in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Boissinot, S; Tan, Y; Shyue, S K; Schneider, H; Sampaio, I; Neiswanger, K; Hewett-Emmett, D; Li, W H

    1998-11-10

    It is known that the squirrel monkey, marmoset, and other related New World (NW) monkeys possess three high-frequency alleles at the single X-linked photopigment locus, and that the spectral sensitivity peaks of these alleles are within those delimited by the human red and green pigment genes. The three alleles in the squirrel monkey and marmoset have been sequenced previously. In this study, the three alleles were found and sequenced in the saki monkey, capuchin, and tamarin. Although the capuchin and tamarin belong to the same family as the squirrel monkey and marmoset, the saki monkey belongs to a different family and is one of the species that is most divergent from the squirrel monkey and marmoset, suggesting the presence of the triallelic system in many NW monkeys. The nucleotide sequences of these alleles from the five species studied indicate that gene conversion occurs frequently and has partially or completely homogenized intronic and exonic regions of the alleles in each species, making it appear that a triallelic system arose independently in each of the five species studied. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis suggests that the triallelic system arose only once in the NW monkey lineage, from a middle wavelength (green) opsin gene, and that the amino acid differences at functionally critical sites among alleles have been maintained by natural selection in NW monkeys for >20 million years. Moreover, the two X-linked opsin genes of howler monkeys (a NW monkey genus) were evidently derived from the incorporation of a middle (green) and a long wavelength (red) allele into one chromosome; these two genes together with the (autosomal) blue opsin gene would immediately enable even a male monkey to have trichromatic vision. PMID:9811872

  3. Immunocytochemical demonstration of visual pigments in the degenerate retinal and pineal photoreceptors of the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus).

    PubMed

    Kos, M; Bulog, B; Szél, A; Röhlich, P

    2001-01-01

    Visual pigments in the regressed eye and pineal of the depigmented neotenic urodele, the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus), were studied by immunocytochemistry with anti-opsin antibodies. The study included light- and electron-microscopic investigations of both the eye and the pineal organ. A comparison was made with the black pigmented subspecies Proteus anguinus parkelj (black proteus), which has a normal eye structure. In the retina of the black proteus, we found principal rods, red-sensitive cones and a third photoreceptor type, which might represent a blue- or UV-sensitive cone. Photoreceptors in the regressed eye of the blind cave salamanders from the Planina cave contained degenerate outer segments, consisting of a few whorled discs and irregular clumps of membranes. The great majority of these outer segments showed immunolabelling for the red-sensitive cone opsin and only a few of them were found to be positive for rhodopsin. An even more pronounced degeneration was observed in the photoreceptors of the animals derived from the Otovec doline, which are completely devoid of an outer segment, most of them not even possessing an inner segment. Even in some of these highly degenerate cells, the presence of rhodopsin could be detected in the plasma membrane; however, immunoreactions with antibodies recognizing cone visual pigment were negative. In the pineals of all studied animals, the degenerate photoreceptor outer segments were recognized exclusively by the antibody against the red-sensitive cone opsin. The presence of immunopositive visual pigments indicates the possibility of a retained light sensitivity in the blind cave salamander photoreceptors. PMID:11236001

  4. Energetics of primary processes in visula escitation: photocalorimetry of rhodopsin in rod outer segment membranes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Converse, C A

    1976-07-13

    A sensitive technique for the direct calorimetric determination of the energetics of photochemical reactions under low levels of illumination, and its application to the study of primary processes in visula excitation, are described. Enthlpies are reported for various steps in the bleaching of rhodopsin in intact rod outer segment membranes, together with the heats of appropriate model reactions. Protonation changes are also determined calorimetrically by use of buffers with differing heats of proton ionization. Bleaching of rhodopsin is accompanied by significant uptake of heat energy, vastly in excess of the energy required for simple isomerization of the retinal chromophore. Metarhodopsin I formation involves the uptake of about 17 kcal/mol and no net change in proton ionization of the system. Formation of metarhodopsin II requires an additional energy of about 10 kcal/mol and involves the uptake on one hydrogen ion from solution. The energetics of the overall photolysis reaction, rhodopsin leads to opsin + all-trans-retinal, are pH dependent and involve the exposure of an additional titrating group on opsin. This group has a heat of proton ionization of about 12 kcal/mal, characteristic of a primary amine, but a pKa in the region of neutrality. We suggest that this group is the Schiff base lysine of the chromophore binding site of rhodopsin which becomes exposed on photolysis. The low pKa for this active lysine would result in a more stable retinal-opsin linkage, and might be induced by a nearby positively charged group on the protein (either arginine or a second lysine residue). This leads to a model involving intramolecular protonation of the Schiff base nitrogen in the retinal-opsin linkage of rhodopsin, which is consistent with the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of the system. We further propose that the metarhodopsin I leads to metarhodopsin II step in the bleaching sequence involves reversible hydrolysis of the Schiff base linkage in the chromophore binding site, and that subsequent steps are the result of migration of the chromophore from this site. PMID:8077

  5. Seeing the light: a photonic visual prosthesis for the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, Patrick; Grossman, Nir; McGovern, Brian; Neil, Mark; Drakakis, Emmanuel; Nikolic, Konstantin

    2009-02-01

    This paper highlights how the genetic incorporation of artificial opsins into the retina can lead to a new class of retinal prosthesis. We demonstrate the efficacy of incorporating channelrhodopsin into neuron cells in-vitro and show how that can be scaled to in-vivo. We show that we need typically 100mW/cm2 of instantaneous light intensity on the neuron in order to stimulate action potentials which results in 10W/cm2 required from the light source. We thus use GaN LED arrays to provide spatially controlled stimulation which is of sufficient brightness to stimulate the cells.

  6. Direct measurement of the isomerization barrier of the isolated retinal chromophore.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Jonathan; Musbat, Lihi; Sheves, Mordechai; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Clemmer, David E; Toker, Yoni

    2015-04-13

    Isomerizations of the retinal chromophore were investigated using the IMS-IMS technique. Four different structural features of the chromophore were observed, isolated, excited collisionally, and the resulting isomer and fragment distributions were measured. By establishing the threshold activation voltages for isomerization for each of the reaction pathways, and by measuring the threshold activation voltage for fragmentation, the relative energies of the isomers as well as the energy barriers for isomerization were determined. The energy barrier for a single cis-trans isomerization is (0.64±0.05)?eV, which is significantly lower than that observed for the reaction within opsin proteins. PMID:25756226

  7. The ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Colbourne, John K.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Gilbert, Donald; Thomas, W. Kelley; Tucker, Abraham; Oakley, Todd H.; Tokishita, Shinichi; Aerts, Andrea; Arnold, Georg J.; Basu, Malay Kumar; Bauer, Darren J.; Caceres, Carla E.; Carmel, Liran; Casola, Claudio; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Detter, John C.; Dong, Qunfeng; Dusheyko, Serge; Eads, Brian D.; Frohlich, Thomas; Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry A.; Gerlach, Daniel; Hatcher, Phil; Jogdeo, Sanjuro; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kültz, Dietmar; Laforsch, Christian; Lindquist, Erika; Lopez, Jacqueline; Manak, Robert; Muller, Jean; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Patwardhan, Rupali P.; Pitluck, Samuel; Pritham, Ellen J.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Rho, Mina; Rogozin, Igor B.; Sakarya, Onur; Salamov, Asaf; Schaack, Sarah; Shapiro, Harris; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Skalitzky, Courtney; Smith, Zachary; Souvorov, Alexander; Sung, Way; Tang, Zuojian; Tsuchiya, Dai; Tu, Hank; Vos, Harmjan; Wang, Mei; Wolf, Yuri I.; Yamagata, Hideo; Yamada, Takuji; Ye, Yuzhen; Shaw, Joseph R.; Andrews, Justen; Crease, Teresa J.; Tang, Haixu; Lucas, Susan M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Bork, Peer; Koonin, Eugene V.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lynch, Michael; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2011-02-04

    This document provides supporting material related to the sequencing of the ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex. This material includes information on materials and methods and supporting text, as well as supplemental figures, tables, and references. The coverage of materials and methods addresses genome sequence, assembly, and mapping to chromosomes, gene inventory, attributes of a compact genome, the origin and preservation of Daphnia pulex genes, implications of Daphnia's genome structure, evolutionary diversification of duplicated genes, functional significance of expanded gene families, and ecoresponsive genes. Supporting text covers chromosome studies, gene homology among Daphnia genomes, micro-RNA and transposable elements and the 46 Daphnia pulex opsins. 36 figures, 50 tables, 183 references.

  8. Hot-electron generation by 'cavitating' Langmuir turbulence in the nonlinear stage of the two-plasmon-decay instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, H. X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DuBois, D. F. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Russell, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Myatt, J. F. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell simulation technique has been applied to study the nonlinear stage of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability in an inhomogeneous plasma driven by crossed laser beams. The TPD instability is found to be a prolific generator of 'cavitating' Langmuir turbulence. Langmuir 'cavitons'-localized longitudinal electric fields, oscillating near the local electron plasma frequency, trapped in ponderomotive density depressions-collapse to dimensions of a few electron Debye lengths, where the electric field energy is collisionlessly transferred to electron kinetic energy. The resulting hot electrons can attain instantaneous temperatures up to 100 keV with net suprathermal heat flux out of the system of up to a few percent of the input laser energy. Scaling laws for this hot-electron generation by TPD, in regimes motivated by recent experiments on the Omega laser, were presented recently by Vu et al. (H. X. Vu, D. F. DuBois, D. A. Russell, and J. F. Myatt, Phys. Plasmas 19, 102703 (2012)). This paper concentrates on the microscopic mechanisms for hot-electron generation. The spatial distribution of the maxima of the electric field envelope modulus is found to be very spiky, with the distribution of electric field envelope maxima obeying Gaussian statistics. The cavitons are produced in density-depletion trenches produced by the combined ponderomotive interference of the crossed laser beams and the ponderomotive beats of the primary backward-going TPD Langmuir waves (LWs) resulting from the crossed beams. The Langmuir turbulence is strongest in the electron-density region near 0.241 Multiplication-Sign the laser's critical density, where the forward LWs from the crossed-beam TPD are degenerate. Nucleation of cavitons is assisted by the modulation of the electron density in the trenches, which in turn is caused by the beating of the common forward-going LW and the pair of backward-going LWs. The autocorrelation function of the LW envelope field provides a near-universal shape for intense cavitons-in the neighborhood of the local field maxima. The hot-electron temperature is found to be approximately a linear function of the 'caviton temperature' determined from the Gaussian distribution of caviton maxima. These diagnostics provide strong evidence for the importance of Langmuir caviton collapse in the generation of hot electrons by TPD. Extended Zakharov model predictions for TPD exhibit the same qualitative phenomena.

  9. Microspectrophotometry of visual pigments and oil droplets in a marine bird, the wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus: topographic variations in photoreceptor spectral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan S

    2004-03-01

    Microspectrophotometric examination of the retina of a procellariiform marine bird, the wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus, revealed the presence of five different types of vitamin A(1)-based visual pigment in seven different types of photoreceptor. A single class of rod contained a medium-wavelength sensitive visual pigment with a wavelength of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 502 nm. Four different types of single cone contained visual pigments maximally sensitive in either the violet (VS, lambda(max) 406 nm), short (SWS, lambda(max) 450 nm), medium (MWS, lambda(max) 503 nm) or long (LWS, lambda(max) 566 nm) spectral ranges. In the peripheral retina, the SWS, MWS and LWS single cones contained pigmented oil droplets in their inner segments with cut-off wavelengths (lambda(cut)) at 445 (C-type), 506 (Y-type) and 562 nm (R-type), respectively. The VS visual pigment was paired with a transparent (T-type) oil droplet that displayed no significant absorption above at least 370 nm. Both the principal and accessory members of the double cone pair contained the same 566 nm lambda(max) visual pigment as the LWS single cones but only the principal member contained an oil droplet, which had a lambda(cut) at 413 nm. The retina had a horizontal band or 'visual streak' of increased photoreceptor density running across the retina approximately 1.5 mm dorsal to the top of the pecten. Cones in the centre of the horizontal streak were smaller and had oil droplets that were either transparent/colourless or much less pigmented than at the periphery. It is proposed that the reduction in cone oil droplet pigmentation in retinal areas associated with high visual acuity is an adaptation to compensate for the reduced photon capture ability of the narrower photoreceptors found there. Measurements of the spectral transmittance of the ocular media reveal that wavelengths down to at least 300 nm would be transmitted to the retina. PMID:14978063

  10. Cryogenic mechanisms for scanning and interchange of the Fabry-Perot interferometers in the ISO long wavelength spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. R.; Furniss, I.; Patrick, T. J.; Sidey, R. C.; Towlson, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an ESA cornerstone mission for infrared astronomy. Schedules for launch in 1993, its four scientific instruments will provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at wavelengths which are inaccessible using ground-based techniques. One of these, the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), will operate in the 45 to 180 micron region (Emery et. al., 1985) and features two Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted on an interchange mechanism. The entire payload module of the spacecraft, comprising the 60 cm telescope and the four focal plane instruments, is maintained at 2 to 4 K by an onboard supply of liquid helium. The mechanical design and testing of the cryogenic interferometer and interchange mechanisms are described.

  11. RAD750 SBC Usage for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the first space weather research mission in the Living with a Star (LWS) Program. The science objective of the mission is to understand the solar variations that influence life on Earth. The mission is developed and managed by NASA/GSFC with a launch date in 2008 on a five-year mission using a geosynchronous inclined orbit. Involved with the mission are three science instruments: a helloseisic and magnetic imagery (HMI), extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE), and solar helispheric activity research prediction program (SHARPP). 6U qualification Vib test has been completed with successful results (no interrupts detected at 1 nanosecond). Other test result to be reported at workshop.

  12. Development of a long wavelength spectrometer for the 24-channel multispectral scanner: Instructions for installation, start-up, and adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The basic information is presented, which is required for start-up and operation of two long-wavelength focal-plane and cooler assemblies, including the amplifiers and temperature control systems. The focal plane systems, referred to as the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) were developed for direct replacement of Arrays 3 and 4 into the multispectral scanner presently being operated by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Facility, and Laboratory Support Branch. The equipment is comprised of two major sub-assemblies: Array 3 with three indium antimonide detector channels and Array 4 with seven mercury doped Germanium detector channels. Each array is mounted on a cryogenic cooler and includes the vacuum housings, mounting hardware (x, y, z translation and rotation stages) and detector signal conditioning, temperature control and monitoring electronics. The two arrays were designed to operate independently and do not share common equipment (viz power supplies, housings, mounts, etc.).

  13. Long-wavelength infrared camera (LWIRC): a 10 micron camera for the Keck telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishnow, Edward H.; Danchi, William C.; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wurtz, Ronald E.; Jernigan, J. G.; Arens, John F.

    1998-08-01

    The long wavelength IR camera is a facility instrument for the Keck Observatory designed to operate at the f/25 forward Cassegrain focus of the Keck I telescope. The camera operates over the wavelength band 7-13 micrometers using ZnSe transmissive optics. A set of filters, a circular variable filter, and a mid-IR polarizer are available, as are three plate scales: 0.05 inch, 0.10 inch, 0.12 inch per pixel. The camera focal plane array and optics are cooled using liquid helium. The system has been refurbished with a 128 X 128 pixel Si:As detector array. The electronics readout system used to clock the array is compatible wit both the hardware and software of the other Keck IR instruments NIRC and LWS. A new pre-amplifier/A-D converter has been designed and constructed which decreases greatly the system susceptibility to noise.

  14. Long wavelength infrared camera (LWIRC): a 10 micron camera for the Keck Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E.H.; Danchi, W.C.; Tuthill, P.; Wurtz, R.; Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Long Wavelength Infrared Camera (LWIRC) is a facility instrument for the Keck Observatory designed to operate at the f/25 forward Cassegrain focus of the Keck I telescope. The camera operates over the wavelength band 7-13 {micro}m using ZnSe transmissive optics. A set of filters, a circular variable filter (CVF), and a mid-infrared polarizer are available, as are three plate scales: 0.05``, 0.10``, 0.21`` per pixel. The camera focal plane array and optics are cooled using liquid helium. The system has been refurbished with a 128 x 128 pixel Si:As detector array. The electronics readout system used to clock the array is compatible with both the hardware and software of the other Keck infrared instruments NIRC and LWS. A new pre-amplifier/A-D converter has been designed and constructed which decreases greatly the system susceptibility to noise.

  15. Asteroids as Calibration Standards in the Thermal Infrared -- Applications and Results from ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. G.; Lagerros, J. S. V.

    Asteroids have been used extensively as calibration sources for ISO. We summarise the asteroid observational parameters in the thermal infrared and explain the important modelling aspects. Ten selected asteroids were extensively used for the absolute photometric calibration of ISOPHOT in the far-IR. Additionally, the point-like and bright asteroids turned out to be of great interest for many technical tests and calibration aspects. They have been used for testing the calibration for SWS and LWS, the validation of relative spectral response functions of different bands, for colour correction and filter leak tests. Currently, there is a strong emphasis on ISO cross-calibration, where the asteroids contribute in many fields. Well known asteroids have also been seen serendipitously in the CAM Parallel Mode and the PHT Serendipity Mode, allowing for validation and improvement of the photometric calibration of these special observing modes.

  16. Mass Flows in a Prominence Spine as Observed in EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Gilbert, Holly; Karpen, Judith T.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly with a focus on mass and energy flows in the spine measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this sort of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and flows in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 Sept. 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5-10 arcsec wide and kinetic energy fluxes consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10^11 g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for models of prominence dynamics, in particular the thermal non-equilibrium model. This project was supported by NASA's LWS TR&T program.

  17. Fluxon Modeling of Eruptive Events With and Without Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig; Rachmeler, L.; Davey, A.; Kankelborg, C.

    2007-05-01

    Fluxon MHD models represent the coronal magnetic field as a "skeleton" of discretized field lines. This quasi-Lagrangian approach eliminates numerical resistivity and allows 3-D time-dependent plasma simulation in a desktop workstation.Using our fluxon code, FLUX, we have demonstrated that ideal MHD instabilities can drive fast eruptive events even in the complete absence of magnetic reconnection. The mechanism ("herniation") is probably not the main driver of fast CMEs but may be applicable to microjets, macrospicules, or other small scale events where vortical flows are present in the solar atmosphere. In this presentation, we use time-dependent simulations to demonstrate energy release in several idealized plasma systems with and without magnetic reconnection.This work was funded by NASA's LWS and SHP-SR&T programs.

  18. Water Ice, Silicate and PAH Emission Features in the ISO Spectrum of the Carbon-rich Planetary Nebula CPD-56 8032

    E-print Network

    Martin Cohen; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester; X. -W. Liu; P. Cox; T. Lim; B. Schmitt; A. K. Speck

    1999-01-11

    Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56 8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4-197 microns) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon- rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3-14 micron region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 microns, and the 43- and 62-micron bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud.

