Sample records for wax moth larvae

  1. Waxworm moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences; )

    2005-01-01

    Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

  2. Mycological Society of America Entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Associated with Gypsy Moth Larvae

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Mycological Society of America Entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Associated with Gypsy Moth Larvae hyphomycetes associated with gypsy moth larvae Ann E. Hajek1 Departmentof Entomology,Cornell University Laboratory,TowerRoad, Ithaca, New York14853-2901 Abstract: Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, popula- tions were

  3. Dispersal of first-instar gypsy moth larvae in relation to population quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Capinera; Pedro Barbosa

    1976-01-01

    Field studies of dispersal by first instar gypsy moth larvae indicate that almost all larvae undergo an initial dispersal episode. However, in laboratory studies large larvae (from large eggs) disperse more frequently than small larvae (from small eggs) in the presence of favored food. Large larvae may be better adapted for dispersal. When larvae encounter unacceptable food or are denied

  4. Preliminary characterization of toxins from the straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici, which induce paralysis in the larvae of a moth.

    PubMed

    Tomalski, M D; Bruce, W A; Travis, J; Blum, M S

    1988-01-01

    Homogenates of whole mites (Pyemotes tritici) paralyze larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Injection of these homogenates into larvae produces symptoms identical to those obtained by bites from female mites. Since the paralytic activity is destroyed by heat and proteolytic enzymes and retained during dialysis, the toxic compounds appear to be proteins. Two protein fractions which differ both in molecular weight and toxicity were found following gel filtration of whole mite extracts. Larvae that are injected with proteins from the high molecular weight (c. 250,000) fraction (designated TxP-HMW) develop flaccid-muscle paralysis after 4-12 hr, while proteins in the low molecular weight fraction (c. 21,000) (designated TxP-LMW) induce a rapid, muscle-contracting paralysis. PMID:3363564

  5. Physiological Age of Host Plant Foliage and Survival of Gypsy Moth Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ponomarev

    2003-01-01

    The pH of leaf homogenates of common birch (Betula verrucosa L.), a food plant of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, was measured at different times of day in the course of leaf organogenesis, and midgut pH was measured in gypsy moth larvae phenotypically differing in the color of the hypodermis at the fifth instar. A possible relation between these

  6. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  8. Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bzdil

    2007-01-01

    Bzdil J.: Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 643-648. The aim of the present study was to validate a new method of detection of Paenibacillus larvae spores in the debris and wax of honey bee and compare it with the method commonly used

  9. HYDROPRENE PROLONGS DEVELOPMENT TIME AND INCREASES MORTALITY IN WANDERING-PHASE INDIANMEAL MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wandering-phase Indianmeal moth larvae, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 X 10-3 mg[AI]/ cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32ºC and 57% relative humidity ...

  10. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  11. Evidence for oil-induced oxidative stress to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Taverner, Peter D; Bailey, Peter T; Roush, Richard T

    2002-04-01

    For the purpose of understanding better the mode of action of alkanes on insects, the relationship between mortality, weight loss in oxygen enriched atmospheres and dietary antioxidants was examined using an alkane, C15 Ampol CPD and a spray oil, C23 DC-Tron NR, on lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker, (LBAM). The results showed that the surfactant blend used in CPD was an insignificant contributor to the overall toxicity of dilute oil/water emulsions. Higher weight loss occurred in CPD-dipped larvae than C23 DC-Tron NR-dipped larvae, which suggests that alkanes disrupt tracheal waxes and render insects more prone to desiccation. High levels of oxygen increased the toxicity of CPD to LBAM larvae. In addition, dietary supplements of anti-oxidant, alpha-tocopherol, fed to LBAM larvae were successful in reducing the toxicity of CPD. These results suggest that the alkane may contribute to oxidative injury. The potential role of oil-induced oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxicity in insects is discussed. PMID:11975180

  12. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25509049

  13. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    Dubovskiy, I M; Yaroslavtseva, O N; Kryukov, V Yu; Benkovskaya, G V; Glupov, V V

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25490848

  14. Crystalline wax coverage of the cuticle in easy bleeding sawfly larvae.

    PubMed

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-03-01

    The larvae of some sawfly species belonging to the family Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are capable of 'easy bleeding', an anti-predator defence strategy based on a specialised cuticle that can readily break, which frees droplets of distasteful haemolymph. Using high-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy, we compared the cuticle surface between easy bleeder (Rhadinoceraea micans, Phymatocera aterrima, Aneugmenus padi) and non-easy bleeder (Strongylogaster multifasciata, Nematus pavidus, Arge pagana) sawfly species. We detected crystalline waxes only on the cuticle surface of easy bleeders. Wax crystals varied in shape and dimension depending on species. We assume the reduction of surface wettability by oozed haemolymph to be the primary function of the wax crystal coverage in the easy bleeding defence strategy. PMID:21277995

  15. Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Vlahovi?; Jelica Lazarevi?; Vesna Peri?-Mataruga; Larisa Ilijin; Marija Mrdakovi?

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure

  16. Virulence of serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus strains in wax worms (Galleria mellonella larvae)

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, M Ebru; Cantu, Concepcion C; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human infections that range in severity from pharyngitis (“strep-throat”) to necrotizing fasciitis (“flesh-eating disease”). To facilitate investigation of the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions, infection models capable of rapidly screening for differences in GAS strain virulence are needed. To this end, we developed a Galleria mellonella larvae (wax worm) model of invasive GAS infection and used it to compare the virulence of serotype M3 GAS strains. We found that GAS causes severe tissue damage and kills wax worms in a dose-dependent manner. The virulence of genetically distinct GAS strains was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and determining 50% lethal doses (LD50). Host-pathogen interactions were further characterized using quantitative culture, histopathology and TaqMan assays. GAS strains known to be highly pathogenic in mice and monkeys caused significantly lower survival and had significantly lower LD50s in wax worms than GAS strains associated with attenuated virulence or asymptomatic carriage. Furthermore, isogenic inactivation of proven virulence factors resulted in a significantly increased LD50 and decreased lesion size compared to the wild-type strain, a finding that also strongly correlates with animal studies. Importantly, survival analysis and LD50 determination in wax worms supported our hypothesis that a newly emerged GAS subclone that is epidemiologically associated with more human necrotizing fasciitis cases than its progenitor lineage has significantly increased virulence. We conclude that GAS virulence in wax worms strongly correlates with the data obtained in vertebrate models, and thus, the Galleria mellonella larva is a useful host organism to study GAS pathogenesis. PMID:21258213

  17. Virulence of serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus strains in wax worms (Galleria mellonella larvae).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Randall J; Watkins, M Ebru; Cantu, Concepcion C; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human infections that range in severity from pharyngitis ("strep-throat") to necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease").  To facilitate investigation of the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions, infection models capable of rapidly screening for differences in GAS strain virulence are needed.  To this end, we developed a Galleria mellonella larvae (wax worm) model of invasive GAS infection and used it to compare the virulence of serotype M3 GAS strains.  We found that GAS causes severe tissue damage and kills wax worms in a dose-dependent manner.  The virulence of genetically distinct GAS strains was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and determining 50% lethal doses (LD 50).  Host-pathogen interactions were further characterized using quantitative culture, histopathology and TaqMan assays.  GAS strains known to be highly pathogenic in mice and monkeys caused significantly lower survival and had significantly lower LD 50s in wax worms than GAS strains associated with attenuated virulence or asymptomatic carriage.  Furthermore, isogenic inactivation of proven virulence factors resulted in a significantly increased LD 50 and decreased lesion size compared to the wild-type strain, a finding that also strongly correlates with animal studies.  Importantly, survival analysis and LD 50 determination in wax worms supported our hypothesis that a newly emerged GAS subclone that is epidemiologically associated with more human necrotizing fasciitis cases than its progenitor lineage has significantly increased virulence.  We conclude that GAS virulence in wax worms strongly correlates with the data obtained in vertebrate models, and thus, the Galleria mellonella larva is a useful host organism to study GAS pathogenesis. PMID:21258213

  18. Hydroprene prolongs developmental time and increases mortality in wandering-phase Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mohandass, S; Arthur, F H; Zhu, K Y; Throne, J E

    2006-08-01

    Wandering phase Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), larvae were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 x 10(-3) mg [AI] /cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 degrees C and 57% RH until adult emergence. Larval developmental time and mortality were significantly influenced by temperature and exposure intervals. Maximum developmental time (47.2 +/- 1.3 d) occurred at 16 degrees C, and the minimum developmental time (7.0 +/- 0.5 d) occurred at 32 degrees C. Larval mortality generally increased at all of the five tested temperatures as exposure period increased. The greatest mortality (82.0 +/- 0.1%) occurred when larvae were exposed for 30 h at 28 degrees C, and minimum mortality (0.0 +/- 0.5%) occurred at 16 degrees C when larvae were exposed for 1 h. The relationships between temperature, exposure period, and developmental time were described by polynomial models, based on lack-of-fit tests. Hydroprene has potential to be an effective alternative to conventional insecticides in surface treatments for Indianmeal moth management. Response-surface models derived from this study can be used in simulation models to estimate the potential consequences of hydroprene on Indianmeal moth population dynamics. PMID:16937710

  19. Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    E-print Network

    Magaro, Jude Joseph

    1994-01-01

    TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: I / c...

  20. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  1. Cold Hardiness and Supercooling Capacity in the Overwintering Larvae of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25°C. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 ± 1.1°C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 ± 1.2°C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 ± 1.8°C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 ± 1.0°C and -20.2 ± 0.2°C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness. PMID:20673068

  2. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  3. Susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to Lymantria spp. nuclear-and cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Magnoler

    1970-01-01

    SevenLymantria spp. viruses from widely separated sources were used in a screening test for virulence. Laboratory data show thatLymantria dispar L. cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus of Japan, and the nuclear-polyhedrosis virus of Connecticut (U.S.A.) are more virulent\\u000a than other five viruses when tested on the larvae of the gypsy moth. The nuclear-and cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses ofLymantria fumida\\u000a Btl. were also infectious forL. dispar

  4. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  6. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

  7. Tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin in immune-suppressed larvae of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Mahbubur Rahman, M; Roberts, Harry L S; Schmidt, Otto

    2007-10-01

    Tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal endotoxins (Bt-toxins) is correlated with an elevated immune status in larvae of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella. To gain more specific information about the effector pathways involved in the protection against the toxin, we studied the effects of Bt-toxin formulations in susceptible (non-induced) and tolerant (immune-induced) larvae after natural (parasitism-mediated) and chemical (tropolone-mediated) suppression of defence reactions. Although melanization in hemolymph was significantly reduced, there was no significant effect on susceptibility to the toxin in parasitised or tropolone-treated larvae. This suggests that melanization of hemolymph is correlated with an elevated immune status but not responsible for the observed tolerance to Bt-toxin. To examine whether hemolymph proteins exist in the gut lumen and function as pro-coagulants, we compared gut and plasma proteins of immune-induced with those of non-induced larvae. Here we show that the lipid carrier lipophorin represents a major component in the gut lumen and interacts with mature Bt-toxin to form a complex. PMID:17499761

  8. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  9. Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

    2006-03-01

    Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

  10. A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Perdoni, F; Falleni, M; Tosi, D; Cirasola, D; Romagnoli, S; Braidotti, P; Clementi, E; Bulfamante, G; Borghi, E

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

  11. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

  12. Differences in Host Use Efficiency of Larvae of a Generalist Moth, Operophtera brumata on Three Chemically Divergent Salix Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Ruuhola; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Jorma Tahvanainen

    2001-01-01

    The food selection, growth, and fecundity of insect herbivores are largely dictated by the chemical composition and nutritive values of plant foliage. We studied the host-use efficiency of larvae of the generalist moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on three chemically divergent but nutritively similar willows (Salix spp.). The 4th instars were able to use the salicylate-free leaves of S. phylicifolia

  13. Foliar application of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae for biological control of diamondback moth larvae ( Plutella xylostella)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schroer; R.-U. Ehlers

    2005-01-01

    For the use of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae on cabbage foliage to control larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a formulation containing 0.3% of the surfactant Rimulgan and 0.3% of the polymer xanthan was tested in leaf bioassays and compared to nematodes applied in water. Compared to water, the surfactant–polymer formulation (SPF) significantly improved efficacy. Using 75

  14. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

  15. Identification, synthesis, and behavioral activity of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane, a novel sex pheromone component of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Glenn P; Gündüz, Eylem Akman; Sjöberg, Natalia; Hedenström, Erik; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Löfstedt, Christer; Anderbrant, Olle

    2014-04-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a serious and widespread pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. In contrast to most moths, for which long-range mate finding is mediated by female-produced sex pheromones, G. mellonella males attract conspecific females over long distances by emitting large amounts of a characteristic scent in combination with bursts of ultrasonic calls. The male scent for this species was previously identified as a blend of nonanal and undecanal. When these compounds were bioassayed, characteristic short-range sexual behavior, including wing fanning, was triggered in conspecific females, but the aldehyde blend failed to elicit attraction over longer distances. We identified, via analysis and synthesis, a third male-specific compound, 5,11-dimethylpentacosane. We show that it acts as a behavioral synergist to the aldehydes. In wind tunnel experiments, very few female moths responded to the aldehyde blend or to 5,11-dimethylpentacosane tested separately, but consistently showed orientation and source contact when a combination of all three compounds was applied. The level of attraction to the three-component mixture was still lower than that to male extract, indicating that the composition of compounds in the synthetic blend is suboptimal, or that additional pheromone components of G. mellonella are yet to be identified. The identification of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane is an important step for the development of an efficient long-range attractant that will be integrated with other environmentally safe strategies to reduce damage to beehives caused by wax moths. PMID:24692052

  16. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

  17. DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

  18. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa. PMID:14971685

  19. Differences in host use efficiency of larvae of a generalist moth, Operophtera brumata on three chemically divergent Salix species.

    PubMed

    Ruuhola, T; Tikkanen, O P; Tahvanainen, J

    2001-08-01

    The food selection, growth, and fecundity of insect herbivores are largely dictated by the chemical composition and nutritive values of plant foliage. We studied the host-use efficiency of larvae of the generalist moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on three chemically divergent but nutritively similar willows (Salix spp.). The 4th instars were able to use the salicylate-free leaves of S. phylicifolia efficiently. Growth was slightly reduced on S. pentandra, which contained a moderate level of acetylated salicylates. The high concentration of salicylates found in the leaves of S. myrsinifolia seemed to provide efficient protection against non-specialized O. brumata. We also studied assimilation of nutrients and degradation of salicylates and other secondary compounds in the digestive tract of O. brumata larvae. Neither the assimilation of nitrogen nor of carbon were affected by secondary chemicals of ingested food. Salicylates were shown to be degraded to salicin and catechol, while further degradation of salicin to saligenin was rather slow. In an artificial diet experiment, we showed that two degradation products of salicylates, catechol and saligenin markedly reduced the growth of the larvae. Neither salicin nor chlorogenic acid affected larval growth. We conclude that salicylates reduced the growth of the generalist winter moth mainly by feeding deterrence caused by 6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone and catechol. Compared to the deleterious effects of salicylates the effects of other secondary compounds were minor. PMID:11521399

  20. Silkworm moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerd A.T. Müller (None; )

    2002-05-18

    Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

  1. Leaf Surface Lipophilic Compounds as One of the Factors of Silver Birch Chemical Defense against Larvae of Gypsy Moth

    PubMed Central

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V.; Pavlushin, Sergey V.; Dubovskiy, Ivan M.; Belousova, Irina A.; Yushkova, Yuliya V.; Morosov, Sergey V.; Chernyak, Elena I.; Glupov, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females’ pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  2. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  3. Gamma irradiation: Effect of dose and dose rate on development of mature codling moth larvae and adult eclosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burditt, Arthur K.; Hungate, Frank P.; Toba, H. Harold

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae infest apples, pears and many other fruits and nuts. Mature, nondiapausing, cocooned larvae in fiberboard strips were exposed to ?-irradiation at applied doses ranging from 0 to 98 Gy and dose rates from 0.77 to 204.4 Gy/min and subsequently held to permit further development, pupation and adult emergence. At or above an applied dose of 58 Gy, many of the adults that emerged were physically deformed and most were males. As the applied dose increased from 44 to 98 Gy, the percentage of normal adults decreased, the primary effect shifting from a higher percentage of abnormal adults, pupal mortality, to larval mortility. The effects were more pronounced at higher than at lower dose rates. Insect development apparently was not affected when larvae were irradiated at applied doses up to 31.7 Gy. Significantly more adults emerged when larvae were treated at low dose rates (1.0 Gy/min) than at higher dose rates (204 Gy/min). A rate of 52.2 Gy/min was more effective at preventing adult emergence than rates of 1, 4.4 or 201.5 Gy/min.

  4. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  5. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood ( Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepan Ryba; Dalibor Titera; Marcela Haklova; Pavel Stopka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into

  6. Effect of relative humidity and product moisture on response of diapausing and nondiapausing Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to low pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    2010-06-01

    Low pressure treatment in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers is a potential alternative to chemical fumigants for California tree nuts. Laboratory studies investigated the effect of relative humidity and product moisture on weight loss and mortality of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), exposed to 50 mmHg. Diapausing larvae were far more tolerant than nondiapausing larvae to low pressure; exposure times nearly twice those of nondiapausing larvae were required to obtain comparable weight loss or mortality levels in diapausing larvae. Relative humidity was found to have a large effect on both weight loss (assumed to be due to moisture loss) and mortality of both nondiapausing and diapausing larvae. Mortality and weight loss increased as humidity levels decreased. By controlling the relative humidity of the treatment chamber, product moisture also strongly affected weight loss and mortality. The results suggest that for tree nuts, product moisture levels may affect the efficacy of low pressure treatments. PMID:20568605

  7. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

    2009-10-20

    The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

  8. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-05-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey.Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces.The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium.Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission.When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments.Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey.We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  9. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, V; Podgwaite, J D; Zerillo, R; Taylor, P; Fuester, R

    2013-10-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an injection of calyx-derived extract. LdMNPV was delivered per os, integrated into artificial diet. Mortality from all sources was recorded over the subsequent three-week period. Neither parasitism nor injections of purified CmeBV with toxin had any effect on the amount of mortality caused by concurrent challenges with LdMNPV. PMID:23933012

  10. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. B. Traw; F. A. Bazzaz

    1993-01-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and

  11. Integrative Model for Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Victoria; Granero, Francisco; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Malvar, Thomas; Ferré, Juan

    1999-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible strains. PMID:10103230

  12. Is resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac associated with a change in the behavior of light brown apple moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?

