Sample records for wax moth larvae

  1. Efficiency of bacteriophage therapy against Cronobacter sakazakii in Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) larvae.

    PubMed

    Abbasifar, Reza; Kropinski, Andrew M; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; MacKinnon, Joanne; Malig, Thomas; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen found in milk-based powdered infant formulae, has been linked to meningitis in infants, with high fatality rates. A set of phages from various environments were purified and tested in vitro against strains of C. sakazakii. Based on host range and lytic activity, the T4-like phage vB_CsaM_GAP161, which belongs to the family Myoviridae, was selected for evaluation of its efficacy against C. sakazakii. Galleria mellonella larvae were used as a whole-animal model for pre-clinical testing of phage efficiency. Twenty-one Cronobacter strains were evaluated for lethality in G. mellonella larvae. Different strains of C. sakazakii caused 0 to 98% mortality. C. sakazakii 3253, with an LD50 dose of ~2.0×10(5) CFU/larva (24 h, 37 °C) was selected for this study. Larvae infected with a dose of 5×LD50 were treated with phage GAP161 (MOI=8) at various time intervals. The mortality rates were as high as 100% in the groups injected with bacteria only, compared to 16.6% in the group infected with bacteria and treated with phage. Phage GAP161 showed the best protective activity against C. sakazakii when the larvae were treated prior to or immediately after infection. The results obtained with heat-inactivated phage proved that the survival of the larvae is not due to host immune stimulation. These results suggest that phage GAP161 is potentially a useful control agent against C. sakazakii. In addition, G. mellonella may be a useful whole-animal model for pre-screening phages for efficacy and safety prior to clinical evaluation in mammalian models. PMID:24705602

  2. CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    valine and D serine reduced potency, while sulphamethizole, sulfisoxazole, EDTA, polymyxin, guanosine-serotype V (B.t.V), prevent wax moth larvae damaging beecomb formed from treated beeswax foundation (JOHANSEN, 1962; BURGES and BAILEY, 1968). BURGES (1976b) found that the potency of B.t.V deteriorated before

  3. Expression of larval hemolymph proteins (Lhp) genes and protein synthesis in the fat body of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae during diapause.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, J; Kludkiewicz, B; Grzelak, K; Cymborowski, B x.

    2001-07-01

    When one-day-old, last instar Galleria mellonella larvae are exposed to 18 degrees C they enter diapause and cease further development for several months. During diapause a group of proteins (72-84 kDa) synthesized in the fat body and secreted into the hemolymph is markedly elevated. Partial sequencing of the N-terminus of two proteins from this group confirmed their identity with larval hemolymph proteins (LHP) belonging to the family of hexameric storage proteins. The expression of two Lhp genes of known sequence (Lhp76 and Lhp82) were monitored in both diapausing and non-diapausing individuals. The expression of both genes and subsequent synthesis of the proteins (LHP76 and LHP82) is maintained until at least 90-100 days of diapause. PMID:11356423

  4. Temperature-dependent regulatory mechanism of larval development of the wax moth (Galleria mellonella).

    PubMed

    Cymborowski, B

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying larval diapause in the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) is one of the most throughly studied aspects. At the low temperature of 18 degrees C, the last instar larvae did not pupate but transferred to 30 degrees C they initiated development and pupation in a circadian manner. Different types of surgical manipulations including head-ligation, nerve cord-severance, implantation of the brain, prothoracic glands, accompanied with ecdysteroid titre measurements indicated that diapausing arrest of larval development at 18 degrees C might be due to the nervous inhibition of their prothoracic glands. PMID:10961696

  5. Monoterpenes and epicuticular waxes help female autumn gum moth differentiate between waxy and glossy Eucalyptus and leaves of different ages.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Martin J; Schiestl, Florian P; Davies, Noel W

    2004-06-01

    The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata, is a native Australian species whose preferred host, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), is an aromatic evergreen tree that has long-lived waxy leaves during the juvenile phase of growth. We compared the behavioral and antennal responses of female moths to whole leaves (new and old) and samples of foliar chemicals (from new and old leaves) from a typical E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus with responses to a glossy, half-sibling E. g. subsp. pseudoglobulus putative hybrid (the result of natural cross-pollination). We also studied larval survival and development on leaves from the same trees. In laboratory binary-choice assays, female M. privata laid more eggs on waxy leaves than on glossy leaves thereby confirming the nonpreference for the glossy tree that was observed in the field. Analyses of the monoterpenes and waxes of both trees revealed that they had comparable suites of monoterpenes and total oil contents but different suites of epicuticular waxes. Headspace extracts differed in the intensity of component monoterpenes. Gas chromatographic analyses with electroantennographic detection showed different patterns of monoterpene detection. Leaves of the glossy tree had a less diverse array of epicuticular waxes than those of the waxy tree. Electroantennographic screening of responses to wax extracts from leaves (new and old) from either tree revealed positive dose-dependent responses of female antennae to waxes from new leaves only. Binary-choice assays also revealed a strong preference by ovipositing females for new, compared to old, leaves whether they were from the waxy or the glossy tree. However, new leaves from either tree could be manipulated (by physical abrasion of epicuticular waxes) so that females would lay almost no eggs on them. Larval survival did not differ between groups reared on leaves from both trees (new and old). Over 70% of all larvae survived to pupation. However, larvae reared on leaves from the glossy tree took longer to pupate than those reared on leaves from the waxy tree. Also, larvae reared on new leaves from either tree did not perform as well as those reared on old leaves. Monoterpene and wax cues are suggested as helping female M. privata locate preferred hosts in native forests. PMID:15303318

  6. [An effect of the microsporidian Vairimorpha ephestiae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae) on activity and spectrum of nonspecific esterases in different tissues of the greater wax moth galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Ia L; Ershov, N I; Glupov, V V

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the microsporidian Vairimorpha ephestiae Matted (Microsporidia: Burenellidae) on nonspecific esterases was studied in hemolymph, fat body and midgut of the larvae of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Esterase patterns were analyzed by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the total esterase activity was detected spectrophotometrically. The increase of total esterase activity was registered in hemolymph of inflected larvae. An overexpression of esterase isozyme in hemolymph was already detected at the 3rd day post infection. No changes in esterases pattern were observed in the fat body's homogenates of the G. mellonella larvae possessing the symptoms of microsporidiosis. The degradation of esterase isozymes and the decrease of total esterase activity in the pattern of the midgut homogenates of infected larvae were registered during parasite sporogony. The greatest esterase activity in hemolymph and midgut tissues was registered during vegetative reproduction of parasite, but the least level of esterase activity was observed during mass sporogony of microsporidia. PMID:16579033

  7. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  8. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenesis by infection of the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2013-10-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

  9. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  11. Female greater wax moths reduce sexual display behavior in relation to the potential risk of predation by echolocating bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Jones; Anna Barabas; Wendy Elliott; Stuart Parsons

    2002-01-01

    Female greater wax moths Galleria mellonella display by wing fanning in response to bursts of ultrasonic calls produced by males. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these calls show some similarities with the echolocation calls of bats that emit frequency-modulated (FM) signals. Female G. mellonella therefore need to distinguish between the attractive signals of male conspecifics, which may lead to

  12. HYDROPRENE PROLONGS DEVELOPMENT TIME AND INCREASES MORTALITY IN WANDERING-PHASE INDIANMEAL MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wandering-phase Indianmeal moth larvae, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 X 10-3 mg[AI]/ cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32ºC and 57% relative humidity ...

  13. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  14. Evidence for oil-induced oxidative stress to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Taverner, Peter D; Bailey, Peter T; Roush, Richard T

    2002-04-01

    For the purpose of understanding better the mode of action of alkanes on insects, the relationship between mortality, weight loss in oxygen enriched atmospheres and dietary antioxidants was examined using an alkane, C15 Ampol CPD and a spray oil, C23 DC-Tron NR, on lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker, (LBAM). The results showed that the surfactant blend used in CPD was an insignificant contributor to the overall toxicity of dilute oil/water emulsions. Higher weight loss occurred in CPD-dipped larvae than C23 DC-Tron NR-dipped larvae, which suggests that alkanes disrupt tracheal waxes and render insects more prone to desiccation. High levels of oxygen increased the toxicity of CPD to LBAM larvae. In addition, dietary supplements of anti-oxidant, alpha-tocopherol, fed to LBAM larvae were successful in reducing the toxicity of CPD. These results suggest that the alkane may contribute to oxidative injury. The potential role of oil-induced oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxicity in insects is discussed. PMID:11975180

  15. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25509049

  16. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    Dubovskiy, I M; Yaroslavtseva, O N; Kryukov, V Yu; Benkovskaya, G V; Glupov, V V

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25490848

  17. Host acceptance behaviour of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus: larvae and adults use different stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Roessingh; Katja H. Hora; S. Ying Fung; Anja Peltenburg; Steph B. J. Menken

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   The sugar alcohol dulcitol is a strong feeding stimulant for larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that dulcitol also acts as an oviposition stimulant for this species. We found that\\u000a the sugar-alcohol dulcitol was present on the surface of the host Euonymus europaeus. We also showed that (as yet unidentified

  18. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  19. Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  20. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  1. Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images PMID:16345660

  2. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  3. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  5. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

  6. Semiochemical-Mediated Location of Host Habitat by Apanteles carpatus (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Clothes Moth Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Takács; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries

    1997-01-01

    In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, adult Apanteles carpatus (Say), were attracted to beaver or rabbit pelts infested with larvae of the casemaking clothes moth (CCM)Tinea pellionella L. Porapak Q-captured volatiles from a CCM-infested beaver pelt were also very attractive, whereas isolated CCM larvae or larval feces were not. Coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis of the Porapak Q volatile extract revealed

  7. Effects of two kinds of transgenic poplar on protective enzymes system in the midgut of larvae of American white moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Shuang-yang; Li Huai-ye; Li Xue-feng; Zhang Zhi-yi

    2001-01-01

    The leaves of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) transgenic poplar (Populus nigra L.) and CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) transgenic poplar ((P. tomentosa×P. bolleana)×P. Tomentosa) were taken to feed the 4th-5th-instar larvae of American white moth (Hyphantria cunea (Drury)) for determination of the activities of the protective enzyme system inside larvae's body. The physiological and\\u000a biochemical effects of the transgenic poplars on the

  8. Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Vlahovi?, Milena; Lazarevi?, Jelica; Peri?-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdakovi?, Marija

    2009-05-01

    Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1)=10microg and Cd(2)=30microg Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker. PMID:18472163

  9. Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Izadi, H

    2014-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found to be a chill-intolerant insect. PMID:24819226

  10. A Histological Procedure to Study Fungal Infection in the Wax Moth Galleria Mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Perdoni, F.; Falleni, M.; Tosi, D.; Cirasola, D.; Romagnoli, S.; Braidotti, P.; Clementi, E.; Bulfamante, G.

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

  11. The effect of Habrobracon hebetor venom on the activity of the prophenoloxidase system, the generation of reactive oxygen species and encapsulation in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Kryukova, N A; Dubovskiy, I M; Chertkova, E A; Vorontsova, Ya L; Slepneva, I A; Glupov, V V

    2011-06-01

    The cellular and humoral immune reactions in haemolymph of the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae naturally injected by venom of ectoparasitic wasp Habrobracon hebetor were analyzed. A strong decline of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the haemolymph and the number of haemocytes with PO activity of envenomated wax moth was observed. In addition, it has been shown that the rate of capsule melanization in the envenomated larvae was half that of the control. Also production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the haemolymph of envenomated larvae decreased. The obtained data casts light on the suppression of the main immune reactions in G. mellonella larvae during natural envenomation by H. hebetor. PMID:21419772

  12. Differences in Host Use Efficiency of Larvae of a Generalist Moth, Operophtera brumata on Three Chemically Divergent Salix Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Ruuhola; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Jorma Tahvanainen

    2001-01-01

    The food selection, growth, and fecundity of insect herbivores are largely dictated by the chemical composition and nutritive values of plant foliage. We studied the host-use efficiency of larvae of the generalist moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on three chemically divergent but nutritively similar willows (Salix spp.). The 4th instars were able to use the salicylate-free leaves of S. phylicifolia

  13. Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    E-print Network

    Magaro, Jude Joseph

    1994-01-01

    TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1994 Major Subject: Entomology TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR...

  14. The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonnie D. C. Shields; Kristen P. Smith; Nicole S. Arnold; Ineta M. Gordon; Taharah E. Shaw; Danielle Waranch

    2008-01-01

    Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine)\\u000a were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the\\u000a ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to

  15. Purification and characterization of glycogen phosphorylase A and B from the freeze-avoiding gall moth larvae Epiblema scudderiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Holden; K. B. Storey

    1993-01-01

    The active a and inactive b forms of glycogen phosphorylase from cold-hardy larvae of the gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, were purified using DEAE+ ion exchange and 3'-5'-AMP-agarose affinity chromatography. Maximum activities for glycogen phosphorylases a and b were 6.3±0.74 and 2.7±0.87 µmol glucose-1-P·min-1·g wet weight-1, respectively, in -4°C-acclimated larvae. Final specific activities of the purified enzymes were 396 and 82

  16. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

  17. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

  18. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

  19. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS AND WAX ESTERS OF THE ECTOPARASITOID HABROBRACON HEBETOR: ONTOGENETIC, REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrocarbon and wax ester components of the cuticular lipids of the braconid parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say reared at 25°C on larvae of a pyralid moth have been identified by GC-MS and analyzed with respect to adult age, mating status, and diet. The hydrocarbons range in carbon number from C21 t...

  20. Differences in host use efficiency of larvae of a generalist moth, Operophtera brumata on three chemically divergent Salix species.

    PubMed

    Ruuhola, T; Tikkanen, O P; Tahvanainen, J

    2001-08-01

    The food selection, growth, and fecundity of insect herbivores are largely dictated by the chemical composition and nutritive values of plant foliage. We studied the host-use efficiency of larvae of the generalist moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on three chemically divergent but nutritively similar willows (Salix spp.). The 4th instars were able to use the salicylate-free leaves of S. phylicifolia efficiently. Growth was slightly reduced on S. pentandra, which contained a moderate level of acetylated salicylates. The high concentration of salicylates found in the leaves of S. myrsinifolia seemed to provide efficient protection against non-specialized O. brumata. We also studied assimilation of nutrients and degradation of salicylates and other secondary compounds in the digestive tract of O. brumata larvae. Neither the assimilation of nitrogen nor of carbon were affected by secondary chemicals of ingested food. Salicylates were shown to be degraded to salicin and catechol, while further degradation of salicin to saligenin was rather slow. In an artificial diet experiment, we showed that two degradation products of salicylates, catechol and saligenin markedly reduced the growth of the larvae. Neither salicin nor chlorogenic acid affected larval growth. We conclude that salicylates reduced the growth of the generalist winter moth mainly by feeding deterrence caused by 6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone and catechol. Compared to the deleterious effects of salicylates the effects of other secondary compounds were minor. PMID:11521399

  1. Leaf Surface Lipophilic Compounds as One of the Factors of Silver Birch Chemical Defense against Larvae of Gypsy Moth

    PubMed Central

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V.; Pavlushin, Sergey V.; Dubovskiy, Ivan M.; Belousova, Irina A.; Yushkova, Yuliya V.; Morosov, Sergey V.; Chernyak, Elena I.; Glupov, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females’ pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  2. Leaf Surface Lipophilic Compounds as One of the Factors of Silver Birch Chemical Defense against Larvae of Gypsy Moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  3. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  4. Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and other pome fruit worldwide. In temperate climate, diapausing cocooned larvae make up 100% of the population. Control of this stage would reduce or eliminate damage by first generation CM in late spring and early summer. Ento...

  5. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  6. EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the developm...

  7. EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the devel...

  8. Eicosanoids mediate melantoic nodulation reactions to viral infection in larvae of the parasitic wasp, Pimpla turionellae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

  9. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

    2009-10-20

    The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

  10. The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Vonnie D.C.; Smith, Kristen P.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Gordon, Ineta M.; Shaw, Taharah E.; Waranch, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine) were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to disks cut from red oak leaves (Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by larvae of this polyphagous insect species. We used two-choice feeding bioassays to test a broad range of biologically relevant alkaloid concentrations spanning five logarithmetic steps. We observed increasing feeding deterrent responses for all the alkaloids tested and found that the alkaloids tested exhibited different deterrency threshold concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 10 mM. In conclusion, it appears that this generalist insect species bears a relatively high sensitivity to these alkaloids, which confirms behavioral observations that it avoids foliage containing alkaloids. Berberine and aristolochic acid were found to have the lowest ED50 values and were the most potent antifeedants. PMID:21278814

  11. Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  12. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, V; Podgwaite, J D; Zerillo, R; Taylor, P; Fuester, R

    2013-10-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an injection of calyx-derived extract. LdMNPV was delivered per os, integrated into artificial diet. Mortality from all sources was recorded over the subsequent three-week period. Neither parasitism nor injections of purified CmeBV with toxin had any effect on the amount of mortality caused by concurrent challenges with LdMNPV. PMID:23933012

  13. Hemocyte responses of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, to the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, L; Niknam, G; Dunphy, G B

    2011-01-01

    Hemocyte encapsulation reactions of infective juveniles of two Iranian isolates of the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditina: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Tylenchina: Steinernematidae), were compared in the economic pest Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The former was a more responsive host than the latter and the hemocyte responses occurred sooner and more extensively. Complete encapsulation of some of the nematodes occurred by 4 h post injection for H. bacteriophora in both L. decemlineata and G. mellonella, and by 2 h pi for S. feltiae in L. decemlineata. The percentage of encapsulation from 24 h to 72 h pi in L. decemlineata was 86.2% for S. feltiae and 39% for H. bacteriophora. In G. mellonella there were no encapsulation or melanization responses against S. feltiae, whereas when H. bacteriophora was encapsulated and melanized (16.7%) the encapsulation level was lower than in L. decemlineata. This study may contribute to effectively selecting entomopathogenic nematode species active against significant economic pests based on the latter's cellular immune response. PMID:21867441

  14. Is resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac associated with a change in the behavior of light brown apple moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?