  19. Solar Cycle Variation and Multipoint Studies of ICME Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Living With a Star program is to understand the Sun-Earth connection sufficiently well that we can solve problems critical to life and society. This can most effectively be done in the short term using observations from our past and on-going programs. Not only can this approach solve some of the pressing issues but also it can provide ideas for the deployment of future spacecraft in the LWS program. The proposed effort uses data from NEAR, SOHO, Wind, ACE and Pioneer Venus in quadrature, multipoint, and solar cycle studies to study the interplanetary coronal mass ejection and its role in the magnetic flux cycle of the Sun. ICMEs are most important to the LWS objectives because the solar wind conditions associated with these structures are the most geoeffective of any solar wind phenomena. Their ability to produce strong geomagnetic disturbances arises first because of their high speed. This high speed overtakes the ambient solar wind producing a bow shock wave similar to the terrestrial bow shock. In the new techniques we develop as part of this effort we exploit this feature of ICMEs. This shocked plasma has a greater velocity, higher density and stronger magnetic field than the ambient solar wind, conditions that can enhance geomagnetic activity. The driving ICME is a large magnetic structure expanding outward in the solar wind [Gosling, 19961. The ICMEs magnetic field is generally much higher than that in the ambient solar wind and the velocity is high. The twisted nature of the magnetic field in an ICME almost ensures that sometime during the ICME conditions favorable for geomagnetic storm initiation will occur.

  20. Searching for radiative pumping lines of OH masers: II. The 53.3um absorption line towards 1612MHz OH maser sources

    E-print Network

    J. H. He; P. S. Chen

    2004-06-29

    This paper analyzes the 53.3um line in the ISO LWS spectra towards a similar sample of OH/IR sources. We find 137 LWS spectra covering 53.3um and associated with 47 galactic OH/IR sources. Ten of these galactic OH/IR sources are found to show and another 5 ones tentatively show the 53.3um absorption while another 7 sources highly probably do not show this line. The source class is found to be correlated with the type of spectral profile: red supergiants (RSGs) and AGB stars tend to show strong blue-shifted filling emission in their 53.3um absorption line profiles while HII regions tend to show a weak red-shifted filling emission in the line profile. GC sources and megamasers do not show filling emission feature. It is argued that the filling emission might be the manifestation of an unresolved half emission half absorption profile of the 53.3um doublet. The 53.3 to 34.6um equivalent width (EW) ratio is close to unity for RSGs but much larger than unity for GC sources and megamasers while H II regions only show the 53.3um line. The pump rate defined as maser to IR photon flux ratio is approximately 5% for RSGs. The pump rates of GC sources are three order of magnitude smaller. Both the large 53.3 to 34.6um EW ratio and the small pump rate of the GC OH masers reflect that the two detected `pumping lines' in these sources are actually of interstellar origin. The pump rate of Arp 220 is 32%--much larger than that of RSGs, which indicates that the contribution of other pumping mechanisms to this megamaser is important.

  1. Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Living With a Star is a NASA initiative employing the combination of dedicated spacecraft with targeted research and modeling efforts to improve what we know of solar effects of all kinds on the Earth and its surrounding space environment, with particular emphasis on those that have significant practical impacts on life and society. The highest priority among these concerns is the subject of this report: the potential effects of solar variability on regional and global climate, including the extent to which solar variability has contributed to the well-documented warming of the Earth in the last 100 years. Understanding how the climate system reacts to external forcing from the Sun will also greatly improve our knowledge of how climate will respond to other climate drivers, including those of anthropogenic origin. A parallel element of the LWS program addresses solar effects on space weather : the impulsive emissions of charged particles, short-wave electromagnetic radiation and magnetic disturbances in the upper atmosphere and near-Earth environment that also affect life and society. These include a wide variety of solar impacts on aeronautics, astronautics, electric power transmission, and national defense. Specific examples are (1) the impacts of potentially- damaging high energy radiation and atomic particles of solar origin on satellites and satellite operations, spacecraft electronics systems and components, electronic communications, electric power distribution grids, navigational and GPS systems, and high altitude aircraft; and (2) the threat of sporadic, high-energy solar radiation to astronauts and high altitude aircraft passengers and crews. Elements of the LWS program include an array of dedicated spacecraft in near- Earth and near-Sun orbits that will closely study and observe both the Sun itself and the impacts of its variations on the Earth's radiation belts and magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere, and ionosphere. These spacecraft, positioned to study and monitor changing conditions in the Sun-Earth neighborhood, will also serve as sentinels of solar storms and impulsive events.

  2. Infrared study of the Southern Galactic star forming region associated with IRAS 14416-5937

    E-print Network

    S. Vig; S. K. Ghosh; D. K. Ojha; R. P. Verma

    2006-09-30

    Aims: We have carried out an infrared study of the southern Galactic massive star forming region associated with IRAS 14416-5937. Methods: This star forming region has been mapped simultaneously in two far infrared bands at ~ 150 & 210 micron using the TIFR 1-m balloon borne telescope with ~ 1' angular resolution. We have used 2MASS JHK$_s$ as well as Spitzer-GLIMPSE data of this region to study the stellar populations of the embedded young cluster. This region comprises of two sources, designated as A & B and separated by ~ 2 pc. The spectrum of a region located close to the source A obtained using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), is presented. Emission from warm dust and from Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) is estimated using the mid-infrared data of the MSX survey. Results: The spatial distributions of (1) the temperature of cool dust and (2) optical depth at 200 micron have been obtained taking advantage of the similar beams in both the TIFR bands. A number of atomic fine structure lines have been detected in the ISO-LWS spectrum, which have been used to estimate the electron density and the effective temperature of the ionising radiation in this region. From the near and mid infrared images, we identify a dust lane due north-west of source A. The dust lane is populated by Class I type sources. Class II type sources are found further along the dust lane as well as below it. Self consistent radiative transfer models of the two sources (A and B) are in good agreement with the observed spectral energy distributions. Conclusions: The spatial distribution of young stellar objects in and around the dust lane suggests that active star formation is taking place along the dust lane and is possibly triggered by the expanding HII regions of A and B.

  3. Hot-electron production and suprathermal heat flux scaling with laser intensity from the two-plasmon-decay instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, H. X. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DuBois, D. F. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Myatt, J. F. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Russell, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The fully kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method has been applied to simulations of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability, driven by crossed laser beams, in an inhomogeneous plasma for parameters consistent with recent direct-drive experiments related to laser-driven inertial fusion. The nonlinear saturated state is characterized by very spiky electric fields, with Langmuir cavitation occurring preferentially inside density channels produced by the ponderomotive beating of the crossed laser beams and the primary TPD Langmuir waves (LWs). The heated electron distribution function is, in all cases, bi-Maxwellian, with instantaneous hot-electron temperatures in the range 60-100 keV. The net hot-electron energy flux out of the system is a small fraction ({approx}1% to 2%) of the input laser intensity in these simulations. Scalings of the hot-electron temperature and suprathermal heat flux as functions of the laser intensity are obtained numerically from RPIC simulations. These simulations lead to the preliminary conclusion that Langmuir cavitation and collapse provide dissipation by producing suprathermal electrons, which stabilize the system in saturation and drive the LW spectrum to the small dissipation scales at the Landau cutoff. The Langmuir turbulence originates at an electron density 0.241 Multiplication-Sign the laser's critical density, where the crossed laser beams excite a 'triad' mode-a common forward LW plus a pair of backward LWs. Remnants of this 'triad' evolve in k-space and dominate the time-averaged energy spectrum. At times exceeding 10 ps, the excited Langmuir turbulence spreads toward lower densities. Comparisons of RPIC simulations with the extended Zakharov model are presented in appropriate regimes, and the necessary requirements for the validity of a quasi-linear Zakharov model (where the spatially averaged electron-velocity distribution is evolved) are verified by RPIC simulation results.

  4. The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    Future IR missions should give some priority to high resolution spectroscopic observations of the set of far-IR transitions of OH. There are 15 far-IR lines arising between the lowest eight rotational levels of OH, and ISO detected nine of them. Furthermore, ISO found the OH lines, sometimes in emission and sometimes in absorption, in a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic objects ranging from AGB stars to molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. The ISO/LWS Fabry-Perot resolved the 119 m doublet line in a few of the strong sources. This set of OH lines provides a uniquely important diagnostic for many reasons: the lines span a wide wavelength range (28.9 m to 163.2 m); the transitions have fast radiative rates; the abundance of the species is relatively high; the IR continuum plays an important role as a pump; the contribution from shocks is relatively minor; and, not least, the powerful centimeter-wave radiation from OH allows comparison with radio and VLBI datasets. The problem is that the large number of sensitive free parameters, and the large optical depths of the strongest lines, make modeling the full set a difficult job. The SWAS montecarlo radiative transfer code has been used to analyze the ISO/LWS spectra of a number of objects with good success, including in both the lines and the FIR continuum; the DUSTY radiative transfer code was used to insure a self-consistent continuum. Other far IR lines including those from H2O, CO, and [OI] are also in the code. The OH lines all show features which future FIR spectrometers should be able to resolve, and which will enable further refinements in the details of each cloud's structure. Some examples are given, including the case of S140, for which independent SWAS data found evidence for bulk flows.

  5. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  6. 90 GHz AND 150 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF THE ORION M42 REGION. A SUBMILLIMETER TO RADIO ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Devlin, M. J. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Mason, B. S.; Cotton, W. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Compiegne, M.; Martin, P. G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ade, P. A. R; Tucker, C. [Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, K. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Maddalena, R. J.; McMullin, J. P.; Shepherd, D.S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Sievers, A. [IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Nucleo Central, E 18012 Granada (Spain)

    2009-11-01

    We have used the new 90 GHz MUSTANG camera on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to map the bright Huygens region of the star-forming region M42 with a resolution of 9'' and a sensitivity of 2.8 mJy beam{sup -1}. Ninety GHz is an interesting transition frequency, as MUSTANG detects both the free-free emission characteristic of the H II region created by the Trapezium stars, normally seen at lower frequencies, and thermal dust emission from the background OMC1 molecular cloud, normally mapped at higher frequencies. We also present similar data from the 150 GHz GISMO camera taken on the IRAM 30 m telescope. This map has 15'' resolution. By combining the MUSTANG data with 1.4, 8, and 21 GHz radio data from the VLA and GBT, we derive a new estimate of the emission measure averaged electron temperature of T{sub e} = 11376 +- 1050 K by an original method relating free-free emission intensities at optically thin and optically thick frequencies. Combining Infrared Space Observatory-long wavelength spectrometer (ISO-LWS) data with our data, we derive a new estimate of the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index within the 80'' ISO-LWS beam toward Orion KL/BN, T{sub d} = 42 +- 3 K and beta {sub d} = 1.3 +- 0.1. We show that both T{sub d} and beta {sub d} decrease when going from the H II region and excited OMC1 interface to the denser UV shielded part of OMC1 (Orion KL/BN, Orion S). With a model consisting of only free-free and thermal dust emission, we are able to fit data taken at frequencies from 1.5 GHz to 854 GHz (350 mum).

  7. Modeling dichromatic and trichromatic sensitivity to the color properties of fruits eaten by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    De Araújo, Mariana F P; Lima, Eldianne M; Pessoa, Valdir F

    2006-12-01

    Most platyrrhines have a visual polymorphism that is characterized by the presence of multiple alleles of the M/LWS gene on the X chromosome. This polymorphism is probably maintained by selection. There are two possible mechanisms by which this can be explained: First, heterozygous females may have perceptual advantages over dichromats, such that trichromacy would be favored via the existence of different visual pigments. This is known as selection by heterosis. Second, dichromacy may be advantageous in some situations, with polymorphism being maintained by frequency-dependent selection. In this study the reflectance spectra of fruits and flowers eaten by a troop of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in Eastern Amazon were measured using a spectrophotometer. S. sciureus have an SWS cone with a spectral tuning of approximately 430 nm, and three M/LWS alleles with spectral tunings of 535 nm, 550 nm, and 562 nm. Based on the spectral tunings of the different phenotypes and the spectral data obtained from the food items, the responses of the different visual systems to the measured objects were modeled and then compared. The model predicted that trichromatic phenotypes would have an advantage over dichromats in detecting fruits and flowers from background foliage, which suggests that heterosis is the mechanism for maintaining polymorphism in S. sciureus. On the other hand, a large proportion of fruits could not be detected by any of the phenotypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether other important aspects of the primates' visual world, such as prey, predator, and conspecific detection, favor tri- or dichromacy. PMID:17096422

  8. Population dynamics and growth of the bivalve Choromytilus meridionalis (Kr.) at different tidal levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Roberta J.

    1981-01-01

    Settlement, growth and reproductive output of a population of Choromytilus meridionalis have been monitored at different shore levels at Bailey's Cottage, False Bay, South Africa. Settlement was irregular, occurring at 4- to 6-year intervals, and confined to the sublittoral and lower littoral of rocky areas. Spat settled on the existing mussel bed and adjacent clean rock surfaces. Continual migration of young mussels up the shore took place during the first 1 to 1·5 years of growth until an even distribution up to 0·5 m above L.W.S. was achieved. Juveniles displaced older individuals by moving between them and forcing them off the rocks so that the majority of the adult population were eliminated from the bed within the first year after spat settlement. Mortality in individual cohorts was largely caused by strong wave action and competition for space. The density of individuals within the mussel bed was closely related to mean shell length. Growth rates varied with habitat and declined markedly with increasing height above L.W.S. Sexual maturity was attained at approximately 20 mm and reproductive output rose from 5 kJ year -1 at this length to 80 kJ year -1 at 100 mm shell length. Since packing densities were much higher in smaller individuals the annual gamete output assessed on an area basis, remained fairly constant as the mussels grew, and averaged 1392 g m -2 year -1 dry weight (31 320 kJ m -2 year -1). Energy expended as gonad output exceeded that due to mortality by a factor of 10.

  9. 90 GHz and 150 GHz Observations of the Orion M42 Region. A Submillimeter to Radio Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicker, S. R.; Mason, B. S.; Korngut, P. M.; Cotton, W. D.; Compiegne, M.; Devlin, M. J.; Martin, P. G.; Ade, P. A. R; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Maddalena, R. J.; McMullin, J. P.; Shepherd, D. S.; Sievers, A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the new 90GHz MUSTANG camera on the Robert C. Green Bank Telescope (GBT)to map the bright Huygens region of the star-forming region M42 with a resolution of 9" and a sensitivity of 2.8 mJy/beam. Ninety GHz is an interesting transition frequency, as MUSTANG detects both the free-free emission characteristic of the H II region created by the Trapezium stars, normally seen at lower frequencies, and thermal dust emission from the background OMCI molecular cloud, normally mapped at higher frequencies. We also present similar data from the 150 GHz GISMO camera taken on the IRAM 30 m telescope. This map has 15" resolution. By combining the MUSTANG data with 1.4, 8. and 31 GHz radio data from the VLA and GBT, we derive a new estimate of the emission measure averaged electron temperature of T(sub e) = 11376+/-1050 K by an original method relating free-free emission intensities at optically thin and optically thick frequencies. Combining Infrared Space Observatory-long wavelength spectrometer (ISO-LWS) data with our data, we derive a new estimate of the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index within the 80" ISO-LWS beam toward Orion KL/BN, T(sub d) = 42+/-3 K and Beta(sub d) = 1.3+/-0.1. We show that both T(sub d) and Beta(sub d) decrease when going from the H II region and excited OMCI interface to the denser UV shielded part OMCI (Orion KL/BN, Orion S). With a model consisting of only free-free and thermal dust emission, we are able to fit data taken at frequencies from 1.5 GHz to 854 GHz (350 micrometers).

  10. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well waste waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    1995-08-01

    Constructed wetlands are small on-site systems that possess three of the most desirable components of an industrial waste water treatment scheme: low cost, low maintenance and upset resistance. The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge base of wetland treatment systems to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well wastewaters. A list of the most relevant and comprehensive publications on the design of wetlands for water quality improvement was compiled and critically reviewed. Based on our literature search and conversations with researchers in the private sector, toxic organics such as Phenolics and b-naphthoic acid, (NA), and metals such as CU(II) and CR(VI) were selected as target adsorbates. A total of 90 lysimeters equivalent to a laboratory-scale wetland were designed and built to monitor the uptake and transformation of toxic organics and the immobilization of metal ions. Studies on the uptake of toxic organics such as phenol and b-naphthoic acid (NA) and heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI), the latter two singly or as non-stoichiometric mixtures by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were conducted. These LWs were designed and built during the first year of this study. A road map and guidelines for a field-scale implementation of a wetland system for the treatment of oil and gas wastewaters have been suggested. Two types of wetlands, surface flow (SF) and sub surface flow (SSF), have been considered, and the relative merits of each configuration have been reviewed.

  11. ISO Key Project: Exploring The Full Range of Quasar/AGN Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    While most of the work on this program has been completed, as previously reported, the portion of the program dealing with the sub topic of ISO LWS data analysis and reduction for the LWS Extragalactic Science Team and its leader, Dr. Howard Smith, is still active. This program in fact continues to generate results, and newly available computer modeling has extended the value of the datasets, As a result the team has requested and been granted an obtained a no-cost extension to this program, through December 31, 2003. The essence of the proposal is to perform ISO spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, but including as well some other spectroscopic data bases. Four kinds of regions are considered in the studies: (1) disks around more evolved objects; (2) young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star formation regions; (3) star formation in external, bright IR galaxies; and (4) the galactic center. One prime focus of the program is the OH lines in the far infrared. The program has the following goals: (1) refine the data analysis of ISO observations, to obtain deeper and better SNR results on selected sources. The ISO data itself underwent "pipeline 10" reductions in early 2001, and additional "hands-on data reduction packages" were supplied by the ISO teams in 2001. The Fabry-Perot database in particularly sensitive to noise can slight calibration errors. (2) model the atomic and molecular line shapes, in particular the OH lines, using revised Monte-Carlo techniques developed by the SWAS team at the Center for Astrophysics; (3) attend scientific meetings and workshops; (4) do E&PO activities related to infrared astrophysics and/or spectroscopy.