    PubMed

    Harris, M O; Markwick, N; Sandanayake, M

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-resistant light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), created by selection of a laboratory colony with artificial diets containing the Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac, were used to explore relationships between larval behavior and resistance to toxins. Our hypothesis was that behavioral responses during the first days of exposure to diet are directly related to the toxicity of the diet, as measured by subsequent mortality. We tested two predictions from this hypothesis. The first prediction was that susceptible larvae and resistant larvae exhibit similar behavior on diet without toxins, settling at feeding sites within a few hours. The second prediction was that susceptible and resistant larvae differ in their behavior on Cry1Ac diet to the same degree that their mortality differs, i.e., on Cry1Ac diet, resistant larvae exhibit anorexia and walking to a lesser degree than susceptible larvae. Predictions were tested by making observations over 2 wk, with each larva held individually in a 10-cm-long cylindrical glass arena with two aliquots of diet. The two aliquots consisted of either the same diet (two no-choice treatments: control/control or Cry 1Ac/Cry1Ac) or different diets (one choice treatment: control/Cry 1Ac). The two predictions did not accurately describe larval behavior. On control diet, behavior differed, with resistant larvae settling more quickly than susceptible larvae. On Cry1Ac diet, behavior was more similar than expected. Thus, even though the Bt diet was much less toxic to resistant larvae, resistant larvae seemed to match the ability of susceptible larvae to reduce exposure to Bt diet while increasing exposure to nontoxic control diet. PMID:16686154

  13. Response of ?-glucosidase in gypsy moth larvae to acute and chronic dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahovi?, Milena S; Mataruga, Vesna D Peri?; Lazarevi?, Jelica M; Mrdakovi?, Marija M; Mati?, Dragana R; Todorovi?, Dajana D; Ilijin, Larisa A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute and chronic treatments with cadmium at 10 ?g Cd/g dry food and 30 ?g Cd/g dry food on ?-glucosidase activity of the 4th instar larvae of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) as well as subsequent recovery. Enzyme inhibition was recorded during acute exposure to 30 ?g Cd/g dry food and during chronic treatment at the lower metal concentration. After three days recovery from 10 ?g Cd/g dry food, the ?-glucosidase activity returned to the control level. One-way ANOVA showed that cadmium significantly influenced the activity of ?-glucosidase during all treatments. The index of phenotypic plasticity was higher during chronic treatment at 10 ?g Cd/g dry food than at 30 ?g Cd/g as well as during the recovery. We detected four glucosidase isoforms by NATIVE PAGE. The activities and expressions of the isoforms depended on both larval genotype and cadmium treatment. PMID:25714460

  14. Tomato fruit size, maturity and alpha-tomatine content influence the performance of larvae of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Mulatu, B; Applebaum, S W; Kerem, Z; Coll, M

    2006-04-01

    Various physical and chemical properties of host plants influence insect larval performance and subsequent adult fitness. Tomato plants are relatively new hosts to the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), with the fruit being its preferred feeding site. However, it is unclear how the biochemical and physical properties of tomato fruits relate to potato tuber moth performance. Significant amounts of alpha-tomatine were detected in maturing green and ripening fruits of cherry (cv. Ceres) and processing (cv. Serio) types of tomatoes whereas none was detected in a fresh market variety (cv. Marglobe), at comparable stages. alpha-Tomatine is negatively and significantly correlated with development rate (head capsule size) of larvae reared in the fruits of the cherry and processing type tomatoes. Generally, survival, growth and development were significantly superior for larvae reared in the ripening fruits of the fresh market cultivar. At this stage, the fruits of this cultivar are also the largest. Based on these results it is concluded that fruit alpha-tomatine content, as well as fruit size and maturity, all affect performance of P. operculella larvae in the fruits of cultivated tomatoes. PMID:16556338

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e?5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were classified. The results of this study will provide useful data for future investigations on pest-resistance phytochemistry and plant breeding. PMID:23696897

  16. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  17. Chemosensory tuning to a host recognition cue in the facultative specialist larvae of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Marta L; Miles, Carol I

    2003-11-01

    Larvae of Manduca sexta are facultative specialists on plants in the family Solanaceae. Larvae reared on solanaceous foliage develop a strong preference for their host; otherwise, they remain polyphagous. The host-specific recognition cue in potato foliage for Manduca larvae is the steroidal glycoside, indioside D. Two pairs of galeal taste sensilla, the lateral and medial sensilla styloconica, are both necessary and sufficient for the feeding preferences of host-restricted larvae. We conducted electrophysiological tip recordings from sensilla of solanaceous or wheat germ diet-reared larvae. For each animal, recordings of the responses to indioside D, glucose, tomatine and KCl were compared. All responses included both phasic and tonic portions. The sensilla styloconica of solanaceous-reared larvae were tuned to indioside D, defined as maintaining a high sensitivity to indioside D, while showing lower sensitivity to other plant compounds. Half of the sensillar neurons of solanaceous-reared larvae were 'tuned' to indioside D, whereas those of wheat germ diet-reared larvae were not. The different responses between the two types of animals were a result of changes of individual receptor cells' responses in the sensilla. Feeding on solanaceous foliage therefore appears to result in a modification of the physiological responses of individual taste receptor cells that causes them to be tuned to the host-recognition cue indioside D. We propose that this tuning is the basis for the host-restricted larvae's strong behavioral preferences for solanaceous foliage. PMID:14555738

  18. COMPARATIVE SURVIVAL RATES OF ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) LARVAE ON SHOOTS AND FRUIT OF APPLE AND PEACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple and peach shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early se...

  19. Integrative Model for Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICTORIA BALLESTER; FRANCISCO GRANERO; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK; THOMAS MALVAR; JUAN FERRE ´

    Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resis- tance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis

  20. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  1. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate, a kairomonal spray adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2010-07-14

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. The pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE), evokes attraction and arrestment of CM larvae. Microencapsulated PE formulation (PE-MEC) enhances the control efficacy of insecticides when used as a spray adjuvant. Characterization of the microencapsulated kairomone, including microcapsule size, concentrations, emission rates, and larval response, was performed. Microcapsule diameter ranged from 2 to 14 mum, with 68% of capsules being 2-3 mum, and the concentration of microcapsules averaged 25.9 x 10(4) capsules per mL of field spray solution. Headspace collections showed emission of PE was related to PE-MEC concentration and was best described as first-order power decay. Neonate larvae responded to PE-MEC applications aged through 14 days. These results demonstrated that application of PE-MEC concurrent with insecticides may increase neonate foliar wandering, thereby disrupting host location and enhancing mortality by prolonging its exposure to insecticide. PMID:20527813

  2. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kloezen, Wendy; van Helvert-van Poppel, Marilyn; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future. PMID:26173126

  3. Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2012-12-01

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

  4. Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) 

    E-print Network

    Magaro, Jude Joseph

    1994-01-01

    toxic at 15'C as at 25'C. Conversely carbary had a positive temperature coefficient of 2. 8 (expressed as +2. 8), i. e. , carbaryl was 2. 8 times more toxic at 25'C as 15'C Maa and Guh (1988), investigated temperature and other factors affecting.... Rearing Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera:Yponomeutidae) on rape seedlings by a modification of the Koshihara and Yamada method. J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 1608-1609. Maa, C. J. W. a S. H. Guh. 1988. Temperature and other extraneous factors affecting malathion...

  5. Interactions between an Entomopathogenic Microsporidium and the Endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis within Their Host, the Gypsy Moth Larva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gernot Hoch; Axel Schopf; Joseph V Maddox

    2000-01-01

    Interactions in the host–parasitoid–pathogen system, Lymantria dispar L. (Lep., Lymantriidae)–Glyptapanteles liparidis (Bouché) (Hym., Braconidae)–Vairimorpha sp. (Protista, Microspora), were investigated. Host selection experiments revealed that G. liparidis females did not discriminate between infected and uninfected host larvae for oviposition. Transmission of the microsporidium from infected to uninfected hosts by stinging female wasps could not be ascertained. Females that developed in infected

  6. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Popovi?, Zorica; Kosti?, Miroslav; Stankovi?, Sladjan; Milanovi?, Slobodan; Siv?ev, Ivan; Kosti?, Igor; Kljaji?, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  7. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Popovi?, Zorica; Kosti?, Miroslav; Stankovi?, Sladjan; Milanovi?, Slobodan; Siv?ev, Ivan; Kosti?, Igor; Kljaji?, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  8. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

  9. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  10. Metal-supplemented diets alter carbohydrate levels in tissue and hemolymph of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    Larvae of Lymantria dispar were exposed to two concentrations each of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from hatching to day 3 of the fourth instar. The metals were applied via artificial diet (wheat germ diet); two control groups were reared on either an uncontaminated artificial diet (C) or on a natural diet (oak leaves, EF). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the hemolymph carbohydrates, whereas body glycogen and glucose were determined enzymatically. The results were analyzed with respect to diet-specific differences (oak leaves versus wheat germ diet) and metal exposure compared with the uncontaminated artificial diet. Hemolymph trehalose levels were higher in oak leaf-reared individuals than in those fed on the wheat germ diet (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite applied to the body glycogen and free glucose levels (p < 0.01). The average trehalose value of the control (C) (4.3 mg/ml) was reduced by metal contamination, dependent on both the metal itself and the concentration (Cd, Cu, Zn; 1.4--3.3 mg/ml). Sorbitol was not detected in the hemolymph of EF specimens, whereas it occurred in all artificial diet-fed groups. Metal- and dose-dependent differences in the hemolymph sorbitol levels were observed in the treatment groups, but not in the controls. Glycogen content increased in the low concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas a decrease was observed for the low Cd and both Zn concentrations. Tissue free glucose was enhanced only in three of the metal groups. Generally, fresh and dry weights of larvae were reduced in all groups except the high Cu-contaminated one. The results may indicate that mass outbreaks of an important forest pest insect like L. dispar may be facilitated in metal-contaminated areas because parasitization success of antagonistic species may decline due to deterioration of nourishment within the metal-stressed host.

  11. Terrestrial Insect Ingestion by Filter Feeding Caddisfly Larvae, Brachycentrus americanus (Trichoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayuko Ohkawa; Tomiko Ito

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial insect ingestion by larvae of the caddisfly, Brachycentrus americanus, was observed for the first time. The caddisfly larvae caught the large moth larvae in the water current, tore the exoskeleton of the larvae, and ingested the body contents.

  12. Ear wax

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  13. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

    1976-01-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

  14. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

    1976-07-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

  15. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  16. Effect of pre-incubation temperature on susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mowlds, Peter; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The use of insects for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for determining the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs is increasing. When larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were incubated at 4 or 37 degrees C for 24 h. prior to infection, they manifested increased resistance to infection by the yeast Candida albicans compared to larvae that had been pre-incubated for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Incubation at 4 or 37 degrees C led to an increase in haemocyte density and the expression of genes coding for gallerimycin, transferrin, an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) and galiomicin. Peak expression of these genes was recorded at approximately 24 h after the commencement of the 4 or 37 degrees C incubation. These results indicate that exposure of larvae to mild thermal shock conditions induces a protective cellular and humoral immune response mediated by increased numbers of haemocytes and elevated expression of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:17922218

  17. SEASONAL AND CULTIVAR ASSOCIATED VARIATION IN THE OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE OF ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) ADULTS AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF NEONATE LARVAE IN APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (OFM) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early 20th century. OFM has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple orchards...

  18. UK Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian Kimber

    Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

  19. Luna moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shawn Hanrahan (None; )

    2004-01-01

    One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

  20. POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Predation on larvae and pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) was studied in a leading dispar, Peromyscus, Sorex, predation, small mammals, exclosures THE GYPSY MOTH, Lymantria dispar (L

  1. Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    397 Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397­404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus changes in chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) leaf quality caused by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L al., 1995; Eshleman et al., 1998). Larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L., Lepidoptera

  2. Host plant selection by larvae of the muga silk moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the role of the antenna and maxillary palp.

    PubMed

    Bora, D S; Deka, B; Sen, A

    2013-01-01

    The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

  3. Peppered Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The purpose of the peppered moth activity is to model the effects of natural selection on the appearance and genetic make-up of a natural population. By adjusting the amount of pollution in the environment, the student is able to see the differences in the frequencies of light and dark moths in the population. The student may also investigate the survival differences between dominant and recessive genes when one phenotype has a selective advantage over the other.

  4. Determining Host-Plant Resistance Mechanisms for Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is a key pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Female moths deposit eggs on the outer surface of the bracts of the sunflower head. Larval feeding in the heads causes seed loss and lower oil content resulting in reduced yield. Upon reaching maturity larvae drop to the gr...

  5. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  6. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

  7. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod. PMID:23448069

  8. HL-20 Wax Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

  9. Quantification of Invasion of Two Strains of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) into Three Lepidopteran Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Capinera, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Studies with last instar larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) were used to quantify the invasive ability of two strains (All and Mexican) of Steinernema carpocapsae and to determine how factors in the bioassay procedure affect both nematode invasion and host mortality. Nematode invasive ability was variable, with 10-50% of nematodes successfully infecting the host. The percentage of infectives invading the host (invasion efficiency) was positively related to increases in length of host exposure time and number of hosts per arena, negatively related to increases in substrate surface area per host, and not affected by nematode concentration. There was a direct relationship between concentration applied and the number of nematodes invading the host. Mortality was less affected than invasion efficiency by bioassay conditions and appears to be a much less sensitive index of nematode activity than invasive ability. PMID:19279755

  10. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    E-print Network

    Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding mol- ecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the base- ment membrane

  11. Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mosquitoes, apparently because of a reduced feeding time for larvae. In addition, larvae tended to leaveMosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth Ve´ronique Martel1 *¤ , Fredrik investigated the impact of a terrestrial micropredator, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, on its unusual

  12. Suitability, digestibility and assimilation of various host plants of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Barbosa; Jane Greenblatt

    1979-01-01

    The development and survival of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is strongly influenced by the host plant upon which they feed. The most rapid development and largest pupae were produced from grey birch fed larvae. Beech and maple-fed larvae produced the smallest pupae while maple-fed larvae exhibited prolonged development. White and red oak-fed larvae exhibited development and pupal weights intermediate

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of the Chinese White Wax Scale Ericerus pela with Focus on Genes Involved in Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. Conclusion/Significance The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified. PMID:22536429

  14. Physical stress primes the immune response of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mowlds, Peter; Barron, Aoife; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    Larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) that had been subjected to physical stress by shaking in cupped hands for 2 min showed reduced susceptibility to infection by Candida albicans when infected 24 h after the stress event. Physically stressed larvae demonstrated an increase in haemocyte density and elevated mRNA levels of galiomicin and an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) but not transferrin or gallerimycin. In contrast, previous work has demonstrated that microbial priming of larvae resulted in the induction of all four genes. Examination of the expression of proteins in the insect haemolymph using 2D electrophoresis and MALDI TOF analysis revealed an increase in the intensity of a number of peptides showing some similarities with proteins associated with the insect immune response to infection. This study demonstrates that non-lethal physical stress primes the immune response of G. mellonella and this is mediated by elevated haemocyte numbers, increased mRNA levels of genes coding for two antimicrobial peptides and the appearance of novel peptides in the haemolymph. This work demonstrates that physical priming increases the insect immune response but the mechanism of this priming is different to that induced by low level exposure to microbial pathogens. PMID:18457977

  15. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  16. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  17. Simulating Wax Crayons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Rudolf; David Mould; Eric Neufeld

    2003-01-01

    We present a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user- specified strokes. Paper is represented by a height-field tex- ture, and a crayon is modelled with a 2D mask that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon contact profile, contact force, and friction. Previously

  18. Competition between the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis: interactions mediated by host plant chemistry, pathogens, and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Redman, A M; Scriber, J M

    2000-10-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, overlap geographically as well as in their host ranges. Adult female swallowtails are incapable of distinguishing between damaged and undamaged leaves, and the opportunities for competition between these two species are numerous. We designed field and laboratory experiments to look for evidence of indirect competition between P. canadensis and L. dispar larvae. Swallowtail caterpillars were reared in the laboratory on leaves from gypsy-moth-defoliated and undefoliated trees to explore host-plant effects. We tested for pathogen-mediated interactions by rearing swallowtail larvae on both sterilized and unsterilized leaves from defoliated and undefoliated sources. In addition, we measured the effects of known gypsy moth pathogens, as well as gypsy moth body fluids, on the growth and survival of swallowtail larvae. Field experiments were designed to detect the presence of parasitoid-mediated competition, as well: we recorded parasitism of swallowtail caterpillars placed in the field either where there were no gypsy moth larvae present, or where we had artificially created dense gypsy moth populations. We found evidence that swallowtails were negatively affected by gypsy moths in several ways: defoliation by gypsy moths depressed swallowtail growth rate and survival, whether leaves were sterilized or not; sterilization significantly reduced the effect of defoliation, and gypsy moth body fluids proved lethal; and swallowtail caterpillars suffered significantly increased rates of parasitism when they were placed in the field near gypsy moth infestations. PMID:24595833

  19. Cherry Ermine Moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Occurrence and Survey Methods Evaluation in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC LAGASA; DOUGLAS PRASHER; ERIC BRUNTJEN

    Another closely related exotic species, the apple ermine moth (AEM) Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller) was found in B.C., Canada, and northwestern Washington State in the early 1980's. AEM and CEM larvae and adults are essentially identical in appearance, biology, and time of occurrence. The primary difference in the two species is their development on different host plants, with AEM larvae feeding

  20. Enzymatic characterization of nine endoparasite species of small ermine moths (Yponomeutidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. J. Menken

    1982-01-01

    Summary Eight hymenopterous and 1 dipterous species, all endoparasitic in eggs, larvae, or pupae of small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) were investigated for their allozyme variation at 3–29 loci. The mean heterozygosity level of the hymenopterous species is one-third of that of the dipterous species. Zymogram patterns of the parasite larvae do not interfere with those of the host.

  1. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  2. Laboratory Bioassays Testing the Host Range of the Gypsy Moth Fungal Pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Hajek; L. Butler; M. M. Wheeler

    1995-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga causes epizootics in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations, but little is known about the effects of this pathogen on other insect species. The host specificity of E. maimaiga was evaluated by externally inoculating larvae with conidia in the laboratory. Larvae were considered successfully infected if E. maimaiga produced spores in\\/on cadavers. A total of 78

  3. Leaf phenolic inhibition of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus Role of polyhedral inclusion body aggregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Keating; Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

    1990-01-01

    Bioassays with nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) administered to gypsy moth larvae on leaf disks from various tree species reveal strong viral inhibition by some tree species. Phenolic extracts from inhibitory tree leaves cause virus polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) to form large aggregations. However, aggregated PIBs treated with leaf extracts and administered to larvae on laboratory diet (without phenolics) retain virulence.

  4. Biology and ecology of Herpestomus brunnicornis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a potential biological control agent of the apple ermine moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Kuhlmann

    1996-01-01

    Fourth and fifth instar larvae, and also pupae of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, are attacked by the ichneumonid Herpestomus brunnicornis Gravenhorst in central Europe. The parasitoid was studied as a potential biological control agent of the apple ermine moth in British Columbia. Investigations of the biology of H. brunnicornis its distribution of attack within the tree canopy

  5. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  6. Some chemical bases for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar , larval rejection of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , foliage as food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Markovic; Dale M. Norris; Miodrag Cekic

    1996-01-01

    Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained

  7. Effects on behavior of Apanteles melanoscelus females caused by modifications in extraction, storage, and presentation of Gypsy moth silk kairomone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1977-01-01

    Choice experiments were performed to investigate details of femaleApanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) behavior when exposed to gypsy moth silk kairomone [Lymantria dispar (L.)] and to host larvae when kairomone is present. Female parasites only responded to the kairomone when it had been placed on thin strands such as cotton fibers. Both gypsy moth silk and silk glands contain the same or

  8. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  9. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2 cDNAs encoded isozymes that reduced fatty acids to fatty alcohols. Fatty acyl-CoA esters were the substrate of FAR1, and the enzyme required NADPH as a cofactor. FAR1 preferred saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as substrates, whereas FAR2 preferred saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons. Confocal light microscopy indicated that FAR1 and FAR2 were localized in the peroxisome. The FAR1 mRNA was detected in many mouse tissues with the highest level found in the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The FAR2 mRNA was more restricted in distribution and most abundant in the eyelid, which contains wax-laden meibomian glands. Both FAR mRNAs were present in the brain, a tissue rich in ether lipids. The data suggest that fatty alcohol synthesis in mammals is accomplished by two fatty acyl-CoA reductase isozymes that are expressed at high levels in tissues known to synthesize wax monoesters and ether lipids. PMID:15220348

  10. Beekeeping for Beginners

    E-print Network

    Parks, Harris Bradley

    1919-01-01

    ............................................ 9 Che Drone .............................................. 9 hone Control ........................................... 9 .......................................... Che Worker Bee 10 ............................................ rinds of Bees 10... .................................... Information .................................... List of Rooks PLATES. Facing Page. Bee and the Wax Moth. 1 Worker. 2 IVorker Brood. I 3 Drone. 4 Drone Brood. 5 Queen. 6 Queen Cells. 7 Wax Moth. 8 Wax Moth Larva.. ................... 9 2. Above...