    PubMed

    Harris, M O; Markwick, N; Sandanayake, M

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-resistant light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), created by selection of a laboratory colony with artificial diets containing the Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac, were used to explore relationships between larval behavior and resistance to toxins. Our hypothesis was that behavioral responses during the first days of exposure to diet are directly related to the toxicity of the diet, as measured by subsequent mortality. We tested two predictions from this hypothesis. The first prediction was that susceptible larvae and resistant larvae exhibit similar behavior on diet without toxins, settling at feeding sites within a few hours. The second prediction was that susceptible and resistant larvae differ in their behavior on Cry1Ac diet to the same degree that their mortality differs, i.e., on Cry1Ac diet, resistant larvae exhibit anorexia and walking to a lesser degree than susceptible larvae. Predictions were tested by making observations over 2 wk, with each larva held individually in a 10-cm-long cylindrical glass arena with two aliquots of diet. The two aliquots consisted of either the same diet (two no-choice treatments: control/control or Cry 1Ac/Cry1Ac) or different diets (one choice treatment: control/Cry 1Ac). The two predictions did not accurately describe larval behavior. On control diet, behavior differed, with resistant larvae settling more quickly than susceptible larvae. On Cry1Ac diet, behavior was more similar than expected. Thus, even though the Bt diet was much less toxic to resistant larvae, resistant larvae seemed to match the ability of susceptible larvae to reduce exposure to Bt diet while increasing exposure to nontoxic control diet. PMID:16686154

  15. Counterintuitive size patterns in bivoltine moths: late-season larvae grow larger despite lower food quality.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tiit; Esperk, Toomas; Remmel, Triinu; Sang, Anu; Tammaru, Toomas

    2010-01-01

    Within a season, successive generations of short-lived organisms experience different combinations of environmental parameters, such as temperature, food quality and mortality risk. Adult body size of e.g. insects is therefore expected to vary both as a consequence of proximate environmental effects as well as adaptive responses to seasonal cues. In this study, we examined intraspecific differences in body size between successive generations in 12 temperate bivoltine moths (Lepidoptera), with the ultimate goal to critically compare the role of proximate and adaptive mechanisms in determining seasonal size differences. In nearly all species, individuals developing late in the season (diapausing generation) attained a larger adult size than their conspecifics with the larval period early in the season (directly developing generation) despite the typically lower food quality in late summer. Rearing experiments conducted on one of the studied species, Selenia tetralunaria also largely exclude the possibility that the proximate effects of food quality and temperature are decisive in determining size differences between successive generations. Adaptive explanations appear likely instead: the larger body size in the diapausing generation may be adaptively associated with the lower bird predation pressure late in the season, and/or the likely advantage of large pupal size during overwintering. PMID:19714364

  16. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-?-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, ?-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-?-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  17. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development. PMID:21061985

  18. Age-dependent response to insecticides and enzymatic variation in susceptible and resistant codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Boivin, Thomas; Beslay, Dominique; Sauphanor, Benoît

    2002-10-01

    Insecticide resistance in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, partly results from increased metabolic detoxification. The aim of this study was to follow the age variations in larval susceptibility to deltamethrin and teflubenzuron in one susceptible (S) strain, and two resistant (Rv and Rt) ones selected for resistance to deltamethrin and diflubenzuron, respectively. The age variation of the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (MFO), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and esterases in S and both resistant strains were simultaneously investigated. The highest levels of insecticide resistance were recorded in late instars in both resistant strains, although Rv neonates exhibited enhanced resistance to deltamethrin. The involvement of an additional deltamethrin-specific mechanism of resistance, which could be mainly expressed in early instars, was supported by previous demonstration of a kdr point mutation in the Rv strain. The cross-resistance between deltamethrin and teflubenzuron indicated the involvement of non-specific metabolic pathways in resistance to teflubenzuron, rather than target site modification. A positive correlation between enhanced GST activities and deltamethrin resistance suggested that this mechanism might take place into the adaptive response of C. pomonella to pyrethroids treatments. Enhanced MFO activity was recorded in each instar of the two resistant strains compared to the susceptible one. But these activities were not correlated to the responses to deltamethrin nor to teflubenzuron. In the light of these findings, studying age-dependence of responses to selection is central to the implementation of monitoring tests of resistances, especially if the target instars are difficult to collect in the field. PMID:12232873

  19. Response of ?-glucosidase in gypsy moth larvae to acute and chronic dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahovi?, Milena S; Mataruga, Vesna D Peri?; Lazarevi?, Jelica M; Mrdakovi?, Marija M; Mati?, Dragana R; Todorovi?, Dajana D; Ilijin, Larisa A

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of acute and chronic treatments with cadmium at 10 ?g Cd/g dry food and 30 ?g Cd/g dry food on ?-glucosidase activity of the 4th instar larvae of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) as well as subsequent recovery. Enzyme inhibition was recorded during acute exposure to 30 ?g Cd/g dry food and during chronic treatment at the lower metal concentration. After three days recovery from 10 ?g Cd/g dry food, the ?-glucosidase activity returned to the control level. One-way ANOVA showed that cadmium significantly influenced the activity of ?-glucosidase during all treatments. The index of phenotypic plasticity was higher during chronic treatment at 10 ?g Cd/g dry food than at 30 ?g Cd/g as well as during the recovery. We detected four glucosidase isoforms by NATIVE PAGE. The activities and expressions of the isoforms depended on both larval genotype and cadmium treatment. PMID:25714460

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e?5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were classified. The results of this study will provide useful data for future investigations on pest-resistance phytochemistry and plant breeding. PMID:23696897

  1. Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  2. Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Noah H.; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. PMID:23651929

  4. Mating of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths and their host plant origins as larvae within Australian cotton farming systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic (Bt) cotton dominates Australian cotton production systems. It is grown to control feeding damage by lepidopteran pests such as Helicoverpa armigera. The possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, refuge crops (with no Bt) must be grown with Bt cotton to produce large numbers of Bt-susceptible moths to reduce the risk of resistance developing. A key assumption of the refuge strategy, that moths from different host plant origins mate at random, remains untested. During the period of the study reported here, refuge crops included pigeon pea, conventional cotton (C3 plants), sorghum or maize (C4 plants). To identify the relative contributions made by these (and perhaps other) C3 and C4 plants to populations of H. armigera in cotton landscapes, we measured stable carbon isotopes (?(13)C) within individual moths captured in the field. Overall, 53% of the moths were of C4 origin. In addition, we demonstrated, by comparing the stable isotope signatures of mating pairs of moths, that mating is indeed random amongst moths of different plant origins (i.e. C3 and C4). Stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?(15)N) were recorded to further discriminate amongst host plant origins (e.g. legumes from non-legumes), but such measurements proved generally unsuitable. Since 2010, maize and sorghum are no longer used as dedicated refuges in Australia. However, these plants remain very common crops in cotton production regions, so their roles as 'unstructured' refuges seem likely to be significant. PMID:22999440

  5. Development and Evaluation of Methods To Detect Nucleopolyhedroviruses in Larvae of the Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)?

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Christine M.; Otvos, Imre S.; Conder, Nicholas; Levin, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Various molecular methods are used to detect pathogenic microorganisms and viruses within their hosts, but these methods are rarely validated by direct comparison. Southern hybridization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a novel DNA extraction/PCR assay were used to detect Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) in Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae. PCR was more sensitive than Southern hybridization and ELISA at detecting semipurified virus. ELISA, however, was the most accurate method for detecting virus within larvae, given that Southern hybridization and PCR produced false-negative results (31% and 2.5%, respectively). ELISA may be preferable in some applications because virus infections can be quantified (r2 = 0.995). These results may be applicable to both applied and academic research that seeks to accurately identify the incidence of viruses and microorganisms that regulate insect populations. PMID:17189436

  6. COMPARATIVE SURVIVAL RATES OF ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) LARVAE ON SHOOTS AND FRUIT OF APPLE AND PEACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple and peach shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early se...

  7. Ear wax

    MedlinePLUS

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax usually makes ... Wax can build up and block the ear canal. Wax blockage is one of the most common ...

  8. Production of marker-free transgenic Jatropha curcas expressing hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin Cry1Ab/1Ac for resistance to larvae of tortrix moth (Archips micaceanus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. is affected by larvae of Archips micaceanus (Walker), a moth of the family Tortricidae. The hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ?-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac confers resistance to lepidopteran insects in transgenic rice. Results Here, we report the production of a marker-free transgenic line of J. curcas (L10) expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a chemically regulated, Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination system. L10 carries a single copy of marker-free T-DNA that contains the Cry1Ab/1Ac gene under the control of a maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos ). The P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos gene was highly expressed in leaves of L10 plants. Insecticidal bioassays using leaf explants of L10 resulted in 80-100% mortality of larvae of A. micaceanus at 4 days after infestation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the hybrid Bt ?-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac expressed in Jatropha curcas displays strong insecticidal activity to A. micaceanus. The marker-free transgenic J. curcas line L10 can be used for breeding of insect resistance to A. micaceanus. PMID:24808924

  9. Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2012-12-01

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

  10. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-01

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

  11. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

  12. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  13. Characterization of New Entomopathogenic Nematodes from Thailand: Foraging Behavior and Virulence to the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Noosidum, Atirach; Hodson, Amanda K.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their associated bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp., respectively) are lethal parasites of soil dwelling insects. We collected 168 soil samples from five provinces, all located in southern Thailand. Eight strains of EPNs were isolated and identified to species using restriction profiles and sequence analysis. Five of the isolates were identified as Heterorhabditis indica, and one as Heterorhabditis baujardi. Two undescribed Steinernema spp. were also discovered which matched no published sequences and grouped separately from the other DNA restriction profiles. Behavioral tests showed that all Heterorhabditis spp. were cruise foragers, based on their attraction to volatile cues and lack of body-waving and standing behaviors, while the Steinernema isolates were more intermediate in foraging behavior. The infectivity of Thai EPN strains against Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated using sand column bioassays and the LC50 was calculated based on exposures to nematodes in 24-well plates. The LC50 results ranged from 1.99-6.95 IJs/insect. Nine centimeter columns of either sandy loam or sandy clay loam were used to determine the nematodes’ ability to locate and infect subterranean insects in different soil types. The undescribed Steinernema sp. had the greatest infection rate in both soil types compared to the other Thai isolates and three commercial EPNs (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri and Steinernema riobrave). PMID:22736860

  14. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

    1976-07-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

  15. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

    1976-01-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

  16. SEASONAL AND CULTIVAR ASSOCIATED VARIATION IN THE OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE OF ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) ADULTS AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF NEONATE LARVAE IN APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (OFM) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early 20th century. OFM has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple orchards...

  17. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Patrick

    a larva of the parsnip moth Depressaria pastinacella Retzius 1783 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae) that had been discovered feeding in late January on cow parsnip (Apiaceae: Heracleum sphondylium) in Port Chalmers, Dunedin City, eastern Otago by a local resident (Otago Regional Council 2004). By mid-February larvae had been detected on parsnip (Apiaceae: Pastinaca sativa) in the same area. MAF provisionally identified the

  18. Luna moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shawn Hanrahan (None; )

    2004-01-01

    One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

  19. UK Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian Kimber

    Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

  20. A comparison of the short and long term effects of insecticidal lectins on the activities of soluble and brush border enzymes of tomato moth larvae ( Lacanobia oleracea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Fitches; John A Gatehouse

    1998-01-01

    When fed in semi-artificial diet in short- and long-term bioassays, the lectins from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis; GNA) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis; Con A) affected the activities of soluble and brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes in the midgut of Lacanobia oleracea larvae. In the short term both lectins increased gut protein levels and BBM aminopeptidase activity. The lectins also increased trypsin

  1. Effect of Insecticides on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis A. Hill; Rick E. Foster

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of insecticides to adult Diadegma insulare (Cresson) and its host the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Leaf-dip and direct- dip bioassays for diamondback moth larvae and residual bioassays for adults of diamondback moth and D. insulare were used to assess mortalities. Larval mortalities at field rates were significantly higher with carbaryl, permethrin, spinosad,

  2. Host plant selection by larvae of the muga silk moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the role of the antenna and maxillary palp.

    PubMed

    Bora, D S; Deka, B; Sen, A

    2013-01-01

    The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

  3. Interspecific Competitor Reduces Intraspecific Competition: Intraspecific Competition of Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with and without Rice Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Yoon; M. I. Ryoo; W. I. Choi; J. Y. Lee; M. H. Choi

    2001-01-01

    Intraspecific competition among larvae of the indianmeal moth suggested a scramble-like competition. The number of female moth progeny was inversely proportional to the female moth introduced. When the moth occurred together with the rice weevil, significantly more female progenies were produced, suggesting that severity of the larval competition be reduced by the rice weevil. The impacts of the rice weevil

  4. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  5. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

  6. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod. PMID:23448069

  7. Lack of strong induced or maternal effects in tussock moths ( Orgyia vetusta ) on bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Harrison

    1995-01-01

    Both induced and maternal effects may create delayed negative feedback on the population growth of herbivorous insects. I tested for these effects in a chronically dense population of tussock moths (Orgyia vetusta) feeding on bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus). Experimental bushes received different realistic levels of defoliation by tussock moths in the preceding year, and experimental moth larvae came from mothers

  8. Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moths are attracted to acetic acid, and to ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester. Acetic acid is a product of microbial fermentation of sugars, and ethyl (E,Z)-decadienoate is an odorant of pear, which is a host of codling moth larvae. Many more male and female codlling moths were att...

  9. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  10. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  11. Higher phylogeny of zygaenid moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data and the evolution of larval cuticular cavities for chemical defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Niehuis; Shen-Horn Yen; Clas M. Naumann; Bernhard Misof

    2006-01-01

    Zygaenid moths are capable of releasing hydrogen cyanide in their defense by enzymatic break-down of cyanoglucosides, but only larvae of chalcosiine and zygaenine moths store cyanogenic compounds in cuticular cavities and thus are able to discharge defense droplets, which effectively deter potential predators. A previously proposed phylogeny of Zygaenidae hypothesized a sister group relationship of chalcosiine and zygaenine moths because

  12. Insecticidal action of Annona coriacea lectin against the flour moth Anagasta kuehniella and the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirela B. Coelho; Sérgio Marangoni; Maria Lígia R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Annona coriacea lectin (ACLEC) was tested for insecticidal activity against larvae of two pyralid moths, Anagasta kuehniella and Corcyra cephalonica. ACLEC produced ?50% mortality and mass loss in A. kuehniella larvae when incorporated into an artificial diet at levels of 1.5% and 1.0% (w\\/w), respectively. In contrast, the inclusion of up to 2% ACLEC in the diet did not significantly

  13. [Generation of reactive oxygen species and activity of antioxidants in larva hemolymph of galleria mellonella (L.) (lepidoptera: piralidae) at development of process of encapsulation].

    PubMed

    Dubovski?, I M; Grizanova, E V; Chertkova, E A; Slepneva, I A; Komarov, D A; Vorontsova, Ia L; Glupov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase) have been determined in hemocytes and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been studied in lymph of larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella at development of the process of encapsulation of nylon implants. It has been established that as soon as 15 min after piercing of cuticle with implant the capsule is formed on its surface. The active melanization of the capsule has been shown to last for 4 h. There have been shown a statistically significant increase of the ROS generation in lymph and a decrease of activities of enzymatic antioxidants in hemocytes of the insects after the implant incorporation. The authors suggest that the key role in maintenance of the oxidation-reduction balance in hemolymph at development of the incapsulation process is played by the lymph non-enzymatic antioxidants. PMID:20297667

  14. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  15. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  16. Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

  17. Competition between the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis: interactions mediated by host plant chemistry, pathogens, and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Redman, A M; Scriber, J M

    2000-10-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, overlap geographically as well as in their host ranges. Adult female swallowtails are incapable of distinguishing between damaged and undamaged leaves, and the opportunities for competition between these two species are numerous. We designed field and laboratory experiments to look for evidence of indirect competition between P. canadensis and L. dispar larvae. Swallowtail caterpillars were reared in the laboratory on leaves from gypsy-moth-defoliated and undefoliated trees to explore host-plant effects. We tested for pathogen-mediated interactions by rearing swallowtail larvae on both sterilized and unsterilized leaves from defoliated and undefoliated sources. In addition, we measured the effects of known gypsy moth pathogens, as well as gypsy moth body fluids, on the growth and survival of swallowtail larvae. Field experiments were designed to detect the presence of parasitoid-mediated competition, as well: we recorded parasitism of swallowtail caterpillars placed in the field either where there were no gypsy moth larvae present, or where we had artificially created dense gypsy moth populations. We found evidence that swallowtails were negatively affected by gypsy moths in several ways: defoliation by gypsy moths depressed swallowtail growth rate and survival, whether leaves were sterilized or not; sterilization significantly reduced the effect of defoliation, and gypsy moth body fluids proved lethal; and swallowtail caterpillars suffered significantly increased rates of parasitism when they were placed in the field near gypsy moth infestations. PMID:24595833

  18. European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    early spring to late summer. A female moth deposits one or a few eggs on or near buds, pedicels, flowers. The spring generation larvae feed on flower buds and pupate within webbed plant parts. The summer generation. Signs of infestation Larva-fed grapes may turn brown, mold or rot. Webbed inflorescences, fruit clusters

  19. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  20. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss densities. 2 We compared small mammal communities and levels of predation on gypsy moth pupae among five studies indi- cate that predation on late instar larvae and pupae is the largest source of mortality

  1. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  2. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  3. Effects of Bt plants on the development and survival of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in susceptible and Bt-resistant larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja H. Schuler; Ian Denholm; Suzanne J. Clark; C. Neal Stewart; Guy M. Poppy

    2004-01-01

    A range of crops have been transformed with ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to produce transgenic plants with high levels of resistance to lepidopteran pests. Parasitoids are important natural enemies of lepidopteran larvae and the effects of Bt plants on these non-target insects have to be investigated to avoid unnecessary disruption of biological control. This study investigated the effects

  4. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  5. Fertilisation by Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Marshall

    1872-01-01

    IT has recently been suggested to me that the following note on the readiness with which moths wander, and their efficiency in fertilising orchids, is worth publication; I therefore forward it to you.