  12. Acute exposure to DE-71 causes alterations in visual behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Huang, Yubin; Huang, Changjiang; Hu, Bing; Hu, Chenyan; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) cause neurobehavioral toxicity, but their effects on visual behavior remain unknown. In the present study, the impact of PBDEs on visual behavior was examined using optokinetic responses and phototaxis in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to pentabrominated diphenyl ethers mixture (DE-71) at concentrations of 0, 0.32, 3.58, and 31.0?µg/L until 15 d postfertilization. The authors then assessed photoreceptor opsin expression, retinal histology, and visual behavior of the larvae. The results showed that the transcriptions of the opsin genes, zfrho and zfgr1, were significantly upregulated. Western blotting further demonstrated a significant increase in rhodopsin protein expression after exposure of the larvae to DE-71. Histological examination revealed the following morphological alterations in the retina: increased area of inner nuclear layer, decreased area of inner plexiform layer, and decreased density of ganglion cells. Tests of optokinetic and phototactic behavior showed hyperactive responses on exposure to DE-71, including increased saccadic eye movements and phototactic response. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the acute exposure of zebrafish larvae to DE-71 causes biochemical and structural changes in the eye that lead to behavioral alterations. Analysis of these visual behavioral paradigms may be useful in predicting the adverse effects of toxicants on visual function in fish. PMID:23400899

  13. Derivation of human differential photoreceptor cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts by defined combinations of CRX, RAX, OTX2 and NEUROD

    PubMed Central

    Seko, Yuko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Ishii, Toshiyuki; Komuta, Yukari; Miyamoto, Kiyoko; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Kaneda, Makoto; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Redirecting differentiation of somatic cells by over-expression of transcription factors is a promising approach for regenerative medicine, elucidation of pathogenesis and development of new therapies. We have previously defined a transcription factor combination, that is, CRX, RAX and NEUROD, that can generate photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells. Here, we show that human dermal fibroblasts are differentiated to photoreceptor cells by the same transcription factor combination as human iris cells. Transduction of a combination of the CRX, RAX and NEUROD genes up-regulated expression of the photoreceptor-specific genes, recoverin, blue opsin and PDE6C, in all three strains of human dermal fibroblasts that were tested. Additional OTX2 gene transduction increased up-regulation of the photoreceptor-specific genes blue opsin, recoverin, S-antigen, CNGB3 and PDE6C. Global gene expression data by microarray analysis further showed that photoreceptor-related functional genes were significantly increased in induced photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis, that is, patch-clamp recordings, clearly revealed that induced photoreceptor cells from fibroblasts responded to light. Both the NRL gene and the NR2E3 gene were endogenously up-regulated in induced photoreceptor cells, implying that exogenous CRX, RAX, OTX2 and NEUROD, but not NRL, are sufficient to generate rod photoreceptor cells. PMID:24456169

  14. Patterns of cell proliferation and rod photoreceptor differentiation in shark retinas.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Anadón, Ramón; Candal, Eva

    2010-01-01

    We studied the pattern of cell proliferation and its relation with photoreceptor differentiation in the embryonic and postembryonic retina of two elasmobranchs, the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the brown shyshark (Haploblepharus fuscus). Cell proliferation was studied with antibodies raised against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-histone-H3, and early photoreceptor differentiation with an antibody raised against rod opsin. As regards the spatiotemporal distribution of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, our results reveal a gradual loss of PCNA that coincides in a spatiotemporal sequence with the gradient of layer maturation. The presence of a peripheral growth zone containing pure-proliferating retinal progenitors (the ciliary marginal zone) in the adult retina matches with the general pattern observed in other groups of gnathostomous fishes. However, in the shark retina the generation of new cells is not restricted to the ciliary marginal zone but also occurs in retinal areas that contain differentiated cells: (1) in a transition zone that lies between the pure-proliferating ciliary marginal zone and the central (layered) retina; (2) in the differentiating central area up to prehatching embryos where large amounts of PCNA-positive cells were observed even in the inner and outer nuclear layers; (3) and in the retinal pigment epithelium of prehatching embryos. Rod opsin immunoreactivity was observed in both species when the outer plexiform layer begins to be recognized in the central retina and, as we previously observed in trout, coincided temporally with the weakening in PCNA labelling. PMID:19822206

  15. Evidence for Multiple Phototransduction Pathways in a Reef-Building Coral

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Benjamin; Schmale, Michael; Gibbs, Patrick; Miller, Margaret W.; Wang, Qiang; Levay, Konstantin; Shestopalov, Valery; Slepak, Vladlen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Photosensitive behaviors and circadian rhythms are well documented in reef-building corals and their larvae, but the mechanisms responsible for photoreception have not been described in these organisms. Here we report the cloning, immunolocalization, and partial biochemical characterization of three opsins and four G proteins expressed in planulae of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. All three opsins (acropsins 1–3) possess conserved seven-pass transmembrane structure, and localize to distinct regions of coral planulae. Acropsin 1 was localized in the larval endoderm, while acropsin 2 was localized in solitary cells of the ectoderm. These rod-like cells displayed a remarkably polarized distribution, concentrated in the aboral end. We also cloned four A. palmata G protein alpha subunits. Three were homologs of vertebrate Gi, Go, and Gq. The fourth is presumably a novel G protein, which displays only 40% identity with the nearest known G protein, and we termed it Gc for “cnidarian”. We show that Gc and Gq can be activated by acropsins in a light-dependent manner in vitro. This indicates that at least acropsins 1 and 3 can form functional photoreceptors and potentially may play a role in color preference during settlement, vertical positioning and other light-guided behaviors observed in coral larvae. PMID:23227169

  16. Rhodopsin mutants that bind but fail to activate transducin

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, R.R.; Sakmar, T.P.; Khorana, H.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Koenig, B.; Hofmann, K.P. (Universitaet Freiburg (West Germany))

    1990-10-05

    Rhodopsin is a member of a family of receptors that contain seven transmembrane helices and are coupled to G proteins. The nature of the interactions between rhodopsin mutants and the G protein, transducin (G{sub t}), was investigated by flash photolysis in order to monitor directly G{sub t} binding and dissociation. Three mutant opsins with alterations in their cytoplasmic loops bound 11-cis-retinal to yield pigments with native rhodopsin absorption spectra, but they failed to stimulate the guanosine triphosphatase activity of G{sub t}. The opsin mutations included reversal of a charged pair conserved in all G protein-coupled receptors at the cytoplasmic border to the third transmembrane helix (mutant CD1), replacement of 13 amino acids in the second cytoplasmic loop (mutant CD2), and deletion of 13 amino acids from the third cytoplasmic loop (mutant EF1). Whereas mutant CD1 failed to bind G{sub t}, mutants CD2 and EF1 showed normal G{sub t} binding but failed to release G{sub t} in the presence of guanosine triphosphate. Therefore, it appears that at least the second and third cytoplasmic loops of rhodopsin are required for activation of bound G{sub t}.

  17. Spectral heterogeneity of honeybee ommatidia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Kurasawa, Masumi; Giurfa, Martin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2005-10-01

    The honeybee compound eye is equipped with ultraviolet, blue, and green receptors, which form the physiological basis of a trichromatic color vision system. We studied the distribution of the spectral receptors by localizing the three mRNAs encoding the opsins of the ultraviolet-, blue- and green-absorbing visual pigments. The expression patterns of the three opsin mRNAs demonstrated that three distinct types ommatidia exist, refuting the common assumption that the ommatidia composing the bee compound eye contain identical sets of spectral receptors. We found that type I ommatidia contain one ultraviolet and one blue receptor, type II ommatidia contain two ultraviolet receptors, and type III ommatidia have two blue receptors. All the three ommatidial types contain six green receptors. The ommatidia appear to be distributed rather randomly over the retina. The ratio of type I, II, and III ommatidia was about 44:46:10. Type III ommatidia appeared to be slightly more frequent (18%) in the anterior part of the ventral region of the eye. Retinal heterogeneity and ommatidial randomness, first clearly demonstrated in butterflies, seems to be a common design principle of the eyes of insects.

  18. Photoreceptor types and distributions in the retinae of insectivores.

    PubMed

    Peichl, L; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2000-01-01

    The retinae of insectivores have been rarely studied, and their photoreceptor arrangements and expression patterns of visual pigments are largely unknown. We have determined the presence and distribution of cones in three species of shrews (common shrew Sorex araneus, greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula, dark forest shrew Crocidura poensis; Soricidae) and in the lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi (Tenrecidae). Special cone types were identified and quantified in flattened whole retinae by antisera/antibodies recognizing the middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M/L-)cone opsin and the short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone opsin, respectively. A combination of immunocytochemistry with conventional histology was used to assess rod densities and cone/rod ratios. In all four species the rods dominate at densities of about 230,000-260,000/mm2. M/L- and S-cones are present, comprising between 2% of the photoreceptors in the nocturnal Echinops telfairi and 13% in Sorex araneus that has equal diurnal and nocturnal activity phases. This suggests dichromatic color vision like in many other mammals. A striking feature in all four species are dramatically higher S-cone proportions in ventral than in dorsal retina (0.5% vs. 2.5-12% in Sorex, 5-15% vs. 30-45% in Crocidura poensis, 3-12% vs. 20-50% in Crocidura russula, 10-30% vs. 40-70% in Echinops). The functional and comparative aspects of these structural findings are discussed. PMID:11193110

  19. Shining new light on optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling; Dhakal, Kamal; Li, Ting; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-02-01

    Since development of optogenetic stimulation paradigm, there has been several attempts to red shift the excitation maximum of the efficient blue-sensitive opsins. While there has been some success at the cost of altered light-activation kinetics, near-infrared optogenetic probe will be ideal for in-depth cell-specific stimulation of excitable cells in an organ. However, single-photon near-infrared optogenetics based stimulation will still limit precise probing and modulation of in-vivo neural circuits. In contrast, by virtue of non-linear nature of ultrafast light-matter interaction, high spatial precision in optogenetic activation can be achieved in addition to inherent cellular specificity and temporal resolution provided by the opsins. Here, we report use of non-linear optogenetics for stimulation of neurons in-vivo in mouse models. Advantage of using non-linear optogenetics for probing neuronal circuitry is discussed. Further, effectiveness of the non-diffracting optogenetic Bessel beam over classical Gaussian beam in a layered mouse-brain geometry is demonstrated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. This is corroborated by electrophysiological measurements in in-vivo mouse models. The large propagation distance, characteristics of Bessel beam is better suited for in-depth single as well as two-photon optogenetic stimulation.

  20. In vivo Optogenetic Stimulation of the Rodent Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Sidor, Michelle M; Davidson, Thomas J; Tye, Kay M; Warden, Melissa R; Diesseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to probe defined neural circuits in awake, freely-moving animals with cell-type specificity, spatial precision, and high temporal resolution has been a long sought tool for neuroscientists in the systems-level search for the neural circuitry governing complex behavioral states. Optogenetics is a cutting-edge tool that is revolutionizing the field of neuroscience and represents one of the first systematic approaches to enable causal testing regarding the relation between neural signaling events and behavior. By combining optical and genetic approaches, neural signaling can be bi-directionally controlled through expression of light-sensitive ion channels (opsins) in mammalian cells. The current protocol describes delivery of specific wavelengths of light to opsin-expressing cells in deep brain structures of awake, freely-moving rodents for neural circuit modulation. Theoretical principles of light transmission as an experimental consideration are discussed in the context of performing in vivo optogenetic stimulation. The protocol details the design and construction of both simple and complex laser configurations and describes tethering strategies to permit simultaneous stimulation of multiple animals for high-throughput behavioral testing. PMID:25651158

  1. Euphausiid visual pigments. The rhodopsins of Euphausia superba and Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea, Euphausiacea)

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The rhabdoms of Euphausia superba contain one digitonin-extractable rhodopsin, lambda max 485 nm. The rhodopsin undergoes unusual pH- dependent spectral changes: above neutrality, the absorbance decreases progressively at 485 nm and rises near 370 nm. This change is reversible and appears to reflect an equilibrium between a protonated and an unprotonated form of the rhodopsin Schiff-base linkage. Near neutral pH and at 10 degrees C, the rhodopsin is partiaLly converted by 420-nm light to a stable 493-nm metarhodopsin. The metarhodopsin is partially photoconverted to rhodopsin by long-wavelength light in the absence of NH2OH; in the presence of NH2OH, it is slowly converted to retinal oxime and opsin. The rhodopsin of Meganyctiphanes norvegica measured in fresh rhabdoms by microspectrophotometry has properties very similar to those of the extracted rhodopsin of E. superba. Its lambda max is 488 nm and it is partially photoconverted by short wavelength irradiation to a stable photoconvertible metarhodopsin similar to that of E. superba. In the presence of light and NH2OH, the M. norvegica metarhodopsin is converted to retinal oxime and opsin. Our results indicate that previous determinations of euphausiid rhodopsin absorbance spectra were incorrect because of accessory pigment contamination. PMID:7142953

  2. Multiple shifts between violet and ultraviolet vision in a family of passerine birds with associated changes in plumage coloration

    PubMed Central

    Ödeen, Anders; Pruett-Jones, Stephen; Driskell, Amy C.; Armenta, Jessica K.; Håstad, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Colour vision in diurnal birds falls into two discrete classes, signified by the spectral sensitivity of the violet- (VS) or ultraviolet-sensitive (UVS) short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) single cone. Shifts between sensitivity classes are rare; three or four are believed to have happened in the course of avian evolution, one forming UVS higher passerines. Such shifts probably affect the expression of shortwave-dominated plumage signals. We have used genomic DNA sequencing to determine VS or UVS affinity in fairy-wrens and allies, Maluridae, a large passerine family basal to the known UVS taxa. We have also spectrophotometrically analysed male plumage coloration as perceived by the VS and UVS vision systems. Contrary to any other investigated avian genus, Malurus (fairy-wrens) contains species with amino acid residues typical of either VS or UVS cone opsins. Three bowerbird species (Ptilonorhynchidae) sequenced for outgroup comparison carry VS opsin genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions render one UVS gain followed by one or more losses as the most plausible evolutionary scenario. The evolution of avian ultraviolet sensitivity is hence more complex, as a single shift no longer explains its distribution in Passeriformes. Character correlation analysis proposes that UVS vision is associated with shortwave-reflecting plumage, which is widespread in Maluridae. PMID:21976683

  3. Optogenetic Control of Targeted Peripheral Axons in Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) would enable novel studies of motor control, somatosensory transduction, and pain processing. Such control requires the development of methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted sub-populations of neurons within peripheral nerves. We report here methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted peripheral neurons and robust optogenetic modulation of motor neuron activity in freely moving, non-transgenic mammals. We show that intramuscular injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 6 enables expression of channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in motor neurons innervating the injected muscle. Illumination of nerves containing mixed populations of axons from these targeted neurons and from neurons innervating other muscles produces ChR2-mediated optogenetic activation restricted to the injected muscle. We demonstrate that an implanted optical nerve cuff is well-tolerated, delivers light to the sciatic nerve, and optically stimulates muscle in freely moving rats. These methods can be broadly applied to study PNS disorders and lay the groundwork for future therapeutic application of optogenetics. PMID:23991144

  4. The Gecko visual pigment: the dark exchange reaction and the effects of anions.

    PubMed

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-07-01

    A dark reaction is known to occur in retinal extracts of the gecko (Gekko gekko), in which the natural 11-cis-chromophore of the 521-pigment is apparently replaced by adding 9-cis-retinal to form the 9-cis-photopigment. With chloride-deficient extracts the reaction involves some 70% of the 521-pigment. Anions like nitrate, azide, thiocyanate and cyanate that shift the spectrum toward the blue do not affect this 70% exchange. Anions like fluoride, iodide and sulfate likewise do not alter this magnitude of reaction. In contrast, chloride and bromide that induce a bathochromic spectral shift lead to a decrease in this dark replacement of the 11-cis chromophore. This protection is similar to the action of these two anions in antagonizing the pigment loss by NH2OH and by temperature, both occurring in the dark. Apparently, chloride and bromide alter the opsin conformation so as to stabilize and/or protect the Schiff's base linkage but nitrate, azide, thiocyanate and cyanate act at a different opsin site or by a different mechanism. PMID:2759190

  5. Biochemical and physiological properties of rhodopsin regenerated with 11-cis-6-ring- and 7-ring-retinals.

    PubMed

    Kuksa, Vladimir; Bartl, Franz; Maeda, Tadao; Jang, Geeng-Fu; Ritter, Eglof; Heck, Martin; Van Hooser, J Preston; Liang, Yan; Filipek, S?awomir; Gelb, Michael H; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    Phototransduction is initiated by the photoisomerization of rhodopsin (Rho) chromophore 11-cis-retinylidene to all-trans-retinylidene. Here, using Rho regenerated with retinal analogs with different ring sizes, which prevent isomerization around the C(11)=C(12) double bond, the activation mechanism of this G-protein-coupled receptor was investigated. We demonstrate that 11-cis-7-ring-Rho does not activate G-protein in vivo and in vitro, and that it does not isomerize along other double bonds, suggesting that it fits tightly into the binding site of opsin. In contrast, bleaching 11-cis-6-ring-Rho modestly activates phototransduction in vivo and at low pH in vitro. These results reveal that partial activation is caused by isomerization along other double bonds in more rigid 6-locked retinal isomers and protonation of key residues by lowering pH in 11-cis-6-ring-Rhos. Full activation is not achieved, because isomerization does not induce a complete set of conformational rearrangements of Rho. These results with 6- and 7-ring-constrained retinoids provide new insights into Rho activation and suggest a potential use of locked retinals, particularly 11-cis-7-ring-retinal, to inactivate opsin in some retinal degeneration diseases. PMID:12176994

  6. Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Rhodopsin Regenerated with 11-cis-6-Ring- and 7-Ring-retinals*

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Tadao; Jang, Geeng-Fu; Ritter, Eglof; Heck, Martin; Preston Van Hooser, J.; Liang, Yan; Filipek, S?awomir; Gelb, Michael H.; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Phototransduction is initiated by the photoisomerization of rhodopsin (Rho) chromophore 11-cis-retinylidene to all-trans-retinylidene. Here, using Rho regenerated with retinal analogs with different ring sizes, which prevent isomerization around the C11=C12 double bond, the activation mechanism of this G-protein-coupled receptor was investigated. We demonstrate that 11-cis-7-ring-Rho does not activate G-protein in vivo and in vitro, and that it does not isomerize along other double bonds, suggesting that it fits tightly into the binding site of opsin. In contrast, bleaching 11-cis-6-ring-Rho modestly activates phototransduction in vivo and at low pH in vitro. These results reveal that partial activation is caused by isomerization along other double bonds in more rigid 6-locked retinal isomers and protonation of key residues by lowering pH in 11-cis-6-ring-Rhos. Full activation is not achieved, because isomerization does not induce a complete set of conformational rearrangements of Rho. These results with 6- and 7-ring-constrained retinoids provide new insights into Rho activation and suggest a potential use of locked retinals, particularly 11-cis-7-ring-retinal, to inactivate opsin in some retinal degeneration diseases. PMID:12176994

  7. Signaling States of Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Martin; Schädel, Sandra A.; Maretzki, Dieter; Bartl, Franz J.; Ritter, Eglof; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hofmann, Klaus Peter