  11. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  12. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...sanction for use in reinforced wax and used in accordance with such...modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives...in § 178.3870 Synthetic wax polymer as described in §...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sanction for use in reinforced wax and used in accordance with such...modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives...in § 178.3870 Synthetic wax polymer as described in §...

  14. Fate of plant-derived secondary metabolites in three moth species ( Syntomis mogadorensis, Syntomeida epilais , and Creatonotos transiens )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wink; Dietrich Schneider

    1990-01-01

    Summary Larvae of three moth species were compared with respect to strategies used to cope with secondary metabolites (allelochemicals) present in their diet.Syntomeida epilais is monophagous and accepted only oleander (which contains cardenolides, CG). CG were detected as stored products in the larvae and also in the faeces and exuviae. Pure CG (digoxin and gitoxin) which do not occur in

  15. Midgut transcriptomic response of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar, to infection with l. dispar and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental resistance of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to baculovirus infection consists of both midgut-based and systemic components. To characterize the midgut response of larvae to baculovirus infection and identify larval host genes putatively involved in the midgut component of devel...

  16. Silkworm larvae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None; )

    2007-08-04

    Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

  17. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-09-22

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

  18. Wax Crystallization and Additive-Wax Interactions in Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma-Nair, M.; Pacansky, T. J.; Martella, D. J.

    1997-03-01

    Wax crystallization is a major problem in a petrochemical industry. Low temperature leads to crystallization causing problems for transportation, storage and use. For example, the wax crystals in lubricants involve mixtures of normal and iso paraffins (C15-C34), and are large, thin, convoluted, interlocking platelets, which entrap oil and form a network. Polymeric additives change nucleation and growth habits of wax and lead to better performance. It is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of wax crystallization and the wax-additive interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to study thermodynamics and crystallization kinetics of additized and unadditized solutions. Several comb shaped fummarate vinyl acetate copolymers are evaluated. The response of the additive is very specific to the average C number in the crystallizable ester side chains of the copolymer. These changes are concentration dependent and change with complexity of the formulation. The dominant interaction appears to be cocrystallization of the side chains of the copolymer with the crystallizable paraffins of wax. These additives also increase the metastability region. Thus, inhibition of wax crystallization is critical to the mechanism of interaction.

  19. Effects of elicitation treatment and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus : impacts on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) development and feeding behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan P. Havill; Kenneth F. Raffa

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of various wounding treatments and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus (Salicales: Salicaceae) against herbivory by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Second-instar larvae grew and consumed less on leaves from induced than non-induced trees.\\u000a Likewise, larvae preferred leaf disks from non-induced trees. Among induction treatments, gypsy moth feeding had the strongest\\u000a and

  20. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  1. Waxes for functional impressions.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a wax suitable to serve as a functional impression material. Several binary mixtures of paraffin, beeswax and rosin were prepared. They were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), and tested for plastic deformation, thermal expansion, detail reproduction and mechanical properties. It was found that the combinations of paraffin with rosin can function well as impression materials, as they combine a high value of plastic deformation at 37 degrees C with relatively low values at room temperature. Concentrations of rosin as small as 1% or 2% are adequate to produce this result. The flow of paraffin was significantly reduced by the addition of beeswax. A linear relationship was found between the 37 degrees C flow values of paraffin-beeswax mixtures and the proportions of the ingredients. PMID:8850062

  2. Gypsy Moth in North America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

  3. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  4. Waxworms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-05

    Adult waxworm moths lay eggs. The eggs hatch into waxworm larvae. The larvae pupate and spin cocoons in which metamorphosis occurs. The waxworms emerge from the cocoons as adult greater waxworm moths. Adult waxworm moths can take over weak beehives and lay their eggs there. The larvae will eat the wax hives and destroy them.

  5. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

  6. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  7. Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

    1995-01-01

    Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

  8. Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

    2005-06-01

    Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

  9. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  10. Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

  11. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Rodríguez-Loechesa; Alejandro Barro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk

  12. Host status of Hass avocado fruit for the False Codling Moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricadae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Grové; W. P. Steyn; M. S. De Beer

    The false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a known pest of avocados, although the larvae do not develop fully inside the fruit. In this study, the host status of Hass avocado was established for C. leucotreta. Late hanging Hass fruit were artificially infested with eggs of C. leucotreta and covered with bags. The fruit were shed and

  13. Monarch larvae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derek Ramsey (None; )

    2007-09-03

    Monarch butterflies have extra protection against predation. When they are caterpillars, or larvae, they eat milkweed leaves. The caterpillars then store toxins in the milkweed in their bodies so that hungry animals that bite into them will have a very bad taste in their mouths. These toxins can also poison the predator.

  14. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

  15. Apple pith moth Blastodacna atra Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and

    E-print Network

    Apple pith moth Blastodacna atra Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis of Agriculture. Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets The apple pith moth is an occasional pest of apple orchards and fruit tree nurseries in Eurasia. Larvae feed inside the twigs and heavy infestations

  16. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  17. Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

  18. Calorimetric Analysis of Commercial and Dental Waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Powers; R. G. Craig; F. A. Peyton

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetric analysis was used to determine heats of transition and fusion of waxes between 0 and 100 C. In general, hydrocarbon waxes had higher total heats of transition than did ester waxes. Calorimetric measurements on binary mixtures showed that carnauba and beeswax interacted with paraffin, the former having the greater effect.

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

  3. Red clover with moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sage Ross (None; )

    2007-09-23

    Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

  4. Survival of indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    2007-08-01

    Concerns over insect resistance, regulatory action, and the needs of organic processors have generated renewed interest in developing nonchemical alternative postharvest treatments to fumigants used on dried fruits and nuts. Low-temperature storage has been identified as one alternative for the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), common postharvest pests in California dried fruits and nuts. The response of eggs, nondiapausing larvae, and pupae of both species to exposure to low temperatures (0, 5, and 10 degrees C) was evaluated. Eggs of both species were the least tolerant of low temperatures. At 0 and 5 degrees C, pupae were most tolerant, but at 10 degrees C, nondiapausing larvae of both species were most tolerant, with lethal time (LT)95 values of 127 and 100 d for Indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm, respectively. The response of diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae to subfreezing temperatures also was evaluated. Diapausing larvae were very cold tolerant at -10 degrees C, with LT95 values of 20 and 17 d for long-term laboratory and recently isolated cultures, respectively. Diapausing larvae were far less tolerant at lower temperatures. At -15 degrees C, LT95 values for both cultures were <23 h, and at -20 degrees C, LT95 values were <7 h. Refrigeration temperatures of 0-5 degrees C should be useful in disinfesting product contaminated with nondiapausing insects, with storage times of 3 wk needed for adequate control. Relatively brief storage in commercial freezers, provided that the temperature throughout the product was below -15 degrees C for at least 48 h, also shows potential as a disinfestation treatment, and it is necessary when diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae are present. PMID:17849906

  5. Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard: Adaptation and natural selection.

    E-print Network

    Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Grade: 4th Standard: Adaptation and natural selection. Supplements: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials

  6. Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything://www.ces.purdue.edu/marketing Gypsy moth detections­2003 Red = areas where gypsy moth was detected Yellow = surveyed areas White = uninfested areas (not surveyed) #12;3 2 Eggs July-May Caterpillars May-June Pupae June-July Adults July

  7. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-2-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A GYPSY MOTH Q get your crop inspected and certified as being free of all viable gypsy moth life stages from either. Passing that in- spection certifies your crop as free of gypsy moth. WHAT CAN I DO TO BE SURE THAT MY

  8. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

  9. Depilatory Wax Burns: Experience and Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela C; Watson, Katherine M; Aston, Tara L; Wagstaff, Marcus JD; Greenwood, John E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To retrospectively collect data on patients with burn injury due to hot depilatory wax. To investigate the effect of varying microwave output power on wax temperature. To determine whether instructions provided by manufacturers allow safe domestic use. Methods: Data from the RAH burns database was collected for patients with wax-induced burns between January 1991 and January 2010. Wax temperatures were tested in a pilot study (4 wax products heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 900 W, and 1100 (W) and a definitive study (5 wax products, 3 of each, heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 1000 W, and 1200 (W). A number of different heating regimens were employed and temperatures were recorded using an infrared thermometer. Results: Twenty-one patients were studied. Mean age was 26.5 years. The majority of burns were superficial (33.3%) or partial thickness (25.8%). The right hand was most commonly affected (38.1%), the mean total body surface area was 1%. The pilot study revealed an increase in wax temperature with the number of times the wax was heated. During definitive wax temperature testing, the maximum wax temperature recorded was 108.5°C. Seventeen of 60 wax surface temperatures recorded exceeded 90°C, 9 exceeded 100°C. Ninety-three percent of the stirred wax temperatures showed an increase in wax temperature with an increase in microwave power output. Conclusion: Microwave-heated hair-removal wax has the potential to reach unsafe temperatures and cause burn injury, even when manufacture's heating instructions are followed. Safe use in domestic setting requires improvements in instructions provided by the manufacturer. PMID:21625616

  10. Tiger moth jams bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

    2009-07-17

    In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

  11. Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth Agriculture Pest Survey program). The photographs of the European pepper moth were used with permission from

  12. Butterflies and Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Sessions

    2009-04-06

    Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

  13. Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiter, M.

    1987-08-01

    Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

  14. Wax Ester and Triacylglycerol Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Wältermann; Alexander Steinbüchel

    Neutral lipids such as wax esters (WEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) are frequently accumulated as energy and carbon stores\\u000a in certain groups of bacteria. The biosynthesis of these lipids is promoted in cells grown during unbalanced growth, if an\\u000a essential nutrient is limited and a surplus of a carbon source is available. They are again mobilized under conditions of\\u000a carbon and

  15. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  16. Dead-end trap cropping: a technique to improve management of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Shelton; B. A Nault

    2004-01-01

    Use of non-glossy collards as a trap crop for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in commercial fields of cabbage in New York was unsuccessful because it neither reduced the number of larvae on cabbage nor concentrated the insects on collards. In laboratory and outdoor screenhouse experiments, P. xylostella preferentially laid its eggs on the glossy-type Barbarea vulgaris,

  17. Parasitism by Cotesia plutellae alters the hemocyte population and immunological function of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. A. Ibrahim; Yonggyun Kim

    2006-01-01

    Cotesia plutellae, a solitary endoparasitoid wasp, parasitizes the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and induces host immunosuppression and lethality in the late larval stage. This study focused on changes of cellular immunity in the parasitized P. xylostella in terms of hemocyte composition and cellular functions. In third and fourth instar larvae of nonparasitized P. xylostella, granular cells represented the main hemocyte

  18. Starvation resistance of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): tradeoffs among growth, body size, and survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Stockhoff

    1991-01-01

    Survival and body composition of starving gypsy moth larvae initially reared on aspen foliage or artificial diet differeing in nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate concentration were examined under laboratory conditions. Diet nitrogen concentration strongly affected starvation resistance and body composition, but diet carbohydrate content had no effects on these. Within any single diet treatment, greater body mass afforded greater resistance to

  19. Hostplant, larval age, and feeding behavior influence midgut pH in the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Schultz; M. J. Lechowicz

    1986-01-01

    The midgut pH of late instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae is strongly alkaline, and varies with diet, larval stadium, and time since feeding. Midgut pH rises with time since feeding, and does so more quickly, reaching greater maximum values, on some diets than others. Leaf tissues of 23 tree species resist increases in alkalinity differentially; this trait and

  20. Decline in gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) performance in an elevated CO 2 atmosphere depends upon host plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Traw; R. L. Lindroth; F. A. Bazzaz

    1996-01-01

    Plant species differ broadly in their responses to an elevated CO2 atmosphere, particularly in the extent of nitrogen dilution of leaf tissue. Insect herbivores are often limited by the availability of nutrients, such as nitrogen, in their host plant tissue and may therefore respond differentially on different plant species grown in CO2-enriched environments. We reared gyspy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar)

  1. Relationships between leaf age and the food quality of cottonwood foliage for the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Meyer; M. E. Montgomery

    1987-01-01

    The cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides, continues to produce leaves late into the growing season, exposing midseason herbivores to leaves of a wide range of maturity. Gypsy moth larvae preferred and grew best on the oldest cottonwood leaves and suffered higher mortality and 85% less growth when fed young, expanding leaves. Concentration of phenolics in the youngest leaves was 3 times

  2. Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  3. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  6. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely...Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China:...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  8. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

  10. Moth Repellent Chemicals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

  11. Leaf wax of Portulaca oleracea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Tulloch

    1974-01-01

    Wax coating the leaves and stems ofPortulaca oleracea consists of hydrocarbons (21%), esters (53%), acids (2%), alcohols (4%), diol monoesters (2%), and unidentified material\\u000a (15%). Lesser amounts of esterified and free ?-amyrin and lupeol, stigmast-4-en-3-one and free diols also are present. The\\u000a principal component of the hydrocarbons is C33. The C40-C56 esters are C22-C28 alcohol esters of C20-C26 acids; free

  12. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; and soft candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; and soft candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; and soft candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter....

  15. Classification and terminology of plant epicuticular waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILHELM BARTHLOTT; CHRISTOPH NEINHUIS; DAVID CUTLER; FRIEDRICH DITSCH; IRIS MEUSEL; INGE THEISEN; HILTRUD WILHELMI

    1998-01-01

    Plant cuticles are covered by waxes with considerable ultrastructural and chemical diversity. Many of them are of great systematic significance. Waxes are an essential structural element of the surface and of fundamental functional and ecological importance for the interaction between plants and their environment. An extensive literature has been published since the introduction of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hitherto, the

  16. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Bostick; R. T. Jubin; T. W. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied

  17. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

  18. CELLULAR REACTIONS TO WAXES FROM MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, F. R.; Smithburn, K. C.; Thomas, R. M.

    1935-01-01

    1. The waxes from the B. leprae, like those from tubercle bacilli, are remarkable stimulants of cells. 2. The crude wax separated from the B. leprae is a mixture of lipoids and other materials, and gives reactions that include the types of cells characteristic of the response to the tuberculo-polysaccharide, phosphatide, and wax. 3. The wax obtained from the purification of the lepra phosphatide shows similar cellular reactions but with a greater proportion of foreign body giant cells. 4. Leprosin, though a glyceride, corresponds in its physical properties to the unsaponifiable material from the tubercle bacillus. It stimulates two strains of cells, fibroblasts and monocytes. The monocytes fuse into foreign body giant cells to engulf the wax. 5. The cellular reaction to the leprosinic acid and to the crystalline alcohols is of one type only, represented by the foreign body giant cell. PMID:19870447

  19. Effects of three neem-based insecticides on diamondback moth (lepidoptera: plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge-Mei Liang; Wen Chen; Tong-Xian Liu

    2003-01-01

    Three commercial neem-based insecticides, Agroneem™, Ecozin™, and Neemix™, were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect to larvae, and toxicity to eggs of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., in the laboratory. All three neem-based insecticides did not exhibit significant oviposition deterrence on P. xylostella. When cabbage leaves were used as an egg-laying substrate, numbers of eggs oviposited by P. xylostella

  20. Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco R. Badenes-perez; Anthony M. Shelton; Brian A. Nault

    2005-01-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth,Plutellaxylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage,Brassicaoleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in Þeld plots of cabbage alone were 5.2Ð11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several

  1. A Saponin Correlated with Variable Resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Bo M. Bibby; Hanne O. Frandsen; Lea D. Brown; Jens K. Nielsen; J. Alan A. Renwick

    2003-01-01

    Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for

  2. Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Collin; Kazuei Mita; Frantisek Sehnal; Cheryl Y. Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.\\u000a Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective\\u000a tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical\\u000a features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed

  3. Differential toxicity of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and related naphthoquinones to saturniid moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Thiboldeaux; Richard L. Lindroth; James W. Tracy

    1994-01-01

    The preferred hosts of the saturniid mothActias luna include members of the Juglandaceae, whose foliage contain the toxin juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The performance ofActias luna andCallosamia promethea was compared when fourth-instar larvae of each were fed birch foliage, a mutually acceptable food plant, or birth supplemented with 0.05% (w\\/w) juglone.A. luna fed juglone exhibited no changes in developmental time or mortality

  4. Transgenic tobacco and apple plants expressing biotin-binding proteins are resistant to two cosmopolitan insect pests, potato tuber moth and lightbrown apple moth, respectively.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Ngaire P; Docherty, Lisa C; Phung, Margaret M; Lester, Melissa T; Murray, Colleen; Yao, Jia-Long; Mitra, Deepali S; Cohen, Daniel; Beuning, Lesley L; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Christeller, John T

    2003-12-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) and apple (Malus x domestica cv. Royal Gala) plants expressing avidin or strepavidin were produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. ELISA assays showed that avidin expression ranged from 3.1 to 4.6 microM in tobacco and from 1.9 to 11.2 microM in apple and streptavidin expression ranged from 11.4 to 24.5 microM in tobacco and from 0.4 to 14.6 microM in apple. Expressed at these levels, both biotin-binding proteins conferred a high level of insect resistance on transformed tobacco plants to larval potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (fam. Gelechiidae) and on apple plants to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (fam. Tortricidae). More than 90% of PTM larvae died on tobacco plants expressing either avidin or streptavidin genes within 9 days of inoculation. Mortality of LBAM larvae was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on three avidin-expressing (89.6, 84.9 and 80.1%) and two streptavidin-expressing (90 and 82.5%) apple plant lines than on non-transformed control plants (14.1%) after 21 days. Weight of LBAM larvae was also significantly reduced by feeding on all apple shoots expressing avidin and on apple shoots expressing streptavidin at levels of 3.8 microM and above. PMID:14713196

  5. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-4-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT USING BTK TO CONTROL GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof & Adam Witte, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Jodie Ellis, Executive Director at Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine WHAT IS THE GYPSY MOTH, AND WHY IS IT A PROB- LEM

  6. Evaluation of potential versus realized primary infection of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) by Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales).