  6. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2 cDNAs encoded isozymes that reduced fatty acids to fatty alcohols. Fatty acyl-CoA esters were the substrate of FAR1, and the enzyme required NADPH as a cofactor. FAR1 preferred saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as substrates, whereas FAR2 preferred saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons. Confocal light microscopy indicated that FAR1 and FAR2 were localized in the peroxisome. The FAR1 mRNA was detected in many mouse tissues with the highest level found in the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The FAR2 mRNA was more restricted in distribution and most abundant in the eyelid, which contains wax-laden meibomian glands. Both FAR mRNAs were present in the brain, a tissue rich in ether lipids. The data suggest that fatty alcohol synthesis in mammals is accomplished by two fatty acyl-CoA reductase isozymes that are expressed at high levels in tissues known to synthesize wax monoesters and ether lipids. PMID:15220348

  7. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  8. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  9. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed Central

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

  10. Midgut transcriptomic response of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar, to infection with l. dispar and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental resistance of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to baculovirus infection consists of both midgut-based and systemic components. To characterize the midgut response of larvae to baculovirus infection and identify larval host genes putatively involved in the midgut component of devel...

  11. Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

    2009-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

  12. Bibliography of the Almond Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Bibliographic references to the almond moth (known outside of North America as the cocoa moth or tropical warehouse moth). This moth is a pest of stored foods such as grain, nuts, and dried fruit. Includes references from 1883 (when the moth was described) to 1981. There are 626 references in this bibliography. It is somewhat dated (although a revision through 1995 is being prepared), but is an extremely comprhensive collection of references up to 1981. This resource will probably be of little use to undergraduate students but of significant value to graduate students working in stored product entomology.

  13. Silkworm larvae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None; )

    2007-08-04

    Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

  14. Iridoid glycoside sequestration by two aposematic Penstemon -feeding geometrid larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. Stermitz; Dale R. Gardner; Noel McFarland

    1988-01-01

    The iridoid glycoside catalpol was found to be sequestered by larvae ofMeris alticola feeding onPenstemon virgatus and by larvae ofNeoterpes graefiaria which utilizeP. barbatus. The strikingly similar larval patterns of these two ennomine geometrids were previously considered to be disruptive, but predator-based Mullerian mimicry is equally likely to be involved. The cryptic adult moths generally contain only small amounts of

  15. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-1-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology THE GYPSY MOTH IN INDIANA Clifford S. Sadof food, but gypsy moth caterpillars can eat the foliage of 500 species of trees and plants. While most in Indiana -- GM-1-W GYPSY MOTH BIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION The gypsy moth goes through four developmental

  16. Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple and pear orchards: Effect of nematode species and seasonal temperatures, adjuvants, application equipment, and post-application irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Steven P. Arthurs; Thomas R. Unruh; Heather Headrick; Robert Fritts

    2006-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), a serious pest of apple and pear in most countries where these fruits are grown, overwinters in cryptic habitats as cocooned diapausing larvae. Control of diapausing CM larvae would reduce or eliminate damage to fruit early in the following growing season. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have shown promise as biological control agents of cocooned CM larvae in the

  17. Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

    1995-01-01

    Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

  18. Dietary glycerol and adult access to water: effects on fecundity and longevity in the almond moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Ryne; P. Anders Nilsson; Michael T. Siva-Jothy

    2004-01-01

    The quality of food eaten by larval insects will affect traits such as gamete production, fat reserves, muscle bulk and body size in the adult. Moreover, larvae also depend on high moisture content in the diet for survival. The almond moth (Ephestia cautella) (W.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) does not feed as an adult although it continues to drink water. We tested

  19. Parasitoid Complex of the Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) in the Increase-phase Populations in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species composition of the parasitoid complex and the degree of parasitism by each species were analyzed for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the increasing phase. Total of 7,826 mid-late instar larvae and pupae were collected and reared from two collection sites in Gangwon Province,...

  20. PARASITISM OF BARRENS BUCK MOTH HEMILEUCA MAIA DRURY IN EARLY AND LATE SUCCESSIONAL PINE BARRENS HABITATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENNIFER A. SELFRIDGE; DYLAN PARRY; GEORGE H. BOETTNER

    Barrens buck moth, Hemileuca maia, is predominantly associated with early successional pine barrens dominated by scrub oak, Quercus ilicifolia. To determine if H. maia's association with these open habitats within pine barrens on Cape Cod is due to reduced rates of parasitism, we compared mortality of H. maia larvae on scrub oak in early successional right-of-way habitat and climax pitch

  1. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Alterations in the Indianmeal Moth Larval Gut Proteome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Candas; Olga Loseva; Brenda Oppert; Pradeepa Kosaraju; Lee A. Bulla

    2003-01-01

    Insect resistance to the Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringien- sis (Bt) has been examined previously using a number of traditional biochemical and molecular techniques. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving two- dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, mass spec- trometry, and function-based activity profiling to examine changes in the gut proteins from the larvae of an Indian- meal moth

  2. Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

  3. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

  4. Optimizing insecticide strategies for control of banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults congregate in field margins on weeds or adjacent crops during the day and move into the crop in the evening. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the head and larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, ...

  5. Red clover with moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sage Ross (None; )

    2007-09-23

    Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

  6. Allozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses confirm Entomophaga maimaiga responsible for 1989 epizootics in North American gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, A E; Humber, R A; Elkinton, J S; May, B; Walsh, S R; Silver, J C

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, populations of North American gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, in seven contiguous northeastern states were severely reduced by a fungal pathogen. Based on morphology, development, and pathology, this organism appeared to be Entomophaga maimaiga. We have now used allozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to confirm this identification. Previously, this mycopathogen had been reported only from gypsy moth populations in Japan. During 1989, E. maimaiga occurred only in areas that had been initially defoliated by gypsy moth >10 years ago. E. maimaiga caused 60-88% mortality in late instar larvae on research sites in central Massachusetts. Images PMID:11607100

  7. Factors influencing the infectivity of isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Altre, J A; Vandenberg, J D

    2001-07-01

    Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolate 1576 was isolated from an insect, but is avirulent against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and several other species. Isolate 1576 grew faster and produced more conidia than isolate 4461 on potato dextrose agar. Pregermination of conidia failed to increase the infectivity of isolate 1576, but the procedure did increase the infectivity of isolates 3682, 4461, and 4482. Isolates 1576 and 4461 were both more infective when moisture was high during incubation of inoculated larvae. Starved Pl. xylostella larvae were more susceptible than fed larvae to isolate 1576 (40 and 10% mortality, respectively), but starved and fed larvae were similar in susceptibility to isolate 4461. These results show that isolate 1576 grows vigorously in aerial culture and is capable of infecting stressed Pl. xylostella larvae. Further tests are needed to characterize its pathogenicity toward its original host or closely related species. PMID:11500091

  8. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

  9. Apple pith moth Blastodacna atra Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and

    E-print Network

    Apple pith moth Blastodacna atra Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis of Agriculture. Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets The apple pith moth is an occasional pest of apple orchards and fruit tree nurseries in Eurasia. Larvae feed inside the twigs and heavy infestations

  10. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  11. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  12. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  13. Monitoring and temperature-based prediction of the whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Rufus; Van Timmeren, Steven

    2009-04-01

    Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology of this pest over two growing seasons. Large delta traps captured the greatest number of male moths, and similar moth captures were found with or without monthly lure changing. Traps placed at field perimeters adjacent to woods trapped significantly more moths than those inside fields, whereas position in the canopy (high versus low) did not affect captures. Under laboratory conditions, the lower developmental threshold for larvae was 12.3 degrees C, in close agreement with field studies indicating a 12.8 degrees C threshold. Using the 12.8 degrees C threshold, monitoring of O. leucostigma cohorts on caged blueberry plants revealed a spring generation with egg hatch starting at 206 +/- 3 growing degree-days (GDD) and a late-summer generation with egg hatch starting at 1,157 +/- 52 GDD. Combined use of optimized monitoring methods and the phenology model for O. leucostigma is expected to improve integrated management of this pest in blueberry. PMID:19449644

  14. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

  15. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  20. Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in

    E-print Network

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component

  1. ConcepTest: Wax Reshaping

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Imagine that you find a wax candle on a table in a warm room. The candle bends when you push down on both ends and push up in the middle. When you put the candle back on the table it maintains the bent shape. This ...

  2. Adjusting the phenology model of codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in Washington State apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-12-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., to fit cumulative curves for the occurrence of injured fruits and male moth catches in sex pheromone-baited traps as a function of accumulated degree-days after the start of moth flight. Twelve data sets were collected from seven apple, Malus domestica Bordhausen, orchards in Washington State from 2003 to 2006. Cumulative data were grouped across years for orchards either treated with sex pheromone dispensers or untreated and fit to logistic equations for both the first and second generation. No significant differences were found for the cumulative curves of moth flight or egg hatch between pheromone-treated and untreated orchards; thus, these data were combined. These new logistic models for moth flight and egg hatch were compared with a widely used distributed-delay model originally developed in Michigan. The cumulative flight curves for the logistic and distributed-delay models were statistically different (slopes) for the first but not the second generation. Cumulative egg hatch in the logistic model was significantly different from the distributed-delay model (intercepts and slopes) for both generations. Most strikingly, the timing of 50% egg hatch during the first generation was delayed 100 DD in the logistic model. The potential impact of this change in the characterization of codling moth's phenology on the effectiveness of insecticide programs targeting eggs and newly eclosed larvae was examined. Possible explanations for this significant difference between the models are discussed. PMID:18284777

  3. Developmental Temperature Effects on Five Geographic Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selçuk Hazir; S. Patricia Stock; Harry K Kaya; Albrecht M Koppenhöfer; Nevin Keskin

    2001-01-01

    The development of five geographic isolates of Steinernema feltiae at 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 28°C in wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae was examined. The isolates were from Mediterranean (Sinop from Turkey, SN from France, and Monterey from California), subtropical (Rafaela from Argentina), and tropical (MG-14 from Hawaii) regions. All isolates caused 100% mortality of wax moth larvae

  4. Acoustic orientation via sequential comparison in an ultrasonic moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Michael; Tourtellot, Michael; Tillberg, Chad; Bell, William; Prins, Nicolaas

    2002-07-01

    Orientation of female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) to male calling song was tested on a locomotion-compensator device that withheld all inter-aural acoustic differences from the insect. Under these circumstances, females remained longer in the vicinity of the sound source if they experienced a variable sound level that increased when approaching the source rather than a level that remained constant at all times. Analyses of orientation paths revealed that greater retention near the source was achieved by enhanced turning when the perceived sound level remained unchanged or decreased but retaining the previous heading when the level increased. These findings suggest that acoustic orientation can be supplemented by mechanisms based on sequential, as opposed to instantaneous, comparison of auditory input. Such mechanisms may be valuable when binaural hearing is impaired or asymmetric or in environments where acoustic differences at the two ears are unreliable indications of direction to the sound source.

  5. Observations on the life cycle and establishment of Cochylis atricapitana (Lep: Cochylidae) , a moth used for biological control of Senecio jacobaea in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. McLaren

    1992-01-01

    Larvae of the mothCochylis atricapitana (Stephens) are monophagous leaf, crown, stem or bud borers of ragwort,Senecio jacobaea L. (Asteraceae). In the present investigation, aspects of the life cycle ofC. atricapitana were determined. Moths ofC. atricapitana lay an average of 158 eggs\\/female with as many as 355 eggs being laid by a single female. The majority of eggs are laid individually

  6. USE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES (STEINERNEMATIDAE) IN CONJUCTION WITH MULCHES FOR CONTROL OF OVERWINTERING CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect-specific nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae were applied at a rate of 2.5 billion infective juveniles (IJs)/ha against cocooned sentinel codling moth larvae with 2 hours of post application irrigation in plots that were covered with one of four mulches (clover, shredded p...

  7. Reproductive attributes of the eulophid Oomyzus sokolowskii, a biological control agent of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruo-Xia Chen; Feng Zhang; Wei-Guo Huangfu; Hong-Yan Yao; Jin-Bo Zhou; Ulrich Kuhlmann

    2008-01-01

    Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) is a gregarious larval-pupal parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Under laboratory conditions, we explored the reproductive attributes including the functional response of O. sokolowskii and the impact of mutual interference among female parasitoids on progeny production and progeny sex ratio. In the functional response experiment, groups of 1–50 late instar larvae were exposed to

  8. Isolation of three diterpenoid acids from sunflowers, as oviposition stimulants for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth (BSFM), Cochylis hospes Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) is a specialist insect, the larvae of which feed on sunflowers, Helianthus spp., and a few other species of Compositae. It is one of the most important pests of sunflower in the USA. Previous work on H. annuus, t...

  9. A Stilbene Optical Brightener can Enhance Bacterial Pathogenicity to Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis A. W. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Stilbene optical brighteners were first investigated to protect biological control agents such as viruses, fungi, and nematodes against ultraviolet light. Some are known to enhance the activity of insect viruses in Lepidoptera. In this work, one stilbene brightener, Tinopal LPW, also increased mortality of gypsy moth and Colorado potato beetle larvae when treated with bacteria\\/optical brightener combinations. This increase in

  10. A wax ester promotes collective host finding in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Sider; Ogawa, Akira; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tate, Dhananjay; Zagoriy, Vyacheslav; Boland, Sebastian; Gruner, Margit; Vorkel, Daniela; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Sommer, Ralf J; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V

    2014-04-01

    Survival of nematode species depends on how successfully they disperse in the habitat and find a new host. As a new strategy for collective host finding in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, dauer larvae synthesize an extremely long-chain polyunsaturated wax ester (nematoil) that covers the surface of the animal. The oily coat promotes congregation of up to one thousand individuals into stable 'dauer towers' that can reach a beetle host more easily. PMID:24584102

  11. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  12. Wax Ester and Triacylglycerol Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Wältermann; Alexander Steinbüchel

    Neutral lipids such as wax esters (WEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) are frequently accumulated as energy and carbon stores\\u000a in certain groups of bacteria. The biosynthesis of these lipids is promoted in cells grown during unbalanced growth, if an\\u000a essential nutrient is limited and a surplus of a carbon source is available. They are again mobilized under conditions of\\u000a carbon and

  13. Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Pupa. Pupation occurs in a loose silk cocoon usually formed on the lower or outer leaves. The pupa moth pupa. Adult. The DBM adult is a 6 mm long, slender, grayish-brown moth with pronounced antennae

  14. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russia). Institute of Geology and Nature Management

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  15. Wax composition of sunflower seed oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amalia A. Carelli; Lorna M. Frizzera; Pedro R. Forbito; Guillermo H. Crapiste

    2002-01-01

    Waxes are natural components of sunflower oils, consisting mainly of esters of FA with fatty alcohols, that are partially\\u000a removed in the winterization process during oil refining. The wax composition of sunflower seed as well as the influence of\\u000a processing on the oil wax concentration was studied using capillary GLC. Sunflower oils obtained by solvent extraction from\\u000a whole seed, dehulled

  16. Regulation of Wolbachia density in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, and the almond moth, Cadra cautella.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Sasaki, Tetsuhiko

    2003-02-01

    The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, is infected with A-group Wolbachia (wKue), and the almond moth, Cadra cautella, is doubly infected with A- and B-group Wolbachia, which are designated as wCauA and wCauB, respectively. In both insects, the Wolbachia populations increased greatly during embryonic and larval stages. The Wolbachia population doubled every 3.6 days on average in E. kuehniella larvae, whereas those of wCauA and wCauB doubled every 2.1 days in C. cautella larvae. The populations of wCauA and wCauB that had been transferred into the E. kuehniella background increased at similar rates to that of wKue in the natural host E. kuehniella, suggesting that the host genetic background influences Wolbachia proliferation. To examine whether the populations of the two Wolbachia variants in double infection is regulated collectively or independently, we measured the infection load in the ovaries of three transfected E. kuehniella lines in different infection states: single infection with wCauA, single infection with wCauB, and double infection. The density of each Wolbachia variant did not differ significantly between the singly and doubly transfected hosts, suggesting independent regulation. PMID:12655178

  17. Insecticide Susceptibility and Detoxication Enzyme Activities in Permethrin-Selected Diamondback Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Yu; S. N. Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Selection of larvae of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella(L.), with permethrin increased resistance. After 21 generations of continuous selection pressure, resistance to permethrin was over 600-fold in this strain compared with the unselected parental strain. The permethrin-selected strain was also cross-resistant to all pyrethroids tested, but remained susceptible to organophosphorus, carbamate, cyclodiene, chloronicotinyl, avermectin, and microbial insecticides tested. Detoxication enzyme assays

  18. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  3. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead...

  4. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead...

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage. PMID:25314103

  6. Obligate pollination mutualism in Breynia (Phyllanthaceae): further documentation of pollination mutualism involving Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2004-09-01

    This paper reports obligate seed-parasitic pollination mutualisms in Breynia vitis-idea and B. fruticosa (Phyllanthaceae). The genus Breynia is closely related to Glochidion and Gomphidium (a subgenus of Phyllanthus), in which pollination by species-specific, seed-parasitic Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) have been previously reported. At night, female Epicephala moths carrying numerous pollen grains on their proboscises visited female flowers of B. vitis-idea, actively pollinated flowers, and each subsequently laid an egg. Examination of field-collected flowers indicated that pollinated flowers of B. vitis-idea and B. fruticosa almost invariably had Epicephala eggs, suggesting that these moths are the primary pollinators of the two species. Single Epicephala larvae consumed a fraction of seeds within developing fruit in B. vitis-idea and all seeds in B. fruticosa. However, some of the fruits were left untouched, and many of these had indication of moth oviposition, suggesting that egg/larval mortality of Epicephala moths is an important factor assuring seed set in these plants. The overall similarity of the specialized floral structure among Breynia species may indicate that this pollination system is fairly widespread within the genus. PMID:21652364

  7. Transgenic tobacco and apple plants expressing biotin-binding proteins are resistant to two cosmopolitan insect pests, potato tuber moth and lightbrown apple moth, respectively.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Ngaire P; Docherty, Lisa C; Phung, Margaret M; Lester, Melissa T; Murray, Colleen; Yao, Jia-Long; Mitra, Deepali S; Cohen, Daniel; Beuning, Lesley L; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Christeller, John T

    2003-12-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) and apple (Malus x domestica cv. Royal Gala) plants expressing avidin or strepavidin were produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. ELISA assays showed that avidin expression ranged from 3.1 to 4.6 microM in tobacco and from 1.9 to 11.2 microM in apple and streptavidin expression ranged from 11.4 to 24.5 microM in tobacco and from 0.4 to 14.6 microM in apple. Expressed at these levels, both biotin-binding proteins conferred a high level of insect resistance on transformed tobacco plants to larval potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (fam. Gelechiidae) and on apple plants to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (fam. Tortricidae). More than 90% of PTM larvae died on tobacco plants expressing either avidin or streptavidin genes within 9 days of inoculation. Mortality of LBAM larvae was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on three avidin-expressing (89.6, 84.9 and 80.1%) and two streptavidin-expressing (90 and 82.5%) apple plant lines than on non-transformed control plants (14.1%) after 21 days. Weight of LBAM larvae was also significantly reduced by feeding on all apple shoots expressing avidin and on apple shoots expressing streptavidin at levels of 3.8 microM and above. PMID:14713196

  8. Determination of tensile strength of paraffin waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Asadchii; B. Z. Votlokhin; N. F. Bogdanov; V. P. Gladyshev

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength of paraffin wax is considered to be one of the important property indices that are used to characterize the service properties of this material. Methods used to determine the tensile strength of waxes are based on the use of Perkins and Tinius-Olsen testers [1]. Essentially, these methods consist of determinations of the force required to break a

  9. Isolation of waxes from asphalts and the influence of waxes on asphalt rheological properties

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Branthaver, J.F. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Asphalts are composed of a wide variety of compound types, ranging from involatile aliphatic compounds to relatively polar aromatics. The two extremes of compound types may be expected to influence asphalt physical properties differently. Eight asphalts have been separated into neutral, acidic, and basic components by ion exchange chromatography. Waxes were isolated from the neutral fractions by solvent precipitation. Some of the asphalts contain very small amounts of waxes, but others contain substantial amounts, as defined by solvent precipitation. Several asphalts were combined with wax fractions at the 5 mass % level. In some cases, the waxes were those indigenous to the asphalts with which they were mixed. In others, asphalts were mixed with waxes derived from other asphalts. Rheological measurements were performed on the mixtures and compared with data for control asphalts. In some cases, adding waxes to asphalts proved to be viscosity-enhancing, but waxes from one asphalt exhibited a large viscosity-reducing effect.