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate rhodopsin consists of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore 11-cis-retinal covalently linked via a protonated Schiff base. Upon photoisomerization of the chromophore to all-trans-retinal, the retinylidene linkage hydrolyzes, and all-trans-retinal dissociates from opsin. The pigment is eventually restored by recombining with enzymatically produced 11-cis-retinal. All-trans-retinal release occurs in parallel with decay of the active form, metarhodopsin (Meta) II, in which the original Schiff base is intact but deprotonated. The intermediates formed during Meta II decay include Meta III, with the original Schiff base reprotonated, and Meta III-like pseudo-photoproducts. Using an intrinsic fluorescence assay, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigated Meta II decay in native rod disk membranes. Up to 40% of Meta III is formed without changes in the intrinsic Trp fluorescence and thus without all-trans-retinal release. NADPH, a cofactor for the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol, does not accelerate Meta II decay nor does it change the amount of Meta III formed. However, Meta III can be photoconverted back to the Meta II signaling state. The data are described by two quasi-irreversible pathways, leading in parallel into Meta III or into release of all-trans-retinal. Therefore, Meta III could be a form of rhodopsin that is storaged away, thus regulating photoreceptor regeneration. PMID:12427735

  8. Signaling states of rhodopsin. Formation of the storage form, metarhodopsin III, from active metarhodopsin II.

    PubMed

    Heck, Martin; Schädel, Sandra A; Maretzki, Dieter; Bartl, Franz J; Ritter, Eglof; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hofmann, Klaus Peter

    2003-01-31

    Vertebrate rhodopsin consists of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore 11-cis-retinal covalently linked via a protonated Schiff base. Upon photoisomerization of the chromophore to all-trans-retinal, the retinylidene linkage hydrolyzes, and all-trans-retinal dissociates from opsin. The pigment is eventually restored by recombining with enzymatically produced 11-cis-retinal. All-trans-retinal release occurs in parallel with decay of the active form, metarhodopsin (Meta) II, in which the original Schiff base is intact but deprotonated. The intermediates formed during Meta II decay include Meta III, with the original Schiff base reprotonated, and Meta III-like pseudo-photoproducts. Using an intrinsic fluorescence assay, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigated Meta II decay in native rod disk membranes. Up to 40% of Meta III is formed without changes in the intrinsic Trp fluorescence and thus without all-trans-retinal release. NADPH, a cofactor for the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol, does not accelerate Meta II decay nor does it change the amount of Meta III formed. However, Meta III can be photoconverted back to the Meta II signaling state. The data are described by two quasi-irreversible pathways, leading in parallel into Meta III or into release of all-trans-retinal. Therefore, Meta III could be a form of rhodopsin that is stored away, thus regulating photoreceptor regeneration. PMID:12427735

  9. Evolution and the origin of the visual retinoid cycle in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kusakabe, Takehiro G.; Takimoto, Noriko; Jin, Minghao; Tsuda, Motoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Absorption of a photon by visual pigments induces isomerization of 11-cis-retinaldehyde (RAL) chromophore to all-trans-RAL. Since the opsins lacking 11-cis-RAL lose light sensitivity, sustained vision requires continuous regeneration of 11-cis-RAL via the process called ‘visual cycle’. Protostomes and vertebrates use essentially different machinery of visual pigment regeneration, and the origin and early evolution of the vertebrate visual cycle is an unsolved mystery. Here we compare visual retinoid cycles between different photoreceptors of vertebrates, including rods, cones and non-visual photoreceptors, as well as between vertebrates and invertebrates. The visual cycle systems in ascidians, the closest living relatives of vertebrates, show an intermediate state between vertebrates and non-chordate invertebrates. The ascidian larva may use retinochrome-like opsin as the major isomerase. The entire process of the visual cycle can occur inside the photoreceptor cells with distinct subcellular compartmentalization, although the visual cycle components are also present in surrounding non-photoreceptor cells. The adult ascidian probably uses RPE65 isomerase, and trans-to-cis isomerization may occur in distinct cellular compartments, which is similar to the vertebrate situation. The complete transition to the sophisticated retinoid cycle of vertebrates may have required acquisition of new genes, such as interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, and functional evolution of the visual cycle genes. PMID:19720652

  10. The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

    1999-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat (Felis catus), horse (Equus caballus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). These opsins were expressed in COS1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. The purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531, and 516 nm, respectively, which are precise to within +/-1 nm. We also regenerated the "true" red pigment of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has a lambdamax value at 559 +/- 4 nm. Multiple linear regression analyses show that S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S shift the lambdamax values of the red and green pigments in mammals toward blue by 7, 28, 7, 15, and 16 nm, respectively, and the reverse amino acid changes toward red by the same extents. The additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain the red-green color vision in a wide range of mammalian species, goldfish, American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), and pigeon (Columba livia). PMID:10511567

  11. Isolation and characterization of melanopsin and pinopsin expression within photoreceptive sites of reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigato, Elena; Vallone, Daniela; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foulkes, Nicholas S.

    2006-08-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates have multiple extraocular photoreceptors, mainly localised in the pineal complex and the brain, to mediate irradiance detection. In this study, we report the full-length cDNA cloning of ruin lizard melanopsin and pinopsin. The high level of identity with opsins in both the transmembrane regions, where the chromophore binding site is located, and the intracellular loops, where the G-proteins interact, suggests that both melanopsin and pinopsin should be able to generate a stable photopigment, capable of triggering a transduction cascade mediated by G-proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both opsins are located on the expected branches of the corresponding sequences of ortholog proteins. Subsequently, using RT-PCR and RPA analysis, we verified the expression of ruin lizard melanopsin and pinopsin in directly photosensitive organs, such as the lateral eye, brain, pineal gland and parietal eye. Melanopsin expression was detected in the lateral eye and all major regions of the brain. However, different from the situation in Xenopus and chicken, melanopsin is not expressed in the ruin lizard pineal. Pinopsin mRNA expression was only detected in the pineal complex. As a result of their phylogenetic position and ecology, reptiles provide the circadian field with some of the most interesting models for understanding the evolution of the vertebrate circadian timing system and its response to light. This characterization of melanopsin and pinopsin expression in the ruin lizard will be important for future studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis of circadian light detection in reptiles.

  12. Constitutive phospholipid scramblase activity of a G protein-coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, Michael A.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Menon, Indu; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2014-10-01

    Opsin, the rhodopsin apoprotein, was recently shown to be an ATP-independent flippase (or scramblase) that equilibrates phospholipids across photoreceptor disc membranes in mammalian retina, a process required for disc homoeostasis. Here we show that scrambling is a constitutive activity of rhodopsin, distinct from its light-sensing function. Upon reconstitution into vesicles, discrete conformational states of the protein (rhodopsin, a metarhodopsin II-mimic, and two forms of opsin) facilitated rapid (>10,000 phospholipids per protein per second) scrambling of phospholipid probes. Our results indicate that the large conformational changes involved in converting rhodopsin to metarhodopsin II are not required for scrambling, and that the lipid translocation pathway either lies near the protein surface or involves membrane packing defects in the vicinity of the protein. In addition, we demonstrate that ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors scramble lipids, suggesting that rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors may play an unexpected moonlighting role in re-modelling cell membranes.

  13. Archaebacterial rhodopsin sequences: Implications for evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    It was proposed over 10 years ago that the archaebacteria represent a separate kingdom which diverged very early from the eubacteria and eukaryotes. It follows that investigations of archaebacterial characteristics might reveal features of early evolution. So far, two genes, one for bacteriorhodopsin and another for halorhodopsin, both from Halobacterium halobium, have been sequenced. We cloned and sequenced the gene coding for the polypeptide of another one of these rhodopsins, a halorhodopsin in Natronobacterium pharaonis. Peptide sequencing of cyanogen bromide fragments, and immuno-reactions of the protein and synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal gene sequence, confirmed that the open reading frame was the structural gene for the pharaonis halorhodopsin polypeptide. The flanking DNA sequences of this gene, as well as those of other bacterial rhodopsins, were compared to previously proposed archaebacterial consensus sequences. In pairwise comparisons of the open reading frame with DNA sequences for bacterio-opsin and halo-opsin from Halobacterium halobium, silent divergences were calculated. These indicate very considerable evolutionary distance between each pair of genes, even in the dame organism. In spite of this, three protein sequences show extensive similarities, indicating strong selective pressures.

  14. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

  15. Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dashek, Ryan J.; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Hennes-Beean, Elizabeth A.; VerHoeve, James N.; Nork, T. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Outer retinal injury has been well described in glaucoma. To better understand the source of this injury, we wanted to develop a reliable model of partial retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axotomy. Methods. Endodiathermy spots were placed along the inferior 180° adjacent to the optic nerve margin in the right eyes of four cynomolgus monkeys. Fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed at various intervals. Two animals were sacrificed at 3 months. Two animals were sacrificed at 4 months, at which time they underwent an injection of fluorescent microspheres to measure regional choroidal blood flow. Retinal immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), rhodopsin, S-cone opsin, and M/L-cone opsin were performed, as were axon counts of the optic nerves. Results. At 3 months, there was marked thinning of the inferior nerve fiber layer on SD-OCT. The mfERG waveforms were consistent with inner but not outer retinal injury. Greater than 95% reduction in axons was seen in the inferior optic nerves but no secondary degeneration superiorly. There was marked thinning of the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers in the inferior retinas. However, the photoreceptor histology was similar in the axotomized and nonaxotomized areas. Regional choroidal blood flow was not affected by the axotomy. Conclusions. Unlike experimental glaucoma, hemiretinal endodiathermy axotomy (HEA) of the RGCs produces no apparent anatomic, functional, or blood flow effects on the outer retina and choroid. PMID:23620427

  16. Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light

    PubMed Central

    Kuse, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Kenjiro; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661?W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38?mW/cm2). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light. PMID:24909301

  17. Hybridization leads to sensory repertoire expansion in a gynogenetic fish, the Amazon molly (poecilia formosa): a test of the hybrid-sensory expansion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Joy, Jeffrey B; Watson, Corey T; Gonzalez-Bendiksen, Pablo; Gabor, Caitlin R; Breden, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Expansions in sensory systems usually require processes such as gene duplication and divergence, and thus evolve slowly. We evaluate a novel mechanism leading to rapid sensory repertoire expansion: hybrid-sensory expansion (HSE). HSE occurs when two species with differently tuned sensory systems form a hybrid, bringing together alleles from each of the parental species. In one generation, a sensory repertoire is created that is the sum of the variance between parental species. The Amazon molly presents a unique opportunity to test the HSE hypothesis in a "frozen" hybrid. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species. Both parental species are homozygous at the RH2-1 locus and each of the four long wavelength sensitive loci, while P. formosa possess two different alleles at these loci; one matching each parental allele. Gene expression analysis showed P. formosa use the expanded opsin repertoire that was the result of HSE. Additionally, behavioral tests revealed P. formosa respond to colored stimuli in a manner similar or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support the HSE hypothesis. Hybrid-sensory repertoire expansion is likely important in other hybrid species and in other sensory systems. PMID:23289566

  18. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ödeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage. PMID:20015861

  19. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Vision-Specific BBS3 (ARL6) Long Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Pamela R.; Baye, Lisa M.; Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Yang, Baoli; Mullins, Robert F.; Stone, Edwin M.; Sheffield, Val C.; Slusarski, Diane C.

    2010-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous syndromic form of retinal degeneration. We have identified a novel transcript of a known BBS gene, BBS3 (ARL6), which includes an additional exon. This transcript, BBS3L, is evolutionally conserved and is expressed predominantly in the eye, suggesting a specialized role in vision. Using antisense oligonucleotide knockdown in zebrafish, we previously demonstrated that bbs3 knockdown results in the cardinal features of BBS in zebrafish, including defects to the ciliated Kupffer's Vesicle and delayed retrograde melanosome transport. Unlike bbs3, knockdown of bbs3L does not result in Kupffer's Vesicle or melanosome transport defects, rather its knockdown leads to impaired visual function and mislocalization of the photopigment green cone opsin. Moreover, BBS3L RNA, but not BBS3 RNA, is sufficient to rescue both the vision defect as well as green opsin localization in the zebrafish retina. In order to demonstrate a role for Bbs3L function in the mammalian eye, we generated a Bbs3L-null mouse that presents with disruption of the normal photoreceptor architecture. Bbs3L-null mice lack key features of previously published Bbs-null mice, including obesity. These data demonstrate that the BBS3L transcript is required for proper retinal function and organization. PMID:20333246

  20. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. (Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa (USA))

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  1. Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-coupled receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Salom, David; Cao, Pengxiu; Sun, Wenyu; Kramp, Kristopher; Jastrzebska, Beata; Jin, Hui; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    New strategies for expression, purification, functional characterization, and structural determination of membrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are constantly being developed because of their importance to human health. Here, we report a Caenorhabditis elegans heterologous expression system able to produce milligram amounts of functional native and engineered GPCRs. Both bovine opsin [(b)opsin] and human adenosine A2A subtype receptor [(h)A2AR] expressed in neurons or muscles of C. elegans were localized to cell membranes. Worms expressing these GPCRs manifested changes in motor behavior in response to light and ligands, respectively. With a newly devised protocol, 0.6–1 mg of purified homogenous 9-cis-retinal-bound bovine isorhodopsin [(b)isoRho] and ligand-bound (h)A2AR were obtained from C. elegans from one 10-L fermentation at low cost. Purified recombinant (b)isoRho exhibited its signature absorbance spectrum and activated its cognate G-protein transducin in vitro at a rate similar to native rhodopsin (Rho) obtained from bovine retina. Generally high expression levels of 11 native and mutant GPCRs demonstrated the potential of this C. elegans system to produce milligram quantities of high-quality GPCRs and possibly other membrane proteins suitable for detailed characterization.—Salom, D., Cao, P., Sun, W., Kramp, K., Jastrzebska, B., Jin, H., Feng, Z., Palczewski, K. Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-coupled receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:22090314

  2. Colour vision in the passeriform bird, Leiothrix lutea: correlation of visual pigment absorbance and oil droplet transmission with spectral sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Maier; J. K. Bowmaker

    1993-01-01

    The visual receptors in the retina of the passeriform bird Leiothrix lutea were examined microspectro-photometrically. The rods had a maximum absorbance close to 500 nm. Four spectrally different classes of single cone were identified with typical combinations of photopigments and oil droplets: a long-wave sensitive cone with a photopigment P568 and a droplet with a cut-off wavelength at 564 nm,

  3. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. Results The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a ?max of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted ?max into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Conclusions Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type ancestor. The re-evolution of UVS from a VS type pigment has not previously been predicted elsewhere in the vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:24499383

  4. Retinal-protein interactions in halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis: binding and retinal thermal isomerization catalysis.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Tushar Kanti; Engelhard, Martin; Sheves, Mordechai

    2009-12-01

    Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR) is a member of the retinal protein group and serves as a light-driven chloride pump in which chloride ions are transported through the membrane following light absorption by the retinal chromophore. In this study, we examined two main issues: (1) factors controlling the binding of the retinal chromophore to the NpHR opsin and (2) the ability of the NpHR opsin to catalyze the thermal isomerization of retinal isomers. We have revealed that the reconstitution process of pharaonis HR (NpHR) pigment from its apoprotein and all-trans retinal depends on the pH, and the process has a pK(a) of 5.8+/-0.1. It was proposed that this pK(a) is associated with the pK(a) of the lysine residue that binds the retinal chromophore (Lys256). The pigment formation is regulated by the concentration of sodium chloride, and the maximum yield was observed at 3.7 M NaCl. The low yield of pigment in a lower concentration of NaCl (<3 M) may be due to an altered conformation adopted by the apomembrane, which is not capable of forming the pigment. Unexpectedly and unlike the apomembrane of bacteriorhodopsin, NpHR opsin produces pigments with 11-cis retinal and 9-cis retinal owing to the thermal isomerization of these retinal isomers to all-trans retinal. The isomerization rate depends on the pH, and it is faster at a higher pH. The pK(a) value of the isomerization process is similar to the pK(a) of the binding process of these retinals, which suggests that Lys256 is also involved in the isomerization process. The isomerization is independent of the sodium chloride concentration. However, in the absence of sodium chloride, the apoprotein adopts such a conformation, which does not prevent the isomerization of retinal, but it prevents a covalent bond formation with the lysine residue. The rate and the thermodynamic parameter analysis of the retinal isomerization by NpHR apoprotein led to the conclusion that the apomembrane catalyzes the isomerization via a triplet mechanism. PMID:19766652

  5. Evolution of clitellate phaosomes from rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells of polychaetes – a study in the leech Helobdella robusta (Annelida, Sedentaria, Clitellata)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Annelida two types of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) are regarded as generally present, rhabdomeric and ciliary PRCs. In certain taxa, however, an additional type of PRC may occur, the so called phaosomal PRC. Whereas the former two types of PRCs are always organized as an epithelium with their sensory processes projecting into an extracellular cavity formed by the PRCs and (pigmented) supportive cells, phaosomes are seemingly intracellular vacuoles housing the sensory processes. Phaosomal PRCs are the only type of PRC found in one major annelid group, Clitellata. Several hypotheses have been put forward explaining the evolutionary origin of the clitellate phaosomes. To elucidate the evolution of clitellate PRC and eyes the leech Helobdella robusta, for which a sequenced genome is available, was chosen. Results TEM observations showed that extraocular and ocular PRCs are structurally identical. Bioinformatic analyses revealed predictions for four opsin genes, three of which could be amplified. All belong to the rhabdomeric opsin family and phylogenetic analyses showed them in a derived position within annelid opsins. Gene expression studies showed two of them expressed in the eye and in the extraocular PRCs. Polychaete eye-typic key enzymes for ommochromme and pterin shading pigments synthesis are not expressed in leech eyes. Conclusions By comparative gene-expression studies we herein provide strong evidence that the phaosomal PRCs typical of Clitellata are derived from the rhabdomeric PRCs characteristic for polychaete adult eyes. Thus, they represent a highly derived type of PRC that evolved in the stem lineage of Clitellata rather than another, primitive type of PRC in Metazoa. Evolution of these PRCs in Clitellata is related to a loss of the primary eyes and most of their photoreceptive elements except for the rhabdomeric PRCs. Most likely this happened while changing to an endobenthic mode of life. This hypothesis of PRC evolution is in accordance with a recently published phylogeny of Annelida based on phylogenomic data. The data provide a nice example how morphologically highly divergent light sensitive structures emerged from a standard type of photoreceptor cell. PMID:24007384