    PubMed

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Wheeler, Micheal M; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-10-01

    The fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has provided important biological control of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), since the first epizootics occurred in the northeastern United States in 1989. Epizootics are initiated by germination of soil-borne resting spores, which are highly sensitive to spring temperature and moisture. We compared gypsy moth infection by E. maimaiga in 33 oak stands in Michigan with infection under optimal laboratory conditions from 1999 to 2001 to assess differences between potential and realized efficacy of E. maimaiga. Field bioassays were conducted by exposing laboratory-reared, fourth-instar gypsy moth to soil at the base of oak trees for 4 d. Additional larvae were similarly exposed to soil collected from the field plots in laboratory bioassays with temperature, humidity, and moisture levels optimal for fungal germination. Overall E. maimaiga infection ranged from means of 3.2-29.8% in the field compared with 20.9-59.7% in the laboratory during three field seasons. Resting spore density in soil and gypsy moth egg mass density were significant predictors of field infections in two of the 3 yr, whereas resting spore density was a significant predictor of laboratory infections each year. Other variables that significantly predicted laboratory infections in one of the 3 yr included egg mass density, canopy cover, and soil pH. In laboratory bioassays, soil pH and E. maimaiga resting spore density were positively associated with increasing E. maimaiga infection rates of gypsy moth larvae. PMID:23068167

  7. Comparative activity of baculoviruses against the codling moth Cydia pomonella and three other tortricid pests of tree fruit.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Vail, P V; Hoffmann, D F

    2002-05-01

    The granulovirus of Cydia pomonella (L.) (CpGV) offers potential for selective control of codling moth. Two major limitations of CpGV are its narrow host range and lack of persistence in the orchard agroecosystem. The nucleopolyhedroviruses of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) (AcMNPV) and those of the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV) have broad host ranges. Comparative assays of CpGV, AcMNPV, and AfMNPV against codling moth neonate larvae revealed a 54-93-fold greater susceptibility of codling moth to the granulovirus than to the two nucleopolyhedroviruses based on the LC(50) values for each virus. The LC(50)s for CpGV, AfMNPV, and AcMNPV were 32.7 capsules/mm(2), 1.77 x 10(3) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mm(2), and 3.05 x 10(3)OBs/mm(2), respectively. The LT(50) determined for AfMNPV using an approximate LC(95) of the virus against neonate larvae was 3.6 days. Histological examination of tissues in moribund codling moth larvae that had been treated with AfMNPV revealed the presence of nonoccluded and unenveloped virus rods in midgut tissue. Neither OBs nor signs of infection were detected in other tissues. The activity of AfMNPV was also evaluated in three other tortricid apple pests (obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott; and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck)). Codling and Oriental fruit moths were significantly more susceptible to AfMNPV than were the two leafroller species. PMID:12234544

  8. [Demonstration of the remote effect of baculovirus vertical transmission, with gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) as an example].

    PubMed

    Il'inykh, A V; Polenogova, O V

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that viral infection can be formed in insects survived after infection of gypsy moth larvae by nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), and cause subsequent mortality of individuals during, at minimum, two generations (the period of observations). The vertical virus transmission is carried by both male and female insects survived after infection. It is shown by means of PCR that the level of virus carrying in gypsy moth embryos of generations F1 and F2 is higher than the number of insects killed by NPV. PMID:23136793

  9. Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates. PMID:20857763

  10. Melting points of synthetic wax esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. R. Iyengar; H. Schlenk

    1969-01-01

    Saturated, monoenoic and dienoic wax esters, C26?C40, have been synthesized from even-numbered fatty alcohols and acids. In homologous series of saturated esters, the increments\\u000a of melting points follow a regular trend except for those esters which have an acid moiety two carbon atoms shorter than the\\u000a alcohol moiety. These wax esters have melting points higher than interpolation would predict. Monoenoic

  11. Laminar Smoke Points of Wax Candles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn M. Allan; John R. Kaminski; Jerry C. Bertrand; Jeb Head; Peter B. Sunderland

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation of laminar smoke points of candle flames is presented. Adjustable wicks with diameters of 1.7–7.3 mm were used to measure smoke points in quiescent air for 14 different waxes. The measured smoke points increased with wick diameter. Smoke points interpolated to a wick diameter of 4.5 mm varied from 41–80 mm and increased from commercial waxes (candelilla, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin)

  12. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  13. Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven

    Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

  14. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; David R. Horton; Dana C. Jones

    2008-01-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected

  15. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY...environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program. DATES: Effective Date...of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

  16. Decline of the invasive submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) associated with herbivory by larvae of Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Johnson; Elisabeth M. Gross; Nelson G. Hairston

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Myriophyllum spicatum, an exotic submersed macrophyte causing serious lake management problems throughout much of North America, decreased markedly in biomass in Cayuga Lake, NY, USA, since the beginning of the 1990s. Over the same period, however, the total biomass of all species of submersed macrophytes did not decline, and native macrophytes gained in abundance. The aquatic moth larva, Acentria

  17. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-11-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  18. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Manuela M.; Eberle, Karolin E.; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  19. Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

    2001-01-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

  20. Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

  1. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin. PMID:20423490

  2. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. PMID:24507264

  3. Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

  4. Sodium: a male moth's gift to its offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, S R; Eisner, T

    1996-01-01

    Males of the moth Gluphisia septentrionis acquire sodium by drinking from mud puddles. Analyses of male and female bodies indicate that such "puddling" behavior enables the male to provide his mate with a nuptial gift of sodium, presumably via the spermatophore. This gift (about 10 microg), amounting to more than half of a puddler male's total body sodium, is in large measure apportioned by the female to her eggs. Puddler-sired eggs contain 2 to 4 times more sodium than those control-sired; this difference is already apparent in eggs laid the night after mating. Paternal endowment of offspring with sodium had not previously been demonstrated for an insect to our knowledge. The potential adaptive significance of such chemical bestowal is evident, given that the foliar diet of G. septentrionis larvae is extremely low in sodium content. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:11607627

  5. Organ growth without cell division: somatic polyploidy in a moth, Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Buntrock, Lydia; Marec, František; Krueger, Sarah; Traut, Walther

    2012-11-01

    Organ growth depends on cell division and (or) cell growth. Here, we present a study on two organs whose growth depends entirely on cell growth, once they are formed in the embryo: Malpighian tubules and silk glands of the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella . Between first and last larval instar, the volume of Malpighian tubule cells increases by a factor of ?1800 and that of silk gland cells by a factor of ?3100. We determined the number of endocyles required to reach these stages by Feulgen cytometry. Cells of Malpighian tubules were in the 2C stage in first instar larvae and reached 1024C after 9 endocycles in last instar larvae (1C = 0.45 pg DNA). Silk gland cells already reached a DNA content of 8C-16C in first instar larvae and attained up to 8192C in last instar larvae after a total of 12 endocycles. The nuclei were small and more or less spherical in first instar larvae, but they were huge, flat, and bizarrely branched in last instar larvae. We consider branching as a compensatory adaptation to improve molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm in these excessively large and highly polyploid cells (i) by reducing the mean distance between nucleus and cytoplasm and (ii) by enlarging the surface-to-volume ratio of these nuclei. PMID:23057509

  6. CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , streptomycin, chloramphenicol, sul- phadiazine, sulphapyridine, MgS04' NaN02 and a combination of D alanine, D potency. In tests on the chemicals without bacteria, only chloramphenicol and 6.7 % dipicolinic acid were

  7. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the cellular defense response of Ephestia kuehniella larvae fed Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, A M; Fields, P G; Holliday, N J

    2005-10-01

    While maintained under all combinations of three temperatures and two RH, fifth instar larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella were fed wheat treated with spores and crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Larvae that had fed on wheat with the bacterial preparation contained higher concentrations of nodules in their haemocoel than did larvae fed on wheat without bacteria. Nodule concentrations in larvae fed untreated wheat were unaffected by temperature or relative humidity. Larvae fed treated wheat had higher nodule concentrations at 32 degrees C than at 15 and 23 degrees C, and higher nodule concentrations at a relative humidity of 85% than at 43%. The percentage of larvae that pupated was lower when larvae were fed the bacterial preparation, and was significantly higher at 23 degrees C than at 15 and 32 degrees C, regardless of whether larvae were fed bacteria or not. Less time was required for larvae to develop to pupation at higher temperatures and at higher humidity. Mean time to pupation was lower for bacteria-fed larvae than for those fed untreated wheat, and this appeared to be a result of truncation of the distribution of times to pupation because only rapidly developing larvae survived to pupation. PMID:16236308

  8. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  9. Identification of a Triterpenoid Saponin from a Crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a Feeding Deterrent to the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Shinoda; Tsuneatsu Nagao; Masayoshi Nakayama; Hiroaki Serizawa; Masaji Koshioka; Hikaru Okabe; Akira Kawai

    2002-01-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a crucifer specialist, refuse to feed on a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, because of the presence of a feeding deterrent, which is extractable with chloroform. We isolated a feeding deterrent from B. vulgaris leaves, by successive fractionations with silica-gel, ODS, i.e., C18 reversed phase, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and ODS-HPLC, guided by a

  10. Natural occurrence of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar [ Lep.: Lymantriidae ] in wild birds and mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Lautenschlager; J. D. Podgwaite; D. E. Watson

    1980-01-01

    Three species of birds and 5 species of mammals were captured in the wild from 2 plots in which mortality from naturally occurring\\u000a nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) among gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar (L.), larvae was 15% and 70%. Bioassays of intestinal contents showed that blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata (L.), towhees,Pipilo erythrophthalmus (L.), white-footed mice,Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), redback voles,Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigers), raccoons,Procyon lotor (L.),

  11. Gypsy moth midgut proteinases: Purification and characterization of luminal trypsin, elastase and the brush border membrane leucine aminopeptidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    1995-01-01

    The principal digestive proteinases of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval midgut were identified, and the subcellular distribution of the enzyme activities was determined. Proteinase activities of fifth-instar larvae were largely attributed to two luminal serine proteinases, a trypsin-like enzyme (TLE) and an elastase 2-like enzyme (ELA). TLE was purified to homegeneity by benzamidine-Sepharose affinity chromatography. With respect to size

  12. Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2010-08-01

    To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth. PMID:20799099

  13. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance...

  14. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance...

  15. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance...

  16. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  17. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  18. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  19. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

  20. Leaf wax of Lactuca sativa and Plantago major

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine I. Bakker; Wim J. Baas; Dick T. H. M. Sijm; Chris Kollöffel

    1998-01-01

    Wax layers of plants are able to accumulate semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from the atmosphere. In this study, the composition of the leaf cuticular waxes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and common plantain (Plantago major) was determined for future studies on the role of cuticular waxes in the uptake and bioaccumulation of SOCs. In addition, to find a suitable extraction solvent

  1. Explosives detection with hard-wired moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

  2. Gypsy moth mating disruption: Dosage effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Schwalbe; Victor C. Mastro

    1988-01-01

    Small (1-hectare) plots in a dense gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infestation were treated with 5, 50, or 500 g racemic disparlure, and effects on male trap catch and mating behavior were studied. Capture of males in traps baited with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 µg (+)-disparlure declined as disruptant dosages increased. Traps with high levels of attractant caught moths when

  3. Influence of host plant stages on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) development and fitness.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    Different generations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), use different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages as they become available during the summer months in southern California. These are the kimri, khalal, and tamar fruit stages. This study was conducted to determine whether carob moth development and fitness were affected by these different fruit stages. Developmental time from neonate larvae to adult, when reared at 31.9 degrees C and 82.1% RH, ranged from 30.5 to 32.3 d for females and 27.1 to 29.5 d for males on the different field-collected fruit stages. Males and females had the highest emergent weight when reared as larvae on kimri fruit and the lowest on tamar fruit. Females laid the most eggs when reared on kimri fruit and the least when reared on tamar fruit. Estimates of population doubling times ranged from 5.4 d on artificial diet (included as a control) to 7.5 d on tamar fruit. This short doubling time shows the ability of carob moth to develop rapidly under optimal conditions. Degree-day (DD) estimates for carob moth development ranged from 636 DD on kimri fruit to 658 DD on tamar fruit, which translate to 32-50 d under field temperatures in the area where dates are grown. Potential implications for field management of E. ceratoniae include improved timing of insecticide treatments to limit population growth early in the season rather than the conventional late season approach. PMID:18419930

  4. Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

    A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinbo Chen; S. Mark Goodwin; Virginia L. Boroff; Xionglun Liu; Matthew A. Jenks

    2003-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2 , that had alter- ations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was

  6. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

  7. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax...defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax...defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax...defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax...defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax...defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Maximum 280 to 289 0.15 290 to 299 .12 300 to 359 .08 360 to 400 .02 (c) Petroleum wax may contain any antioxidant permitted in food by regulations issued in accordance with section 409 of the act, in an amount not greater than that...

  13. Online monitoring of wax deposition in sub-sea pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Amundsen, L.; Schüller, R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a new technology (heat pulse wax monitoring) to monitor wax deposition in sub-sea pipelines continuously. The equipment that has been tested in a lab rig consists of a heating element and a temperature sensor which are installed at a fixed point on the oil pipe. By applying a short external heat pulse to the oil pipe, a correlation between the measured transient thermal response and the wax thickness could be derived. If such a system could also be installed in a sub-sea pipeline, it would make continuous measuring of the wax build-up possible. This would in turn allow for a much more efficient use of wax control techniques, by e.g. sending a pig only when a certain thickness threshold has been passed. The equipment in this technology is located outside the pipeline, so that it becomes possible to retrofit it to an existing pipeline. To test the technology, a numerical model was derived to correlate the wax thickness with the thermal readings from the heat pulse wax monitoring. This model was validated using the results from a single-phase flow experimental campaign using a North Sea waxy gas condensate in the Porsgrunn wax deposition test rig. In this experimental campaign, wax deposition experiments were carried out with different flow rates and temperatures. The wax thickness predictions from the heat pulse wax monitoring compared favourably with conventional measurement techniques.

  14. Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

    1984-10-01

    Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

  15. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  16. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  17. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory

    E-print Network

    Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

    COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

  18. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth.

    PubMed

    Malan, Antoinette P; Knoetze, Rinus; Moore, Sean D

    2011-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and frequency of endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The main aim of the survey was to obtain nematodes as biological control agents against false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, a key pest of citrus in South Africa. From a total of 202 samples, 35 (17%) tested positive for the presence of EPN. Of these, four isolates (11%) were found to be steinernematids, while 31 (89%) were heterorhabditids. Sequencing and characterisation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify all nematode isolates to species level. Morphometrics, morphology and biology of the infective juvenile (IJ) and the first-generation male were used to support molecular identification and characterisation. The Steinernema spp. identified were Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema citrae. This is the first report of S. yirgalemense in South Africa, while for S. citrae it is the second new steinernematid to be identified from South Africa. Heterorhabditis species identified include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and an unknown species of Heterorhabditis. Laboratory bioassays, using 24-well bioassay disks, have shown isolates of all six species found during the survey, to be highly virulent against the last instar of FCM larvae. S. yirgalemense, at a concentration of 50IJs/FCM larva caused 100% mortality and 74% at a concentration of 200IJs/pupa. Using a sand bioassay, S. yirgalemense gave 93% control of cocooned pupae and emerging moths at a concentration of 20IJs/cm(2). This is the first report on the potential use of EPN to control the soil-borne life stages of FCM, which includes larvae, pupae and emerging moths. It was shown that emerging moths were infected with nematodes, which may aid in control and dispersal. PMID:21839086

  19. INDIANMEAL MOTH Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    of hairs. Females are generally larger than males and have an expanded abdomen. Young larvae are white to the programs and facilities without regard to race, religion, color, sex, age, national origin, marital status reported from grain products,driedfruit,oilseedsandproducts,pulses,citruspulp, fallen fruits, nuts, dried

  20. Early Recorded Sounds and Wax Cylinders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here is a fun site and a fine example of how the Internet has contributed to the preservation of our cultural heritage. Created and maintained by Glenn Sage, this site showcases some of the over 2,000 wax cylinder recordings that Sage has preserved by recording them digitally. A new two-minute recording is offered in RealPlayer and .wav or .mp3 format each month, and the archive contains selections since December 1996. The selections include information on the company that originally released the cylinder, category, title, performer, date, and in some cases, some additional background information. The site also includes an introduction to wax cylinders, resources for collectors, and some brief articles.

  1. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

  2. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria)

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Aerial Application of Pheromones for Mating Disruption of an Invasive Moth as a Potential Eradication Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Suckling, David M.; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L.; Cowan, David M.; Lance, David R.; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, ‘false trail following’ could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, ‘sensory impairment’ and ‘masking of females’ are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  4. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Suckling, David M; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L; Cowan, David M; Lance, David R; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  5. SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,

    E-print Network

    anchovy ( Enqraulis mordax ). jack mackerel ( Trachurus symmetricus ). Pacific mackerel ( Pneumatophorus mordax ). jack mackerel ( Trachurus symmetricus ). Pacific mackerel ( Pneumatophorus dieqo ). hake, reported by size IV. Anchovy larvae, reported by size V. Jack mackerel larvae, reported by size VI. Pacific

  6. Wax lipids signal nest identity in bumblebee colonies.

    PubMed

    Rottler, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The signalling functions of cuticular lipids, particularly cuticular hydrocarbons, have gained considerable attention in social insect communication. Information transfer between individuals by means of these substances has been examined extensively. However, communication with cuticular lipids is not limited to inter-individual recognition. Cuticular compounds can also have a signalling function in the nest environment. Workers of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris leave cuticular lipid traces, so-called footprints, that mark their nest entrance. In addition, there is evidence that bumblebees sense nesting material to identify their colony. In this study, we examined the signalling potential of bumblebee wax, and tested if bumblebee workers are able to identify their colony with the help of wax scent. Chemical analyses of wax extracts using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that wax from colonies of the bumblebee B. terrestris contained a complex blend of cuticular lipids, dominated by hydrocarbons and wax esters. Comparing the relative compound amounts of wax samples from different colonies, we found that wax scent patterns varied with nest identity. Olfactometer bioassays showed that bumblebees were able to discriminate between wax scents from their own and a foreign colony. Our findings suggest that wax emits characteristic olfactory profiles that are used by workers to recognize their colony. PMID:23288373

  7. Composition of sugarcane waxes in rum factory wastes.

    PubMed

    Nuissier, Gladys; Bourgeois, Paul; Grignon-Dubois, Micheline; Pardon, Patrick; Lescure, Marie Hélène

    2002-11-01

    Wastes produced during fermentation and distillation of crude sugarcane juice in rum factories were evaluated as a new source of waxes. The chemical composition of the crude wax extracted from adsorbat of the wastes on fuller's earth was studied by GC-mass spectrometry. Series of linear alkanes (C19-C33), and wax esters constitute the main components. In addition, phytosterols, triterpene methyl ethers, ethyl and methyl esters of fatty acids, and free fatty acids were found as minor components. Acid (predominance of C16 and C18) and alcohol portions (C26-C32) of the wax esters were analysed after saponification. PMID:12423895

  8. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  9. Immunolocalization of general odorant-binding protein in antennal sensilla of moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Laue, M

    2000-01-01

    Antennae of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were immunolabelled with antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein or the general odorant-binding protein 2 of Antheraea polyphemus to assign the expression of these proteins to individual sensilla and to compare the localization pattern with that in sensilla of adult moths. Specific labelling of antennal sensilla was only obtained with the antiserum against general odorant-binding protein 2. Among the few sensilla present on the antenna the three large sensilla basiconica, which are suspected to be olfactory in function, were labelled. These sensilla are compound sensilla consisting of several sensillum units which form a common sensory hair. The hair is single-walled and pierced by many pores. Labelling of sensillum compartments was the same as in sensilla of adults. Prominent labelling of the sensillum lymph is accompanied by labelling of secretory organelles in the two outermost auxiliary cells and of endocytotic pathways in all sensillum cells. The results suggest that general odorant-binding protein is expressed in single-walled multiporous sensilla of presumed olfactory function on the antenna of moth larvae. The overall identity of the localization pattern for general odorant-binding protein between larval and adult sensilla implies a similar role of these proteins in olfactory stimulus transduction. PMID:18088914

  10. Development and evaluation of an emulsified paraffin wax dispenser for season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta in commercial peach orchards.