  10. GYPSY MOTH MATING DISRUPTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, 82% of the nearly 2.9 million acres treated in the federal Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Program (STS) used mating disruption. It is a preferred tactic because it is target specific, inexpensive, and effective. To date the program has exceeded its spread rate reduction goals, resul...

  11. Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

    2001-01-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

  12. Chromatographic isolation of the original constituents of natural waxes. The composition of ouricuri wax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie J. N. Cole; J. B. Brown

    1960-01-01

    Summary  A chromatographic method was developed which separated a known mixture of alleged wax constituents into four groups,viz., dotriacontane, octadecyl stearate and stearone, octadecanol, and stearic acid on especially prepared alumina. This adsorbent,\\u000a when prepared fresh, did not give a satisfactory separation of spermaceti wax. On re-use after regeneration by exhaustive\\u000a washing with methanol and water, spermaceti wax was resolved into

  13. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...identified in this subparagraph and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...identified in this subparagraph and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...identified in this subparagraph and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...identified in this subparagraph and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...identified in this subparagraph and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

  3. Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

  4. Laminar Smoke Points of Wax Candles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn M. Allan; John R. Kaminski; Jerry C. Bertrand; Jeb Head; Peter B. Sunderland

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation of laminar smoke points of candle flames is presented. Adjustable wicks with diameters of 1.7–7.3 mm were used to measure smoke points in quiescent air for 14 different waxes. The measured smoke points increased with wick diameter. Smoke points interpolated to a wick diameter of 4.5 mm varied from 41–80 mm and increased from commercial waxes (candelilla, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin)

  5. Modified carbon-wax composite electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Wang; Najih Naser

    1995-01-01

    Chemically-modified carbon-wax composite electrodes were fabricated by incorporating appropriate quantities of model modifiers into melted wax\\/graphite-powder mixtures prior to the solidification step. Such melting and solidification processes result in homogeneous dispersion of the modifier and mechanical rigidity of the surface. It also maintains the attractive features of analogous carbon paste electrodes, including low background current, flexible modifier loading, surface renewal,

  6. Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

    2011-08-01

    The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

  7. Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.

    PubMed

    Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

    2006-11-01

    An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

  8. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin. PMID:20423490

  9. Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

  10. Carbaryl resistance in populations of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in New York and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nagarkatti, Sudha; Tobin, Patrick C; Muza, Andrew J; Saunders, Michael C

    2002-10-01

    We collected grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (from cultivated and wild Vitis along Lake Erie in Pennsylvania and New York), and measured carbaryl susceptibility in first instars. A model of susceptibility was based on the concentration-mortality curve of laboratory-maintained colonies originating from wild Vitis with no prior history of carbaryl exposure, and a noncommercial vineyard with modest previous exposure to carbaryl. We estimated LC50 and LC90 for susceptible grape berry moth larvae at 45.4 and 2319 microg/ml, respectively. Bioassays on field-collected larvae from commercial vineyards in both states, where grape growers were abiding by current pest management guidelines for carbaryl use, revealed carbaryl resistance ratios from 7 to 71 at the LC50 level. With the loss or restriction of alternative chemical control tactics in the Food Quality Protection Act era, resistance management programs for grape berry moth should be immediately developed and implemented to regain the efficacy of this once effective insecticide and other related chemical compounds. PMID:12403430

  11. Transepithelial flux of an allotostatin and analogs across the anterior midgut of Manduca sexta larvae in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transepithelial transport of cydiastatin 4 and analogues across flat sheet preparations of the anterior midgut of larvae of the tobacco hawkmoth moth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), enzyme linked immunosorbe...

  12. The Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella as an Alternative Model Host for Human Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnendu Mukherjee; Eugen Domann; Torsten Hain

    \\u000a Pathogenic infections are the cause of millions of deaths all over the world. Limitations in the use of mammalian models and\\u000a requirements for novel strategies to counter resistant bugs have led to the emergence of insects as alternative models. Insects\\u000a are widely used as feasible and convenient model systems to evaluate pathogenesis of numerous human pathogens. The fruit fly\\u000a Drosophila

  13. Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-?-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen. PMID:21552530

  14. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  15. Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  16. Pathogenicity of a Microsporidium Isolate from the Diamondback Moth against Noctuid Moths:Characterization and Implications for Microbiological Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Idris Abd; Dieng, Hamady; Abu Hassan, Zainal Abidin; Ramli, Norazsida; Kermani, Nadia; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX) and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL) isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE) exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. Conclusion/Significance The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a valuable candidate for biocontrol against lepidopteran pests. PMID:24349104

  17. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  18. Natural occurrence of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar [ Lep.: Lymantriidae ] in wild birds and mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Lautenschlager; J. D. Podgwaite; D. E. Watson

    1980-01-01

    Three species of birds and 5 species of mammals were captured in the wild from 2 plots in which mortality from naturally occurring\\u000a nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) among gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar (L.), larvae was 15% and 70%. Bioassays of intestinal contents showed that blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata (L.), towhees,Pipilo erythrophthalmus (L.), white-footed mice,Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), redback voles,Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigers), raccoons,Procyon lotor (L.),

  19. Taxonomy and biology of two seed-parasitic gracillariid moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bingbing; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Jing; Li, Houhun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species and new record of gracillariid moths from China are reported: Conopomorpha flueggella Li, sp. n. and Epicephala relictella Kuznetzov, 1979. Specimens were collected on flowers or leaves of Flueggea suffruticosa (Pall.) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) at night, and reared from fruits in captivity. Larvae of both species feed on the seeds of Flueggea suffruticosa, but they can be differentiated externally by the position of the red pattern on the thorax and abdomen. Morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae and the life history of the two species are described and compared. Images of the life history and figures of the genital structures are provided. PMID:21594087

  20. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  1. Estimating Population Size Using Capture and Recapture: A Gypsy Moth Study Including Simulations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Rollinson

    In this lab students will learn the principles of the capture/recapture method used to estimate a population. They will perform a simple population study using capture/mark/release/recapture data. Three different data collection methods can be used: field study with gypsy moth larvae (caterpillars), a hands-on simulation, or computer-generated sample data. Students will discover that population estimates are necessary for both monitoring the spread of the gypsy moth and implementing effective control measures in infested areas. The method used in this exercise is appropriate for population estimates of the destructive larval (caterpillar) stage. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information

  2. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  3. The Thermodielectric Effect in Paraffin Wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Martin; Novotny, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with results of the thermodielectric effect measurement. A paraffin wax as a dielectric material was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and potentiometry during a phase transition. Possible description of the thermodielectric effect based on fundamental laws of thermodynamics is shown; to be more specific, the link between the potential difference and the latent heat is presented. The thermodynamic model of thermodielectric effect based on electrochemical equilibrium and charge generation at the solid/liquid interface is introduced. Results of the thermodielectric effect measurement are used for the calculation of a molecular mass of the paraffin wax. The relation for a surface area (interface) between liquid and solid phase of the paraffin wax during solidification is derived from the presented theoretical description of the thermodielectric effect.

  4. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

  5. Influences of Cry1Ac Broccoli on Larval Survival and Oviposition of Diamondback Moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  6. Sunflower-Oil Wax Reduction by Seed Solvent Washing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica R. Baümler; Guillermo H. Crapiste; Amalia A. Carelli

    2007-01-01

    Wax distribution in sunflower seeds was determined by capillary-gas chromatography, as well as both the wax composition in\\u000a sunflower oils obtained from washed seeds and the wax composition in the solvent extracts. The dehulling efficiency was evaluated\\u000a by using a laboratory centrifugal process. The washing effect on hull morphology and on wax distribution was observed by scanning-electron\\u000a microscopy. Washing preferentially

  7. Physical Properties of Rice Bran Wax in Bulk and Organogels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakmali Samuditha K. Dassanayake; Dharma R. Kodali; S. Ueno; K. Sato

    2009-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the thermal\\u000a behavior, crystal structure, and crystal morphology of rice bran wax (RBX) in bulk and oil–wax mixtures, and to compare them\\u000a with those of carnauba wax (CRX) and candellila wax (CLX). The RBX employed in the present study was separated from rice bran\\u000a oil by

  8. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  9. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  13. Leaf wax of Lactuca sativa and Plantago major

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine I. Bakker; Wim J. Baas; Dick T. H. M. Sijm; Chris Kollöffel

    1998-01-01

    Wax layers of plants are able to accumulate semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from the atmosphere. In this study, the composition of the leaf cuticular waxes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and common plantain (Plantago major) was determined for future studies on the role of cuticular waxes in the uptake and bioaccumulation of SOCs. In addition, to find a suitable extraction solvent

  14. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition...procurement preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date,...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition...procurement preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date,...

  16. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis...antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to...December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China: Investigation No....

  17. Iridoid glycoside sequestration by two aposematicPenstemon-feeding geometrid larvae.

    PubMed

    Stermitz, F R; Gardner, D R; McFarland, N

    1988-02-01

    The iridoid glycoside catalpol was found to be sequestered by larvae ofMeris alticola feeding onPenstemon virgatus and by larvae ofNeoterpes graefiaria which utilizeP. barbatus. The strikingly similar larval patterns of these two ennomine geometrids were previously considered to be disruptive, but predator-based Mullerian mimicry is equally likely to be involved. The cryptic adult moths generally contain only small amounts of catalpol, having left most of the bitter iridoid in the pupal case and in the meconium excreted after eclosion. OneNeoterpes female did contain considerable catalpol in the abdomen, presumably in the eggs. PMID:24275990

  18. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  19. Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Nils; Yi?it, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system. PMID:23531777

  20. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria. PMID:21961954

  1. Aerial Application of Pheromones for Mating Disruption of an Invasive Moth as a Potential Eradication Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Suckling, David M.; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L.; Cowan, David M.; Lance, David R.; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, ‘false trail following’ could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, ‘sensory impairment’ and ‘masking of females’ are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  2. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Suckling, David M; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L; Cowan, David M; Lance, David R; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  3. [Optimization model of spatial population structure: example of poplar moth laying eggs on leaves].

    PubMed

    Sekretenko, O P; Sukhovol'ski?, V G; Tarasova, O V

    2002-01-01

    The authors analyze spatial distribution and survival of populations of poplar moth Litchcolletis populifoliella Tr. on its feeding plant--balsam poplar Populus balsamifera. Imago of the moth glue its eggs on the leaves thus determining the future location of their offspring on the host plant. Spatial distribution of eggs on leaf surface and distribution of leaves according egg numbers are not random. On the short distance from each egg the average number of eggs is less, than it should be in case of random distribution. While this distance increases up to some particular value the occurrence of eggs is higher than random. Thus, the eggs of moth are located by groups on the leaf surface. Within each group eggs are situated not very close to each other, this allowing larvae to lower competition for common resource. It is suggested that on the same feeding plant individuals have different interactions: competition, caused by limited quantity of resource and cooperation that is necessary to resist leaf defensive (antibiosis) reaction. PMID:12298182

  4. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  5. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  6. Early Recorded Sounds and Wax Cylinders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here is a fun site and a fine example of how the Internet has contributed to the preservation of our cultural heritage. Created and maintained by Glenn Sage, this site showcases some of the over 2,000 wax cylinder recordings that Sage has preserved by recording them digitally. A new two-minute recording is offered in RealPlayer and .wav or .mp3 format each month, and the archive contains selections since December 1996. The selections include information on the company that originally released the cylinder, category, title, performer, date, and in some cases, some additional background information. The site also includes an introduction to wax cylinders, resources for collectors, and some brief articles.

  7. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ?40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2?11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2?11%. The data from scans with O2?2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by the OCLTT. However, CO2 anesthesia appears to protect larvae from oxygen limitation at high temperature. These results show that treatment of walnuts in air at temperatures >45°C will rapidly kill diapausing 5th instar codling moths. PMID:24802143

  8. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  9. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  10. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  11. Hydrogenated vegetable oils as candle wax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karamatollah Rezaei; Tong Wang; Lawrence A. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Partially hydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax, is gaining attention as a renewable and biodegradable alternative\\u000a to paraffin wax for use in candles. However, current soywax candles suffer from several problems, especially poor melting\\u000a and solidification properties. Fully hydrogenated soybean oil exhibits improved melting properties but owing to its fragile\\u000a texture, it is not yet acceptable in most candle

  12. Immunolocalization of general odorant-binding protein in antennal sensilla of moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Laue, M

    2000-01-01

    Antennae of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were immunolabelled with antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein or the general odorant-binding protein 2 of Antheraea polyphemus to assign the expression of these proteins to individual sensilla and to compare the localization pattern with that in sensilla of adult moths. Specific labelling of antennal sensilla was only obtained with the antiserum against general odorant-binding protein 2. Among the few sensilla present on the antenna the three large sensilla basiconica, which are suspected to be olfactory in function, were labelled. These sensilla are compound sensilla consisting of several sensillum units which form a common sensory hair. The hair is single-walled and pierced by many pores. Labelling of sensillum compartments was the same as in sensilla of adults. Prominent labelling of the sensillum lymph is accompanied by labelling of secretory organelles in the two outermost auxiliary cells and of endocytotic pathways in all sensillum cells. The results suggest that general odorant-binding protein is expressed in single-walled multiporous sensilla of presumed olfactory function on the antenna of moth larvae. The overall identity of the localization pattern for general odorant-binding protein between larval and adult sensilla implies a similar role of these proteins in olfactory stimulus transduction. PMID:18088914

  13. ADULT MOTOR PATTERNS PRODUCED BY MOTH PUPAE DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. KAMMER; MARY B. RHEUBEN

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a

  14. Sex-biased predation on moths by insectivorous bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalita Acharya

    1995-01-01

    Two species of insectivorous bats, Lasiurus cinereus and L. borealis, ate significantly more male than female moths in the wild. The observed bias was likely to be a consequence of sexual dimorphism in moth flight activity associated with sexual differences in mate acquiring mechanisms. Female moths flew less than males and their activity peaks occurred at different times. The peak

  15. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  16. Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

  17. Galleria mellonella larvae as an infection model for group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Loh, Jacelyn M S; Adenwalla, Nazneen; Wiles, Siouxsie; Proft, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Group A streptococcus is a strict human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases, such as tonsillitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and acute rheumatic fever. Modeling human diseases in animals is complicated, and rapid, simple, and cost-effective in vivo models of GAS infection are clearly lacking. Recently, the use of non-mammalian models to model human disease is starting to re-attract attention. Galleria mellonella larvae, also known as wax worms, have been investigated for modeling a number of bacterial pathogens, and have been shown to be a useful model to study pathogenesis of the M3 serotype of GAS. In this study we provide further evidence of the validity of the wax worm model by testing different GAS M-types, as well as investigating the effect of bacterial growth phase and incubation temperature on GAS virulence in this model. In contrast to previous studies, we show that the M-protein, among others, is an important virulence factor that can be effectively modeled in the wax worm. We also highlight the need for a more in-depth investigation of the effects of experimental design and wax worm supply before we can properly vindicate the wax worm model for studying GAS pathogenesis. PMID:23652836

  18. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species. PMID:20345309

  19. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. PMID:21356213

  20. A PHASE CHANGE MICROVALVE USING A MELTABLE MAGNETIC MATERIAL: FERRO-WAX

    E-print Network

    Oh, Kwang W.