  6. Europe's space telescope ISO finds water in distant places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Equally striking is ISO's discovery of water vapour in the outer planets, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. As those chilly planets cannot release water from within, they probably have a supply of water coming from elsewhere in the Solar System. Since ISO went into orbit at the end of 1995, it has used its unique power of analysing infrared rays coming from the Universe to identify water vapour and water ice near dying stars and newborn stars. It has also measured the water vapour steaming from Comet Hale-Bopp. "Before ISO no instrument was capable of detecting water in so many places," comments ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "To start revealing the cosmic history of the Earth's water is a big success for ESA and for the astronomers who use our unique infrared observatory. And ISO's discovery that water is commonplace in the Galaxy will encourage renewed speculation about life that may exist in the vicinity of other stars." Water amid the stars Primaeval hydrogen atoms make water by joining with oxygen atoms that are manufactured within stars, in nuclear reactions occurring towards the end of a star's life. Oxygen from defunct stars enriches the Galaxy, and abundant hydrogen is available to react with it. Although the existence of water in interstellar space is not surprising, the Earth's moist atmosphere makes life difficult for any astronomer who wishes to spot water vapour in the Universe with ground-based instruments. Observations from aircraft and balloons gave early hints of cosmic water, but thorough investigations had to wait for ISO's unhampered view from space. Three of the satellite's instruments, the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) and the photometer ISOPHOT operating in spectroscopic mode, take part in the hunt for water. Last year, for example, users of both SWS and LWS reported water vapour in the vicinity of the aged star, W Hydrae, from which oxygen-rich winds blow into space. The bright infrared source GL 2591, surrounding a newly formed massive star, revealed to SWS hot and abundant water vapour. Jets of gas from very young stars can create luminous shock waves at great distances, and LWS made the first detection of water vapour in such an object, HH-54. Among the objects subsequently examined by LWS, IRAS 16293-2422 is a cosmic egg in the process of creating a star of about the same size as the Sun. Characteristic emissions from water vapour at 108, 113, 174 and 179 microns show up clearly. The water plays a practical part in starmaking. It helps to radiate away excess heat which could otherwise prevent the parent gas from condensing under gravity to make the star. When ISO looks towards the centre of the Galaxy, which lies about 28,000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius, it sees, not emissions of the the characteristic wavelengths of water, but absorptions. These appear as dips in the infrared spectrum and tell of the presence of dark, cool clouds, called molecular clouds, which are the primary source of new stars. Very close to the true Galactic Centre is the bright infrared source Sagittarius B2, and it too shows the presence of water vapour. In a programme of observations which began in the autumn of 1996 and is still continuing, ISO's Long Wavelength Spectrometer has made observations of such high precision that it distinguishes different molecular clouds on the way towards the Galactic Centre. The clouds are moving at different speeds relative to the Earth. They alter each water wavelength by the Doppler effect, to produce a broad absorption line representing water vapour in the various clouds intervening between the Earth and the bright source Sagittarius B2. The detection by LWS of water molecules containing the rare, heavy form of oxygen, oxygen-18, helps the astronomers to estimate the abundance of water. Other watery clouds show up when ISO aims towards other dense regions of the Galaxy somewhat away from the Galactic Centre. There really is, in the words of an English poet, "Water, water everywhere&q

  7. Direct visualization of the murine dorsal cochlear nucleus for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Elliott D; Darrow, Keith N; Hight, Ariel E; Lehmann, Ashton E; Kaplan, Alyson B; Brown, M Christian; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation into the use of virus-mediated gene transfer to arrest or reverse hearing loss has largely been relegated to the peripheral auditory system. Few studies have examined gene transfer to the central auditory system. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of the brainstem, which contains second order neurons of the auditory pathway, is a potential site for gene transfer. In this protocol, a technique for direct and maximal exposure of the murine DCN via a posterior fossa approach is demonstrated. This approach allows for either acute or survival surgery. Following direct visualization of the DCN, a host of experiments are possible, including injection of opsins into the cochlear nucleus and subsequent stimulation by an optical fiber coupled to a blue light laser. Other neurophysiology experiments, such as electrical stimulation and neural injector tracings are also feasible. The level of visualization and the duration of stimulation achievable make this approach applicable to a wide range of experiments. PMID:25650555

  8. Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baraas, Rigmor C.; Carroll, Joseph; Gunther, Karen L.; Chung, Mina; Williams, David R.; Foster, David H.; Neitz, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Tritan color-vision deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone-pigment gene. An unexplained feature of the disorder is that individuals with the same mutation manifest different degrees of deficiency. To date, it has not been possible to examine whether any loss of S-cone function is accompanied by physical disruption in the cone mosaic. Two related tritan subjects with the same novel mutation in their S-cone-opsin gene, but different degrees of deficiency, were examined. Adaptive optics was used to obtain high-resolution retinal images, which revealed distinctly different S-cone mosaics consistent with their discrepant phenotypes. In addition, a significant disruption in the regularity of the overall cone mosaic was observed in the subject completely lacking S-cone function. These results taken together with other recent findings from molecular genetics indicate that, with rare exceptions, tritan deficiency is progressive in nature. PMID:17429491

  9. Phosphene phenomenon: a new concept.

    PubMed

    Bókkon, István

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes a new biopsychophysical concept of phosphene phenomenon. Namely, visual sensation of phosphenes is due to the intrinsic perception of ultraweak bioluminescent photon emission of cells in the visual system. In other words, phosphenes are bioluminescent biophotons in the visual system induced by various stimuli (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, ionizing radiation, etc.) as well as random bioluminescent biophotons firings of cells in the visual pathway. This biophoton emission can become conscious if induced or spontaneous biophoton emission of cells in the visual system exceeds a distinct threshold. Neuronal biophoton communication can occur by means of non-visual neuronal opsins and natural photosensitive biomolecules. Our interpretation is in direct connection with the functional roles of free radicals and excited biomolecules in living cells. PMID:18358594

  10. Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect

    PubMed Central

    LeGates, T.A.; Fernandez, D.C.; Hattar, S

    2014-01-01

    Light has profoundly influenced the evolution of life on earth. As widely appreciated, light allows us to generate images of our environment. However, light, through the atypical intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs; Box 1), also influences behaviors that are essential for our health and quality of life, yet are independent of image formation. These include the synchronization of the circadian clock to the solar day, tracking of seasonal changes, and regulation of sleep. Irregular light environments lead to problems in circadian rhythms and sleep, which eventually cause mood and learning deficits. Recently, it was found that irregular light can also directly impact mood and learning without producing major disruptions in circadian rhythms and sleep. Here, we will discuss the indirect and direct influence of light on mood and learning and provide a model for how light, the circadian clock, and sleep interact to influence mood and cognitive functions. Box 1Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs)Retinal photoreceptors transduce light energy into electrical signals that initiate vision. The classical photoreceptors, rods and cones, possess modified cilia that consist of stacks of membranes in which photopigments (rhodopsin and cone opsins) are concentrated. Rods are exquisitely sensitive and are able to detect even a few photons. Rods are therefore used for night vision. Cones are less sensitive than rods and are used for day and color vision. Color vision is mediated by cone photoreceptors that express cone-opsins with sensitivity peaks at different wavelengths (colors) of light. Humans have three cone types: short, mid and long wavelength sensitive cones (for simplicity, we will refer to these as blue, green and red cones, respectively). Rods and cones relay photic information through multisynaptic pathways to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which innervate different areas in the brain for complex visual processing13.A surprising discovery showed that a subpopulation of RGCs is intrinsically photosensitive and express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells were thus termed ipRGCs17–19. The melanopsin gene (Opn4) was originally cloned from Xenopus laevis dermal melanophores, and was shown to have orthologs in many mammalian species, including humans141. Sequence analysis shows that melanopsin shares more homology with invertebrate opsins than with vertebrate opsins, suggesting that melanopsin may use a different mechanism for light signaling than that used by the photopigments present in the rods and cones of vertebrates142. ipRGCs do not have modified membranes in which the photopigment can be concentrated: thus, melanopsin protein is expressed uniformly throughout the soma, dendrites, and the initial segment of the axon143. The lack of membrane specialization makes ipRGCs less sensitive to light than rods and cones. However, ipRGCs are able to incorporate light signals over extended period of time, resulting in an increase in their sensitivity during prolonged light stimulation. ipRGCs are most sensitive to wavelengths of light that are in the blue region of the light spectrum144, 145. As ganglion cells, ipRGCs also convey light information from rods and cones in addition to their intrinsic melanopsin-dependent pathway and can control a variety of light-mediated behaviors30.Originally, ipRGCs were thought to comprise a uniform population, however, recent discoveries revealed that ipRGCs are highly diverse, comprising at least five distinct subtypes (M1-M5) in rodents based on morphological and electrophysiological analyses22–29. The originally identified population is now known as M1 ipRGCs and project predominantly to brain regions involved in non-image forming visual functions, whereas the non-M1 ipRGCs show widespread projections to areas in the brain important for image formation. ipRGC subtypes express varying levels of the melanopsin protein and have different patterns of dendrite stratification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL)27, 28, 146, 147, indicating

  11. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors.

    PubMed

    Wernet, Mathias F; Labhart, Thomas; Baumann, Franziska; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Pichaud, Franck; Desplan, Claude

    2003-10-31

    Different classes of photoreceptors (PRs) allow animals to perceive various types of visual information. In the Drosophila eye, the outer PRs of each ommatidium are involved in motion detection while the inner PRs mediate color vision. In addition, flies use a specialized class of inner PRs in the "dorsal rim area" of the eye (DRA) to detect the e-vector of polarized light, allowing them to exploit skylight polarization for orientation. We show that homothorax is both necessary and sufficient for inner PRs to adopt the polarization-sensitive DRA fate instead of the color-sensitive default state. Homothorax increases rhabdomere size and uncouples R7-R8 communication to allow both cells to express the same opsin rather than different ones as required for color vision. Homothorax expression is induced by the iroquois complex and the wingless (wg) pathway. However, crucial wg pathway components are not required, suggesting that additional signals are involved. PMID:14636555

  12. C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin. Determination of the optimum sequence for recognition of retinal transducin.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, D J; Morrison, D; Davis, L C; Takemoto, L J

    1986-04-01

    In vertebrate retinal rod outer segments, transducin, a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Whereas the T alpha subunit (39 kDa) of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunits (35 and 10 kDa) may function to physically link T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. We have previously reported that a site of binding of transducin is on the C-terminus of bovine rhodopsin. By using competition with synthetic peptides, the recognition region was localized to bovine opsin amino acid residues 317-339. Further studies are detailed which determine the boundaries of this binding site on rhodopsin, as well as some of the critical amino acids needed for transducin binding. These results suggest that the serine and threonine residues in the rhodopsin C-terminal peptides Rhod-1 and Rhod-3 are critical for reconstitution of transducin GTPase activity. PMID:3461782

  13. C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin. Determination of the optimum sequence for recognition of retinal transducin.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, D J; Morrison, D; Davis, L C; Takemoto, L J

    1986-01-01

    In vertebrate retinal rod outer segments, transducin, a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Whereas the T alpha subunit (39 kDa) of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunits (35 and 10 kDa) may function to physically link T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. We have previously reported that a site of binding of transducin is on the C-terminus of bovine rhodopsin. By using competition with synthetic peptides, the recognition region was localized to bovine opsin amino acid residues 317-339. Further studies are detailed which determine the boundaries of this binding site on rhodopsin, as well as some of the critical amino acids needed for transducin binding. These results suggest that the serine and threonine residues in the rhodopsin C-terminal peptides Rhod-1 and Rhod-3 are critical for reconstitution of transducin GTPase activity. PMID:3461782

  14. Melatonin Signaling Controls Circadian Swimming Behavior in Marine Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the “hormone of darkness,” is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

  15. QM/MM Study of Dehydro and Dihydro ?-Ionone Retinal Analogues in Squid and Bovine Rhodopsins: Implications for Vision in Salamander Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Altun, Ahmet; Morokuma, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Visual pigment rhodopsin provides a decisive crossing point for interaction between organisms and environment. Naturally occurring visual pigments contain only PSB11 and 3,4-dehydro-PSB11 as chromophores. Therefore, the ability of visual opsin to discriminate between the retinal geometries is investigated by means of QM/MM incorporation of PSB11, 6-s-cis and 6-s-trans forms of 3,4-dehydro-PSB11, 3,4-dehydro-5,6-dihydro-PSB11, 5,6-dihydro-PSB11 analogues into squid and bovine rhodopsin environments. The analogue-protein interaction reveals the binding site of squid rhodopsin to be malleable and ductile, while that of bovine rhodopsin to be rigid and stiff. On the basis of these studies, a tentative model of salamander rhodopsin binding site is also proposed. PMID:20964383

  16. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2009-01-01

    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  17. The visual cycle of the cone photoreceptors of the retina.

    PubMed

    Wolf, George

    2004-07-01

    The photoreceptors of the eye's retina consist of rods and cones; rods serve vision in dim light, whereas cones serve high-resolution color vision in daylight. The first event in vision is the light-initiated isomerization of 11-cis-retinal, which is attached to rod or cone opsin, to all-trans-retinal. The regeneration of 11-cis-retinal comprises the well-known visual cycle in rods. By using cone-dominant retinas from chickens and ground squirrels, a visual cycle has been discovered in cones that differs radically from that in rods, mainly in the mechanism of isomerization of all-trans-retinol to 11-cis-retinol, and the latter's oxidation to 11-cis-retinal. PMID:15384919

  18. Photochemical activation of TRPA1 channels in neurons and animals

    PubMed Central

    Kokel, David; Cheung, Chung Yan J.; Mills, Robert; Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda; Huang, Liyi; Setola, Vincent; Sprague, Jared; Jin, Shan; Jin, Youngnam N.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Bruni, Giancarlo; Woolf, Clifford; Roth, Bryan L.; Hamblin, Michael R; Zylka, Mark J.; Milan, David J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics is a powerful research tool because it enables high-resolution optical control of neuronal activity. However, current optogenetic approaches are limited to transgenic systems expressing microbial opsins and other exogenous photoreceptors. Here, we identify optovin, a small molecule that enables repeated photoactivation of motor behaviors in wild type animals. Surprisingly, optovin's behavioral effects are not visually mediated. Rather, photodetection is performed by sensory neurons expressing the cation channel TRPA1. TRPA1 is both necessary and sufficient for the optovin response. Optovin activates human TRPA1 via structure-dependent photochemical reactions with redox-sensitive cysteine residues. In animals with severed spinal cords, optovin treatment enables control of motor activity in the paralyzed extremities by localized illumination. These studies identify a light-based strategy for controlling endogenous TRPA1 receptors in vivo, with potential clinical and research applications in non-transgenic animals, including humans. PMID:23396078

  19. Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Klapoetke, Nathan C; Murata, Yasunobu; Kim, Sung Soo; Pulver, Stefan R.; Birdsey-Benson, Amanda; Cho, Yong Ku; Morimoto, Tania K; Chuong, Amy S; Carpenter, Eric J; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Yinlong; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong; Chow, Brian Y; Surek, Barbara; Melkonian, Michael; Jayaraman, Vivek; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Boyden, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic tools enable the causal examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the examination of how different synapses or pathways interact to support computation. Here we report two new channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, obtained through the de novo sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of algae. Chrimson is 45 nm red-shifted relative to any previous channelrhodopsin, important for scenarios where red light would be preferred; we show minimal visual system mediated behavioral artifact in optogenetically stimulated Drosophila. Chronos has faster kinetics than any previous channelrhodopsin, yet is effectively more light-sensitive. Together, these two reagents enable crosstalk-free two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations in mouse brain slice. PMID:24509633

  20. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frédéric; Cooper, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Non-visual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and towards the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modelling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light. PMID:17329208

  1. The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Barbara L

    2008-02-01

    Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies. PMID:17692298

  2. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional an

  3. Cell transplantation to arrest early changes in an ush2a animal model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Wang, Shaomei; Francis, Peter J; Li, Tiansen; Gamm, David M; Capowski, Elizabeth E; Lund, Raymond D

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Usher's syndrome is a combined deafness and blindness disorder caused by mutations in several genes with functions in both the retina and the ear. Here the authors studied morphologic and functional changes in an animal model, the Ush2a mouse, and explored whether transplantation of forebrain-derived progenitor cells might affect the progress of morphologic and functional deterioration. Methods. Ush2a mice were tested at postnatal days (P) 70 to P727 using an optomotor test, which provides a repeatable method of estimating rodent visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. A group of mice that received grafts of forebrain-derived progenitor cells at P80 was tested for up to 10 weeks after grafting. At the end of testing, animals were killed, and eyes were processed for histology. Results. The optomotor test showed that both acuity and contrast sensitivity deteriorated over time; contrast sensitivity showed a deficit even at P70. By contrast, photoreceptor loss was only evident later than 1 year of age, though changes in the intracellular distribution of red/green cone opsin were observed as early as P80. Mice that received transplanted cells performed significantly better than control mice and no longer demonstrated abnormal distribution of red/green opsin where the donor cells were distributed. Conclusions. This study showed that vision impairment was detected well before significant photoreceptor loss and was correlated with abnormal distribution of a cone pigment. Cell transplantation prevented functional deterioration for at least 10 weeks and reversed the mislocalization of cone pigment. PMID:19959642

  4. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  5. PDA (Prolonged Depolarizing Afterpotential) - Defective Mutants: The Story of nina's and ina's—pinta and santa maria, Too

    PubMed Central

    Pak, William L.; Shino, Shikoh; Leung, Hung-Tat

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to present a comprehensive view of the PDA (prolonged depolarizing afterpotential)-defective Drosophila mutants, nina's and ina's, from the discussion of the PDA and the PDA-based mutant screening strategy to summaries of the knowledge gained through the studies of mutants generated using the strategy. The PDA is a component of the light-evoked photoreceptor potential that is generated when a substantial fraction of rhodopsin is photoconverted to its active form, metarhodopsin. The PDA-based mutant screening strategy was adopted to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of ERG (electroretinogram)-based screening for identifying phototransduction-defective mutants. Using this strategy, two classes of PDA-defective mutants were identified and isolated, nina and ina, each comprising multiple complementation groups. The nina mutants are characterized by allele-dependent reduction in the major rhodopsin, Rh1, whereas the ina mutants display defects in some aspects of functions related to the transduction channel, TRP (transient receptor potential). The signaling proteins that have been identified and elucidated through the studies of nina mutants include the Drosophila opsin protein (NINAE), the chaperone protein for nascent opsin (NINAA), and the multifunctional protein, NINAC, required in multiple steps of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade. Also identified by the nina mutants are some of the key enzymes involved in the biogenesis of the rhodopsin chromophore. As for the ina mutants, they led to the discovery of the scaffold protein, INAD, responsible for the nucleation of the supramolecular signaling complex. Also identified by the ina mutants is one of the key members of the signaling complex, INAC (ePKC), and two other proteins that are likely to be important, though their roles in the signaling cascade have not yet been fully elucidated. In most of these cases, the protein identified is the first member of its class to be so recognized. PMID:22283778