    PubMed

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Miller, James R; Attrerholt, Cynthia A; Gut, Larry J

    2007-08-01

    The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapiholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of Check-Mate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (approximately 15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility. PMID:17849885

  11. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. PMID:21356213

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport

    E-print Network

    Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi Abstract Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors asymptomatic plant tissue and may influence host susceptibility to pathogens. We quantified infections by C

  13. Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

  14. Field testing of the insect parasitic nematode, Neoaplectana bibionis [ Nematoda: Steinernematidae ] against currant borer moth, Synanthedon tipuliformis [ Lep.: Sesiidae ] in blackcurrants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Miller; R. A. Bedding

    1982-01-01

    Spraying of water suspensions ofNeoaplectana bibionis\\u000a Bovien on established blackcurrant bushes infested with currant borer moth,Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), resulted in up to 90% mortality of larvae. Mortality was influenced by dosage, water volume, age of wood and time of application.\\u000a Some nematodes migrated to new tunnels resulting in an increase in parasitization with time. No phytotoxicity was observed\\u000a on any

  15. ADULT MOTOR PATTERNS PRODUCED BY MOTH PUPAE DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. KAMMER; MARY B. RHEUBEN

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a

  16. Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD Department, 1982 FULLARD,J. H. 1982. Echolocation assemblages and their effects on moth auditory systems. Can. J representing low and high levels of bat (= echolocation signal) diversity. Moths sampled in two African (high

  17. Evidence for short-range sonic communication in lymantriine moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rowland; P. W. Schaefer; P. Belton; G. Gries

    2011-01-01

    Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and

  18. MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Landscape & Ornamentals E-40-W PURDUE EXTENSION The Zimmerman pine moth is the most important eco- nomic attacks spruce. DISTRIBUTION The Zimmerman pine moth was first found in the U.S. in 1879. Since then

  19. INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    267 INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869, it has and result in severe ecological and economic effects. It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue. 750 km from the expanding front of gypsy moth defoliation. Based on an historical rate of spread of ca

  20. Evidence for Histamine in the Urticating Hairs of Hylesia Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Dinehart; Joseph L. Jorizzo; Nicholas A. Soter; Nopadon Noppakun; William R. Voss; James A. Hokanson; Edgar B. Smith

    1987-01-01

    An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts

  1. Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  2. Some chemical bases for gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar, larval rejection of green ash,Fraxinus pennsylvanica, foliage as food.

    PubMed

    Markovic, I; Norris, D M; Cekic, M

    1996-12-01

    Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained antifeedant activity. Individual fractions showed weaker antifeedant activity compared to the total ethyl acetate extractables. Acid hydrolysis of the extractables destroyed antifeedant activity and yielded feeding stimulant activity at higher concentrations. The aqueous extractables were not feeding-inhibitory. Compounds in the green ash extractables were separated by TLC, HPLC, CC, and GC. PMID:24227304

  3. Effect of two granulosis viruses on the activity of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, M

    2000-12-01

    Two granulosis viruses (GV) were tested as enhancers for the gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV). Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) CV (HaGV) had no detrimental effect upon larval growth and development, but in combination with LdMNPV it reduced both the LC50 and the LT50 for the NPV. In addition, the combination also adversely affected the growth and development of gypsy moth larvae. The LC50 of LdMNPV was reduced by as much as 300-fold (HaGV at 10(-2) dilution) and the LT50 was reduced by as much as 18% (HaGV at 10(-2) dilution). Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) GV reduced the LC50 of LdMNPV by as much as 13-fold but had no effect upon the LT50. PMID:11142292

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinbo; Goodwin, S. Mark; Boroff, Virginia L.; Liu, Xionglun; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2003-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2, that had alterations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was 36.4% thicker, less opaque, and structurally disorganized. The total wax amount on wax2 leaves and stems was reduced by >78% and showed proportional deficiencies in the aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, with increased acids, primary alcohols, and esters. Besides altered cuticle membranes, wax2 displayed postgenital fusion between aerial organs (especially in flower buds), reduced fertility under low humidity, increased epidermal permeability, and a reduction in stomatal index on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Thus, wax2 reveals a potential role for the cuticle as a suppressor of postgenital fusion and epidermal diffusion and as a mediator of both fertility and the development of epidermal architecture (via effects on stomatal index). The cloned WAX2 gene (verified by three independent allelic insertion mutants with identical phenotypes) codes for a predicted 632–amino acid integral membrane protein with a molecular mass of 72.3 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.78. WAX2 has six transmembrane domains, a His-rich diiron binding region at the N-terminal region, and a large soluble C-terminal domain. The N-terminal portion of WAX2 is homologous with members of the sterol desaturase family, whereas the C terminus of WAX2 is most similar to members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. WAX2 has 32% identity to CER1, a protein required for wax production but not for cuticle membrane production. Based on these analyses, we predict that WAX2 has a metabolic function associated with both cuticle membrane and wax synthesis. These studies provide new insight into the genetics and biochemistry of plant cuticle production and elucidate new associations between the cuticle and diverse aspects of plant development. PMID:12724542

  5. Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal Materials - Slide - Cover Slip. If necessary, draw more wax. - Drag the pipette tip along the edges of the cover slip to complete the seal. - You can check the quality of the seal by glancing light off the back of the slide. Breaks in the seal

  6. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Bhalekar, M. R.; Madgulkar, A. R.; Sheladiya, D. D.; Kshirsagar, S. J.; Wable, N. D.; Desale, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 32 full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X1) and bees wax (X2) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t50) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t50 but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings. PMID:20046773

  7. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  8. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  9. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G?' values (2 to 6 × 10(6)  Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G?' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5)  Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively. PMID:25850679

  10. Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of substances have been found in samples of propolis: pollen, waxes, phenolics, resins, aromatic and ethereal / propolis / waxes / hydrocarbon / monoester 1. INTRODUCTION Propolis is a resinous substance used by bees oils, and other orga- nic substances. The phenolic content of pro- * Correspondence and reprints. E

  11. POTENTIAL OF CARNUBA WAX IN AMELIORATING BRITTLE FRACTURE DURING TABLETING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UHUMWANGHO MU; OKOR RS; ADOGAH JT

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch

  12. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Sarto i Monteys; Patricia Acín; Glòria Rosell; Carmen Quero; Miquel A. Jiménez; Angel Guerrero

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands

  13. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500?times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  14. Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C

    PubMed Central

    Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

  15. A simplified device for injection of paraffin wax blockades.

    PubMed

    Pallone, T L

    1994-04-01

    Microperfusion of renal tubules and microvessels in vivo requires occlusion of the lumen with a reliable blockade. Paraffin wax serves this purpose but requires specialized hydraulic or mechanical devices to stably hold a micropipette while this solid material is extruded through micron-sized tips. This communication describes the construction of a simple and very inexpensive wax injector from commercially available parts. The rear of an aluminum holder is threaded so that a thumbscrew can be used to push a stiff wire into the lumen of a micropipette. A solder cast of the micropipette lumen is employed as a tight-fitting piston to generate the high pressures required for wax extrusion. Several wax injectors can be made at negligible cost. This device has been used in this laboratory to introduce over 1,000 wax blocks into papillary vasa recta. PMID:8184903

  16. Superhydrophobic cuticle with a "pinning effect" in the larvae of the iris sawfly, Rhadinoceraea micans (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    The integument of some sawfly larvae can be easily damaged causing haemolymph bleeding (easy bleeding phenomenon). In the present study, we investigated intact cuticle, cuticle without wax coverage and cuticle replicas of sawfly larvae by using cryo-scanning electron microscopy and contact angle (CA) measurements. The easy bleeder Rhadinoceraea micans was compared to the non-easy bleeder Nematus pavidus (both Tenthredinidae), and the examination showed that the surface structures of R. micans were hierarchically arranged, whereas the cuticle surface of N. pavidus appeared much smoother. The intact cuticle proved to be superhydrophobic in R. micans (CAs: 156° dorsally, 120° ventrally), but not in N. pavidus (CAs: 67° dorsally, 47° ventrally). The wettability of R. micans increased significantly after the waxes had been peeled off. Replicas of the intact cuticle surface were hardly wettable in both species. It is suggested that wax crystals in combination with cuticle microsculptures are the most important features for rendering the integument of the easy bleeder species superhydrophobic. The wax-free tips of the cuticle microsculptures in R. micans are sites where haemolymph droplets can adhere. The integument surface of easy bleeders is assumed to be adapted to their particular defence strategy, simultaneously contributing to the maintenance and "reuse" of released haemolymph droplets on the superhydrophobic surface due to this "pinning effect". PMID:21906924

  17. Prothoracic glands of the saturniid moth Samia cynthia ricini possess a circadian clock controlling gut purge timing

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Ishizaki, Hironori

    1982-01-01

    In the moth Samia cynthia ricini, timing of the release of prothoracicotropic hormone is controlled by a circadian clock in the cephalic organ (brain); while this hormone release is necessary for gut purge, the final timing of this event is controlled by a circadian clock in the prothoracic glands that gates release of ecdysone. The photoreceptor of the prothoracic gland clock(s) is extraocular and evidently in the glands themselves. Demonstration that the clock and its photoreceptor are in the prothoracic glands is based on a mixture of localized illuminations and the transplantation of glands from one larva to another. PMID:16593181

  18. The thermohysical properties of gypsum boards containing wax

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Fine, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    An Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA) was used to measure the thermal conductivity (k) and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of gypsum boards containing 0, 15, 30 wt % wax (C{sub 18}H{sub 38}) in the temperature range 20 to 50{degree}C (68 to 122{degree}F). Since this wax melts near 28{degree}C (82{degree}F), this combination provides a phase-change material for possible use in building applications. The k-values for gypsum board without wax reported here are independent of temperature and extend the available data to a lower density ({rho}). The k-values agree with data by Malloy but are 17% greater than the ASHRAE Handbook value. The k-values for the gypsum-wax composites are greater than the k-value of gypsum board without wax, increase with wax content, and correlate with a two-phase conduction model by Eucken. The k-value of composites with solid wax is greater than the k of composites with liquid wax. A step-change in heat flux transient technique was used on specimens that were initially isothermal or that had a steady imposed temperature gradient. Analysis of the temperature response of the thin-heater for short-times predicts a temperature rise that is a linear function of the square-root of time. This prediction was verified, and the slope of this relaxation provided experimental values for the product k{center dot}{rho}{center dot}C, where C is the specific heat. Experimental values of C were calculated from experimental values of k and {rho} and compared favorably with literature values of C for gypsum and predictions of C for the composites. Transient tests that heated parts of the specimen through the phase change of wax yielded very large C values. These tests required very long time to reach steady-state. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Trans-fat free margarine from organogel formed by a plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research presents a practical method to replace a hardstock containing trans-fat and saturated fat with a small amount of a plant wax in margarine and spreads. Plant waxes were investigated for their ability to make an organogel of many different vegetable oils. Sunflower wax and rice bran wax ...

  20. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  1. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

    1983-09-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

  2. PARASITES AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PSYCHID MOTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Kumpulainen; Alessandro Grapputo; Johanna Mappes

    2004-01-01

    Persistence of sexual reproduction among coexisting asexual competitors has been a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The number of empirical studies is still very limited, as few systems with coexisting sexual and strictly asexual lineages have been found. We studied the ecological mechanisms behind the simultaneous coexistence of a sexually and an asexually reproducing closely related species of psychid moth

  3. Codling Moth Granulovirus: A Comprehensive Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is regarded as the most injurious insect pest of apple in most countries where apple is grown. It is key pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In conventional orchards, CM is usually controlled with broad-spectrum insecticides. A variety of problems associate...

  4. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  5. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  6. Mortality of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations under fluctuating low temperatures: model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Kaliyan, N; Carrillo, M A; Morey, R V; Wilcke, W F; Kells, S A

    2007-12-01

    A model for predicting mortality of Indianmeal moth larvae [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] under fluctuating low-temperature conditions was developed. The time and temperature combinations required to achieve 100% mortality of field-collected, cold-acclimated P. interpunctella larvae obtained from laboratory mortality experiments were used to develop the mortality model. Accumulation of mortality rate over time was called the cumulative lethality index (CLI). Complete mortality of insect populations would occur when CLI equals 1. Observed mortality of field-collected, cold-acclimated P. interpunctella larvae in five 76.2-T (3,000-bu) shelled corn bins located in Rosemount, MN, during the winters of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 were used to validate the CLI model (i.e., mortality model). Excellent agreement between predicted and measured time to 100% larval mortality was observed. The CLI model would be useful for developing low-temperature aeration management strategies for controlling overwintering P. interpunctella in grain bins. In addition, this model will be useful when determining if additional control measures will be required as a result of above-seasonal ambient temperatures. PMID:18284759

  7. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26023108

  8. A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

  9. Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3

    E-print Network

    Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3 Evidence Outcomes: Use: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials Several

  10. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY...information collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider...CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul...

  11. SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,

    E-print Network

    of three other species are reported by size: northern anchovy ( Enqraulis mordax ). jack mackerel mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) , 1956 51 Record of the larvae of the Pacific Mackerel (Pneuroatophorus: Distribution and relative abundance 32 5. Jack mackerel larvae, 1956: Distribution and relative abundance 50 6

  12. The thermohysical properties of gypsum boards containing wax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Graves; D. L. McElroy; D. W. Yarbrough; H. A. Fine

    1989-01-01

    An Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA) was used to measure the thermal conductivity (k) and thermal diffusivity (α) of gypsum boards containing 0, 15, 30 wt % wax (CââHââ) in the temperature range 20 to 50°C (68 to 122°F). Since this wax melts near 28°C (82°F), this combination provides a phase-change material for possible use in building applications. The k-values for

  13. Florida Wax Scales: Control Measures in Texas for Hollies 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Reinert, James; Williams, Michael L.

    2006-11-30

    . In Florida, it has been found on many species of holly, elm, crape myrtle, oak, loblolly pine, deodar cedar, citrus and other hardwoods and softwoods. In Texas, wax scale infestations have been observed on hollies as well as elephant ear, Figure 2. Eggs..., box- wood, pittosporum, bottle brush, sea grapes, olean- der and wax myrtle (regular and dwarf). Of course, these landscape ornamental plants may have other limitations. If you decide to plant hol- lies, inspect the plants thoroughly to avoid buying...

  14. Differences in substrate specificities of five bacterial wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2012-08-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production. PMID:22685145

  15. Identification of the sex pheromone secreted by a nettle moth, Monema flavescens, using gas chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yan, Qi; Naka, Hideshi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ando, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    The nettle moth Monema flavescens (Limacodidae) is a defoliator of fruit trees, such as Chinese plum and persimmon. The larvae of this species have spines containing a poison that causes serious irritation and inflammation in humans. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of a crude pheromone extract, combined with derivatization, indicated that female moths produced 8-decen-1-ol and 7,9-decadien-1-ol at a ratio of approximately 9:1. The E configuration of the double bonds was assigned for both components from infrared spectra, recorded on a gas chromatograph/Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a zinc selenide disk cooled to -30 °C. The monoenyl and dienyl alcohols had absorptions characteristic of E geometry at 966 and 951 cm(-1), respectively. A band chromatogram at 951 cm(-1) was useful for distinguishing geometric isomers, because terminal conjugated diene are difficult to resolve, even on high polarity columns. Furthermore, we identified the Z configuration of the same 7,9-dienyl alcohol secreted by another nettle moth, Parasa lepida lepida, through the absence of this absorption. In field trials, lures baited with a 9:1 mixture of (E)-8-decen-1-ol and (E)-7,9-decadien-1-ol attracted M. flavescens males. Furthermore, the field trials indicated that contamination with the (Z)-diene reduced catches to the pheromone mixture more than did contamination with the (Z)-monoene. PMID:23400496

  16. North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

    Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

  17. The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) 

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Michael Celus

    1976-01-01

    THE BIOLOGY OF THE SUNFLOWER MOTH, HOMOEOSOMA ELECTELLUM (HULST) A Thesis by MICHAEL CELUS BAXTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENT...) December 1976 ABSTRACT The Biology of the Sunflower Moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) . (December 1976) Michael Celus Baxter, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Mr. N. M. Randolph Three generations of the sunflower moth...

  18. Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality. PMID:22606802

  19. Factors affecting growth in the koinobiont endoparasitoid Venturia canescens in the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Mahbubur; Roberts, Harry L S; Schmidt, Otto

    2007-05-01

    With resistance of insect pests to synthetic pesticides on the increase, the role of parasitoid wasps as biological control agents is expanding in pest and resistance management strategies. One of the predictors of reproductive success of endoparasitoids is the relative size of the wasp at host emergence. While in idiobiont parasitoids, where the host stops feeding after parasitism, the wasp size is determined by the host size at the time of parasitism; the size of koinobiont wasps, where the host continues to feed after parasitism, is dependent on additional factors. Here we show that the host mass and temperature are important factors that determine survival and development of the koinobiont endoparasitoid Venturia canescens in late instar larvae of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella. PMID:17403524

  20. Incipient allochronic speciation in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, H; Burban, C; Rousselet, J; Rossi, J-P; Branco, M; Kerdelhué, C

    2011-01-01

    A plausible case of allochronic differentiation, where barrier to gene flow is primarily attributable to a phenological shift, was recently discovered in Portugal for the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Previous results suggested that the observed 'summer population' (SP) originated from the sympatric winter population (WP). Our objectives were to finely analyse these patterns and test their stability in time, through field monitoring and genetic analyses of larvae and adults across different years. Reproductive activity never overlapped between SP and WP. Microsatellites showed a clear differentiation of the SP, consistent with a strong reduction in gene flow owing to the phenological shift. Assignment tests suggested that some individuals shift from the SP to the WP phenology, causing some hybridization. We discuss these patterns and their maintenance over time. This could be a first stage of allochronic speciation, and SP should be considered as a distinct phenological race. PMID:20964783

  1. [Occupational risk by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the forestry workers of Verona].

    PubMed

    Olivieri, M; Lazzarini, G L; Goio, I; Schinella, S; Romeo, L; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a lepidopteran living in the Mediterranean countries whose mature larvae have microscopic hairs that can be released and carried far from the source. The hairs are responsible of urticating symptoms on the exposed areas although systemic manifestation might be involved. The study involved 94 forestry workers (92 M, 2 F) of the Regional Forest Service of Verona and the objective was to determine the prevalence of skin and respiratory disorders due to exposure to this insect. 21 chainsaw operators and 2 labourers experienced symptoms on exposed skin areas; 3 of them reported also ocular and respiratory symptoms. The chainsaw operators resulted most at risk whereas individual already suffering from others allergies do not seem to be affected. The results highlight the importance of risk assessment to Thaumetopoea pityocampa in forestry workers and the need for instruments to assess the allergic sensitization in medical surveillance. PMID:23405678

  2. Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-04-01

    Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

  3. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    PubMed

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. PMID:21190707

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2004-12-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

  5. Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.

    PubMed

    Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

    2011-12-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

  6. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  7. Host plant-associated population variation in the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A geometric morphometric analysis suggests a nutritional basis.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods. PMID:20337550

  8. Host Plant-Associated Population Variation in the Carob Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis Suggests a Nutritional Basis.