    . Permanent Magnet Liquid Ferro-Wax Permanent Magnet Liquid Ferro-Wax Permanent Magnet Solid Ferro-Wax (a) (b) (c) Permanent Magnet Liquid Ferro-Wax Permanent Magnet Liquid Ferro-Wax Permanent Magnet Solid Ferro localized magnetic forces, providing easy actuation. The new meltable magnetic material, the paraffin

  1. Arabidopsis cuticular waxes: advances in synthesis, export and regulation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Amélie; Joubès, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Cuticular waxes and cutin form the cuticle, a hydrophobic layer covering the aerial surfaces of land plants and acting as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. Very-long-chain fatty acid derived compounds that compose the cuticular waxes are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum of epidermal cells before being exported to the environmental face of the epidermis. Twenty years of genetic studies on Arabidopsis thaliana have led to the molecular characterization of enzymes catalyzing major steps in fatty acid elongation and wax biosynthesis. Although transporters required for wax export from the plasma membrane have been identified, intracellular and extracellular traffic remains largely unknown. In accordance with its major function in producing an active waterproof barrier, wax metabolism is up-regulated at the transcriptional level in response to water deficiency. However its developmental regulation is still poorly described. Here, we discuss the present knowledge of wax functions, biosynthesis and transport as well as the regulation of these processes. PMID:23103356

  2. Microbial control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) using bacteria ( Xenorhabdus nematophila ) and its metabolites from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Nawaz Mahar; Muhammad Munir; Sami Elawad; Simon Richard Gowen; Nigel Graham Meckenzi Hague

    2004-01-01

    Cells and cell-free solutions of the culture filtrate of the bacterial symbiont, Xenorhabdus nematophila taken from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in aqueous broth suspensions were lethal to larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Their application on leaves of Chinese cabbage indicated that the cells can penetrate into the insects in the absence of\\u000a the nematode vector. Cell-free solutions

  3. Enhanced expression of the shape Bacillus thuringiensis cry9Aa2 gene in transgenic plants by nucleotide sequence modification confers resistance to potato tuber moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Gleave; Deepali S. Mitra; Ngaire P. Markwick; Bret A. M. Morris; Lesley L. Beuning

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis cry9Aa2 gene encodes a 129 kDa protein with insecticidal activity against Lepidoptera, including the larvae of potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella). The insecticidal moiety of Cry9Aa2 resides within the N-terminal 665 amino acids. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify a truncated version of the gene (cry9Aa2T nucleotides 1–1995), removing motifs likely to be deleterious to full-length transcription

  4. An insect model for assessing mercury toxicity: Effect of mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities of the housefly ( Musca domestica ) and the cabbage looper moth ( Trichoplusia ni )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zaman; R. S. MacGill; J. E. Johnson; S. Ahmad; R. S. Pardini

    1994-01-01

    The effect of mercury as Hg2Cl2 and HgCl2 on the antioxidant enzyme levels and its toxicity was investigated in an insect model comprised of adult females of the common housefly, Musca domestica, and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. HgCl2 was found to be more toxic than Hg2Cl2 to both M. domestica and T. ni. The LC50s

  5. Self-association of plant wax components: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Casado, C G; Heredia, A

    2001-01-01

    Excess specific heat, C(p)()(E), of binary mixtures of selected components of plant cuticular waxes has been determined. This thermodynamic parameter gives an explanation of the special molecular arrangement in crystalline and amorphous zones of plant waxes. C(p)()(E) values indicate that hydrogen bonding between chains results in the formation of amorphous zones. Conclusions on the self-asembly process of plant waxes have been also made. PMID:11749199

  6. Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  7. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M

    PubMed Central

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  8. Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else. PMID:20308549

  9. Cuticular wax biosynthesis in petunia petals: cloning and characterization of an alcohol-acyltransferase that synthesizes wax-esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew King; Jeong-Won Nam; Jixiang Han; Josh Hilliard; Jan G. Jaworski

    2007-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by cuticular wax, which contains a mixture of very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives.\\u000a This wax surface provides a hydrophobic barrier which reduces non-stomatal water loss. One component of the cuticular wax\\u000a is the alkyl esters, which typically contain a VLCFA esterified to an alcohol of a similar length. As part of an EST

  10. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. 178.3770 Section 178.3770 Food...refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids identified in this section may be...

  11. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids ?-solanine and ?-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 ?g g?¹ and from 30 to 600 ?g g?¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-?-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. PMID:23122773

  12. Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees to the programs and facilities without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation, or disability. Purdue University is an Affirmative Action institution

  13. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  14. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  15. PARASITES AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PSYCHID MOTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Kumpulainen; Alessandro Grapputo; Johanna Mappes

    2004-01-01

    Persistence of sexual reproduction among coexisting asexual competitors has been a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The number of empirical studies is still very limited, as few systems with coexisting sexual and strictly asexual lineages have been found. We studied the ecological mechanisms behind the simultaneous coexistence of a sexually and an asexually reproducing closely related species of psychid moth

  16. Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    vibrations are transduced by individual units of Johnston's organs at the base of their antennae of the flagellum restored their flight control. The antennae thus play a crucial role in maintaining flightAntennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1

  17. Codling moth granulovirus: a comprehensive review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Donald Thomson; Charles Vincent; Steven P. Arthurs

    2008-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L), is regarded as the most serious insect pest of apple worldwide. A variety of problems associated with the traditional use of non-selective insecticides for its control include: untoward environmental effects, insecticide resistance, negative impacts on natural enemies, and safety for pesticide applicators and the food supply. Concerns about these consequences have increased the interest

  18. Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies)

    E-print Network

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-07-21

    Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies) E-184 7-03 Chris Sansone, Rick Minzenmayer and Bastiaan M. Drees* S mall flies in the home can be a common problem. Scientifically, the word ?fly? refers to insects in the order Diptera, which typi- cally...

  19. Do minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) digest wax esters?

    PubMed

    Nordøy, E S

    1995-11-01

    Mammals are known to utilize wax esters with an efficiency of less than 50%. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which at times may eat considerable amounts of wax-ester-rich krill, represent an exception to this general pattern. Samples of fresh undigested forestomach, as well as colon, contents were obtained from minke whales (n 5) that had been feeding on krill (Thysanoessa inermis) for some time. The samples were analysed for dry mass, energy density, lipid content and the major lipid classes, including wax esters. The concentrations of wax esters were compared with previous estimates of dry-matter disappearance of the same type of prey using an in vitro technique, to calculate the dry-matter digestibility of wax esters (DMDwax). Wax esters contributed 21% of the energy and 47% of total lipids in the krill diet. The energy density of gut contents decreased by 50% after their passage from forestomach to the end of the colon. The DMDwax was 94.1 (SD 2.8)% (n 5). This high DMDwax and the occurrence of fatty alcohols, one of the products of wax-ester hydrolysis, in faeces show that minke whales are very efficient digesters of wax esters and absorb most of the energy-rich products of this process. PMID:8541277

  20. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  1. AN APPARENT SELENIFEROUS LEAF WAX FROM STANLEYA BIPINNATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. McColloch; J. W. Hamilton; S. K. Brown

    1963-01-01

    Selenium⁷⁵ was used as a tracer to demonstrate that Se is ; intimately associated with leaf wax from Stanleya bipinnata, a member of the ; mustard family. Results are reported from studies that suggest, but do not ; conclusively prove, that Se is a chemical part of the wax molecules. This would ; indicate a biochemical adaptation of Stanleya and

  2. Parental role division predicts avian preen wax cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEROEN RENEERKENS; JULIANA B. ALMEIDA; DAVID B. LANK; JOOP JUKEMA; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; R. I. GUY MORRISON; W. IRENE C. RIJPSTRA; DOUGLAS SCHAMEL; HANS SCHEKKERMAN; J. S. Sinninghe Damste; PAVEL S. TOMKOVICH; DIANE M. TRACY; INGRID TULP; THEUNIS PIERSMA

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preen wax composition in some sandpipers shifts from the usual monoesters to diesters during the breeding season, possibly to reduce the ability of mammalian predators to find nests using olfactory cues. To investigate further the relationship between incubation and wax secretion, we examined seven sandpiper species with different incubation patterns (species in which both sexes

  3. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  4. Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    to the work surface. - Secure the candle to the workbench, and then light it. - Place your sample on the cover - Paraffin Wax Candle - Pasteur Pipette (suggested size 5 3/4 inch) - Matches Preparation of the Slide - You may want to protect the work surface from melted wax. We use a sheet of aluminum foil taped

  5. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  6. Prothoracic glands of the saturniid moth Samia cynthia ricini possess a circadian clock controlling gut purge timing

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Ishizaki, Hironori

    1982-01-01

    In the moth Samia cynthia ricini, timing of the release of prothoracicotropic hormone is controlled by a circadian clock in the cephalic organ (brain); while this hormone release is necessary for gut purge, the final timing of this event is controlled by a circadian clock in the prothoracic glands that gates release of ecdysone. The photoreceptor of the prothoracic gland clock(s) is extraocular and evidently in the glands themselves. Demonstration that the clock and its photoreceptor are in the prothoracic glands is based on a mixture of localized illuminations and the transplantation of glands from one larva to another. PMID:16593181

  7. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively. PMID:24059202

  8. A simplified device for injection of paraffin wax blockades.

    PubMed

    Pallone, T L

    1994-04-01

    Microperfusion of renal tubules and microvessels in vivo requires occlusion of the lumen with a reliable blockade. Paraffin wax serves this purpose but requires specialized hydraulic or mechanical devices to stably hold a micropipette while this solid material is extruded through micron-sized tips. This communication describes the construction of a simple and very inexpensive wax injector from commercially available parts. The rear of an aluminum holder is threaded so that a thumbscrew can be used to push a stiff wire into the lumen of a micropipette. A solder cast of the micropipette lumen is employed as a tight-fitting piston to generate the high pressures required for wax extrusion. Several wax injectors can be made at negligible cost. This device has been used in this laboratory to introduce over 1,000 wax blocks into papillary vasa recta. PMID:8184903

  9. Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C

    PubMed Central

    Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

  10. Toward in vivo chemical imaging of epicuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

  11. Population study of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larva and its affecting factors in Sekinchan, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Spodoptera exigua larva population in the field and factor affecting their density. Population study of S. exigua larva and its affecting factors was carried out in Sekinchan, Selangor during 2003-2004. The larval density was found fluctuating during the study, where the highest number of larvae was an averaged of 18.17 per m2, while the lowest number was an averaged of 1.5 per m2. The mean number of larvae per plant also varies from 1.83 to 5.42. It was found that the larval density was influenced by the age and availability of the host plant. A total of 1881 larvae were collected, where 18.29 and 20.31% were successfully becoming female and male moths, respectively; 20.63% was being parasitized, where 7.07, 11.43, 0.11 and 2.02% were being parasitized by Microplitis manilae, Chelonus sp., Temelucha sp. and Peribaea orbata, respectively. Besides that, other biotic factors such as fungal or bacterial infection also cause death to the S. exigua larva, where a total of 1.91 and 10.89% were infected by them, respectively. Whilst 16.64% of the collected larvae were dead due to pesticide and 7.44% were not known cause of the death. Besides that, 3.89% of the S. exigua died during pupal stage or emergence. Further, climatic factor was found not influencing the larva populations. There were no correlation between the number of larva collected with the means of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19070174

  12. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the performance of pine processionary caterpillars.

  13. Chemical ecology of the luna moth : Effects of host plant on detoxification enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lindroth, R L

    1989-07-01

    The effects of food plant on larval performance and midgut detoxification enzymes were investigated in larvae of the luna moth,Actias luna. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of black cherry, cottonwood, quaking aspen, white willow, red oak, white oak, tulip tree, paper birch, black walnut, butternut, or shagbark hickory. First instar survival, larval duration, and pupal weights were monitored as indices of food quality. Midgut enzyme preparations from fifth instars were assayed for ?-glucosidase, quinone reductase, polysubstrate monooxygenase, esterase, and glutathione transferase activities. Larval survival on seven of the 11 plant species, including several recorded host plants, was extremely poor. Larvae performed well, and quite similarly, on birch, walnut, butternut, and hickory. Activities of all enzyme systems except ?-glucosidase were significantly influenced by larval host plant. Of the systems assayed, quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities were especially high. Comparisons of these values with published values for other Lepidoptera support the hypothesis that these enzyme systems are involved in conferring tolerance to juglone and related quinones occurring in members of the plant family Juglandaceae. Results suggest that host plant utilization by luna is more specialized at the individual or population level than at the species level and that biochemical detoxification systems may play a role in such specialization. PMID:24272292

  14. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10?, and 1×10?) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12?12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (?50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  15. Description of the larva of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899 (Acari: Ixodidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fábio S; Brito, Luciana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Famadas, Kátia M

    2013-12-01

    The larval stage of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann is described using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Unfed larvae were obtained from a colony of A. calcaratum originating from engorged females collected on Tamandua tetradactyla in the Jaraguá Mountain (23°40'S, 45°44'W), São Paulo County, Brazil. Eleven larvae were prepared and mounted on slides and observed under a light microscope equipped with a drawing tube. Three specimens were prepared for SEM. Several morphological characters are described, including the chaetotaxy of the idiosoma, palpi, and Haller's organ, as well as morphological features of the idiosoma, gnathosoma, and legs of A. calcaratum larvae. In addition, topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures on the larval idiosoma are described using a recently proposed nomenclature. On the idiosoma, setaes, lyrifissures, small glands, and large wax glands were found. These structures were observed isolated or associated over the entire idiosoma, except on the scutum, which lacks large wax glands. The topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures of the A. calcaratum larva showed only minor differences when compared with patterns of other Amblyomma larvae; however, a few key features can be used to differentiate A. calcaratum from other members of this genus. PMID:24169118

  16. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  17. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F. (Biosciences Division); ( MCS); (Northeastern Univ.); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (Carnegie Mellon Univ.)

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

  18. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2001-01-01

    Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

  19. Chemical Signals from Avocado Surface Wax Trigger Germination and Appressorium Formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gopi Krishna Podila; M. Rogers; Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

    lhe surface wax of the host, avocado (Persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most Colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. Bioassays of the thin-layer chro- matographic fractions of the avocado wax

  20. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

    1983-09-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

  1. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    PubMed

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes. PMID:10662094

  2. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

  3. Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Bigsby; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a polyphagous defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869. It has spread to over 860,000 km2 in North America, but this still only represents ¼ of its susceptible host range in the United States. To delay defoliation\\u000a in the remaining susceptible host range, the government maintains a barrier zone and a quarantine, reflecting a

  4. Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

    The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

  5. Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-04-01

    Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

  6. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  7. Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  8. Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.

    PubMed

    Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

    2011-12-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

  9. A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

  10. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

  11. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  12. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  13. Impact of Temperature on Postdiapause and Diapause of the Asian Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

  14. Ecological correlates of the non-indigenous parasitoid assemblage associated with a Hawaiian endemic moth.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2011-08-01

    Understanding what ecological factors might predispose indigenous habitats to invasion by invasive species is an important aspect of conservation and invasive species management, particularly when biological control is considered for suppression of the invasive species. This study seeks to identify ecological factors that might play a role in determining the structure of the parasitoid assemblage associated with caterpillars of the endemic Hawaiian moth Udea stellata (Crambidae). Parasitoids were reared from field-collected U. stellata larvae at 18 locations. Fourteen environmental variables were measured at each site. Two multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were used to analyze the parasitoid assemblage across a range of habitats varying in environmental characteristics. The PCA analysis showed that the occurrence of some species were highly correlated, and associated with less disturbed sites, whereas other species were associated with sites of medium and high levels of disturbance. The RDA analysis showed that only three of the measured environmental variables (U. stellata density, elevation, and level of habitat disturbance) significantly explained variability in the parasitoid assemblage among sites. There was greater parasitoid species richness associated with U. stellata larvae at higher elevation sites with a lower degree of habitat disturbance by exotic vegetation. The purposely introduced parasitoid species were associated with the non-target moth at sites located at higher elevations with low levels of disturbance. Multivariate analysis has the potential to provide valuable insights into the identification of important environmental factors that mediate parasitoid assemblage structure and level of parasitism on a particular target or non-target species, and therefore facilitate identification of suitable target habitats or susceptible non-target habitats. PMID:21390491

  15. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  16. Definitive diagnostic waxing with light-cured composite resin.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, G J; Becker, I M

    1993-10-01

    The benefits of perceptive treatment planning for prosthodontics are discussed, and a method of developing diagnostic waxing with light-cured composite resin is described. The advantages of this programmed approach are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:8229881

  17. Florida Wax Scales: Control Measures in Texas for Hollies

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Reinert, James; Williams, Michael L.

    2006-11-30

    wax scales overwinter (spend the winter) as newly mature females. Male forms have not been observed in this species. Other host plants Florida wax scales infest a wide range of host plants, including shrubs, trees and several herba- ceous plants..., Merit?, Bayer Advanced? Tree & Shrub Insect Con- trol), apply it before egg hatch to allow the active ingredient to be moved from the soil through the roots and into the leaf tissue. The scales that are attached to the branches or twigs may...

  18. Rapid determination of wax in sunflower seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Morrison

    1982-01-01

    A rapid turbidimetric method for determining wax content in sunflower seed oil is described. Oil is heated to 130 C, filtered,\\u000a and after cooling, added to an equal volume of acetone. The mixture is then reheated under tap water to dissolve waxes which\\u000a may have crystallized and is placed in an ice bath for 5 min. Turbidity is then measured

  19. A preliminary report on the waxing of seed potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Hardenburg; Hans Platenius

    1939-01-01

    Summary  Treating seed potatoes with a 30 per cent 231-B wax emulsion while still in a dormant condition, resulted in a stimulation\\u000a of sprout growth, an earlier emergence of plants and a corresponding increase in yield. The beneficial effects of waxing seem\\u000a to be similar to those produced by greensprouting. The results reported in this preliminary experiment were apparently due\\u000a to

  20. Wax deposition scale-up modeling for waxy crude production lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    A wax deposition scale-up model has been developed to scale-up laboratory wax deposition results for waxy crude production lines. The wax deposition model allows users to predict wax deposition profile along a cold pipeline and predict potential wax problems and pigging frequency. Consideration of the flow turbulence effect significantly increases prediction accuracy. Accurate wax deposition prediction should save capital and operation investments for waxy crude production systems. Many wax deposition models only apply a molecular diffusion mechanism in modeling and neglect shear effect. However, the flow turbulence effect has significant impact on wax deposition and can not be neglected in wax deposition modeling. Wax deposition scale-up parameters including shear rate, shear stress, and Reynolds number have been studied. None of these parameters can be used as a scaler. Critical wax tension concept has been proposed as a scaler. A technique to scale up shear effect and then wax deposition is described. For a given oil and oil temperature, the laboratory wax deposition data can be scaled up by heat flux and flow velocity. The scale-up techniques could be applied to multiphase flow conditions. Examples are presented in this paper to describe profiles of wax deposition and effective inside diameter along North Sea and West Africa subsea pipelines. The difference of wax deposition profiles from stock tank oil and live oil is also presented.

  1. SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,

    E-print Network

    of three other species are reported by size: northern anchovy ( Enqraulis mordax ). jack mackerel mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) , 1956 51 Record of the larvae of the Pacific Mackerel (Pneuroatophorus: Distribution and relative abundance 32 5. Jack mackerel larvae, 1956: Distribution and relative abundance 50 6

  2. Differences in Substrate Specificities of Five Bacterial Wax Ester Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Bradley D.; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production. PMID:22685145

  3. IMPACT OF PINE TIP MOTH ATTACK ON LOBLOLLY PINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Hedden

    Data on the impact of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, attack on the height of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the first three growing seasons after planting from three locations in eastern North Carolina (U.S.A.) was used to develop multiple linear regression models relating tree height to tip moth infestation level in each growing season. These models were used

  4. ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

  5. Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

  6. MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    April, this caterpillar crawls out of its resting place along the exposed bark surface to where the pine under bark flakes near wounds. #12;Managing The Zimmerman Pine Moth -- E-40-W 2 Sap oozing from wounds no spines. It is found at the end of a tunnel just beneath the bark. TREES ATTACKED The Zimmerman pine moth

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests have demonstrated that virgin cactus moth females are very effective at attracting conspecific males. Research was conducted to isolate and identify volatile compounds released by cactus moth females. The behavioural activities of 3 putative compounds isolated by various methods are being d...