  6. Hsp90 inhibition protects against inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Aguilà, Mònica; Bevilacqua, Dalila; McCulley, Caroline; Schwarz, Nele; Athanasiou, Dimitra; Kanuga, Naheed; Novoselov, Sergey S.; Lange, Clemens A.K.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.; Gias, Carlos; Coffey, Peter J.; Garriga, Pere; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is important for the functional maturation of many client proteins, and inhibitors are in clinical trials for multiple indications in cancer. Hsp90 inhibition activates the heat shock response and can improve viability in a cell model of the P23H misfolding mutation in rhodopsin that causes autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Here, we show that a single low dose of the Hsp90 inhibitor HSP990 enhanced visual function and delayed photoreceptor degeneration in a P23H transgenic rat model. This was associated with the induction of heat shock protein expression and reduced rhodopsin aggregation. We then investigated the effect of Hsp90 inhibition on a different type of rod opsin mutant, R135L, which is hyperphosphorylated, binds arrestin and disrupts vesicular traffic. Hsp90 inhibition with 17-AAG reduced the intracellular accumulation of R135L and abolished arrestin binding in cells. Hsf-1?/? cells revealed that the effect of 17-AAG on P23H aggregation was dependent on HSF-1, whereas the effect on R135L was HSF-1 independent. Instead, the effect on R135L was mediated by a requirement of Hsp90 for rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) maturation and function. Importantly, Hsp90 inhibition restored R135L rod opsin localization to wild-type (WT) phenotype in vivo in rat retina. Prolonged Hsp90 inhibition with HSP990 in vivo led to a posttranslational reduction in GRK1 and phosphodiesterase (PDE6) protein levels, identifying them as Hsp90 clients. These data suggest that Hsp90 represents a potential therapeutic target for different types of rhodopsin adRP through distinct mechanisms, but also indicate that sustained Hsp90 inhibition might adversely affect visual function. PMID:24301679

  7. Gene Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Rescues Retinal Function in an Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Haoyu; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Hauswirth, William W.; Lewin, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations within the gene for the opsin of rod photoreceptor cells. Studies on transgenic mice, carrying mutated rhodopsin (RHO) transgene on different genetic backgrounds suggested that that an increased amount of wild-type RHO in ADRP photoreceptors attenuated the impact of the mutant transgene. Therefore, we employed a gene therapy approach with a help of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) to treat mice expressing a P23H mutant human RHO transgene. Knowing that AAV5 primarily transduces photoreceptor cells, we designed “hardened” form of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal rhodopsin and was specifically resistant to degradation by the previously tested siRNA301. AAV5 RHO301 was subretinaly injected into the right eyes of P23H RHO mice at post-natal day 15. Animals were analyzed monthly by electroretinography (ERG) for 6 months. Analysis of the full field scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of opsin slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice with increased amplitudes in both a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared to control eyes. An increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer in AAV-RHO301 injected eyes was increased by 80% compared to control eyes. This finding indicates that wild -type RHO could rescue the retinal degeneration in transgenic mice carrying a dominant RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin could suppress the effect of the mutant protein. These findings suggest that wild-type RHO can used as a therapeutic agent to retard retinal degeneration in ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO via increased production of normal rhodopsin protein. PMID:22183334

  8. The heat-shock response co-inducer arimoclomol protects against retinal degeneration in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Parfitt, D A; Aguila, M; McCulley, C H; Bevilacqua, D; Mendes, H F; Athanasiou, D; Novoselov, S S; Kanuga, N; Munro, P M; Coffey, P J; Kalmar, B; Greensmith, L; Cheetham, M E

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited diseases that cause blindness due to the progressive death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are currently no effective treatments for RP. Inherited mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein of rod photoreceptor cells, are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP. The majority of mutations in rhodopsin, including the common P23H substitution, lead to protein misfolding, which is a feature in many neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have shown that upregulating molecular chaperone expression can delay disease progression in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the potential of the heat-shock protein co-inducer arimoclomol to ameliorate rhodopsin RP. In a cell model of P23H rod opsin RP, arimoclomol reduced P23H rod opsin aggregation and improved viability of mutant rhodopsin-expressing cells. In P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat models, pharmacological potentiation of the stress response with arimoclomol improved electroretinogram responses and prolonged photoreceptor survival, as assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness in the retina. Furthermore, treated animal retinae showed improved photoreceptor outer segment structure and reduced rhodopsin aggregation compared with vehicle-treated controls. The heat-shock response (HSR) was activated in P23H retinae, and this was enhanced with arimoclomol treatment. Furthermore, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced in P23H transgenic rats, was also enhanced in the retinae of arimoclomol-treated animals, suggesting that arimoclomol can potentiate the UPR as well as the HSR. These data suggest that pharmacological enhancement of cellular stress responses may be a potential treatment for rhodopsin RP and that arimoclomol could benefit diseases where ER stress is a factor. PMID:24853414

  9. Hsp90 inhibition protects against inherited retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Aguilà, Mònica; Bevilacqua, Dalila; McCulley, Caroline; Schwarz, Nele; Athanasiou, Dimitra; Kanuga, Naheed; Novoselov, Sergey S; Lange, Clemens A K; Ali, Robin R; Bainbridge, James W; Gias, Carlos; Coffey, Peter J; Garriga, Pere; Cheetham, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is important for the functional maturation of many client proteins, and inhibitors are in clinical trials for multiple indications in cancer. Hsp90 inhibition activates the heat shock response and can improve viability in a cell model of the P23H misfolding mutation in rhodopsin that causes autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Here, we show that a single low dose of the Hsp90 inhibitor HSP990 enhanced visual function and delayed photoreceptor degeneration in a P23H transgenic rat model. This was associated with the induction of heat shock protein expression and reduced rhodopsin aggregation. We then investigated the effect of Hsp90 inhibition on a different type of rod opsin mutant, R135L, which is hyperphosphorylated, binds arrestin and disrupts vesicular traffic. Hsp90 inhibition with 17-AAG reduced the intracellular accumulation of R135L and abolished arrestin binding in cells. Hsf-1(-/-) cells revealed that the effect of 17-AAG on P23H aggregation was dependent on HSF-1, whereas the effect on R135L was HSF-1 independent. Instead, the effect on R135L was mediated by a requirement of Hsp90 for rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) maturation and function. Importantly, Hsp90 inhibition restored R135L rod opsin localization to wild-type (WT) phenotype in vivo in rat retina. Prolonged Hsp90 inhibition with HSP990 in vivo led to a posttranslational reduction in GRK1 and phosphodiesterase (PDE6) protein levels, identifying them as Hsp90 clients. These data suggest that Hsp90 represents a potential therapeutic target for different types of rhodopsin adRP through distinct mechanisms, but also indicate that sustained Hsp90 inhibition might adversely affect visual function. PMID:24301679

  10. The heat-shock response co-inducer arimoclomol protects against retinal degeneration in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, D A; Aguila, M; McCulley, C H; Bevilacqua, D; Mendes, H F; Athanasiou, D; Novoselov, S S; Kanuga, N; Munro, P M; Coffey, P J; Kalmar, B; Greensmith, L; Cheetham, M E

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited diseases that cause blindness due to the progressive death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are currently no effective treatments for RP. Inherited mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein of rod photoreceptor cells, are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP. The majority of mutations in rhodopsin, including the common P23H substitution, lead to protein misfolding, which is a feature in many neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have shown that upregulating molecular chaperone expression can delay disease progression in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the potential of the heat-shock protein co-inducer arimoclomol to ameliorate rhodopsin RP. In a cell model of P23H rod opsin RP, arimoclomol reduced P23H rod opsin aggregation and improved viability of mutant rhodopsin-expressing cells. In P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat models, pharmacological potentiation of the stress response with arimoclomol improved electroretinogram responses and prolonged photoreceptor survival, as assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness in the retina. Furthermore, treated animal retinae showed improved photoreceptor outer segment structure and reduced rhodopsin aggregation compared with vehicle-treated controls. The heat-shock response (HSR) was activated in P23H retinae, and this was enhanced with arimoclomol treatment. Furthermore, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced in P23H transgenic rats, was also enhanced in the retinae of arimoclomol-treated animals, suggesting that arimoclomol can potentiate the UPR as well as the HSR. These data suggest that pharmacological enhancement of cellular stress responses may be a potential treatment for rhodopsin RP and that arimoclomol could benefit diseases where ER stress is a factor. PMID:24853414

  11. Rhodopsin mutant P23H destabilizes rod photoreceptor disk membranes.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin cause retinitis pigmentosa in humans and retinal degeneration in a multitude of other animals. We utilized high-resolution live imaging of the large rod photoreceptors from transgenic frogs (Xenopus) to compare the properties of fluorescently tagged rhodopsin, Rho-EGFP, and Rho(P23H)-EGFP. The mutant was abnormally distributed both in the inner and outer segments (OS), accumulating in the OS to a concentration of ?0.1% compared to endogenous opsin. Rho(P23H)-EGFP formed dense fluorescent foci, with concentrations of mutant protein up to ten times higher than other regions. Wild-type transgenic Rho-EGFP did not concentrate in OS foci when co-expressed in the same rod with Rho(P23H)-EGFP. Outer segment regions containing fluorescent foci were refractory to fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, while foci in the inner segment exhibited recovery kinetics similar to OS regions without foci and Rho-EGFP. The Rho(P23H)-EGFP foci were often in older, more distal OS disks. Electron micrographs of OS revealed abnormal disk membranes, with the regular disk bilayers broken into vesiculotubular structures. Furthermore, we observed similar OS disturbances in transgenic mice expressing Rho(P23H), suggesting such structures are a general consequence of mutant expression. Together these results show that mutant opsin disrupts OS disks, destabilizing the outer segment possibly via the formation of aggregates. This may render rods susceptible to mechanical injury or compromise OS function, contributing to photoreceptor loss. PMID:22276148

  12. Preservation of photoreceptor morphology and function in P23H rats using an allele independent ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Gorbatyuk, M; Justilien, V; Liu, J; Hauswirth, W W; Lewin, A S

    2007-01-01

    To develop an allele independent ribozyme for the treatment of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) associated with mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, a ribozyme targeting dog, mouse, human but not rat rhodopsin (RHO) mRNA was designed and tested in vitro. Activity of this ribozyme was tested in tissue culture by co-transfection of HEK 293 cells with plasmids expressing opsin mRNA and ribozyme, followed by quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate the level of RHO mRNA. For experiments in vivo, Rz525 driven by the mouse opsin proximal promoter was inserted in plasmids with AAV 2 terminal repeats (TR) and packaged in AAV serotype 5 capsids. AAV-Rz525 was injected subretinally into the right eyes of P23H rat pups. Left eyes were injected with virus expressing GFP from the identical promoter. Animals were analyzed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection by full field scotopic electroretinography (ERG). After 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed and retinas were dissected, fixed and sectioned. Rz525 had high catalytic activity in vitro and led to a 50% reduction of RHO mRNA in cells. AAV-Rz525 injection into P23H transgenic rats led to significant preservation (about 50%) of scotopic ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. Histological analysis showed an increased number of ONL nuclei in the central and superior retina of treated eyes relative to control eyes. RT-PCR analysis revealed 46% reduction of transgenic (mouse) RHO mRNA in right eyes relative to left eyes and no change in rat RHO mRNA. AAV5 delivery of Rz525 resulted in a partial rescue of the light response and structural preservation of photoreceptors in transgenic rats. This ribozyme may be a useful component of an RNA replacement gene therapy for ADRP. PMID:17083931

  13. Retinal morphological and functional changes in an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Morgans, Catherine W; Girman, Sergey; Lund, Raymond; Wang, Shaomei

    2013-05-01

    The P23H-1 transgenic rat carries a mutated mouse opsin gene, in addition to endogenous opsin genes, and undergoes progressive photoreceptor loss that is generally characteristic of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Here, we examined morphological changes correlated with visual function that is comparable to clinical application in the pigmented P23H-1 rat retina as photoreceptor degeneration progressed. We found that rod function was compromised as early as postnatal day 28 and was a good indicator for tracking retinal degeneration. Cone function was normal and did not change until the thickness of the photoreceptor layer was reduced by 75%. Similar to the threshold versus intensity curves used to evaluate vision of RP patients, light-adaptation curves showed that cone thresholds depended on the number of remaining functioning cones, but not on its length of outer segments (OS). By 1 year of age, both rod and cone functions were significantly compromised. Correlating with early abnormal rod function, rods and related secondary neurons also underwent progressive degeneration, including shortening of inner and OS of photoreceptors, loss of rod bipolar and horizontal cell dendrites, thickening of the outer Müller cell processes, and reduced density of pre- and postsynaptic markers. Similar early morphological modifications were also observed in cones and their related secondary neurons. However, cone function was maintained at nearly normal level for a long period. The dramatic loss of rods at late stage of degeneration may contribute to the dysfunction of cones. Attention has to be focused on preserving cone function and identifying factors that damage cones when therapeutic regimes are applied to treat retinal degeneration. As such, these findings provide a foundation for future studies involving treatments to counter photoreceptor loss. PMID:23510618

  14. Lake and Sea Populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with Different Visual-Pigment Absorbance Spectra Use the Same A1 Chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindström, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20–30 nm red-shifted in “lake” compared with “sea” populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

  15. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Levitz, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable tethered ligands (PTLs) have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, maleimide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (MAQ), contains a maleimide (M) to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A) linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q). MAQ was originally used to photocontrol SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photoblock by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel’s physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild-type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable conditional subunit technique provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild-type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23596388

  16. Computational molecular phenotyping of retinal sheet transplants to rats with retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, M.J.; Jones, B.W.; Aramant, R.B.; Yang, P.B.; Keirstead, H.S.; Marc, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal progenitor sheet transplants have been shown to extend neuronal processes into a degenerating host retina and to restore visual responses in the brain. The aim of this study was the first attempt to identify cells involved in transplant signals to retinal degenerate hosts using computational molecular phenotyping (CMP). - S334ter line 3 rats received fetal retinal sheet transplants at the age of 24-40d. Donor tissues were incubated with slow-releasing microspheres containing BDNF or GDNF. Up to 265 days after surgery, eyes of selected rats were vibratome sectioned through the transplant area (some slices stained for donor marker hPAP), dehydrated and embedded in Eponate, sectioned into serial ultrathin datasets and probed for rhodopsin, cone opsin, CRALBP, L-glutamate, L-glutamine, glutathione, glycine, taurine, GABA, and DAPI. - In large transplant areas, photoreceptor outer segments in contact with host RPE revealed rod and cone opsin immunoreactivity whereas no such staining was found in the degenerate host retina. Transplant photoreceptor layers contained high taurine levels. Glutamate levels in the transplants were higher than in the host retina whereas GABA levels were similar. The transplant inner nuclear layer showed some loss of neurons, but amacrine cells and horizontal cells were not reduced. In many areas, glial hypertrophy between the host and transplant was absent and host and transplant neuropil appeared to intermingle. CMP data indicate that horizontal cells and both glycinergic and GABAergic amacrine cells are involved in a novel circuit between transplant and host, generating alternative signal pathways between transplant and degenerating host retina. PMID:22594836

  17. Importance of Achromatic Contrast in Short-Range Fruit Foraging of Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Melin, Amanda D.; Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Vorobyev, Misha; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Kawamura, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Trichromatic primates have a ‘red-green’ chromatic channel in addition to luminance and ‘blue-yellow’ channels. It has been argued that the red-green channel evolved in primates as an adaptation for detecting reddish or yellowish objects, such as ripe fruits, against a background of foliage. However, foraging advantages to trichromatic primates remain unverified by behavioral observation of primates in their natural habitats. New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are an excellent model for this evaluation because of the highly polymorphic nature of their color vision due to allelic variation of the L-M opsin gene on the X chromosome. In this study we carried out field observations of a group of wild, frugivorous black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi frontatus, Gray 1842, Platyrrhini), consisting of both dichromats (n?=?12) and trichromats (n?=?9) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We determined the color vision types of individuals in this group by genotyping their L-M opsin and measured foraging efficiency of each individual for fruits located at a grasping distance. Contrary to the predicted advantage for trichromats, there was no significant difference between dichromats and trichromats in foraging efficiency and we found that the luminance contrast was the main determinant of the variation of foraging efficiency among red-green, blue-yellow and luminance contrasts. Our results suggest that luminance contrast can serve as an important cue in short-range foraging attempts despite other sensory cues that could be available. Additionally, the advantage of red-green color vision in primates may not be as salient as previously thought and needs to be evaluated in further field observations. PMID:18836576

  18. Adenovirus Vectors Targeting Distinct Cell Types in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sweigard, J. Harry; Cashman, Siobhan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy for a number of retinal diseases necessitates efficient transduction of photoreceptor cells. Whereas adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 (Ad5) does not transduce photoreceptors efficiently, previous studies have demonstrated improved photoreceptor transduction by Ad5 pseudotyped with Ad35 (Ad5/F35) or Ad37 (Ad5/F37) fiber or by the deletion of the RGD domain in the Ad5 penton base (Ad5?RGD). However, each of these constructs contained a different transgene cassette, preventing the evaluation of the relative performance of these vectors, an important consideration before the use of these vectors in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate these vectors in the retina and to attempt photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Methods. Three Ad5-based vectors containing the same expression cassette were generated and injected into the subretinal space of adult mice. Eyes were analyzed for green fluorescence protein expression in flat-mounts, cross-sections, quantitative RT-PCR, and a modified stereological technique. A 257-bp fragment derived from the mouse opsin promoter was analyzed in the context of photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Results. Each virus tested efficiently transduced the retinal pigment epithelium. The authors found no evidence that Ad5/F35 or Ad5/F37 transduced photoreceptors. Instead, they found that Ad5/F37 transduced Müller cells. Robust photoreceptor transduction by Ad5?RGD was detected. Photoreceptor-specific transgene expression from the 257-bp mouse opsin promoter in the context of Ad5?RGD vectors was found. Conclusions. Adenovirus vectors may be designed with tropism to distinct cell populations. Robust photoreceptor-specific transgene expression can be achieved in the context of Ad5?RGD vectors. PMID:19892875

  19. Evolution of Mammalian Opn5 as a Specialized UV-absorbing Pigment by a Single Amino Acid Mutation*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yumoto, Akane; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Tomonari, Sayuri; Sakai, Kazumi; Fujita, Hirofumi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Noji, Sumihare; Nakamura, Katsuki; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Opn5 is one of the recently identified opsin groups that is responsible for nonvisual photoreception in animals. We previously showed that a chicken homolog of mammalian Opn5 (Opn5m) is a Gi-coupled UV sensor having molecular properties typical of bistable pigments. Here we demonstrated that mammalian Opn5m evolved to be a more specialized photosensor by losing one of the characteristics of bistable pigments, direct binding of all-trans-retinal. We first confirmed that Opn5m proteins in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis, mouse, and human are also UV-sensitive pigments. Then we found that only mammalian Opn5m proteins lack the ability to directly bind all-trans-retinal. Mutational analysis showed that these characteristics were acquired by a single amino acid replacement at position 168. By comparing the expression patterns of Opn5m between mammals and chicken, we found that, like chicken Opn5m, mammalian Opn5m was localized in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer of the retina. However, the mouse and primate (common marmoset) opsins were distributed not in the posterior hypothalamus (including the region along the third ventricle) where chicken Opn5m is localized, but in the preoptic hypothalamus. Interestingly, RPE65, an essential enzyme for forming 11-cis-retinal in the visual cycle is expressed near the preoptic hypothalamus of the mouse and common marmoset brain but not near the region of the chicken brain where chicken Opn5m is expressed. Therefore, mammalian Opn5m may work exclusively as a short wavelength sensor in the brain as well as in the retina with the assistance of an 11-cis-retinal-supplying system. PMID:24403072