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods. PMID:20337550

  9. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  10. Ontogenetic colour change and the evolution of aposematism: a case study in panic moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jacqualine B

    2007-05-01

    1. Aposematism is a widely used antipredator strategy in which an organism possesses both warning coloration and unprofitable characters. Theoretical evidence suggests that aposematic colour should develop when high opportunity costs imposed by crypsis force an organism to engage in conspicuous behaviours. Hence, it is expected that ontogenetic colour change (OCC) in larval insects should include aposematism when foraging needs compel behavioural modifications that preclude a continued state of crypsis. 2. To test this idea, I first investigated whether OCC in caterpillars of the panic moth Saucrobotys futilalis was indicative of a switch from cryptic to aposematic coloration. I then examined the context of panic moth OCC as it related to foraging patterns and behavioural conspicuousness. 3. Early Saucrobotys instars are a cryptic green, but later instars become progressively more orange and develop black spots. Early instar larvae forage cryptically on the inner parenchyma of silked-together host plant leaves to avoid predation, but are rapidly forced to engage in conspicuous foraging behaviours as they outgrow the resources afforded by their shelters. Both coloration and behaviour reach maximal conspicuousness in final instar larvae. 4. As predicted, OCC encompassed a change from crypsis to aposematism in Saucrobotys. Aposematic function was demonstrated by changes in both antipredator behaviour patterns and effectiveness of predator deterrence in early and late instars. Moreover, increased opportunity costs of crypsis and behavioural conspicuousness coincided with the onset of aposematic coloration. 5. This pattern of OCC suggests that aposematic coloration in Saucrobotys develops as a response to constraints imposed by crypsis. Moreover, my study illustrates the importance of the study of ontogenetic patterns in determining how behaviour, morphology, and predator responses interact to influence the initial evolution of phenomena such as aposematism. PMID:17439461

  11. Impact of temperature on postdiapause and diapause of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

  12. Ecological correlates of the non-indigenous parasitoid assemblage associated with a Hawaiian endemic moth.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2011-08-01

    Understanding what ecological factors might predispose indigenous habitats to invasion by invasive species is an important aspect of conservation and invasive species management, particularly when biological control is considered for suppression of the invasive species. This study seeks to identify ecological factors that might play a role in determining the structure of the parasitoid assemblage associated with caterpillars of the endemic Hawaiian moth Udea stellata (Crambidae). Parasitoids were reared from field-collected U. stellata larvae at 18 locations. Fourteen environmental variables were measured at each site. Two multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were used to analyze the parasitoid assemblage across a range of habitats varying in environmental characteristics. The PCA analysis showed that the occurrence of some species were highly correlated, and associated with less disturbed sites, whereas other species were associated with sites of medium and high levels of disturbance. The RDA analysis showed that only three of the measured environmental variables (U. stellata density, elevation, and level of habitat disturbance) significantly explained variability in the parasitoid assemblage among sites. There was greater parasitoid species richness associated with U. stellata larvae at higher elevation sites with a lower degree of habitat disturbance by exotic vegetation. The purposely introduced parasitoid species were associated with the non-target moth at sites located at higher elevations with low levels of disturbance. Multivariate analysis has the potential to provide valuable insights into the identification of important environmental factors that mediate parasitoid assemblage structure and level of parasitism on a particular target or non-target species, and therefore facilitate identification of suitable target habitats or susceptible non-target habitats. PMID:21390491

  13. Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation. PMID:24361507

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

  15. Tritrophic choice experiments with bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tanja H; Potting, Roel P J; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Clark, Alison J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2003-06-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely to have consequent effects on parasitoids specialising on such pests. A better understanding of the interaction between transgenic plants, pests and parasitoids is important to limit disruption of biological control and to provide background knowledge essential for implementing measures for the conservation of parasitoid populations. It is also essential for investigations into the potential role of parasitoids in delaying the build-up of Bt-resistant pest populations. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major pest of brassica crops, is normally highly susceptible to a range of Bt toxins. However, extensive use of microbial Bt sprays has led to the selection of resistance to Bt toxins in P. xylostella. Cotesia plutellae is an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella larvae. Although unable to survive in Bt-susceptible P. xylostella larvae on highly resistant Bt oilseed rape plants due to premature host mortality, C. plutellae is able to complete its larval development in Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae. Experiments of parasitoid flight and foraging behaviour presented in this paper showed that adult C. plutellae females do not distinguish between Bt and wildtype oilseed rape plants, and are more attracted to Bt plants damaged by Bt-resistant hosts than by susceptible hosts. This stronger attraction to Bt plants damaged by resistant hosts was due to more extensive feeding damage. Population scale experiments with mixtures of Bt and wildtype plants demonstrated that the parasitoid is as effective in controlling Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae on Bt plants as on wildtype plants. In these experiments equal or higher numbers of parasitoid adults emerged per transgenic as per wildtype plant. The implications for integrated pest management and the evolution of resistance to Bt in P. xylostella are discussed. PMID:12779123

  16. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

  17. Laboratory evaluations of a wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris as a management tool for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-hua; Liu, Shu-sheng; Shelton, A M

    2004-12-01

    The term 'dead-end trap cropping' has recently been proposed to identify a plant that is highly attractive for oviposition by an insect pest, but on which offspring of the pest cannot survive. The potential of the wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. to allure and serve as a dead-end trap crop for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, was examined in laboratory experiments. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris, and Chinese cabbage Brassica campestris (L.), in one arena, adult moths laid 2.5-6.8 times more eggs on the former than on the latter. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris and common cabbage Brassica oleracea L., adult moths laid virtually all their eggs on the former and ignored the latter. Nearly all P. xylostella eggs laid on the three species of plants hatched successfully, but nearly all individuals on plants of B. vulgaris died as neonates or early instar larvae, while 87-100% of the larvae on Chinese cabbage and common cabbage survived to pupation. Dual choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that volatiles from B. vulgaris were much more attractive to P. xylostella adults than those from common cabbage. The results demonstrate that B. vulgaris has a great potential as a dead-end trap crop for improving management of P. xylostella. Factors that may influence the feasibility of using B. vulgaris as a trap crop in the field are discussed, and ways to utilize this plant are proposed. PMID:15541190

  18. New method for testing solar sensitivity of commercial formulations of the granulovirus of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Arthurs, Steven P

    2005-10-01

    A method for screening codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) formulation sensitivity to sunlight using specially prepared half apples and a solar simulator is described. The half apple preparation allows an even coverage of virus over the surface of the fruit that would not be possible using whole apples. Leaves and artificial medium were not usable for extended periods of exposure in the solar simulator due to excess drying. Fruit was sprayed with 10(-3) and 10(-5) dilutions of three commercial formulations of CpGV (Carpovirusine, Cyd-X, and Virosoft) and infested with codling moth neonates. Half of the sprayed fruit was exposed to 650 W/m2 for 4 h in an Atlas Suntest CPS solar simulator resulting in an accumulated radiant energy of 9.36x10(6) J/m2 before they were infested with neonate codling moth larvae. Spraying non-irradiated fruit with the 10(-3) dilution of Cyd-X and Virosoft resulted in nearly 100% mortality of neonate larvae. Irradiation reduced viral activity by 71-98% at the 10(-3) dilution and by up to 32% at the 10(-5) dilution relative to non-irradiated fruit. The procedures utilized enabled good preservation of the fruit throughout the incubation period and minimized invasion of the fruit by plant pathogens and saprophytic organisms. This laboratory method for screening candidate formulations and potential UV protectants could conserve time and resources by eliminating adjuvants with less potential in laboratory tests and field testing only the most promising candidates. It also enables year-round testing. PMID:16216263

  19. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:24846572

  20. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220?mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3?ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10?ms in the lightest moths to 25?ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9?m?s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2?m?s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1?µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1?µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90?m?s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage. PMID:25883381

  1. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2015-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ?10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  2. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics. PMID:19844068

  3. Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

    The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

  4. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Rados?aw; Kuchar, Leszek; Le?ny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  5. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Rados?aw; Kuchar, Leszek; Le?ny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold (T(low)) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T(low)?=?10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland. PMID:22374453

  6. SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,

    E-print Network

    : northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) , jack mackerel ( Trachurus symmetricus), hake ( Merluccius productus) , Pacific mackerel ( Pneumatophorus diego), and rockfish (Sebastodes spp.). #12;SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE: northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax) , jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) , hake (Merluccius productus

  7. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system. PMID:23463135

  8. [Analysis of constituents in urushi wax, a natural food additive].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe-Long; Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Masuda, Aino; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-08-01

    Urushi wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive. In order to evaluate the quality of urushi wax as a food additive and to obtain information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in urushi wax, using the same sample as scheduled for toxicity testing. After methanolysis of urushi wax, the composition of fatty acids was analyzed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. LC/MS analysis of urushi wax provided molecular-related ions of the main constituents. The main constituents were identified as triglycerides, namely glyceryl tripalmitate (30.7%), glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate (21.2%), glyceryl dioleate monopalmitate (2.1%), glyceryl monooleate monopalmitate monostearate (2.6%), glyceryl dipalmitate monostearate (5.6%), glyceryl distearate monopalmitate (1.4%). Glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate isomers differing in the binding sites of each constituent fatty acid could be separately determined by LC/MS/MS. PMID:16984037

  9. The physiology of digestion in fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

    1986-01-01

    Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

  10. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  11. CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

  12. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  13. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  14. Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

    1992-01-01

    The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

  15. Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

  16. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  17. Mercury vapour lamps interfere with the bat defence of tympanate moths ( Operophtera spp.; Geometridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M SVENSSON; J RYDELL

    1998-01-01

    Bats often forage near streetlamps, where they catch moths in particular. At least two hypotheses may explain the apparent increase in the availability of moths to bats feeding around streetlamps: (1) the moths become concentrated near the light and therefore more profitable to exploit; and (2) the light interferes with the moths' evasive flight behaviour. We tested the second of

  18. 1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth

    E-print Network

    1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth Pine-tree Lappet Moth Outbreak S attending in place of David Jardine. A 2 A A #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 2 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18. Action: Tom to organise trapping at Tentsmuir. #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 3 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine

  19. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  20. Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from Plutella xylostella larva: cell types and their role in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Yang, Yan-yan; Shi, Min; Li, Jun-ying; Chen, Zong-qi; Chen, Fu-shou; Chen, Xue-xin

    2010-12-01

    The hemocytes of different types encountered in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella larvae of each instar and the development of the differential hemocytes counts were herein presented. Hemocytes classes/populations characterized based on their affinity with fluorescent dye (acridine orange) and ultrastructural differences comprised the prohemcoytes (<10-16%), plasmatocytes (22-65%), granulocytes (25-72%), oenocytoids (<1-9%), and spherulocytes (<1%). Prohemcoytes were the smallest cells with a comparatively tremendous nucleus. Plasmatocytes and granulocytes occupied the main proportion of total cell numbers. Oenocytoids were in a most stable presence, i.e. rotund in a diameter of 10 ?m and with a nucleus deviated from the central location; however, sometimes with two nuclei which were adjoining with each other. Spherulocytes were rare and only could be observed occasionally. Ultrastructural investigation revealed that hemocytes in the diamondback moth larvae were of the typical model as in the Lepidoptera insect larvae. It is interesting to find that the cell which could phagocytize bacteria in vitro was granulocyte, not the other types of hemocytes, although plasmatocyte was usually declared to participate in this reaction in various previous studies. PMID:20817244

  1. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  2. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combination of sex pheromones, host plant volatiles, and food baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  3. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  4. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

  5. Using plant chemistry and insect preference to study the potential of Barbarea (Brassicaceae) as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-02-01

    Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. has been proposed as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), because its larvae do not survive on this plant species despite being highly preferred for oviposition. We compared plants of several species, varieties, and types in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) to study their potential as trap crops for P. xylostella. In terms of insect behavior, Barbarea plants were assessed based on the criteria of high oviposition preference by P. xylostella moths (compared to other Barbarea plants and to three Brassica oleracea L. crop varieties) and low survival of P. xylostella larvae. Barbarea plants were also assessed based on the criteria of high content of glucosinolates, which stimulate adult oviposition and larval feeding in P. xylostella, and high content of saponins, which are detrimental to survival of P. xylostella larvae. All Barbarea plants tested were preferred over cabbage by ovipositing P. xylostella. Among Barbarea plants, few significant differences in oviposition preference by P. xylostella were found. Ovipositing P. xylostella preferred B. vulgaris plants containing mainly 2-phenylethylglucosinolate over B. vulgaris plants containing mainly (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate, and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata plants over Barbarea rupicola and B. vulgaris var. variegata plants. Despite containing a lower content of saponins than other Barbarea plants tested, Barbarea verna did not allow survival of P. xylostella larvae. Our studies show that, except for B. rupicola and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata, which allowed survival of P. xylostella larvae, all Barbarea plants tested have potential as dead-end trap crops for P. xylostella. PMID:24342111

  6. A SOY WAX BASED SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INSECT PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granules composed of soy wax were evaluated for the ability to serve as an insect pheromone release system. A simple new method of producing small wax granules is reported. The concentration dependence of pheromone release is reported for the granules....

  7. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

  8. Effects of Rearing Conditions, Geographical Origin, and Selection on Larval Diapause in the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Wijayaratne, Leanage K. W.; Fields, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations. PMID:23451807

  9. Effects of rearing conditions, geographical origin, and selection on larval diapause in the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Wijayaratne, Leanage K W; Fields, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations. PMID:23451807

  10. Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the ?-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the ?-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

  11. Similarity and specialization of the larval versus adult diet of European butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Pearse, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    Many herbivorous insects feed on plant tissues as larvae but use other resources as adults. Adult nectar feeding is an important component of the diet of many adult herbivores, but few studies have compared adult and larval feeding for broad groups of insects. We compiled a data set of larval host use and adult nectar sources for 995 butterfly and moth species (Lepidoptera) in central Europe. Using a phylogenetic generalized least squares approach, we found that those Lepidoptera that fed on a wide range of plant species as larvae were also nectar feeding on a wide range of plant species as adults. Lepidoptera that lack functional mouthparts as adults used more plant species as larval hosts, on average, than did Lepidoptera with adult mouthparts. We found that 54% of Lepidoptera include their larval host as a nectar source. By creating null models that described the similarity between larval and adult nectar sources, we furthermore showed that Lepidoptera nectar feed on their larval host more than would be expected if they fed at random on available nectar sources. Despite nutritional differences between plant tissue and nectar, we show that there are similarities between adult and larval feeding in Lepidoptera. This suggests that either behavioral or digestive constraints are retained throughout the life cycle of holometabolous herbivores, which affects host breadth and identity. PMID:21828993

  12. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C. PMID:9495092

  13. Scaling of Individual Phosphorus Flux by Caterpillars of the Whitemarked Tussock Moth, Orygia leucostigma

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, T. D.; Lindroth, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effects of body mass, environmental temperature, and food quality on phosphorus (P) efflux by caterpillars of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orygia leucostigma, J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We found that individual phosphorus efflux rate (Q the rate at which excreted and unassimilated P was egested in frass, mgP/day) was related to larval mass (M, mg dry) and environmental temperature (T,K) as Q = e14.69 M1.00e-0.54/kT, where K is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10-19J). We also found that P efflux was not related to food phosphorous concentration, and suggest that this result was due to compensatory feeding by larvae eating low quality leaves. The P efflux model resulting from this analysis was simple and powerful. Thus, it appears that this type of model can be used to scale P flux from individual larvae to the population level and link species of insect herbivores to ecosystem processes. PMID:19619031

  14. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2012-02-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations. PMID:22525062

  15. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-02-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  16. MODELLING OF THE SOLVENT-DEOILING PROCESS OF WAXES BY CONTINUOUS THERMODYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Browarzik; M. Matthäi

    2002-01-01

    Industrial waxes as petroleum slack waxes are multicomponent mixtures of mainly paraffinic species. Usually, for application the oily components of the waxes are undesired. Therefore, separation processes are needed which, in some cases, base on a solvent-deoiling process. Modelling such a process is the aim of this paper. For this purpose the solid–liquid equilibrium of a wax–solvent system is considered.

  17. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Teece; Thomas Zengeya; Timothy A. Volk; Lawrence B. Smart

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala × interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8?g cm?2, and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves

  18. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2014-04-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (?). A linear relationship between t/l and ? (t/l ˜ ? 0.89) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, ? = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 109 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 109 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress.

  19. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  20. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

  1. Changes in chemical wax composition of three different apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars during storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Els A. Veraverbeke; Jeroen Lammertyn; Stijn Saevels

    2001-01-01

    The effects of year, picking date and storage conditions on the chemical composition of the wax layer of three apple cultivars (‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Elstar’) were investigated by means of GCMS and multivariate statistical techniques. Wax of apples with different surface characteristics also differed in chemical composition. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and subsequent shelf life affected wax properties and caused

  2. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  3. Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

  4. Experience in Manufacture of Hard Waxes. Combined Dewaxing and Deoiling Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Kachlishvili; T. F. Filippova

    2003-01-01

    Most of the country's oil units are primarily oriented toward production of lube oils. The by–products formed are used as components of furnace residual fuel oil. Even the slack wax obtained in dewaxing of selectively refined raffinates goes into furnace residual fuel oil. The slack wax contains from 80 to 90% hard waxes which, like dewaxed oil, are a valuable

  5. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  6. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  7. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plantwater environment at leaf ush

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant­water environment at leaf ush Brett J. Tipple1 , Melissa A, UT, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review August 13, 2012) Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2 H/1 H the 2 H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout

  8. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery. PMID:18459055

  9. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  10. On the susceptibility of the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis to Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV).

    PubMed

    Rose, Jana; Kleespies, Regina G; Wang, Yongjie; Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A

    2013-07-01

    The box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis is an invasive insect pest in many European countries. Caterpillars of this species cause widespread damage on box tree plants. In this study, a new opportunity to control this pest with the baculovirus Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV) was investigated. Initially, AnfaNPV was identified to infect larvae of Diaphania nitidalis by determining the partial nucleotide sequence of the three highly conserved genes polh, lef-8 and lef-9 of the infection causing agent. Two AnfaNPV isolates, termed Dn10 and BI-235, were then propagated in larvae of C. perspectalis and purified by sucrose density centrifugation. A bioassay using leaf disks of box tree was established to evaluate the virulence of both AnfaNPV isolates to neonate C. perspectalis larvae. After 7days, the mortality of larvae was scored and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined to 7.8×10(5)OBs/ml for isolate BI-235 and 2.3×10(6)OBs/ml for isolate Dn10 by using probit analysis. Thus, AnfaNPV BI-235 was significantly more virulent to neonate C. perspectalis larvae than Dn10 based on a three times higher LC50 value. Additionally, light and transmission electron microscopic investigations verified high rates of infection in fat body, epidermis and tracheal matrix of C. perspectalis by both AnfaNPV isolates BI-235 and Dn10. In conclusion, the performed laboratory experiments indicate the susceptibility of C. perspectalis to AnfaNPV. PMID:23562977

  11. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  12. Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: Can a Moth Remember What It Learned As a Caterpillar?

    PubMed Central

    Blackiston, Douglas J.; Silva Casey, Elena; Weiss, Martha R.

    2008-01-01

    Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis experience enormous changes in both morphology and lifestyle. The current study examines whether larval experience can persist through pupation into adulthood in Lepidoptera, and assesses two possible mechanisms that could underlie such behavior: exposure of emerging adults to chemicals from the larval environment, or associative learning transferred to adulthood via maintenance of intact synaptic connections. Fifth instar Manduca sexta caterpillars received an electrical shock associatively paired with a specific odor in order to create a conditioned odor aversion, and were assayed for learning in a Y choice apparatus as larvae and again as adult moths. We show that larvae learned to avoid the training odor, and that this aversion was still present in the adults. The adult aversion did not result from carryover of chemicals from the larval environment, as neither applying odorants to naïve pupae nor washing the pupae of trained caterpillars resulted in a change in behavior. In addition, we report that larvae trained at third instar still showed odor aversion after two molts, as fifth instars, but did not avoid the odor as adults, consistent with the idea that post-metamorphic recall involves regions of the brain that are not produced until later in larval development. The present study, the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory survives metamorphosis in Lepidoptera, provokes intriguing new questions about the organization and persistence of the central nervous system during metamorphosis. Our results have both ecological and evolutionary implications, as retention of memory through metamorphosis could influence host choice by polyphagous insects, shape habitat selection, and lead to eventual sympatric speciation. PMID:18320055

  13. Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-08-01

    Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild. PMID:24788023

  14. Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR®

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR® treatment Stefan Bogdanov Anton Apilife VAR® treatment in autumn of 1992, the residues in honey and comb were examined the following spring. Only thymol residues were found in honey, whereas in comb the residues consisted of 99 % thymol

  15. Attachment to Plant Surface Waxes by an Insect Predator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANFORD D. EIGENBRODE; REINHARD JETTER

    2002-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Insects foraging on plant surfaces must attach to the layer of lipophilic materials known as epicuticular waxes (EW) that cover these surfaces. In this paper, we briefly review the evidence that variation in EW morphology can influence the ecology of herbivorous insects directly, by affecting their attachment to plant surfaces, and indirectly by affecting attachment by actively foraging predatory

  16. Leaf wax biomarkers in transit record river catchment composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; West, A. Joshua; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier

    2014-09-01

    Rivers carry organic molecules derived from terrestrial vegetation to sedimentary deposits in lakes and oceans, storing information about past climate and erosion, as well as representing a component of the carbon cycle. It is anticipated that sourcing of organic matter may not be uniform across catchments with substantial environmental variability in topography, vegetation zones, and climate. Here we analyze plant leaf wax biomarkers in transit in the Madre de Dios River (Peru), which drains a forested catchment across 4.5 km of elevation from the tropical montane forests of the Andes down into the rainforests of Amazonia. We find that the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax molecules (specifically the C28 n-alkanoic acid) carried by this tropical mountain river largely records the elevation gradient defined by the isotopic composition of precipitation, and this supports the general interpretation of these biomarkers as proxy recorders of catchment conditions. However, we also find that leaf wax isotopic composition varies with river flow regime over storm and seasonal timescales, which could in some cases be quantitatively significant relative to changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation in the past. Our results inform on the sourcing and transport of material by a major tributary of the Amazon River and contribute to the spatial interpretation of sedimentary records of past climate using the leaf wax proxy.