  8. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  9. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  10. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  11. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ?47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  12. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  13. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  14. Identification of leek-moth and diamondback-moth frass volatiles that stimulate parasitoid, Diadromus pulchellus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Auger; Chantal Lecomte; Jacky Paris; Eric Thibout

    1989-01-01

    Acrolepiopsis assectella andPlutella xylostella frass volatiles, trapped on Tenax GC, were examined by capillary gas chromatography. In both moths, the same three disulfides, dimethyl, dipropyl, and methyl propyl, were the most abundant substances, but in different proportions. The synthetic disulfides elicited the same behavioral response by the parasitoid,Diadromus pulchellus as frass. The plant origin of these substances is discussed.

  15. Studies on the structure of the plant wax nonacosan-10-ol, the main component of epicuticular wax conifers.

    PubMed

    Matas, Antonio J; Sanz, María José; Heredia, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The main component presents in the epicuticular waxes of needles of Pinus halepensis and the most of conifers, the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained from these physical techniques permitted to establish a definitive structural model of the molecular arrangement of this wax, basically in good agreement with the model formulated by other authors from theoretical formulations. Biological implications of the proposed structure have been also formulated. PMID:14599581

  16. Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Ronald R.

    Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats John M. Ratcliffe1 bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity, noctuoid moths' auditory systems evoke evasive flight [1] and, in many tiger moths, also defensive sound

  17. Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

    2006-01-01

    We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

  18. VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring...and otherwise governing the movement of, live gypsy moths in interstate or foreign...

  20. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combination of sex pheromones, host plant volatiles, and food baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  1. Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

  2. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

  3. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  4. Predation of Indianmeal moth larvae by Lyctocoris campestris(F.) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in different stored commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predation rates for the anthocorid predator Lyctocoris campestris (F.) against varying densities of late-instar Plodia interpunctello (Hubner) were compared in whole corn, whole wheat, or folled oat stored commodities. More prey were attacked in corn and wheat than in oats, and female predators gene...

  5. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensi...

  6. Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

    2000-01-31

    Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can provide significant energy savings when compared to reverse cleaning or dispersion.

  7. Wax Inhibition by Comb-like Polymers: Support of the Incorporation-Perturbation Mechanism from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    and by the temperature gradient between the outside cold temperature and that inside the pipeline. The wax deposit causes the slower transition from soft wax to hard wax. Thus, in the presence of an effective wax inhibitor of the steps. Mechanism 1 (Sequestering). Above the wax melting temperature, paraffin molecules are still

  8. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  9. Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation. PMID:24361507

  10. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  11. Census of the bacterial community of the gypsy moth larval midgut by using culturing and culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Nichole A; Raffa, Kenneth F; Goodman, Robert M; Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the gamma-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the alpha-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

  12. Scaling of Individual Phosphorus Flux by Caterpillars of the Whitemarked Tussock Moth, Orygia leucostigma

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, T. D.; Lindroth, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effects of body mass, environmental temperature, and food quality on phosphorus (P) efflux by caterpillars of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orygia leucostigma, J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We found that individual phosphorus efflux rate (Q the rate at which excreted and unassimilated P was egested in frass, mgP/day) was related to larval mass (M, mg dry) and environmental temperature (T,K) as Q = e14.69 M1.00e-0.54/kT, where K is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10-19J). We also found that P efflux was not related to food phosphorous concentration, and suggest that this result was due to compensatory feeding by larvae eating low quality leaves. The P efflux model resulting from this analysis was simple and powerful. Thus, it appears that this type of model can be used to scale P flux from individual larvae to the population level and link species of insect herbivores to ecosystem processes. PMID:19619031

  13. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2012-02-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations. PMID:22525062

  14. Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella

    PubMed Central

    Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

  15. Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; LaFont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

  16. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  17. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  18. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop. PMID:8856822

  19. Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Rawls, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results.We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system. PMID:23463135

  20. Micro encapsulation in situ with super permeating molten wax

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E. [Carter Technologies Co, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new class of grout material based on molten wax offers a dramatic improvement in permeation grouting performance. This new material makes a perfect in situ containment of buried radioactive waste both feasible and cost effective. This paper describes various ways the material can be used to isolate buried waste in situ. Potential applications described in the paper include buried radioactive waste in deep trenches, deep shafts, Infiltration trenches, and large buried objects. Use of molten wax for retrieval of waste is also discussed. Wax can also be used for retrieval of air sensitive materials or drummed waste. This paper provides an analysis of the methods of application and the expected performance and cost of several potential projects. (authors)

  1. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths. PMID:22238600

  2. The physiology of digestion in fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

    1986-01-01

    Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

  3. Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-08-01

    Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild. PMID:24788023

  4. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  5. The influence of applied waxes on postharvest physiological behavior and pitting of grapefruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D Petracek; Huating Dou; Steven Pao

    1998-01-01

    The role of wax application on the development of a postharvest pitting of white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi `Macf.') was examined. Pitting developed on fruit coated with shellac-based waxes from three sources and, to a much lesser extent, on fruit coated with carnauba- or polyethylene-based wax. Non-waxed fruit did not pit. Pitting decreased with internal O2 level and increased with internal

  6. Flocculation and coalescence in water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hodge; D. Rousseau

    2003-01-01

    Water-in-mineral oil emulsions were prepared with small amounts of paraffin wax (0–2% w\\/w) added to the continuous phase, either by addition of pre-crystallized wax to the emulsion prior to emulsification or via subsequent quench-cooling of wax crystals in situ. Stability of the emulsions was examined using pulsed NMR droplet-size analysis, sedimentation and microscopy. Both pre and post-crystallized wax decreased the

  7. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2014-04-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (?). A linear relationship between t/l and ? (t/l ˜ ? 0.89) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, ? = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 109 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 109 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress.

  8. Effects of epicuticular wax from Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on infection by Curvularia eragrostidis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Wang; Peng Zhang; Sheng Qiang; Yun-Zhi Zhu; Lang-Lai Xu

    2008-01-01

    Epicuticular wax is a plant’s initial defence system to various foreign invasions, including invasion by fungi. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of epicuticular wax of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on invasion by the fungus Curvularia eragrostidis and the difference in components of epicuticular waxes between the two plants. The epicuticular wax of D. sanguinalis (host) significantly enhanced

  9. MODELLING OF THE SOLVENT-DEOILING PROCESS OF WAXES BY CONTINUOUS THERMODYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Browarzik; M. Matthäi

    2002-01-01

    Industrial waxes as petroleum slack waxes are multicomponent mixtures of mainly paraffinic species. Usually, for application the oily components of the waxes are undesired. Therefore, separation processes are needed which, in some cases, base on a solvent-deoiling process. Modelling such a process is the aim of this paper. For this purpose the solid–liquid equilibrium of a wax–solvent system is considered.

  10. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Teece; Thomas Zengeya; Timothy A. Volk; Lawrence B. Smart

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala × interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8?g cm?2, and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves

  11. Fatty Alcohols for Wax Esters in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: Two Optional Routes in the Wax Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lenneman, Eric M.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Palani, Nagendra P.

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of wax esters in bacteria is accomplished by a unique pathway that combines a fatty alcohol and a fatty acyl coenzyme A substrate. Previous in vitro enzymatic studies indicated that two different enzymes could be involved in the synthesis of the required fatty alcohol in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. In this study, we demonstrate through a series of gene deletions and transcriptional analysis that either enzyme is capable of fulfilling the role of providing the fatty alcohol required for wax ester biosynthesis in vivo, but evolution has clearly selected one of these, a previously characterized fatty aldehyde reductase, as the preferred enzyme to perform this reaction under typical wax ester-accumulating conditions. These results complement previous in vitro studies and provide the first glimpse into the role of each enzyme in vivo in the native organism. PMID:24014533

  12. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  13. Countergradient vs. cogradient variation in growth and diapause in a lichen-feeding moth, Eilema depressum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Pöykkö, Heikki; Tammaru, T

    2010-06-01

    Separating genetic and environmental causes of the latitudinal differences among populations is crucial when evaluating the potential for microevolutionary responses to the changing environment. We studied among-population and environmental components of variation in several life-history traits of a lichen-feeding moth Eilema depressum when offspring of replicate Swiss and Finnish females were reared in a common-garden factorial experiment. A partial second generation was produced only among Swiss larvae, more likely so at higher temperature regime and higher host quality, and more frequently among the offspring of particular females. Growth rates of larvae that chose the diapause development were higher in northern individuals. Our results thus reveal adaptive differences between latitudinal populations in studied life-history traits, allowing to expect rapid adaptation of the species to further environmental changes. In contrast, invariable responses of the growth rates of the larvae to temperature and host quality support the idea that some basic parameters of insect growth show a high degree of evolutionary conservatism. PMID:20456566

  14. Pathogen resistance in the moth Orgyia antiqua: direct influence of host plant dominates over the effects of individual condition.

    PubMed

    Sandre, S-L; Tammaru, T; Hokkanen, H M T

    2011-02-01

    The role of pathogens in insect ecology is widely appreciated but remains insufficiently explored. Specifically, there is little understanding about the sources of the variation in the outcome of insect-pathogen interactions. This study addresses the extent to which immune traits of larvae and pupae of the moth Orgyia antiqua L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) depend on the host plant species and individual condition of the insects. The two host plants, Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. and S. viminalis L., were chosen because they differ in the concentration of phenolic glycosides, harmful to most polyphagous insects. Individual condition was assumed to be reflected in body weight and development time, and was manipulated by rearing larvae either singly or in groups of four. The resistance traits recorded were survival and time to death after fungal infection in the larval stage and the efficiency of encapsulating a nylon implant by the pupae. The survival of the infected larvae was mainly determined by the species of the host plant. Encapsulation response was not associated with the resistance to the pathogen, suggesting that the host plant affected the pathogen rather than the immune system of the insect. Interestingly, the host plant supporting better larval growth led to inferior resistance to the pathogen, indicating a trade-off between different aspects of host plant quality. PMID:20626929

  15. Radiation biology and inherited sterility of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): developing a sterile insect release program.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill; Stephens, Andrea E A; Butler, Ruth C; Lacey, Ian; Kaur, Amandip; Suckling, David M

    2011-12-01

    The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and < or = 2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was significantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females < or = 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2-5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at > or = 150 Gy produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was > 99% by F2 egg. PMID:22299363

  16. Optimising the sampling window for moth indicator communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Scalercio; Marco Infusino; Ian P. Woiwod

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we establish the best period for sampling moth communities within the first half of the night. We stress the\\u000a importance of sampling duration in ecological studies that use moths as an indicator taxon, because sample composition changes\\u000a throughout the night due to individual species flight behaviour. A total of 20,744 individuals belonging to 562 species were\\u000a analysed

  17. Sex pheromone components of the omnivorous leafroller moth, Platynota stultana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada S. Hill; Wendell L. Roelofs

    1975-01-01

    A mixture oftrans- andcis-11-tetradecenyl acetates have been found in omnivorous leafroller moth female tip extracts in a ratio of 88:12, respectively. In the field they are the most attractive to male omnivorous leafroller moths in a ratio of 94:6. Field attractancy can be increased by addition of small quantities (0.2–2.0%) of mixtures oftrans- andcis-11-tetradecenyl alcohols, indicated to be present in

  18. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

  19. Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

  20. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  1. Wax Diffusivity: Is It a Physical Property or a Pivotable Parameter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Correra; M. Andrei; C. Carniani

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict wax deposition problems the key parameter is the wax diffusion coefficient. While it is quite easy to find measured diffusivity values for well-defined compounds at quite low concentrations, very few experimental data are available for wax diffusivity in oil. Most of the literature data are estimated by interpolating experimental data obtained by loop tests and then

  2. Experience in Manufacture of Hard Waxes. Combined Dewaxing and Deoiling Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Kachlishvili; T. F. Filippova

    2003-01-01

    Most of the country's oil units are primarily oriented toward production of lube oils. The by–products formed are used as components of furnace residual fuel oil. Even the slack wax obtained in dewaxing of selectively refined raffinates goes into furnace residual fuel oil. The slack wax contains from 80 to 90% hard waxes which, like dewaxed oil, are a valuable

  3. A rapid, effective method for the reduction of waxes in sunflower seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Morrison

    1982-01-01

    Four samples of sunflower seed were surface washed with boiling hexane to remove waxes and hydrocarbons. Measurement of waxes\\u000a in oil extracted from washed and unwashed seed showed greater than 92% removal of waxes. In addition, straight chain hydrocarbon\\u000a content of the oil was substantially reduced. The composition of the material removed is shown.

  4. Epicuticular waxes of two arctic species: Compositional differences in relation to winter snow cover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Rieley; Jeffrey M. Welker; Terry V. Callaghan; Geoffrey Eglinton

    1995-01-01

    The leaf wax characteristics of Dryas octopetala and Saxifraga oppositifolia, collected from the high Arctic semi-desert of Svalbard, Norway (79° N, 13° E), were compared and differences in their wax composition related to winter snow cover. The leaf wax composition of the winter-green D. octopetala differed from that of the herbaceous S. oppositifolia in that high abundances of the triterpenoids,

  5. Biomass Burning, Long-Range Atmospheric Transport and the Sedimentary Record of Plant Wax Biomarkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Weber; M. H. Conte

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentary distributions of plant leaf wax molecular and isotopic composition can provide detailed information about past terrestrial ecosystem structure and its variability in response to climatic forcing. However, in many locales (e.g. marine sediments, high elevation lakes), sedimentary plant waxes are derived primarily from atmospheric deposition rather than from local fluvial input or direct runoff. Thus, an understanding of wax

  6. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  7. Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Erika J.

    Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes Li Gao1 States of America Abstract Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (dD) have been widely that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership

  8. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...31/2 to 4 in.) and side walls about 2.5 cm (1 in...If the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans...when the quality of canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...short pieces”, if the canned green beans or canned wax beans...

  9. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...31/2 to 4 in.) and side walls about 2.5 cm (1 in...If the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans...when the quality of canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...short pieces”, if the canned green beans or canned wax beans...

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...31/2 to 4 in.) and side walls about 2.5 cm (1 in...If the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans...when the quality of canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...short pieces”, if the canned green beans or canned wax beans...

  11. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...31/2 to 4 in.) and side walls about 2.5 cm (1 in...If the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans...when the quality of canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...short pieces”, if the canned green beans or canned wax beans...

  12. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  13. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-02-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  14. Humidity detection and hygropreference behavior in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Marc; Hanson, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Water is a critical resource for any terrestrial animal, especially for a soft-bodied insect such as larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Strategies for coping with a dry environment might include seeking out regions of high relative humidity that reduce desiccative stress, or to find and imbibe liquid water. Desiccated larvae placed in a linear arena with a humidity gradient preferred the humid end, whereas un-desiccated larvae did not. This behavior was not affected by temperature. Ablation or occlusion of the antennae showed that they are required to mediate this behavior. A series of experiments showed that control larvae oriented towards and imbibed liquid water whereas those whose antennae had been occluded with wax did not. Electrophysiological recordings from the lateral basiconic sensillum of the second antennal segment revealed the presence of at least one hygroreceptive unit that greatly increased its firing rate in response to moist air, decreased firing rates in response to dry air, and showed mild post-stimulatory inhibition. PMID:20302460

  15. Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual expression of a

    E-print Network

    Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

    biomass (female stems >non-reproductive stems >male stems). Moth attack also increased conelet abortion than moth-resistant trees, frequency- dependent selection may counteract selection against susceptible

  16. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization. PMID:25475786

  17. Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth

    PubMed Central

    Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  19. Wellbore Heat Transfer Model for Wax Deposition in Permafrost Region

    E-print Network

    Cui, Xiaoting

    2012-05-31

    Date Defended: ____________________________ 2 The Thesis Committee for Xiaoting Cui certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Wellbore Heat Transfer Model for Wax Deposition in Permafrost Region... ................................................................................................................................. 9 2. Literature Review....................................................................................................................... 11 2.1 Current Models for Temperature Prediction...

  20. Isolation and analysis of wax esters from activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lien-Huong Huynh; Quy-Diem Do; Novy Srihartati Kasim; Yi-Hsu Ju

    2011-01-01

    Neutral lipid from activated sludge (AS) as a potential source for biodiesel production has recently received considerable attentions. The utilization of useful compounds in AS may help reducing the cost of biodiesel production from AS. One of these compounds is the valuable wax esters (WEs) found in AS from a food processing company in Taiwan. About 4.13% (based on dry

  1. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees PATRIZIA D'ETTORRE*, TOM WENSELEERS of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted). The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an important model sys- tem for studying nestmate recognition and its

  2. Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

  3. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  4. Leaf wax biomarkers in transit record river catchment composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; West, A. Joshua; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier

    2014-09-01

    Rivers carry organic molecules derived from terrestrial vegetation to sedimentary deposits in lakes and oceans, storing information about past climate and erosion, as well as representing a component of the carbon cycle. It is anticipated that sourcing of organic matter may not be uniform across catchments with substantial environmental variability in topography, vegetation zones, and climate. Here we analyze plant leaf wax biomarkers in transit in the Madre de Dios River (Peru), which drains a forested catchment across 4.5 km of elevation from the tropical montane forests of the Andes down into the rainforests of Amazonia. We find that the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax molecules (specifically the C28 n-alkanoic acid) carried by this tropical mountain river largely records the elevation gradient defined by the isotopic composition of precipitation, and this supports the general interpretation of these biomarkers as proxy recorders of catchment conditions. However, we also find that leaf wax isotopic composition varies with river flow regime over storm and seasonal timescales, which could in some cases be quantitatively significant relative to changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation in the past. Our results inform on the sourcing and transport of material by a major tributary of the Amazon River and contribute to the spatial interpretation of sedimentary records of past climate using the leaf wax proxy.