  20. Effects of different colors of light on melatonin suppression and expression analysis of Aanat1 and melanopsin in the eye of a tropical damselfish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Imamura, Satoshi; Sawada, Yuji; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-08-01

    Ocular melatonin production exhibits a daily rhythm with a decrease during photophase and an increase during scotophase (nocturnal pattern) in teleost fish due to day-night changes in the activity of the rate-limiting melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Acute light exposure during scotophase suppresses AANAT activity and melatonin production in the eyes, suggesting that external light signals are a principal regulator of ocular melatonin synthesis. To better understand the photic regulation of ocular melatonin synthesis in teleost fish, this study sought to characterize the effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis in the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, which shows a nocturnal pattern and light-induced inhibition of ocular melatonin production during scotophase. Exposure to three different wavelengths of light (half-peak bandwidth=435-475 nm with a peak of 455 nm, 495-565 nm with a peak of 530 nm, and 607-647 nm with a peak of 627 nm for the blue, green, and red LEDs) for 2h during scotophase resulted in the blue wavelength significantly decreasing ocular melatonin content within 30 min after light exposure. This result clearly indicates that the effective range of visible light on ocular melatonin suppression is distributed within the wavelengths of blue light and that a blue light-sensitive opsin is involved in ocular melatonin suppression in the fish. A PCR-based cloning method revealed the expression of melanopsin, a putative blue light-sensitive nonvisual opsin, in the eyes. Furthermore, in situ hybridization using the sapphire devil Aanat1 and melanopsin RNA probes showed mRNA expressions of both genes in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer of the fish retina. These results suggest that melanopsin is a possible candidate photoreceptor involved in ocular melatonin suppression by an external light signal in the sapphire devil. PMID:24859252

  1. Investigating local and long-range neuronal network dynamics by simultaneous optogenetics, reverse microdialysis and silicon probe recordings in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hannah; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Çarçak, Nihan; Onat, Filiz; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Lambert, Régis; Leresche, Nathalie; Crunelli, Vincenzo; David, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Background The advent of optogenetics has given neuroscientists the opportunity to excite or inhibit neuronal population activity with high temporal resolution and cellular selectivity. Thus, when combined with recordings of neuronal ensemble activity in freely moving animals optogenetics can provide an unprecedented snapshot of the contribution of neuronal assemblies to (patho)physiological conditions in vivo. Still, the combination of optogenetic and silicone probe (or tetrode) recordings does not allow investigation of the role played by voltage- and transmitter-gated channels of the opsin-transfected neurons and/or other adjacent neurons in controlling neuronal activity. New method and results We demonstrate that optogenetics and silicone probe recordings can be combined with intracerebral reverse microdialysis for the long-term delivery of neuroactive drugs around the optic fiber and silicone probe. In particular, we show the effect of antagonists of T-type Ca2+ channels, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and metabotropic glutamate receptors on silicone probe-recorded activity of the local opsin-transfected neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus, and demonstrate the changes that the block of these thalamic channels/receptors brings about in the network dynamics of distant somatotopic cortical neuronal ensembles. Comparison with existing methods This is the first demonstration of successfully combining optogenetics and neuronal ensemble recordings with reverse microdialysis. This combination of techniques overcomes some of the disadvantages that are associated with the use of intracerebral injection of a drug-containing solution at the site of laser activation. Conclusions The combination of reverse microdialysis, silicone probe recordings and optogenetics can unravel the short and long-term effects of specific transmitter- and voltage-gated channels on laser-modulated firing at the site of optogenetic stimulation and the actions that these manipulations exert on distant neuronal populations. PMID:25004203

  2. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex. PMID:22024316

  3. Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

    2007-01-01

    Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (?max values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrophotometry on the eyes of five Limenitis butterfly species and found a 31-nm range of variation in the ?max values of the L-sensitive photopigments (514–545 nm). We cloned partial Limenitis L opsin gene sequences and found a significant excess of replacement substitutions relative to polymorphisms among species. Mapping of these L photopigment ?max values onto a phylogeny revealed two instances within Lepidoptera of convergently evolved L photopigment lineages whose ?max values were blue-shifted. A codon-based maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that, associated with the two blue spectral shifts, four amino acid sites (Ile17Met, Ala64Ser, Asn70Ser, and Ser137Ala) have evolved substitutions in parallel and exhibit significant dN/dS >1. Homology modeling of the full-length Limenitis arthemis astyanax L opsin placed all four substitutions within the chromophore-binding pocket. Strikingly, the Ser137Ala substitution is in the same position as a site that in primates is responsible for a 5- to 7-nm blue spectral shift. Our data show that some of the same amino acid sites are under positive selection in the photopigments of both butterflies and primates, spanning an evolutionary distance >500 million years. PMID:17494749

  4. Time-resolved thermodynamic changes photoinduced in 5,12-trans-locked bacteriorhodopsin. Evidence that retinal isomerization is required for protein activation.

    PubMed

    Losi, A; Michler, I; Gärtner, W; Braslavsky, S E

    2000-11-01

    Structural volume changes upon excitation of isomerization-blocked 5,12-trans-locked bacteriorhodopsin (bR) (bacterio-opsin + 5-12-trans-locked retinal) were studied using photothermal methods. The very small prompt expansion detected using laser-induced optoacoustics (0.3 mL/mol of absorbed photons) is assigned to a charge reorganization in the chromophore protein pocket concomitant with the formation of the intermediate T5.12. The subsequent contraction associated with a 300 ns lifetime is assigned to protein movements required to reach the entire chromoprotein free energy minimum, after the 17 ps optical decay of T5.12. The volume changes comprise the entropy of medium rearrangement during T5.12 formation and decay. The slow changes detected in previous studies by atomic force microscopy might be explained by the slowing down of movements in films containing 5,12-trans-locked bR. Photothermal beam deflection data with the 5,12-trans-locked bR suspensions indicate no further changes in microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. Thus, all the absorbed energy is either released to the solution as heat or used for entropy changes within the first 300 ns after the pulse, supporting the paradigm that isomerization is required for signal transduction in retinal proteins. Bacterio-opsin assembled with all-trans-retinal afforded (similar to data reported with wild-type bR) an expansion of 2.6 mL/mol (assigned to the production of KE) followed by a further expansion of 0.8 mL/mol (KE-->KL; KE, KL, early and late K's) involving no heat loss. For KL decay to L, a contraction of 6 mL/mol of phototransformed reconstituted all-trans bR was determined. PMID:11107843

  5. Suppressing thyroid hormone signaling preserves cone photoreceptors in mouse models of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongwei; Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie; Redmond, T. Michael; Baehr, Wolfgang; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Cone phototransduction and survival of cones in the human macula is essential for color vision and for visual acuity. Progressive cone degeneration in age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and recessive cone dystrophies is a major cause of blindness. Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, which regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, plays a central role in cone opsin expression and patterning in the retina. Here, we investigated whether TH signaling affects cone viability in inherited retinal degeneration mouse models. Retinol isomerase RPE65-deficient mice [a model of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with rapid cone loss] and cone photoreceptor function loss type 1 mice (severe recessive achromatopsia) were used to determine whether suppressing TH signaling with antithyroid treatment reduces cone death. Further, cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel B subunit-deficient mice (moderate achromatopsia) and guanylate cyclase 2e-deficient mice (LCA with slower cone loss) were used to determine whether triiodothyronine (T3) treatment (stimulating TH signaling) causes deterioration of cones. We found that cone density in retinol isomerase RPE65-deficient and cone photoreceptor function loss type 1 mice increased about sixfold following antithyroid treatment. Cone density in cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel B subunit-deficient and guanylate cyclase 2e-deficient mice decreased about 40% following T3 treatment. The effect of TH signaling on cone viability appears to be independent of its regulation on cone opsin expression. This work demonstrates that suppressing TH signaling in retina dystrophy mouse models is protective of cones, providing insights into cone preservation and therapeutic interventions. PMID:24550448

  6. HEK293S Cells Have Functional Retinoid Processing Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopsin activation is measured by the early receptor current (ERC), a conformation-associated charge motion, in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293S) expressing opsins. After rhodopsin bleaching in cells loaded with 11-cis-retinal, ERC signals recover in minutes and recurrently over a period of hours by simple dark adaptation, with no added chromophore. The purpose of this study is to investigate the source of ERC signal recovery in these cells. Giant HEK293S cells expressing normal wild-type (WT)-human rod opsin (HEK293S) were regenerated by solubilized 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinal, or Vitamin A in darkness. ERCs were elicited by flash photolysis and measured by whole-cell recording. Visible flashes initially elicit bimodal (R1, R2) ERC signals in WT-HEK293S cells loaded with 11-cis-retinal for 40 min or overnight. In contrast, cells regenerated for 40 min with all-trans-retinal or Vitamin A had negative ERCs (R1-like) or none at all. After these were placed in the dark overnight, ERCs with outward R2 signals were recorded the following day. This indicates conversion of loaded Vitamin A or all-trans-retinal into cis-retinaldehyde that regenerated ground-state pigment. 4-butylaniline, an inhibitor of the mammalian retinoid cycle, reversibly suppressed recovery of the outward R2 component from Vitamin A and 11-cis-retinal–loaded cells. These physiological findings are evidence for the presence of intrinsic retinoid processing machinery in WT-HEK293S cells similar to what occurs in the mammalian eye. PMID:12034766

  7. Signals for the incorporation and orientation of cytochrome P450 in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Cytochrome P450b is an integral membrane protein of the rat hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which is cotranslationally inserted into the membrane but remains largely exposed on its cytoplasmic surface. The extreme hydrophobicity of the amino-terminal portion of P450b suggests that it not only serves to initiate the cotranslational insertion of the nascent polypeptide but that it also halts translocation of downstream portions into the lumen of the ER and anchors the mature protein in the membrane. In an in vitro system, we studied the cotranslational insertion into ER membranes of the normal P450b polypeptide and of various deletion variants and chimeric proteins that contain portion of P450b linked to segments of pregrowth hormone or bovine opsin. The results directly established that the amino-terminal 20 residues of P450b function as a combined insertion-halt-transfer signal. Evidence was also obtained that suggests that during the early stages of insertion, this signal enters the membrane in a loop configuration since, when the amino-terminal hydrophobic segment was placed immediately before a signal peptide cleavage site, cleavage by the luminally located signal peptidase took place. After entering the membrane, the P450b signal, however, appeared to be capable of reorienting within the membrane since a bovine opsin peptide segment linked to the amino terminus of the signal became translocated into the microsomal lumen. It was also found that, in addition to the amino- terminal combined insertion-halt-transfer signal, only one other segment within the P450b polypeptide, located between residues 167 and 185, could serve as a halt-transfer signal and membrane-anchoring domain. This segment was shown to prevent translocation of downstream sequences when the amino-terminal combined signal was replaced by the conventional cleavable insertion signal of a secretory protein. PMID:3047140

  8. Identification of the 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in retinal Müller cells as multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT)

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Cook, Jeremy D.; Makshanoff, Jacob; Bischoff, Nicholas; Yong, Jennifer; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of a photon by a rhodopsin or cone-opsin pigment isomerizes its 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11-cis-RAL) chromophore to all-trans-retinaldehyde (all-trans-RAL), which dissociates after a brief period of activation. Light sensitivity is restored to the resulting apo-opsin when it recombines with another 11-cis-RAL. Conversion of all-trans-RAL to 11-cis-RAL is carried out by an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium. A second visual cycle is present in Müller cells of the retina. The retinol isomerase for this noncanonical pathway is dihydroceramide desaturase (DES1), which catalyzes equilibrium isomerization of retinol. Because 11-cis-retinol (11-cis-ROL) constitutes only a small fraction of total retinols in an equilibrium mixture, a subsequent step involving selective removal of 11-cis-ROL is required to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids for production of visual chromophore. Selective esterification of 11-cis-ROL is one possibility. Crude homogenates of chicken retinas rapidly convert all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-cis-REs) with minimal formation of other retinyl-ester isomers. This enzymatic activity implies the existence of an 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in Müller cells. Here, we evaluated multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT) as a candidate for this 11-cis-RE-synthase. MFAT exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency as a synthase of 11-cis-REs versus other retinyl-ester isomers. Further, we show that MFAT is expressed in Müller cells. Finally, homogenates of cells coexpressing DES1 and MFAT catalyzed the conversion of all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-RP, similar to what we observed with chicken-retina homogenates. MFAT is therefore an excellent candidate for the retinyl-ester synthase that cooperates with DES1 to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids by mass action. PMID:24799687

  9. Functional characterization of an arrestin gene on insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuous and excessive application of insecticides has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in several mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. Previous studies in our laboratory found that arrestin gene expression was higher in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain than in the deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. Similarly, other studies reported that arrestin was highly expressed in permethrin-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-resistant Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Full-length cDNAs of an arrestin gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The mRNA levels of the arrestin gene in the whole life cycle of DR and DS strains of Cx. pipiens pallens were investigated via quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the relationship between arrestin and deltamethrin (DM) resistance were identified using genetic overexpression strategies and arrestin RNAi in mosquito cells. Cell viability was analyzed with cholecystokinin octapeptide after DM treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 6A1 (CYP6A1) and opsin in the transfected cells and controls were analyzed. Results Complete arrestin gene sequence was cloned and expressed throughout the life cycle of Cx. pipiens pallens. Moreover, arrestin was significantly upregulated in the DR strain, compared with that in the DS strain at the egg, pupae, and adult stages. Arrestin overexpression comparably increased the mosquito cell viability, whereas arrestin knockdown by siRNA decreased mosquito cell viability with deltamethrin (DM) treatment. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of CYP6A1 and opsin were upregulated in mosquito cells transfected with arrestin and downregulated in mosquito cells with arrestin knockdown. Conclusion This study presented the first evidence that arrestin might be associated with insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22768923

  10. Optogenetic Evidence That Pallidal Projections, Not Nigral Projections, from the Nucleus Accumbens Core Are Necessary for Reinstating Cocaine Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, Michael T.; Kupchik, Yonatan M.; Brown, Robyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) contributes significantly to behavioral responses following motivationally relevant stimuli, including drug-induced, stress-induced, and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Projections from NAcore that could carry information necessary to initiate reinstated cocaine seeking include outputs via the indirect pathway to the dorsolateral subcompartment of the ventral pallidum (dlVP) and through the direct pathway to the medial substantia nigra (SN). Here we used an optogenetic strategy to determine whether the dlVP or nigral projections from the NAcore are necessary for cocaine seeking initiated by a cocaine and conditioned cue combination in rats extinguished from cocaine self-administration. Rats were pretreated in the NAcore with an adeno-associated virus expressing the inhibitory opsin archaerhodopsin, and fiber-optic cannulae were implanted above the indirect pathway axon terminal field in the dlVP, or the direct pathway terminal field in the SN. Inhibiting the indirect pathway to the dlVP, but not the direct pathway to the SN, prevented cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement. We also examined projections back to the NAcore from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dlVP. Inhibiting the dlVP to NAcore projection did not alter, while inhibiting VTA afferents abolished reinstated cocaine seeking. Localization of green fluorescent protein reporter expression and whole-cell patch electrophysiology were used to verify opsin expression. These data reveal a circuit involving activation of VTA inputs to the NAcore and NAcore projections through the indirect pathway to the dlVP as critical for cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. PMID:23966687

  11. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance in the nuclear region is expected to be approximately 10(exp -5), characteristic of X-ray dominated regions.

  12. Visual ecology of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri)

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathan S; Bailes, Helena J; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2008-01-01

    Background The transition from water to land was a key event in the evolution of vertebrates that occurred over a period of 15–20 million years towards the end of the Devonian. Tetrapods, including all land-living vertebrates, are thought to have evolved from lobe-finned (sarcopterygian) fish that developed adaptations for an amphibious existence. However, while many of the biomechanical and physiological modifications necessary to achieve this feat have been studied in detail, little is known about the sensory adaptations accompanying this transition. In this study, we investigated the visual system and visual ecology of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the most primitive of all the lungfish and possibly the closest living relative to the ancestors of tetrapods. Results Juvenile Neoceratodus have five spectrally distinct retinal visual pigments. A single type of rod photoreceptor contains a visual pigment with a wavelength of maximum absorbance (?max) at 540 nm. Four spectrally distinct single cone photoreceptors contain visual pigments with ?max at 366 (UVS), 479 (SWS), 558 (MWS) and 623 nm (LWS). No double cones were found. Adult lungfish do not possess UVS cones and, unlike juveniles, have ocular media that prevent ultraviolet light from reaching the retina. Yellow ellipsoidal/paraboloidal pigments in the MWS cones and red oil droplets in the LWS cones narrow the spectral sensitivity functions of these photoreceptors and shift their peak sensitivity to 584 nm and 656 nm, respectively. Modelling of the effects of these intracellular spectral filters on the photoreceptor colour space of Neoceratodus suggests that they enhance their ability to discriminate objects, such as plants and other lungfishes, on the basis of colour. Conclusion The presence of a complex colour vision system based on multiple cone types and intracellular spectral filters in lungfishes suggests that many of the ocular characteristics seen in terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, such as birds and turtles, may have evolved in shallow water prior to the transition onto land. Moreover, the benefits of spectral filters for colour discrimination apply equally to purely aquatic species as well as semi-aquatic and terrestrial animals. The visual system of the Australian lungfish resembles that of terrestrial vertebrates far more closely than that of other sarcopterygian fish. This supports the idea that lungfishes, and not the coelacanth, are the closest living relatives of the ancestors of tetrapods. PMID:19091135

  13. Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Armstrong, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed.