  17. Hydrate and Wax Prevention of Risers by Electrical Heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vidar Henrik Halvorsen

    The traditional methods for hydrate prevention by use of chemical treatments have considerable operation costs and represent a risk to the environment. Especially for deep-water fields electrical heating of pipeline systems is attractive. Norwegian oil companies have since 1986 been investigating alternative electrical heating methods for prevention of hydrates and wax plugging the pipelines. A joint industry project 'Concept Verification

  18. Temperature-dependent solubility of wax compounds in ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of ethanol to dissolve wax compounds was investigated as an alternative to traditional lipid solvents. The solubility of fatty esters with carbon chain lengths between 46 and 54 was measured in ethanol at elevated temperatures. The greatest increase in solubility was observed between 40°...

  19. Characterization of wax manufactures of historical and artistic interest.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Chicco, Federica; Colapietro, Marcello; Gatta, Tania; Gregori, Emanuela; Panfili, Manuela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this scientific research is the physic and chemical characterization of two historical wax manufactures, made at the end of XIX century by Francesco Bianchi, a papal engraver. The chemical and analytical investigation was necessary to complete and to confirm the restorer's work. The IR Spectroscopy, X-Ray and GC-MS, the best technique to characterise wax, allowed us to obtain the following results. The two manufactures were made with commercial beeswax: in fact, the relative chromatograms showed unchanged peaks about esters of palmitic acid with C24 to C32 alcohol molecules; using standard beeswax we determined the same amount of hydrocarbons present in the wax manufactures. We found several hydrocarbons in these beeswax materials so that it is reasonable to think about successive modifications. ZnO (white zinc), a pigment, was added, probably due to its colour and covering capacity. Sb2S3, Anthimoniun vermilion, a red-orange pigment, was added to these manufactures to give them a soft pink-orange colour. By all used techniques we determined some modifications in the original beeswax; surely they were made to get a more malleable, mouldable, and then more able to be modelled wax. PMID:16485658

  20. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester. PMID:23829499

  1. Transcutaneous DNA immunization following waxing-based hair depilation.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Brian R; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Xiao, Gang; DiGiovanni, John; Maury, Wendy; Cui, Zhengrong

    2012-01-10

    Transcutaneous DNA immunization is an attractive immunization approach. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles had been induced into growth stage by 'cold' waxing-based hair plucking significantly enhanced the resultant immune responses. In the present study, using a plasmid that encodes the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA63) gene fragment, it was shown that the anti-PA63 antibody responses induced by applying the plasmid onto a skin area where the hair was plucked by 'warm' waxing were significantly stronger than by 'cold' waxing, very likely because the 'warm' waxing-based hair depilation significantly i) enhanced the uptake (or retention) of the plasmid in the application area and ii) enhanced the expression of the transfected gene in the follicular and interfollicular epidermis in the skin. The antibody response induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization was hair cycle dependent, because the plasmid needed to be applied within 5days after the hair plucking to induce a strong antibody response. The antibody responses were not affected by whether the expressed PA63 protein, as an antigen, was secreted or cell surface bound. Finally, this strategy of enhancing the immune responses induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization following 'warm' waxing-based hair depilation was not limited to the PA63 as an antigen, because immunization with a plasmid that encodes the HIV-1 env gp160 gene induced a strong anti-gp160 response as well. Transcutaneous DNA immunization by modifying the hair follicle cycle may hold a great promise in inducing strong and functional immune responses. PMID:21907253

  2. Transcutaneous DNA immunization following waxing-based hair depilation

    PubMed Central

    Sloat, Brian R.; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Xiao, Gang; DiGiovanni, John; Maury, Wendy; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous DNA immunization is an attractive immunization approach. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles had been induced into growth stage by ‘cold’ waxing-based hair plucking significantly enhanced the resultant immune responses. In the present study, using a plasmid that encodes the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA63) gene fragment, it was shown that the anti-PA63 antibody responses induced by applying the plasmid onto a skin area where the hair was plucked by ‘warm’ waxing were significantly stronger than by ‘cold’ waxing, very likely because the ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation significantly i) enhanced the uptake (or retention) of the plasmid in the application area and ii) enhanced the expression of the transfected gene in the follicular and interfollicular epidermis in the skin. The antibody response induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization was hair cycle dependent, because the plasmid needed to be applied within 5 days after the hair plucking to induce a strong antibody response. The antibody responses were not affected by whether the expressed PA63 protein, as an antigen, was secreted or cell surface bound. Finally, this strategy of enhancing the immune responses induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization following ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation was not limited to the PA63 as an antigen, because immunization with a plasmid that encodes the HIV-1 env gp160 gene induced a strong anti-gp160 response as well. Transcutaneous DNA immunization by modifying the hair follicle cycle may hold a great promise in inducing strong and functional immune responses. PMID:21907253

  3. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993?bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value?larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar. PMID:25868817

  4. Radiation biology and inherited sterility of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): developing a sterile insect release program.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill; Stephens, Andrea E A; Butler, Ruth C; Lacey, Ian; Kaur, Amandip; Suckling, David M

    2011-12-01

    The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and < or = 2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was significantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females < or = 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2-5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at > or = 150 Gy produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was > 99% by F2 egg. PMID:22299363

  5. DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Chung; Go, Young Sam

    2014-06-01

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticular wax layer, which is the first barrier between a plant and its environment. Although cuticular wax deposition increases more in the light than in the dark, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis. Recently DEWAX (Decrease Wax Biosynthesis) encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor was found to be preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Wax analysis of the dewax knockout mutant, wild type, and DEWAX overexpression lines (OX) indicates that DEWAX is a negative regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis. DEWAX represses the expression of wax biosynthetic genes CER1, LACS2, ACLA2, and ECR via direct interaction with their promoters. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX; throughout the night and another for stomata closing. Taken together, it is evident that DEWAX-mediated negative regulation of the wax biosynthetic genes plays role in determining the total wax loads produced in Arabidopsis during daily dark and light cycles. In addition, significantly higher levels of DEWAX transcripts in leaves than stems suggest that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression might be involved in the organ-specific regulation of total wax amounts on plant surfaces. PMID:24905919

  6. Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops to complete development (Fig. 4). www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College occurs on the day of emergence. A single female usually lays from18 to 356 eggs. Natural Control A high

  7. The human health impacts of the Oak processionary moth

    E-print Network

    The human health impacts of the Oak processionary moth Dr Olivier le Polain, Dr Barry Walsh #12 of the trees (30m): 47/69 (68%) - Symptoms: rash (100%), itchy eyes (29.7%), breathing problems (4.2%) #12

  8. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  9. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  10. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  12. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization. PMID:25475786

  13. Assessing species distribution using Google Street View: a pilot study with the Pine Processionary Moth.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

  14. Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth

    PubMed Central

    Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

  15. YOUNG LARVAE OF ECITON (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE: DORYLINAE)

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    YOUNG LARVAE OF ECITON (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE: DORYLINAE) BY GEORGE C. WHEELER AND JEANETTE confirmation one should have a worker pupa or a worker to verify size. The identification of sexual larvae presents a further complica- tion. If the larva is larger than a worker semipupa it is probably a sexual

  16. Behaviourally mediated crypsis in two nocturnal moths with contrasting appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Callahan, Alison; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The natural resting orientations of several species of nocturnal moth on tree trunks were recorded over a three-month period in eastern Ontario, Canada. Moths from certain genera exhibited resting orientation distributions that differed significantly from random, whereas others did not. In particular, Catocala spp. collectively tended to orient vertically, whereas subfamily Larentiinae representatives showed a variety of orientations that did not differ significantly from random. To understand why different moth species adopted different orientations, we presented human subjects with a computer-based detection task of finding and ‘attacking’ Catocala cerogama and Euphyia intermediata target images at different orientations when superimposed on images of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees. For both C. cerogama and E. intermediata, orientation had a significant effect on survivorship, although the effect was more pronounced in C. cerogama. When the tree background images were flipped horizontally the optimal orientation changed accordingly, indicating that the detection rates were dependent on the interaction between certain directional appearance features of the moth and its background. Collectively, our results suggest that the contrasting wing patterns of the moths are involved in background matching, and that the moths are able to improve their crypsis through appropriate behavioural orientation. PMID:19000977

  17. Evidence for histamine in the urticating hairs of Hylesia moths.

    PubMed

    Dinehart, S M; Jorizzo, J L; Soter, N A; Noppakun, N; Voss, W R; Hokanson, J A; Smith, E B

    1987-06-01

    An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts made from whole moths and from urticating hairs. Extracts made from other moth parts contained no histamine. Cutaneous wheals occurred after intradermal injections of histamine and various concentrations of Hylesia extract (HE) into the backs of cynomolgus monkeys. This whealing response was suppressed by pretreatment of the animals with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but not by pretreatment with indomethacin. Histologic examinations showed a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate around dilated capillaries without evidence of mast cell degranulation in HE-injected sites but not in controls. These findings provide evidence that histamine may be the mediator responsible for the urticarial lesions seen after contact with Hylesia moths. PMID:3585053

  18. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  19. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection. PMID:21905729

  20. The impact of exotic parasitoids on populations of a native Hawaiian moth assessed using life table studies.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of alien species on native organisms is a cause for concern worldwide, with biological invasions commonplace today. Suppression efforts targeting many invasive species have included introductions of biological control agents. The numerous releases of biological control agents in the Hawaiian archipelago have resulted in considerable concern for non-target impacts, due to high levels of non-target parasitism observed to occur in some cases. This study investigated the impact of introduced Hymenoptera parasitoids on a Hawaiian moth. The endemic Hawaiian moth Udea stellata (Butler) has seven alien parasitoids associated with it, two purposely introduced, three adventive, and two of uncertain origin. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of the seven parasitoid species to the population dynamics of U. stellata by constructing partial life tables. Marginal attack rates and associated k-values were calculated to allow comparison of mortality factors between experimental sites. Sentinel larvae were deployed on potted host plants and left in the field for 3-day intervals in open and exclusion treatments. The factors that contributed to total mortality in the open treatment were: disappearance (42.1%), death due to unknown reasons during rearing (16.5%) and parasitism (4.9%). The open treatment incurred significantly higher larval disappearance compared to the exclusion treatment (7.8%), which suggests that in large part disappearance is the result of predation. Adventive parasitoids inflicted greater total larval mortality attributable to parasitism (97.0%) than purposely introduced species (3.0%). PMID:19023599

  1. Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

    2001-01-01

    The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

  2. Biosynthesis of Isoprenoid Wax Ester in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798: Identification and Characterization of Isoprenoid Coenzyme A Synthetase and Wax Ester Synthases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Holtzapple; Claudia Schmidt-Dannert

    2007-01-01

    Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 has been reported to synthesize isoprenoid wax ester storage compounds when grown on phytol as the sole carbon source under limiting nitrogen and\\/or phosphorous conditions. We hypothesized that isoprenoid wax ester synthesis involves (i) activation of an isoprenoid fatty acid by a coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase and (ii) ester bond formation between an isoprenoid alcohol and

  3. Biosynthesis of isoprenoid wax ester in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798: identification and characterization of isoprenoid coenzyme A synthetase and wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Holtzapple, Erik; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2007-05-01

    Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 has been reported to synthesize isoprenoid wax ester storage compounds when grown on phytol as the sole carbon source under limiting nitrogen and/or phosphorous conditions. We hypothesized that isoprenoid wax ester synthesis involves (i) activation of an isoprenoid fatty acid by a coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase and (ii) ester bond formation between an isoprenoid alcohol and isoprenoyl-CoA catalyzed, most likely, by an isoprenoid wax ester synthase similar to an acyl wax ester synthase, wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), recently described from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. We used the recently released rough draft genome sequence of a closely related strain, M. aquaeolei VT8, to search for WS/DGAT and acyl-CoA synthetase candidate genes. The sequence information from putative WS/DGAT and acyl-CoA synthetase genes identified in this strain was used to clone homologues from the isoprenoid wax ester synthesizing Marinobacter strain. The activities of the recombinant enzymes were characterized, and two new isoprenoid wax ester synthases capable of synthesizing isoprenoid ester and acyl/isoprenoid hybrid ester in vitro were identified along with an isoprenoid-specific CoA synthetase. One of the Marinobacter wax ester synthases displays several orders of magnitude higher activity toward acyl substrates than any previously characterized acyl-WS and may reflect adaptations to available carbon sources in their environments. PMID:17351040

  4. Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Böhm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull-off forces of polydimethylsiloxane probes on wax surfaces having a higher density of wax coverage, created by smaller crystals. PMID:25161838

  5. Wax Layers on Cosmos bipinnatus Petals Contribute Unequally to Total Petal Water Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m?1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  6. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  7. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G?/G' (?) ? 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G?) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes. PMID:25932656

  8. In situ nitrogen generation removes wax from flowlines

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, C.N. [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Formation of paraffin (wax) in cold deepwater flowlines is a major problem for offshore operators of such facilities. Petrobras faces this problem continuously in its deepwater operations in the Campos basin, offshore Brazil. Since 1990, through its Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), the company has developed, extensively field tested, and recently commercialized, a novel technique for chemically removing such wax depositions. The process involves mixing and introducing to the line, two inorganic salts and organic solvents. The ensuing chemical reaction--which both generates nitrogen and heats the inside of the blocked flowline--allows the solvent to dissolve and dislodge the buildup, which is then flushed from the line. The process is called the Nitrogen Generation System (SGN). Petrobras/CENPES has recently formed a joint venture with the Brazilian service company Maritima Navegacao e Engenharia Ltda. to offer SGN services worldwide.

  9. Leaf epicuticular waxes as proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Lanny, Verena; Eglinton, Timothy; Zech, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Long-chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids are essential constituents of leaf waxes and can be used for the reconstruction of the paleovegetation and paleoclimate (e.g. Zech et al. 2013a). However, more research is needed to assess the full potential of these leaf wax biomarkers. Here we present results from a study on a transect from Southern Germany to Sweden. Our resuts show that litter and soils under deciduous trees have a dominance of the C27 n-alkane and the C28 n-carboxylic acid. Conifers are characterized by the dominance of the C29 n-alkane and the C22 and C24 n-carboxylic acids. C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-carboxylic acids can be attributed to grasses and herbs. Degradation of both compound classes in paleosols and sediments should be taken into consideration (e.g. Zech et al. 2013b), but the impact of degradation is not yet fully understood. We are now running compound-specific stable isotope analyses on all transect samples to evaluate the potential of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in leaf waxes as proxy for the hydrological conditions. In addition, we aim at presenting first results of leaf wax biomarker analyses for a last-glacial loess-paleosol sequence from Spain. References Zech M., Krause T., Meszner M. & Faust D. 2013b: Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences: A case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany. Quaternary International, 296, 108-116. Zech, R., Zech, M., Markovi?, S., Hambach, U. & Huang Y. 2013a: Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387, 165-175.

  10. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  11. Variable Attachment to Plant Surface Waxes by Predatory Insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanford D. Eigenbrode; William E. Snyder; Garrett Clevenger; Hongjian Ding; Stanislav N. Gorb

    In this chapter we will (1) provide an overview of evidence of the influence of habitat characteristics on predation, (2)\\u000a provide specific evidence for the importance of the plant as habitat, and of variability in plant morphology’s impact on the\\u000a foraging of insect predators and parasitoids, (3) focus on the role of crystalline waxes on plant surfaces in mediating these

  12. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Larikov; Yu. N. Roshchin; S. P. Sokolova; A. N. Pereverzev

    1983-01-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone\\/toluene or MEK\\/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity

  13. Foliar epicuticular wax of Arrabidaea brachypoda: flavonoids and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Alcerito; Fausto E. Barbo; Giuseppina Negri; Deborah Y. A. C. Santos; Christiane I. Meda; Maria Cláudia M. Young; Daniel Chávez; Cec??lia T. T. Blatt

    2002-01-01

    The epicuticular wax of the leaves of Arrabidaea brachypoda was analyzed for its flavonoid content and four compounds (1–4) were isolated. They are known flavonoids and showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. They were identified by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) as 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), cirsiliol (2), cirsimaritin (3) and hispidulin (4). Two

  14. SEDIMENTATION PATTERNS AND DEPOSITION IN THE PROGRADING WAX LAKE DELTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C. H.; Holm, G. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Mississippi River has been dammed and levied since the 1950s to control the river from flooding and support navigation and commerce. Sediments delivered to the Louisiana delta plain have decreased by half since the major projects of the 1950’s. Despite significant reductions in sediment load, the Wax Lake Delta is forming at the mouth of a man made dredged channel that flows off of the Atchafalaya River, which is the principal distributary of the Mississippi River. The remaining sediments carried by the Mississippi River are essential in the building of delta wetlands and helping to reverse coastal wetland loss. This study analyzes pre- and post-elevation data from 2008 and 2009 to understand the amount of elevation gain and sediment deposition associated with large river floods. Mean wetland elevation gain during the floods of 2008 and 2009 was 3.9 cm and 2.2 cm, respectively. Using soil bulk properties and mean elevation gain, I estimated that 2.3x106 Mt and 1.2x106Mt of sediment was deposited in the Wax Lake Delta wetlands for 2008 and 2009, respectively. If the total annual load of sediments in the Atchafalaya River is approximately 50Mt yr-1, we can estimate that <10% of the total available sediment load is deposited in the wetlands, just during spring flood events. This study provides good first order estimates of sediment deposition that can contribute to future research and understanding of the Wax Lake Delta formation and maintenance.