  5. Molluscan larvae: Pelagic juveniles or slowly metamorphosing larvae?

    PubMed

    Page, Louise R

    2009-06-01

    Asking the right questions about evolution of development, larval morphology, and life history requires knowledge of ancestral state. Two hypotheses dominate current opinion about the ancestral life cycle of bilaterians: the "larva-first" and the "intercalation" hypotheses. Until recently, the larva-first hypothesis was preeminent. This proposes that the original indirect life cycle of bilaterians included a planktotrophic larva followed by a benthic adult. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that a planktotrophic larva is plesiomorphic for echinoderms. A preponderance of developmental studies on echinoderms may have fostered a tendency to extrapolate conclusions about echinoderm development to other clades, particularly the concept that larval and juvenile/adult bodies are mostly separate entities. However, some of the recent reconstructions of bilaterian phylogeny suggest that nonfeeding larvae may have been ancestral for bilaterians, and these may have been intercalated into a life cycle that was originally direct. I review comparative data on molluscan development that suggests the trochophore-like stage is little more than a gastrula with transient structures (prototroch and apical sensory organ) to allow a temporary planktonic phase during development. Most lineage founder cells of molluscan embryos generate progeny that develop through the veliger stage into structures of the juvenile, which becomes benthic when the prototroch and apical sensory organ are lost. In light of this, the model of separate larval and juvenile bodies with the latter developing from nests of multipotent cells within the larva is inappropriate for molluscs. The intercalation hypothesis may be a better model for interpreting development of molluscs and other lophotrochozoans. PMID:19556590

  6. DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Chung; Go, Young Sam

    2014-06-01

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticular wax layer, which is the first barrier between a plant and its environment. Although cuticular wax deposition increases more in the light than in the dark, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis. Recently DEWAX (Decrease Wax Biosynthesis) encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor was found to be preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Wax analysis of the dewax knockout mutant, wild type, and DEWAX overexpression lines (OX) indicates that DEWAX is a negative regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis. DEWAX represses the expression of wax biosynthetic genes CER1, LACS2, ACLA2, and ECR via direct interaction with their promoters. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX; throughout the night and another for stomata closing. Taken together, it is evident that DEWAX-mediated negative regulation of the wax biosynthetic genes plays role in determining the total wax loads produced in Arabidopsis during daily dark and light cycles. In addition, significantly higher levels of DEWAX transcripts in leaves than stems suggest that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression might be involved in the organ-specific regulation of total wax amounts on plant surfaces. PMID:24905919

  7. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria

  8. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  9. Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated

    E-print Network

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated wax phase can exhibit retrograde phenomena similar of precipitated wax may first increase, then decrease, then increase again. The effect of pressure on wax

  10. SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,

    E-print Network

    : northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) , jack mackerel ( Trachurus symmetricus), hake ( Merluccius productus: northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax) , jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) , hake (Merluccius productus, and Pacific mackerel in table VI. The larvae of two groups are tabulated by number only: Hake in table VII

  11. Chemical Composition of the Epicuticular and Intracuticular Wax Layers on Adaxial Sides of Rosa canina Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant–organism interactions. METHOD An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. Key Results The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. Conclusions A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed. PMID:17933845

  12. Successes in conserving the Barberry Carpet moth Pareulype berberata (D. & S.) (Geometridae) in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Waring

    2004-01-01

    Since the end of the 19th century the Barberry Carpet moth (Pareulype berberata) has declined from being widespread and fairly well distributed in England to highly localised and endangered, due mainly to large-scale removal of the sole larval foodplant Berberis vulgaris. In the 1980s the moth appeared to be restricted to a single site. Since 1987 the moth has been

  13. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia) Summary — A melanic form of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is described from INTRODUCTION The grape vine moth Lobesia botrana Den and Schiff is known as the most important grape pest

  14. COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN GYPSY MOTH CONTROL BY ARBORISTS: A CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Vaughn; Thomas J. Straka; Donald L. Ham; Roy L. Hedden

    1997-01-01

    The European gypsy moth, (Lymantria dispart.) is an introduced forest pest that has significantly impacted hardwood forests and urban environments in the northeastern United States. In urban settings, homeowners allocate significant financial resources to mitigate gypsy moth damage. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of gypsy moth control-related services provided by arborists to homeowners. At present,

  15. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  16. Antennal-specific Pheromone-degrading Aldehyde Oxidases from the Moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rybczynski; R. G. Vogt; M. R. LernerS

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating be- haviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concen- tration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone con- centration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths

  17. Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard

    1984-01-01

    Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  18. Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?

    E-print Network

    Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Eric M. Schauber functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Á/ Oikos 107: 592Á/602. We conducted (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e

  19. WHAT CAUSES MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth popu...

  20. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR DEPLOYING FEMALE GYPSY MOTHS TO EVALUATE MATING DISRUPTION TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gypsy moth is a major pest of forest and shade trees in the northeastern United States. Under the National Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Project (STS), over 288,000 acres were treated in 2005 with the gypsy moth sex pheromone, disparlure, to disrupt mating and slow the advance of population...

  1. COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS AGAINST GRAPHOLITA MOLESTA AND CYDIA POMONELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is highly virulent and now commercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. Comparative assays of the Cyd-X formulation of this virus against another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta,...

  2. ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS CERATOSIAE

    E-print Network

    ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS/OSU, Booster, Ohio, USA Summary: The sex pheromone of females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae)-9-tetradecenal in the ratio of 10:l:l. A synthetic blend proved to be attractive. The carob moth, Ectomyelois

  3. Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Júnior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, José R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  4. Entomocidal effects of beech apricot, Labramia bojeri, seed extract on a soybean pest, the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; Kubo, Carlos E G; Freire, Maria G M; Júnior, Roberto T A; Parra, José R P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (~64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ~4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  5. Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Leis; J. M. Miller

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore\\/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close

  6. Trilobite larvae and larval ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Speyer; Brian D. E. Chatterton

    1989-01-01

    Silicified trilobite faunas yield a well preserved and abundant record of early development in many taxa. Although their morphologies are well known, protaspid larvae are poorly understood in terms of trilobite life history and developmental biology. Two distinct morphologic types are recognized among the great diversity of protaspides studied; these are termed adult?like and nonadult?tike according to gross similarity to

  7. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

    2005-09-27

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

  8. Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Siegbert; Martin Bauer, Tilman; Peyerl-Hoffmann, Gabriele; Held, Jurgen; Ritter, Wolfgang; Wagner, Dirk; Kern, Winfried Vinzenz; Serr, Annerose

    2010-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts. PMID:20202425

  9. [The wettability of leaf surfaces and the submicroscopic structure of their wax].

    PubMed

    Rentschler, I

    1971-06-01

    The wettability of a leaf surface is defined by the contact angle between a water-droplet and the surface of the leaf.Contact angles of 60-80° were measured on easily wettable leaves. These leaves have no wax on the outer cuticular layer.Contact angles of 130-160° were measured on leaves with a low wettability. These leaves have wax on the outer cuticular layer, which shows submicroscopic structures characteristic of the particular plants.A comparison of the wettability and the different structures of the wax showed no true distinctions.The wax does not adhere strongly to the outer cuticular layer and is cast off in the case of old leaves. Therefore the wetability alters with the age of the leaves. If the wax on young leaves is destroyed or removed by outer influences it can be produced again within a few hours.The rebuilt structure of the wax is not always similar to the original one. When the wax was dissolved by organic solvents no new wax formation was observed.Cigarette smoke greatly increases the wettability of leaves of Tropaeolum majus, parochetus communis and Chelidonium majus without causing a visible alteration of the submicroscopic structure. In this case the leaves recover their water-repellency within a few hours, but not if they were treated with Diesel smoke.When the wax structure was destroyed by fungus or Aleurodina no new wax formation was observed. PMID:24493084

  10. Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Summary The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull-off forces of polydimethylsiloxane probes on wax surfaces having a higher density of wax coverage, created by smaller crystals. PMID:25161838

  11. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  12. Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Böhm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull-off forces of polydimethylsiloxane probes on wax surfaces having a higher density of wax coverage, created by smaller crystals. PMID:25161838

  13. Wax Layers on Cosmos bipinnatus Petals Contribute Unequally to Total Petal Water Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m?1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  14. Foliar epicuticular wax of Arrabidaea brachypoda: flavonoids and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Alcerito; Fausto E. Barbo; Giuseppina Negri; Deborah Y. A. C. Santos; Christiane I. Meda; Maria Cláudia M. Young; Daniel Chávez; Cec??lia T. T. Blatt

    2002-01-01

    The epicuticular wax of the leaves of Arrabidaea brachypoda was analyzed for its flavonoid content and four compounds (1–4) were isolated. They are known flavonoids and showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. They were identified by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) as 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), cirsiliol (2), cirsimaritin (3) and hispidulin (4). Two

  15. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Larikov; Yu. N. Roshchin; S. P. Sokolova; A. N. Pereverzev

    1983-01-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone\\/toluene or MEK\\/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity

  16. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  17. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  18. Anna Morandi's wax self-portrait with brain.

    PubMed

    Messbarger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In her self-portrait in wax, eighteenth-century Bolognese anatomist and anatomical modeler Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-1774) represented herself in sumptuous aristocratic dress while dissecting a human brain. This essay explores the scientific and symbolic meaning of the vivid self-portrayal in terms of Anna Morandi's lifework at the intersection of art and anatomical science and within the remarkable cultural context of Enlightenment Bologna that fostered her rise to international acclaim. PMID:24041277

  19. Wax ester biosynthesis in the liver of myctophid fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwan-Sook Seo; Yasushi Endo; Masatoshi Moku; Kouichi Kawaguchi; Kenshiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    The biosynthetic properties of wax esters in the liver were compared between two types of myctophid fishes having different\\u000a body lipid composition, i.e., three triglyceriderich species (Lampanyctus jordani, Diaphus theta, and Symbolophorus californiensis) and three was ester-rich species (L. regalis, Stenobracius nannochir, and Stenobracius leucopsarus). n-Heptadecanol (17?0-ALC) and\\/or 10-cis-heptadecenoic acid (17?1-ACID) was incubated with liver homogenate of the six myctophid

  20. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

  1. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A. [Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 (South Africa)

    2005-05-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm{sup 2}, and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm{sup 2}. At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used.

  2. Wax removal for accelerated cotton scouring with alkaline pectinase.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pramod B; Nierstrasz, Vincent A; Klug-Santner, Barbara G; Gübitz, Georg M; Lenting, Herman B M; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

    2007-03-01

    A rational approach has been applied to design a new environmentally acceptable and industrially viable enzymatic scouring process. Owing to the substrate specificity, the selection of enzymes depends on the structure and composition of the substrate, i.e. cotton fibre. The structure and composition of the outer layers of cotton fibre has been established on the basis of thorough literature study, which identifies wax and pectin removal to be the key steps for successful scouring process. Three main issues are discussed here, i.e. benchmarking of the existing alkaline scouring process, an evaluation of several selected acidic and alkaline pectinases for scouring, and the effect of wax removal treatment on pectinase performance. It has been found that the pectinolytic capability of alkaline pectinases on cotton pectin is nearly 75% higher than that of acidic pectinases. It is concluded that an efficient wax removal prior to pectinase treatment indeed results in improved performance in terms of hydrophilicity and pectin removal. To evaluate the hydrophilicity, the structural contact angle (theta) was measured using an auto-porosimeter. PMID:17219460

  3. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  4. The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Michael Celus

    1976-01-01

    in Texas. Bird and Allen (1936) identified the sunflower moth as a pest of sunflowers in Manitoba. Most of the research on the control of the sunflower moth has been conducted during the past several years. Muma et al. (1950) concluded that a principal.... An insect injuring sunflowers in Manitoba. Can. Entomol. 68:93-94. Bird, F. T. 1953. The use of virus disease in the biolo- gical control of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffr. ). Ibid. 85:436-37. Brazzel, J. R. , T. B. Davich, and K...

  5. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  6. A saponin correlated with variable resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl E; Bibby, Bo M; Frandsen, Hanne O; Brown, Lea D; Nielsen, Jens K; Renwick, J Alan A

    2003-06-01

    Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Platella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for flea beetle resistance. The P-type was always susceptible. Extracts of resistant leaflets inhibited larval growth in a bioassay, and a growth-inhibiting fraction was isolated by activity-guided fractionation. A triterpenoid saponin (1) was isolated from this fraction and identified as 3-O-beta-cellobiosyloleanolic acid from spectroscopic data and analysis of hydrolysis products. The decrease in resistance of the G-type in the fall was correlated with a decrease in the level of 1, from 0.6-0.9 to < 0.2 micromol/g dry wt. Compound 1 was not detected in the susceptible P-type. We conclude that 1 is correlated with the variable resistance of B. vulgaris foliage to the DBM. PMID:12918925

  7. Characterization and expression of the cytochrome P450 gene family in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Liying; Tang, Weiqi; He, Weiyi; Ma, Xiaoli; Vasseur, Liette; Baxter, Simon W; Yang, Guang; Huang, Shiguo; Song, Fengqin; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are present in almost all organisms and can play vital roles in hormone regulation, metabolism of xenobiotics and in biosynthesis or inactivation of endogenous compounds. In the present study, a genome-wide approach was used to identify and analyze the P450 gene family of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a destructive worldwide pest of cruciferous crops. We identified 85 putative cytochrome P450 genes from the P. xylostella genome, including 84 functional genes and 1 pseudogene. These genes were classified into 26 families and 52 subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed with three additional insect species shows extensive gene expansions of P. xylostella P450 genes from clans 3 and 4. Gene expression of cytochrome P450s was quantified across multiple developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (head and midgut) using P. xylostella strains susceptible or resistant to insecticides chlorpyrifos and fiprinol. Expression of the lepidopteran specific CYP367s predominantly occurred in head tissue suggesting a role in either olfaction or detoxification. CYP340s with abundant transposable elements and relatively high expression in the midgut probably contribute to the detoxification of insecticides or plant toxins in P. xylostella. This study will facilitate future functional studies of the P. xylostella P450s in detoxification. PMID:25752830

  8. Phylogeography and ecology of an endemic radiation of Hawaiian aquatic case-bearing moths (Hyposmocoma: Cosmopterigidae).

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, Daniel

    2008-10-27

    The endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) may be one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse genera in Hawaii. Among this diversity is the Hyposmocoma saccophora clade with previously unrecorded aquatic larvae. I present a molecular phylogeny based on 773 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 762 bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1-alpha. Topologies were constructed from data using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian search criteria. Results strongly support the monophyly of the H. saccophora clade and the monophyly of the genus Hyposmocoma. The H. saccophora clade has single-island endemic species on Oahu, Molokai and West Maui. By contrast, there are three species endemic to Kauai, two being sympatric. The H. saccophora clade appears to follow the progression rule, with more basal species on older islands, including the most basal species on 11 Myr-old Necker Island, one of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic behaviour either evolved recently in the species on the main Hawaiian Islands or was secondarily lost on the arid northwestern Necker Island. The phylogeny suggests that Hyposmocoma is older than any of the current main islands, which may, in part, explain Hyposmocoma's remarkable diversity. PMID:18765359

  9. The evolution of sperm length in moths.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, E H; Gage, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sperm form and function remain poorly understood despite being of fundamental biological importance. An instructive approach has been to examine evolutionary associations across comparable taxa between sperm characters and other, potentially selective reproductive traits. We adopt this approach here in a comparative study examining how sperm lengths are associated with male and female reproductive characters across moths. Primary data have revealed Lepidoptera to be an ideal order for examination: there is profound variation in the dimensions (but not organization) of the reproductive traits between closely related species which all share a monophyletic ancestry, for example, eupyrene sperm length varies from 110 to 12,675 microm. Eupyrene (normal fertilizing) and apyrene (anucleate and non-fertile) sperm lengths are positively correlated across taxa and both sperm types show positive associations with mating pattern (as measured by the residual testis size). At fertilization, eupyrene sperm must migrate down the often elongated female spermathecal duct from storage to unite with the ovum. Across taxa, the elongation of this duct is associated with increased eupyrene sperm length, suggesting a positive female influence on sperm size since longer, more powerful sperm may be selected to migrate and/or compete successfully down greater ductal lengths. Apyrene sperm length is not associated with female reproductive tract dimensions. However, we found a positive relationship between the residual testis volume and spermathecal volume, suggesting coevolution between male investment in spermatogenesis and the extent of the female sperm storage capacity. Within males, there is a positive association between the two organs which form the ejaculate-containing spermatophore: the testes and the accessory gland. The 'trade-up' in investment to these components is discussed in relation to paternal investment and mating patterns. PMID:10714886

  10. Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Baum, Martina J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4–8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. PMID:24165663

  11. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  12. Combined process for production of base oils and exhaustively deoiled waxes. Use of oscillating crystallizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Yakovlev; V. A. Zakharov; V. A. Boldinov; E. A. Esipko; A. I. Frolov; V. V. Voidashevich

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the results obtained suggests the following conclusions: a process for fabricating lube oils and exhaustively\\u000a deoiled waxes using recrystallization of dewaxing stage-two slack wax in an oscillating crystallizer was developed. The possibility\\u000a of stable manufacture of wax with an oil content at more than 1 wt. % in processing raffinate from the 420–490C cut was demonstrated.