  14. Variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Pugh, E N

    1977-01-01

    1. Eight deuteranopes matched a mixture of a monochromatic light on the long wave side of the neutral point and a violet (450 nm) primary to a fixed white as well as a monochromatic light on the short wave side of the neutral point mixed with a red (650 nm) primary, to the same white. For lambda greater than 530 nm, the former set of matches defined the action spectrum of the long wave sensitive foveal cones, and for lambda less than 480 nm, the latter that of the short wave sensitive cones. 2. Individual differences in the former matches were approximately correlated with the respective ratio of the sensitivities of the wave-length of the anomaloscope primaries, in a way that individual differences of the latter were not. 3. Assuming that eye media differences alone account for the differences in long wave sensitive foveal action spectra, the spectral reflectivity of the foveal fundus was predicted for these deuteranopes. The prediction is inconsistent with measurement. 4. Thirteen deuteranopes matched monochromatic spectral lights with a green (535 nm) and a blue (460 nm) primary. The result were analysed by von Kries' method in which differences in matching due to differences in eye media absorption are obviated. The matches of five differed significantly from one another when so analysed. It was concluded that at least one of two action spectra of the foveal cones of every one of these five differed from that of all of the others. 5. The canon that deuteranopes accept normal colour matches was evaluated by confronting a single normal with five deuternopes in the analytical anomaloscope of Baker & Rushton, set in the mode of each of the five in turn. Obvious differences existed between this normal's matches and those of four of five deuteranopes. 6. Explanations for differences in the spectrum of erythrolabe in different deuteranopes are evaluated. The possibilities that all have the identical visual pigment but (a) in cones with different optical funnelling properties or (b) in different optical densities are considered. Preliminary results are not in agreement with the expectations of either of these ideas. 7. It is suggested that the visual pigment in the foveal long wave sensitive cones of different deuternopes (and of different normals) may have different extinction spectra. The idea is consistent with micro-spectrophotometric measurements of rhodopsin in individual rods from different frogs (Bowmaker, Loew & Leibman, 1975). PMID:301186

  15. NIR and MIR spectroscopic study on the dust properties in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Joseph H.; Larkin, James

    Being a key ingredient in the standard model of AGN unification, dust in AGN makes its presence known by reprocessing the optical/UV lights in the infrared light. We report our recent near-infrared spectroscopy on a sample of Seyfert galaxies to measure reddening by dust toward the broad- and narrow-line regions. By comparing the line ratios of Pa? / Br? to case B conditions, we found a significant reddening toward the NLRs of Seyfert 2s. In Seyfert 1s, we, however, found little, if not at all, reddening toward both the NLRs and the BLRs implying intrinsic difference in dust properties between Seyfert types. We compare our results with recent optical data from the literature and find significant support for our findings. We will also present our new study of N-band spectroscopy on a sample of Seyfert galaxies using Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on 10-m Keck telescope. In this study we investigate another apparent difference in the dust properties among the different Seyfert types, especially the strength of silicate features at 9.7 micron, as well as a qualitative trend seen between the narrow-line reddening and the strength of the absorption feature in which more obscured objects have deeper silicate features.

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 genes in minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Y.G.; Yue, M.; Gu, Y.; Gu, W.W.; Wang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan (TB) and Bama (BM) miniature pigs are two popular pig breeds that are used as experimental animals in China due to their small body size. Here, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene fragments that are closely related to growth traits [growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1)] in these pig breeds and a large white (LW) control pig breed. On the basis of the analysis of 100 BMs, 108 TBs, and 50 LWs, the polymorphic distribution levels of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 were significantly different among these three pig breeds. According to correlation analyses between SNPs and five growth traits - body weight (BW), body length (BL), withers height (WH), chest circumference (CC), and abdomen circumference (AC) - three SNP loci in BMs and four SNP loci in TBs significantly affected growth traits. Three SNP sites in BMs and four SNP sites in TBs significantly affected growth traits. SNPs located in the GH gene fragment significantly affected BL and CC at locus 12 and BL at locus 45 in BMs, and also BW, WH, CC, and AC at locus 45 and WH and CC at locus 93 in TBs. One SNP at locus 85 in the BM GHR gene fragment significantly affected all growth traits. All indices were significantly reduced with a mixture of alleles at locus 85. These results provide more information regarding the genetic background of these minipig species and indicate useful selection markers for pig breeding programs. PMID:25098617

  17. Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples. PMID:24070624

  18. TOPLA: A New Empirical Representation of the F-Region Topside and Plasmasphere for the International Reference Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Gallagher, D.; Huang, X.; Truhlik, V.; Nsumei, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this LWS tools effort is the development of a new data-based F-region TOpside and PLAsmasphere (TOPLA) model for the electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) for inclusion in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model using newly available satellite data and models for these regions. The IRI model is the de facto international standard for specification of ionospheric parameters and is currently being considered as an ISO Technical Specification for the ionosphere. Our effort is directed towards improving the topside part of the model and extending it into the plasmasphere. Specifically we are planning to overcome the following shortcomings of the current IRI topside model: (I) overestimation of densities above 700 km by a factor of 2 and more, (3) unrealistically steep density profiles at high latitudes during very high solar activities, (4) no solar cycle variations and no semi-annual variations for the electron temperature, (5) discontinuities or unphysical gradients when merging with plasmaspheric models. We will report on first accomplishments and on the current status of the project.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compendium of ISO far-IR extragalactic data (Brauher+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauher, J. R.; Dale, D. A.; Helou, G.

    2009-07-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO, Kessler et al., 1996A&A...315L..27K). The galaxy sample includes normal star-forming systems, starbursts, and active galactic nuclei covering a wide range of colors and morphologies. The data set spans some 1300 line fluxes, 600 line upper limits, and 800 continuum fluxes. Several fine-structure emission lines are detected that arise in either photodissociation or HII regions: [OIII] 52um, [NIII] 57um, [OI] 63um, [OIII] 88um, [NII] 122um, [OI] 145um, and [CII] 158um. Molecular lines such as OH at 53, 79, 84, 119, and 163um, and H2O at 58, 66, 75, 101, and 108um are also detected in some galaxies. In addition to those lines emitted by the target galaxies, serendipitous detections of Milky Way [CII] 158um and an unidentified line near 74um in NGC 1068 are also reported. Finally, continuum fluxes at 52, 57, 63, 88, 122, 145, 158, and 170um are derived for a subset of galaxies in which the far-infrared emission is contained within the ~75" ISO LWS beam. The statistics of this large database of continuum and line fluxes, including trends in line ratios with the far-infrared color and infrared-to-optical ratio, are explored. (3 data files).

  20. Transforming Your ISO Data into Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buren, D.

    1997-12-01

    The primary data products returned to observers from ISO are complex, and with the exception of the browse level products, represent the instrumental point of view. Thus they contain references to detector numbers, pixel indices, and volts - far removed from the domain of astrophysics. To extract the most science these low level data must be transformed into representations describing wavelength, celestial position, and fluxes directly. Doing so requires understanding instrument specifics, removing instrument artefacts, and applying calibrations. At the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) we have amassed the expertise and tools to make data analysis as painless a process for the observer as possible. In this presentation I will show state-of-the art reduction techniques making use of the toolset available to ISO observers: high contrast and deep field imaging with ISOCAM, spectrometry with LWS and SWS, and mapping, spectrophotometry, and faint source detection with ISOPHOT. IPAC strives to serve the US infrared community in getting the most out of ISO. We provide observation planning and scheduling services, instrument support, value-added analysis software, data archival services, and training and consulting on reduction methodologies, IPAC is funded by a NASA contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology to support US astronomers making use of ESA's Infrared Space Observatory.

  1. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    E-print Network

    Neufeld, D A; Schilke, P; Phillips, T G; Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2 - 1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of 3E-10 relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for ~ 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously...

  2. The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows

    E-print Network

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

    2006-08-16

    We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

  3. Transition to Operations Support at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. This paper will focus on a status report on CCMC activities in support of model transition to operations at US space weather forecasting centers. In particular, an update will be given on past and present transition activities, on developments that address operational needs, and on future opportunities for transition-to-operations support.

  4. Space Weather Modeling Services at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the Rapid Prototyping Centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide a description of the current CCMC status, discuss current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and describe the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  5. Space Weather Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires dose collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide updates on CCMC status, on current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and on the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  6. Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Barnes, R.; Fox, N. J.; Fox, P. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Morrison, D.; Pallamraju, D.; Papitashvili, V.; Ridley, A.; Talaat, E. R.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose collective behavior determines the global system response. Continuing progress requires access to a vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualization. However, it also requires the development of new tools that bring these advances into contact with groups of interdisciplinary and international researchers so they can be used to attack grand challenge science issues in a manner not previously possible. This presentation describes the results of an eGY showcase project to develop a testbed online conference series for this purpose. The conference series is a collaborative effort between the CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS and NSF Atmospheric Sciences Programs. Lessons learned in developing this first interface, as well as a discussion of key elements and how they worked will be presented.

  7. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 genes in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y G; Yue, M; Gu, Y; Gu, W W; Wang, Y J

    2014-09-01

    Tibetan (TB) and Bama (BM) miniature pigs are two popular pig breeds that are used as experimental animals in China due to their small body size. Here, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene fragments that are closely related to growth traits [growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1)] in these pig breeds and a large white (LW) control pig breed. On the basis of the analysis of 100 BMs, 108 TBs, and 50 LWs, the polymorphic distribution levels of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 were significantly different among these three pig breeds. According to correlation analyses between SNPs and five growth traits--body weight (BW), body length (BL), withers height (WH), chest circumference (CC), and abdomen circumference (AC)--three SNP loci in BMs and four SNP loci in TBs significantly affected growth traits. Three SNP sites in BMs and four SNP sites in TBs significantly affected growth traits. SNPs located in the GH gene fragment significantly affected BL and CC at locus 12 and BL at locus 45 in BMs, and also BW, WH, CC, and AC at locus 45 and WH and CC at locus 93 in TBs. One SNP at locus 85 in the BM GHR gene fragment significantly affected all growth traits. All indices were significantly reduced with a mixture of alleles at locus 85. These results provide more information regarding the genetic background of these minipig species and indicate useful selection markers for pig breeding programs. PMID:25098617

  8. Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT) Herschel program first results. A full PACS-SED scan of the gas line emission in protostar DK Chamaeleontis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kempen, T. A.; Green, J. D.; Evans, N. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.; Merín, B.; Lee, J.-E.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bouwman, J.; Acke, B.; Adamkovics, M.; Augereau, J. C.; Bergin, E.; Blake, G. A.; Brown, J. M.; Carr, J. S.; Chen, J.-H.; Cieza, L.; Dominik, C.; Dullemond, C. P.; Dunham, M. M.; Glassgold, A.; Güdel, M.; Harvey, P. M.; Henning, Th.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jaffe, D.; Kim, H. J.; Knez, C.; Lacy, J. H.; Maret, S.; Meeus, G.; Meijerink, R.; Mulders, G. D.; Mundy, L.; Najita, J.; Olofsson, J.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Salyk, C.; Sturm, B.; Visser, R.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Waelkens, C.; Y?ld?z, U. A.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We aim to study the composition and energetics of the circumstellar material of DK Cha, an intermediate-mass star in transition from an embedded configuration to a star plus disk stage, during this pivotal stage of its evolution. Methods: Using the range scan mode of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory, we obtained a spectrum of DK Cha from 55 to 210 ?m as part of the DIGIT key program. Results: Almost 50 molecular and atomic lines were detected, many more than the 7 lines detected in ISO-LWS. Nearly the entire ladder of CO from J = 14-13 to 38-37 (Eu/k = 4080 K), water from levels as excited as JK_{-1K+1} = 707 (Eu/k = 843 K), and OH lines up to Eu/k = 290 K were detected. Conclusions: The continuum emission in our PACS SED scan matches the flux expected by a model consisting of a star, a surrounding disk of 0.03 M_?, and an envelope of a similar mass, supporting the suggestion that the object is emerging from its main accretion stage. Molecular, atomic, and ionic emission lines in the far-infrared reveal the outflow's influence on the envelope. The inferred hot gas may be photon-heated, but some emission may be caused by C-shocks in the walls of the outflow cavity. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  10. Application of Spherical Wavelets for Precise Geoid Determination and Ground Water Resources Assessment Based on GRACE in Eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei Joud, Mehdi; Ebrahimzadeh A., Vahid

    2013-04-01

    As the geoid is not static at all and it exhibits diverse fluctuations, the next generation geoid will be inevitably a space-time model which overcomes with the applications of satellite altimetry to resolve the geocenter and angular momentum variations of the earth. To exploit full applications of geodetic missions, there is an arising need to investigate various regularization methods due to different assimilation techniques. Determination of the geoid with a high accuracy is usually carried out by combining a global model with terrestrial gravity anomalies measured in the region of interest along with topographical corrections. Here we dig into the methods proposing spherical harmonic wavelets along with second generation non harmonic wavelets to convert the terrestrial and higher degrees GRACE data to improve two recent Iranian geoids- IRG04 and the other Molodenskey base released 2011- tested over 385 GPS/leveling points. Again all three models are used to derive LWS (Land Water Storage) monitored by monthly GRACE observations in the eastern side of Iran plateau which experienced different ground water management regimes.

  11. Mission Independent Analysis for Energetic Particle Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; Choo, T. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Decker, R. B.

    2002-12-01

    A software methodology is presented which enables a new level of interoperability between analysis tools and energetic particle data from multiple spacecraft . Based on PI team experience, a mission independent representation for the highest time resolution (sub-second) particle and field data has been created. Data in any format can be converted to this representation using a relatively thin software conversion layer. Analysis tools written to only rely on the mission independent representation will work with any instrument for which a converter can be written. Currently, three high-time resolution particle datasets that have never been available outside the instrument team (ISEE-1, ISEE-2, AMPTE/MEPA) can be instantantly analyzed or downloaded at our web site (http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/MIDL), and two more datasets (GEOTAIL, IMP-8) will be added by December. The LWS Science Data System Planning Team report encourages PI teams to develop tools which can support their own needs as well as distributing the highest time-resolution data to the community at large. Our approach fits well in this framework. Finally, an approach like ours could also help reduce the common duplication of effort in writing data access software for magnetospheric data.

  12. Manipulation of electrical flicker-noise and line narrowing in free-running quantum cascade-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanishi, Masamichi; Hirohata, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic linewidths of quantum-cascade lasers are found to be extremely narrow, ~100 Hz. However, the free running linewidths (usually ~1 MHz) of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by flicker frequency-noise that is identified to originate from electrical flicker-noise in the devices. Obviously, substantial suppression of the electrical flicker noise is required for substantial narrowing of free-running LWs. In this presentation, we show systematic experimental results of flicker voltage-noise power-spectral density obtained with mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers of designed positioning of impurities in injectors. The measured noise-levels depending strongly on impurity position as well as device-temperature are evaluated with an ad hoc model based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by trapping and de-trapping at impurity states in their injectors. It is shown that quasi-delta doping of impurities leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole-length at a certain temperature, for instance ~300 K and, in turn, is expected to narrow astonishingly the free-running line-width down below 10 kHz without assistances of any types of feedback schemes.

  13. Producing acoustic 'Frozen Waves': Simulated experiments with diffraction/attenuation resistant beams, in lossy media

    E-print Network

    Prego-Borges, Jose' L; Recami, Erasmo; Tavares-Costa, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have arisen significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction (self-healing) property, after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's; while the FWs, a sub-class of theirs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the field longitudinal intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0 < z < L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with frequency f_o = 1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present res...

  14. Technology Development Activities for the Space Environment and its Effects on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody; Barth, Janet; LaBel, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how emerging microelectronics will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and shrinking microelectronics behind less shielding and the potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will describe the relationship between the Living With a Star (LWS): Space Environment Testbeds (SET) Project and NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program and their technology development activities funded as a result from the recent SEE Program's NASA Research Announcement.

  15. Work plan for denaturing waste in the Old Hydrofracture Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is managing a project to remove the contents of the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Tanks, located in Melton Valley. CDM Federal is responsible for sluicing the sludge and supernate from the OHF Tanks and transferring the slurry into the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), ORNL`s active liquid low-level waste system. Before the material can be sluiced to the MVSTs, it must meet the requirements of WM-LWS-WAC, Waste Acceptance Criteria for Liquid Low-Level Waste System, Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544, and Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3608, which contains requirements for ratios of fissile to nonfissionable isotopes. Because the sludge and supernate contain uranium with increased ratios of U-233 and U-235 to U-238, depleted uranium must be added to the tanks to dilute the isotopic ratio of the contents before they can be sluiced. This work plan describes the denaturing activities, namely adding depleted uranyl nitrate solution, to be performed to ensure that the material meets requirements. Personnel from the ORNL Chemical Technology Division are responsible for the denaturing activity described in this work plan.

  16. The importance of ultraviolet and near-infrared sensitivity for visual discrimination in two species of lacertid lizards.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mélissa; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine; Loew, Ellis R

    2015-02-01

    Male and female Lacertid lizards often display conspicuous coloration that is involved in intraspecific communication. However, visual systems of Lacertidae have rarely been studied and the spectral sensitivity of their retinal photoreceptors remains unknown. Here, we characterise the spectral sensitivity of two Lacertid species from contrasting habitats: the wall lizard Podarcis muralis and the common lizard Zootoca vivipara. Both species possess a pure-cone retina with one spectral class of double cones and four spectral classes of single cones. The two species differ in the spectral sensitivity of the LWS cones, the relative abundance of UVS single cones (potentially more abundant in Z. vivipara) and the coloration of oil droplets. Wall lizards have pure vitamin A1-based photopigments, whereas common lizards possess mixed vitamin A1 and A2 photopigments, extending spectral sensitivity into the near infrared, which is a rare feature in terrestrial vertebrates. We found that spectral sensitivity in the UV and near infrared improves discrimination of small variations in throat coloration among Z. vivipara. Thus, retinal specialisations optimise chromatic resolution in common lizards, indicating that the visual system and visual signals might co-evolve. PMID:25524990

  17. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra.

    PubMed

    Emerling, Christopher A; Springer, Mark S

    2015-02-01

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution. PMID:25540280

  18. Living with a Star: Opportunities for Geospace Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, B.; St. Cyr, C.; Mauk, B.; Zanetti, L.; Guhathakurta, M.

    2003-12-01

    In a report released in September of 2002, a NASA appointed panel presented recommendations for the science and implementation goals for the Geospace Project of the Living with a Star (LWS) Program. The primary objective of the project is to: Understand and characterize the effect of solar variability on those geospace phenomena that most affect life and society. The purpose of this presentation is to present to the Sun-Earth Connections science community the framework of the Geospace Missions as NASA plans to implement them, to solicit comments and suggestions from the community, and to provide information on the plans for, and opportunities for participation in, the Geospace element of Living With a Star. NASA plans to deploy a focused set of small spacecraft, instruments on missions of opportunity, collaborations with other programs, and related theory, modeling and data mining activities. The spacecraft would be launched in 2008 and 2010 and would perform sets of inner magnetospheric and ionospheric observations over the next solar maximum when the Earth's near space environment will be most disturbed. Discussion emphasis will be placed upon the measurement requirements and mission characteristics.

  19. Understanding the Evolution of the July 23, 2012 Extreme ICME: Global Modeling and Comparison with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, P.; Ben-Nun, M.; Lionello, R.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.; Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.

    2013-12-01

    The July 23, 2012 ICME, which was observed by STEREO A at 1 AU, had an estimated transit speed of ~2800 km/s, a maximum magnetic field strength of ~110 nT, and an intense flux of energetic particles, making it one of the most impressive extreme ejecta observed by in-situ spacecraft. If its path had crossed Earth, it would likely have had severe space weather consequences. In this presentation, we investigate the dynamical evolution of the ejecta from the Sun to 1 AU and its impact on energetic particle fluxes. Using a global time-dependent MHD