  13. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  14. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  15. Submersed Culture Production of Extracellular Wax Esters by the Marine Bacterium Fundibacter jadensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bredemeier; R. Hulsch; J. O. Metzger; L. Berthe-Corti

    2003-01-01

    Fundibacter jadensis strain T9, a marine gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from the intertidal sediment of the German North Sea coast by our group. The cells were able to produce considerable amounts of extracellular wax esters when cultivated with n-alkanes (hexadecane or tetradecane) as a carbon source. The dependence of wax ester production and the composition of the purified wax on

  16. A proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata inhibits the normal development of light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana in transgenic apple plants.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Gowri; Pridmore, Lucinda; Franz, Peter; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2007-06-01

    Insecticidal proteins are a potential resource to enhance resistance to insect pests in transgenic plants. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of the apple cultivar 'Royal Gala' transgenic for Nicotiana alata (N. alata) proteinase inhibitor (PI) and the impact of this PI on the growth and development of the Epiphyas postvittiana (light-brown apple moth). A cDNA clone encoding a proteinase inhibitor precursor from N. alata (Na-PI) under the control of either a double 35S promoter or a promoter from a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small sub-unit gene (rbcS-E9 promoter) was stably incorporated into 'Royal Gala' apple using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A 40.3 kDa Na-PI precursor protein was expressed and correctly processed into 6-kDa proteinase inhibitors in the leaves of transgenic apple lines. The 6-kDa polypeptides accumulated to levels of 0.05 and 0.1% of the total soluble protein under the control of the rbc-E9 promoter and the double 35S promoter, respectively. Light-brown apple moth larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI had significantly reduced body weight after 7 days of feeding and female pupae were 19-28% smaller than controls. In addition, morphological changes such as pupal cases attached to the wing, deformed wings, deformed body shape, and pupal cases and curled wings attached to a deformed body were observed in adults that developed from larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI, when compared to larvae fed with the non-transformed apple leaves. PMID:17205336

  17. Identification of a triterpenoid saponin from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Koshioka, Masaji; Okabe, Hikaru; Kawai, Akira

    2002-03-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a crucifer specialist, refuse to feed on a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, because of the presence of a feeding deterrent, which is extractable with chloroform. We isolated a feeding deterrent from B. vulgaris leaves, by successive fractionations with silica-gel, ODS, i.e., C18 reversed phase, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and ODS-HPLC, guided by a bioassay for feeding deterrent activity. The structure of the compound was determined to be a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin, based on FAB-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, and hydrolysis experiments. When the compound was applied to cabbage leaf disks at greater than 0.18 microg/mm2, consumption of the disks by third instars was less than 11% of control disks treated with the solvent alone. Furthermore, all first instars died on the disks treated with the same concentrations. Because the concentration of the compound in the fresh leaves of B. vulgaris was comparable to the effective dose in the cabbage leaf disk tested, we conclude that the unacceptability of B. vulgaris to P. xylostella larvae is primarily due to this saponin. PMID:11944835

  18. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control. PMID:23865179

  19. Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E.; Luna, María G.

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2–15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  20. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  1. Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana Altered in Epicuticular Wax and Leaf Morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, M. A.; Rashotte, A. M.; Tuttle, H. A.; Feldmann, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    We report eight new mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana possessing altered leaf morphology and epicuticular wax. These were isolated from a T-DNA-mutagenized population using a visual screen for altered leaf reflectance, i.e. increased glaucousness or glossiness. The mutants were placed into three distinct classes based on alterations in overall plant morphology: knobhead (knb), bicentifolia (bcf), and wax. The four knb mutants formed callus-like growths in the axillary region of the rosette leaves and apical meristem, the two bcf mutants produced hundreds of narrow leaves, and the two wax mutants had leaves and stems that were more glossy than wild type and organs that fused during early development. Leaves of knb and bcf were more glaucous and abnormally shaped than wild type. Epicuticular wax crystals over knb and bcf leaf surfaces (where none were present on wild type) likely contributed to their more glaucous appearance. In contrast, the glossy appearance of the wax mutants was associated with a reduced epicuticular wax load on both leaves and stems. One representative from each phenotypic class was selected for detailed analyses of epicuticular wax chemistry. All three lines, knb1, bcf1, and wax1, had dramatic alterations in the total amounts and relative proportions of their leaf epicuticular wax constituents. PMID:12226189

  2. Direct Access to Plant Epicuticular Wax Crystals by a New Mechanical Isolation Method.

    PubMed

    Ensikat; Neinhuis; Barthlott

    2000-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of wax crystals from plant surfaces is presented. The wax-covered plant surface, e.g., a piece of a leaf or fruit, is brought into contact with a preparation liquid, e.g., glycerol or triethylene glycol, and cooled to ca. -100 degrees C. When the plant specimen is removed, the epicuticular wax remains embedded in the frozen liquid. After it warms up, the wax layer can be captured on appropriate carriers for further studies. This isolation method causes very little stress on the wax crystals; thus the shape and crystal structure are well preserved. In many cases it is possible, by choosing a preparation liquid with appropriate wettability, to isolate either the entire epicuticular wax layer or only discrete wax crystals without the underlying wax film. These crystals are well suited for electron diffraction studies by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution imaging by atomic force microscopy. The absence of intracuticular components and other impurities and the feasibility of the selective isolation of wax crystals enable improved chemical analysis and a more detailed study of their properties. PMID:10648204

  3. Mass Rearing of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    E-print Network

    ),was reared on modifications of a previously developed small lima bean diet Initial experiments showed that different types of beans substituted for lima beans produced similar yields of oriental fruit moth pupae, formulated diet, legume diet YOKOYAMAET AL (1987)developed a formulated diet using small lima beans

  4. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  5. Paternal inheritance of a female moth's mating preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikram K. Iyengar; H. Kern Reeve; Thomas Eisner

    2002-01-01

    Females of the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix mate preferentially with larger males, receiving both direct phenotypic and indirect genetic benefits. Here we demonstrate that the female's mating preference is inherited through the father rather than the mother, indicating that the preference gene or genes lie mostly or exclusively on the Z sex chromosome, which is strictly paternally inherited by daughters.

  6. Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, L M

    1967-10-01

    The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

  7. Olfactory Perireceptor and Receptor Events in Moths: A Kinetic Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Kaissling

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of perireceptor and receptor events has been developed for olfactory sensilla on the antennae of the moth Antheraea polyphemus. The model includes the adsorptive uptake of pheromone molecules by the olfactory hair, their transport on and within the hair by diffusion, the formation of a complex of pheromone and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the interaction of

  8. Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.

    PubMed

    Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

    1976-08-01

    Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

  9. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  10. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  11. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed Central

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

  12. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  13. MVP, a Novel Bioinsecticide for the Control of Diamondback Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Soares; Thomas C. Quick

    MVP bioinsecticide is the first in a new class of biopesticide products based on Mycogen Corporation's novel CellCap bioencapsulation technology. MVP contains a selected endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki that is highly active against diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). Using the CellCap system, this toxin is encapsulated and stabilized within dead bacterial cells that are killed and fixed

  14. Use of Low Temperature to Control Postharvest Indianmeal Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restrictions on the use of fumigants for product disinfestation due to worker safety or environmental concerns has increased interest in non-chemical alternatives. The Indianmeal moth is often the most serious pest of postharvest tree nuts, and has been the target of numerous studies examining t...

  15. Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

    2007-08-01

    Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

  16. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  17. Olfactory coding in five moth species from two families.

    PubMed

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291

  18. EFFECT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight strains of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt spore/crystal preparations...

  19. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

  20. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  1. Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared polyphagous, known to feed on more than 70 plant species from 22 families. Caterpillars prefer to feed/pheronet/ins/mamesbrass.html). Control measures include autumn plowing, eradication of weeds, release of Trichogramma parasitoids

  2. SURVIVAL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH AND NAVEL ORANGEWORM AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, are important postharvest insect pests of California dried fruits and nuts. These insects are unable to feed, develop or reproduce below developmental thresholds of about 14C. Extended exposure to temperatures ...

  3. Recent History of Melanism in American Peppered Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Grant; L. L. Wiseman

    2002-01-01

    Industrial melanism in peppered moths has been studied most intensively in Britain. The first melanic phenotype (effectively solid black) was recorded near Manchester in 1848. By 1895 about 98% of the specimens near Manchester were melanic, and this once rare phenotype had spread across regions of the country blackened by industrial soot. In rural, unpolluted regions, well away from in-

  4. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  5. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  6. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ??Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D??) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10?- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to ?-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. PMID:21683605

  7. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. PMID:23050609

  8. Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from the early 1970s to present. The model provides great insights on fluvial-marine sediment dispersal and retention within the delta which will enhance the planning and design of future land building projects of comparable design.

  9. Moths Caught in Pheromone Traps for American White Moth (Hyphantria Cunea Dr.) (Arctiidae, Lepidoptera) in Lithuania During 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrikas Ostrauskas

    2004-01-01

    In Lithuania, the quarantine species Hyphantria cunea was not caught in pheromone traps during investigations in 2001. Moths of 80 species belonging to 16 families were caught in pheromone traps for H. cunea. One new for Lithuania species Elachista unifasciella was recorded. Some rare for Lithuania species (Denisia luticiliella, Cnephasia pasiuana, Eana incanana, Cnephasia incertana, Scoparia basistrigalis, Eupithecia denotata, and

  10. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN PEACHES AND NECTARINES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth and oriental fruit moth infesting peaches and nectarines. These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill over 5,000 4th instar ori...

  11. TIMING OF EGG HATCH BY EARLY-SEASON CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) PREDICTED BY MOTH CATCH IN PEAR ESTER AND CODLEMONE-BAITED TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timing of moth catch in traps to predict the start of egg hatch by first generation codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae) was evaluated with ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadieonate (pear ester) and (E, E)-8,10- dodecadien-1-ol (codlemon...

  12. Innervation and Neural Regulation of the Sex Pheromone Gland in Female Heliothis Moths TA Christensen, H Itagaki, PEA Teal, RD Jasensky, JH Tumlinson, and JG Hildebrand

    E-print Network

    Itagaki, Haruhiko

    Innervation and Neural Regulation of the Sex Pheromone Gland in Female Heliothis Moths TA pheromone gland in female Heliothis moths (electrophysiology/octopamine/pheromone biosynthesis activating Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during

  13. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7 dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6 dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7 dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  14. Analysis of the Compositional Variation in the Epicuticular Wax Layer of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    E-print Network

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2013-05-08

    Epicuticular waxes form a layer on the outer surface of all land plants and play a fundamental role in their interaction with the environment. Development of a rapid and accurate method for the characterization of these waxes could allow the use...

  15. WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Broun, Pierre; Poindexter, Patricia; Osborne, Erin; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Riechmann, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Epicuticular wax forms a layer of hydrophobic material on plant aerial organs, which constitutes a protective barrier between the plant and its environment. We report here the identification of WIN1, an Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor-type transcription factor, which can activate wax deposition in overexpressing plants. We constitutively expressed WIN1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and found that leaf epidermal wax accumulation was up to 4.5-fold higher in these plants than in control plants. A significant increase was also found in stems. Interestingly, ?50% of the additional wax could only be released by complete lipid extractions, suggesting that not all of the wax is superficial. Gene expression analysis indicated that a number of genes, such as CER1, KCS1, and CER2, which are known to be involved in wax biosynthesis, were induced in WIN1 overexpressors. This observation indicates that induction of wax accumulation in transgenic plants is probably mediated through an increase in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of the wax biosynthesis pathway. PMID:15070782

  16. Composition of suberin-associated waxes from the subterranean storage organs of seven plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl E. Espelie; Nagwa Z. Sadek; P. E. Kolattukudy

    1980-01-01

    The waxes associated with the suberin in the periderm of the underground storage organs of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica Mill.), turnip (Brassica rapa L.), red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were isolated, fractionated into hydrocarbon, wax ester, free fatty alcohol and free fatty acid

  17. A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax and degrading exosome that controls the expression of CER3/ WAX2/YRE. We propose that CER7 acts by degrading example of a core exosomal subunit specifically influencing a cellular process. INTRODUCTION The epidermal

  18. The alkyl moieties in wax esters and alkyl diacyl glycerols af sharks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRIEDRICH SPENER; HELMUT K. MANGOLD

    The alkyl moieties in wax esters and alkyl diacyl glycerols from the liver of the dogfish, soupfin shark, and silky shark are almost exclusively saturated and mono- unsaturated, the main alkyl moieties being the CI~ and CIS chains in both lipid classes. However, the alkyl moieties in wax esters occur in a wider range of chain lengths. The unsaturated alkyl

  19. Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Methodology Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Principal results Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C20–C36 (in esters C36–C56). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes—surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata—showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. Conclusions The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses. PMID:22476480

  20. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Reneerkens; Theunis Piersma; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

  1. All sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from mono- to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubution, but why?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; J. Reneerkens; T. Piersma

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

  2. Advances in the understanding of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis thaliana and crop species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung

    2015-04-01

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticle, a hydrophobic layer consisting of cutin polyester and cuticular waxes that protects them from various environmental stresses. Cuticular waxes mainly comprise very long chain fatty acids and their derivatives such as aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, ketones, primary alcohols, and wax esters that are also important raw materials for the production of lubricants, adhesives, cosmetics, and biofuels. The major function of cuticular waxes is to control non-stomatal water loss and gas exchange. In recent years, the in planta roles of many genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis have been characterized not only from model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana and saltwater cress (Eutrema salsugineum), but also crop plants including maize, rice, wheat, tomato, petunia, Medicago sativa, Medicago truncatula, rapeseed, and Camelina sativa through genetic, biochemical, molecular, genomic, and cell biological approaches. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the biological functions of genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of wax deposition from Arabidopsis and crop species, provide information on cuticular wax amounts and composition in various organs of nine representative plant species, and suggest the important issues that need to be investigated in this field of study. PMID:25693495

  3. Importance of wax esters and other lipids in the marine food chain: Phytoplankton and copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Lee; J. C. Nevenzel; G.-A. Paffenhöfer

    1971-01-01

    Wax esters, which function as reserve fuels, account for 25 to 40% of the lipid of the pelagic copepod Calanus helgolandicus (Copepoda, Calanoida). In laboratory experiments with these crustaceans, diatoms (Lauderia borealis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, and Skeletonema costatum) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium splendens), which contained no wax esters, were used as food. Changes in the food concentration affected both the amount of

  4. Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond, Massachusetts (USA)

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond interpretation of the hydrogen isotope ratios of plant leaf waxes extracted from sediments requires a thor- ough variability in hydrogen isotope fractionation among plants of different photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4

  5. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions. PMID:17900636

  6. A new composite coating containing HPMC, bee's wax and shellac for 'Valencia' oranges and 'Marisol' tangerines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial coatings used for citrus fruit include carnauba and shellac waxes or resins, which provide an attractive shine to the fruit, but are not necessarily made of 100% food grade ingredients. A new food grade formulation based on bee's wax (BW), shellac resin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (...

  7. MODELING OF THE FAST ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD FINISHING PRODUCT--FLOOR WAX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests conducted to characterize the fast organic emissions from a wood finishing product, floor wax. or the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount (< 5 g/sq m) of the wax was applied to an alumin...

  8. MODELING OF THE FAST ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD-FINISHING PRODUCT -- FLOOR WAX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests conducted to characterize the fast organic emissions from a wood finishing product, floor wax. For the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount (< 5 g/sq m) of the wax was applied to an alumi...

  9. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  10. The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism. PMID:21398568

  11. Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits

    E-print Network

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    -deposit waxes have higher melting points, longer straight-chain methylene, higher carbon number distributions, transportation, and processing of petroleum is common and poses a serious challenge to efficient operation.1 crude oils contain 1-30 wt % high-molecular-weight paraffin and microcrystalline waxes, which, at low

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TETRAHYDROXYJOJOBA WAX AND FERULATES OF JOJOBA OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new crop oil from jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a skin-softener akin to sperm whale oil. In an effort to find new uses of this oil, we have in mild chemical processes converted jojoba liquid wax into two new products. Tetrahydroxyjojoba wax is a colorless, low-melting solid derived from the...

  13. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (?55.8 to ?45.12 mV), pH (6.79–6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

  14. Amino acid requirements of fish larvae and post-larvae: new tools and recent findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. C. Conceição; H. Grasdalen; I. Rønnestad

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews methodologies and recent findings in the study of the amino acid (AA) metabolism of fish larvae and post-larvae, in order to better understand the AA requirements. The larval indispensable AA (IAA) profile can be used as index of the IAA requirements. When turbot larvae and live food IAA profiles are compared, the profile of the latter seems

  15. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  16. Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase and Wax Synthase from Euglena gracilis in the Biosynthesis of Medium-Chain Wax Esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapapan Teerawanichpan; Xiao Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, can accumulate a large amount of medium-chain wax esters under anaerobic growth conditions.\\u000a Here we report the identification and characterization of two genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax esters in E. gracilis. The first gene encodes a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (EgFAR) involved in the conversion of fatty acyl-CoAs to fatty alcohols and the second

  17. How polymer additives reduce the pour point of hydrocarbon solvents containing wax crystals.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Roberts, Noel A; Dunkerley, John; Greenfield, Hannah; Mastrangelo, Antonio; Trickett, Kieran

    2015-01-28

    We have investigated how four different pour point depressant (PPD) polymers affect the pour point transition in mixtures of a single pure wax in a solvent. We used either n-eicosane (C20), CH3(CH2)18CH3, n-tetracosane (C24), CH3(CH2)22CH3 or n-hexatriacontane (C36), CH3(CH2)34CH3 as the wax component with either n-heptane or toluene as the solvent component. For all wax-solvent combinations, the measured variation of wax solubility with temperature is well predicted by ideal solution theory. The variation of pour point temperature as a function of the overall wax concentration is quantitatively modelled using the idea that, for each overall wax concentration, the pour point occurs at a temperature at which a critical volume fraction ?* of wax crystals has precipitated. Close to the pour point temperature, extraction and examination of the wax crystals show they consist of polydisperse, irregularly-shaped platelets with axial ratios (h/d, where h is the plate thickness and d is the plate long dimension) in the range 0.005-0.05. It is found that the measured ?* values corresponding to the pour point transitions are weakly correlated with the wax crystal axial ratios (h/d) for all wax-solvent-PPD polymer combinations. These results indicate that the pour point transition occurs at a volume fraction larger than the value at which the volumes of rotation of the platelet crystals overlap, i.e., 2.5(h/d) < ?* < 11(h/d). PPD polymers work, in part, by increasing the wax crystal axial ratio (h/d), thereby increasing ?* and reducing the pour point temperature. Since the PPD's ability to modify the wax crystal shape relies on its adsorption to the crystal-solution surface, it is anticipated and observed experimentally that optimum PPD efficacy is correlated with the difference between the wax and the polymer solubility boundary temperatures. This finding and the mechanistic insight gained here provide the basis for a simple and rapid screening test to identify candidate species likely to be effective PPDs for particular wax systems. PMID:25564408

  18. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids

    PubMed Central

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K.; Spalding, Adrian; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

  19. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC\\/MS and GC\\/MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; M. H. A. Dekker; T. Piersma

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and GC\\/MS\\/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additional resolution to the analysis of wax esters. The C21?C32 wax esters are composed of complex

  20. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlèn H. A. Dekker; Theunis Piersma; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and GC\\/MS\\/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the\\u000a molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additional resolution\\u000a to the analysis of wax esters. The C21?C32 wax esters are composed of complex