  15. Wax removal for accelerated cotton scouring with alkaline pectinase.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pramod B; Nierstrasz, Vincent A; Klug-Santner, Barbara G; Gübitz, Georg M; Lenting, Herman B M; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

    2007-03-01

    A rational approach has been applied to design a new environmentally acceptable and industrially viable enzymatic scouring process. Owing to the substrate specificity, the selection of enzymes depends on the structure and composition of the substrate, i.e. cotton fibre. The structure and composition of the outer layers of cotton fibre has been established on the basis of thorough literature study, which identifies wax and pectin removal to be the key steps for successful scouring process. Three main issues are discussed here, i.e. benchmarking of the existing alkaline scouring process, an evaluation of several selected acidic and alkaline pectinases for scouring, and the effect of wax removal treatment on pectinase performance. It has been found that the pectinolytic capability of alkaline pectinases on cotton pectin is nearly 75% higher than that of acidic pectinases. It is concluded that an efficient wax removal prior to pectinase treatment indeed results in improved performance in terms of hydrophilicity and pectin removal. To evaluate the hydrophilicity, the structural contact angle (theta) was measured using an auto-porosimeter. PMID:17219460

  16. Ultrasound assisted manufacturing of paraffin wax nanoemulsions: process optimization.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, A J; Holkar, C R; Karekar, S E; Pinjari, D V; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, paraffin wax in water nanoemulsions, stabilized by modified sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This work focuses on the optimization of major emulsification process variables including sonication time, applied power and surfactant concentration. The effects of these variables were investigated on the basis of mean droplet diameter and stability of the prepared emulsion. It was found that the stable emulsion with droplet diameters about 160.9 nm could be formed with the surfactant concentration of 10 mg/ml and treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 0.61 W/ml) for 15 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the emulsion droplets. The droplets were solid at room temperature, showing bright spots under polarized light and a spherical shape under SEM. The electrophoretic properties of emulsion droplets showed a negative zeta potential due to the adsorption of head sulfate groups of the SDS surfactant. For the sake of comparison, paraffin wax emulsion was prepared via emulsion inversion point method and was checked its intrinsic stability. Visually, it was found that the emulsion get separated/creamed within 30 min. while the emulsion prepared via ultrasonically is stable for more than 3 months. From this study, it was found that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification process could be successfully used for the preparation of stable paraffin wax nanoemulsions. PMID:25465097

  17. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  18. A viral histone H4 suppresses expression of a transferrin that plays a role in the immune response of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Kim, Y

    2010-08-01

    A transferrin (Tf) gene has been predicted from an expressed sequence tag of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. It encodes 681 amino acid residues that share 80-90% sequence homologies with other lepidopteran Tfs. The gene was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages of P. xylostella. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to the Tf gene was prepared and microinjected into the larvae. We hypothesize that the dsRNA treatment suppressed the Tf gene expression level and it significantly inhibited haemocyte nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. The larvae treated with dsRNA also showed a significantly enhanced susceptibility to an entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. An endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, parasitized the larvae of P. xylostella, which showed significant reduction of Tf expression. The suppression of Tf expression was mimicked by transient expression of a viral gene CpBV-H4, encoded in the symbiotic virus of C. plutellae. A truncated form of CpBV-H4 prepared by deleting an extended N-terminal 38 amino acid residue lost its inhibitory activity against the Tf gene expression. These results suggest that Tf of P. xylostella plays an immunological role in P. xylostella and that the suppression of its expression in the parasitized larvae is caused by a viral histone H4 in an epigenetic mode. PMID:20491980

  19. Entomocidal effects of beech apricot, Labramia bojeri, seed extract on a soybean pest, the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; Kubo, Carlos E G; Freire, Maria G M; Júnior, Roberto T A; Parra, José R P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (~64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ~4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  20. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Horton, David R; Jones, Dana C

    2008-02-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected mortality of larvae, calculated as percentage of larvae failing to survive to the adult stage. Exposure durations of 3, 7, or 14 days at 24 degrees C followed by incubation in fresh air at 27 degrees C until emergence resulted in mortalities of 84.2, 95.5 and 99.6%, respectively. However, the longer exposures also resulted in increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) that are unacceptable for tuber storage. Effects of M. albus on larval survival was also monitored at 10, 15 and 24 degrees C, using an exposure duration of 7 days followed by incubation in clean air at 27 degrees C until emergence. Mortality of larvae was sharply reduced at the lower temperatures resulting in 50.8, 76.8, and 95.4% mortality, respectively. Tuber storage conditions, especially cooling rates, are discussed with respect to using M. albus as a fumigant without simultaneously producing unacceptable (for tuber storage) levels of CO(2). PMID:17897669

  1. REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE W the probe to encircle the nerve cord. Images showing (b) the telemetry system and (c) a cyborg moth with FNP

  2. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  3. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  4. Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Baum, Martina J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4–8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. PMID:24165663

  5. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  6. Combined process for production of base oils and exhaustively deoiled waxes. Use of oscillating crystallizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Yakovlev; V. A. Zakharov; V. A. Boldinov; E. A. Esipko; A. I. Frolov; V. V. Voidashevich

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the results obtained suggests the following conclusions: a process for fabricating lube oils and exhaustively\\u000a deoiled waxes using recrystallization of dewaxing stage-two slack wax in an oscillating crystallizer was developed. The possibility\\u000a of stable manufacture of wax with an oil content at more than 1 wt. % in processing raffinate from the 420–490C cut was demonstrated.

  7. Submersed Culture Production of Extracellular Wax Esters by the Marine Bacterium Fundibacter jadensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bredemeier; R. Hulsch; J. O. Metzger; L. Berthe-Corti

    2003-01-01

    Fundibacter jadensis strain T9, a marine gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from the intertidal sediment of the German North Sea coast by our group. The cells were able to produce considerable amounts of extracellular wax esters when cultivated with n-alkanes (hexadecane or tetradecane) as a carbon source. The dependence of wax ester production and the composition of the purified wax on

  8. A new thermodynamic model to predict wax deposition from crude oils 

    E-print Network

    Loganathan, Narayanan

    1993-01-01

    . Temperature is the major driving force for dte paraffin solid-liquid phase equilibria and the consequent separation of the two phases. The three major parameters that affect the solubility of wax in a oil are the temperature, pressure, and composition... oilfield production problems. Predictions of this wax deposition in advance can result in significant savings. A thermodynamic model for predicting the liquid-solid wax phase equilibria has been developed in this work. This model tries to overcome...

  9. Antennal-specific Pheromone-degrading Aldehyde Oxidases from the Moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rybczynski; R. G. Vogt; M. R. LernerS

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating be- haviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concen- tration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone con- centration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLORAL ODOR OF OREGON GRAPE: POSSIBLE FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that flowers of Oregon grape, Berberis aquifolium Prursch., might release chemicals attractive to moths. Studies were conducted to determine what moths visit flowers of Oregon grape and to characterize the odor chemistry of those flowers in search of possible moth feeding attrac...

  11. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia) Summary — A melanic form of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is described from INTRODUCTION The grape vine moth Lobesia botrana Den and Schiff is known as the most important grape pest

  12. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  13. NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    to escape a bat's attack could potentially become prey to a surface-feeding fish. Surface waves are used and ob- serving whether fish attack the moths and if the size (wing surface area) of the moth provides and James H. Fullard Abstract: Although the evasive flight of eared moths to attacking bats has received

  14. POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth out- breaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy pattern of periodicity in gypsy moth popula- tions is that 5- and 10-year cycles are harmonics

  15. Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

    E-print Network

    Canham, Charles D.

    TITLE Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL Studies PO Box AB Millbrook, NY 12545 Telephone: (845) 677-5343 CODES Density = gypsy moth egg mass density DATA DESCRIPTION Gypsy moth density is presented in egg masses/hectare for each year of data

  16. NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks?

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks? A response to Sela on the dynamics of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations in North America. This paper highlighted a previously developed hypothesis, namely that gypsy moth outbreaks are caused by decreased rates of predation

  17. he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis-par) is probably the most de-

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    T he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis- par) is probably the most de- structive forest defoliator in the United States. More than 81 million acres of forests have been defoliated by the gypsy moth since 1924). During gypsy moth outbreaks, many species of hard- woods may be defoliated; repeated de- foliation causes

  18. Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    E-print Network

    LETTER Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) E across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical

  19. Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

    E-print Network

    Handelsman, Jo

    Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Heather K the antibiotic resistome of the microbial community in gypsy moth larval midguts by applying functional (Vasanthakumar et al., 2008). The gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantria dispar) is an in- teresting example

  20. Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990 species. The gypsy moth is an excellent species for illustrating the population processes operating during

  1. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    LETTERS Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1 , Andrew M. Liebhold2- systems1 and cause substantial economic losses2 . A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth and 2004 alone3 . The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most

  2. Interactions between Two Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pathogens: Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Entomophaga maimaiga

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Interactions between Two Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pathogens: Nucleopolyhedrovirus, Entomophaga maimaiga, in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States in 1989 raised the collapse of defoliating gypsy moth popula- tions. To determine the impacts of E. maimaiga on Ld

  3. POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    to or exceeding that of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Burgess and Cross- man 1929). In additionPOPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth (Lepidoptera is the browntail moth Euproctis chry- sorrhoea L, which was discovered in the eastern United States in 1897. Its

  4. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations Using the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed of the USDA Forest Service Slow-the-Spread of the gypsy moth project from 1993 to 2001. Out of 556 treatments

  5. Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2

    E-print Network

    Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2 T.C.BAKER AND R. T 48824 Reprinted from the ENVIRONMENTALENTOMOLOGY #12;Disruption of Gypsy Moth1 Male Sex Pheromone Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth), while flying upwind toward a pheromone source, respond to high frequency

  6. Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide Andrew Liebhold1 Kevin Thorpe2 America in 1868 or 1869, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has become one of the most destructive forest insects in the northeastern U.S. In the wake of the gypsy moth's continuously expanding infested

  7. WHAT CAUSES MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth popu...

  8. Heavy wax distillate as a raw material for the production of solid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gundyrev, R.A.; Fokina, T.V.; Garun, Y.E.; Kazakova, L.P.; Sochevko, T.I.

    1984-07-01

    This article discusses the feasibility of recovering solid hydrocarbons from a heavy wax distillate in order to expand the raw material base for the production of high-melting waxes. The examined distillate has a melting point of 45/sup 0/C, a wax content of 34% by weight, a viscosity (at 100/sup 0/C) of 8.2 mm/sup 2//sec, a molecular weight of 345, a content of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons of 59.1% by weight, contents of aromatic hydrocarbons (light, medium and heavy) of 8.9%, 5.1%, and 20.4% by weight, respectively, and a content of hydrocarbons forming and not forming urea adducts of 21.8% and 78.2%, respectively. The heavy wax distillate was filtered in a Bogdanov laboratory unit containing a filter press consisting of a crystallizer and a slack wax chamber. The filtration residue from the crystallizer beaker and the slack wax cake from the wax chamber are collected in a preweighed container. It is concluded that the heavy wax distillate can be successfully dewaxed for wax production if it is modified by dilution with a filtrate and the incorporation of a structure modifier.

  9. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  10. The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

  11. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness. PMID:23750808

  12. Relationship between supercooling point and mortality at low temperatures in Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, M A; Cannon, C A; Wilcke, W F; Morey, R V; Kaliyan, N; Hutchison, W D

    2005-04-01

    Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant stored-product pests. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between mortality at low temperatures after minimum exposure and the supercooling point (SCP) for laboratory-reared P. interpunctella at different stages of development. This relationship also was analyzed for field-collected, cold-acclimated fifth instars. Mean SCP of laboratory-reared larvae (i.e., feeding stage) was consistently above approximately -16 degrees C. Mean SCP of laboratory-reared pupae and adults (i.e., nonfeeding stages) and field-collected, cold-acclimated fifth instars was consistently below approximately -21 degrees CP seemed to be the boundary between survival and death for larvae. However, it seemed that a 1-min exposure was not sufficient to cause larval mortality at the SCP. Alternatively, for both pupae and adults, the SCP seemed not to play an important role in their survival at low temperatures, with significant mortality observed at temperatures higher than the mean SCP. Adults were the most susceptible to low temperatures with no survival occurring at -20 degrees C, > 3 degrees C above its mean SCP. Results of this investigation demonstrate that P. interpunctella has a different response to low temperatures depending on stage of development and cold acclimation. Classifying P. interpunctella only as a freeze-intolerant organism disregards the occurrence of prefreeze mortality in this species. Therefore, a reclassification of this species (e.g., chill tolerant or chill susceptible) based on the extent of prefreeze mortality and the temperature and time of exposure at which it occurs is suggested. PMID:15889756

  13. Using yellow rocket as a trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2005-06-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in field plots of cabbage alone were 5.2-11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several rows of yellow rocket. In an outdoor experiment in screenhouses, P. xylostella oviposition on cabbage was compared among six treatments that varied in the percentage of yellow rocket in relation to cabbage (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the plants were yellow rocket). Results indicated that the percentage of eggs laid on cabbage decreased as the percentage of yellow rocket in the treatment increased, but this decrease was not significant beyond 20% of the plants being yellow rocket. In 2004, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae in field plots of cabbage alone were 1.6-2.4 and 1.7-2.8 times higher than numbers in treatments with 10 and 20% trap crop, respectively. Sticky trap and sweep net captures of P. xylostella adults indicated that within-field dispersal was reduced by the presence of yellow rocket and aggregation occurred around yellow rocket plants. Our study suggests that using yellow rocket as a trap crop may reduce P. xylostella infestations in cabbage fields, and this possibility is discussed in the context of general crop and insect pest management practices in crucifers. PMID:16022317

  14. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ??Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D??) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10?- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to ?-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. PMID:21683605

  15. Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Gypsy Moth Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and Asia, the gypsy moth was introduced into NorthAmerica in 1869 when specimens were accidentally released in Medford, Massachusetts. Gypsy moth feeds on the leaves of many tree

  16. Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies) 

    E-print Network

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-07-21

    live in the thin film found in drains and septic tank field lines and on filter stones. The larvae feed on fungi, bacteria, algae and other microorganisms found in the liquid or slime layers that develop around debris in drains, sewage treatment beds...73 areas where algae or mold grows on the soil or foundation; and a73 beneath air conditioning units on the roofs of commercial buildings or where units adjoin a building. Infestations also may originate in a neighbor?s yard or in nearby shallow pools...

  17. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  18. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

    2005-09-27

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

  19. Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Ken; Yoshido, Atsuo; Traut, Walther

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera, i.e. moths and butterflies, have a female heterogametic sex chromosome system, with most females having a WZ constitution while males are ZZ. Besides this predominant WZ/ZZ system, Z/ZZ, WZ(1)Z(2)/Z(1)Z(1)Z(2)Z(2) and W(1)W(2)Z/ZZ systems also occur. Sex is determined by an unknown W-linked gene or genes in Bombyx mori, but by dosage-dependent and equally unknown Z-linked genes in all Z/ZZ species. The female heterogametic sex chromosome system has been conserved for at least 180 MY in the phylogenetic branch that combines Lepidoptera and Trichoptera. The W chromosome, which is present in most lepidopteran species, was incorporated in the sex chromosome system much later, about 90-100 MY ago. The Z chromosomes are highly conserved among Lepidoptera, much like the Z in birds or the X in mammals. The W, on the other hand, is evolving rapidly. It is crammed with repetitive elements which appear to have a high turnover rate but poor in or even devoid of protein-coding genes. It has frequently undergone fusion with autosomes or sporadically lost altogether. PMID:22187366

  20. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

  1. Cultivation of larvae of Japanese eel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamauchi; M. Nakamura; H. Takahashi; K. Takano

    1976-01-01

    ALTHOUGH the breeding place of the European eel has been detected1, the morphology and ecology of their larvae, especially in pre-leptocephalus stages, still remain to be investigated. We have, however, succeeded2-4 in obtaining some pre-larvae of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, following artificial induction of maturation and spawning in aquaria, the larvae survived for only 6 d; their teeth characteristic

  2. Life tables of Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing the Mediterranean flour moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, P A

    2006-02-01

    Effects of temperature, adult feeding, and host instar on life table parameters of Venturia canescens Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were studied in the laboratory. Experimental adults lived under various regimes of temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C), food supply (with or without access to honey), and host instar (second, third, fourth, and fifth). Temperature increase resulted in higher values of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)), the net reproductive rate (R(o)), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), and the gross reproductive rate (GRR), whereas it was followed by decrease of the mean generation time (G) and the doubling time (DT) values. Feeding on honey caused remarkable increase of r(m), R(o), and GRR, whereas r(m) and lambda reached their maximum when full-grown hosts (fifth instar) were parasitized. This is the first time life table parameters of V. canescens have been studied. The findings of the current study are discussed on the basis of improving V. canescens performance as a biological agent against moth pests of stored products. PMID:16573345

  3. A saponin correlated with variable resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl E; Bibby, Bo M; Frandsen, Hanne O; Brown, Lea D; Nielsen, Jens K; Renwick, J Alan A

    2003-06-01

    Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Platella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for flea beetle resistance. The P-type was always susceptible. Extracts of resistant leaflets inhibited larval growth in a bioassay, and a growth-inhibiting fraction was isolated by activity-guided fractionation. A triterpenoid saponin (1) was isolated from this fraction and identified as 3-O-beta-cellobiosyloleanolic acid from spectroscopic data and analysis of hydrolysis products. The decrease in resistance of the G-type in the fall was correlated with a decrease in the level of 1, from 0.6-0.9 to < 0.2 micromol/g dry wt. Compound 1 was not detected in the susceptible P-type. We conclude that 1 is correlated with the variable resistance of B. vulgaris foliage to the DBM. PMID:12918925

  4. Phylogeography and ecology of an endemic radiation of Hawaiian aquatic case-bearing moths (Hyposmocoma: Cosmopterigidae).

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, Daniel

    2008-10-27

    The endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) may be one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse genera in Hawaii. Among this diversity is the Hyposmocoma saccophora clade with previously unrecorded aquatic larvae. I present a molecular phylogeny based on 773 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 762 bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1-alpha. Topologies were constructed from data using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian search criteria. Results strongly support the monophyly of the H. saccophora clade and the monophyly of the genus Hyposmocoma. The H. saccophora clade has single-island endemic species on Oahu, Molokai and West Maui. By contrast, there are three species endemic to Kauai, two being sympatric. The H. saccophora clade appears to follow the progression rule, with more basal species on older islands, including the most basal species on 11 Myr-old Necker Island, one of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic behaviour either evolved recently in the species on the main Hawaiian Islands or was secondarily lost on the arid northwestern Necker Island. The phylogeny suggests that Hyposmocoma is older than any of the current main islands, which may, in part, explain Hyposmocoma's remarkable diversity. PMID:18765359

  5. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant. PMID:24973793

  6. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids. PMID:20388288

  7. Predicting the Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes Across Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Berke, M. A.; Hambach, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy of paleoprecipitation in climate reconstruction. While the broad nature of the relationships between n-alkane ?2H values and climate are appreciated on geologic scales, the quantitative details of what this proxy is reflecting remain ambiguous on plant and ecosystem levels. Areas of uncertainty on these smaller scales of importance to geologic interpretations are both the biosynthetic fractionation and the leaf-growth interval that is recorded by the isotope signal. To clarify these details, we designed a series of experiments in which modern plants were grown under controlled and monitored conditions. To determine the biosynthetic fractionation, we analyzed n-alkanes from plant grown hydroponically on isotopically distinct waters and under contrasting and controlled humidities. We observed ?2H values of n-alkane were linearly related to growth water ?2H values, but with slope differences associated with humidity. These findings suggested leaf water were central controls on ?2H values of n-alkane and support a relatively constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between leaf water and n-alkanes. To determine the interval that the leaf wax isotope signal reflects, we studied a species naturally growing on water with a constant ?2H value. Here we found the ?2H values of n-alkanes recorded only a two-week period during leaf flush and did not vary thereafter. These data indicated the ?2H values of n-alkanes record conditions early in the season, rather than integrating over the entire growing season. Using these data, we are beginning to develop geospatial predictions of the ?2H values of n-alkane across landscapes for given climate conditions, plant phenologies, and ecosystems. These emerging modeling tools may be used to assess modern ecosystem dynamics, to estimate weathering of leaf waxes to geologic repositories, and to define and test paleoclimate reconstructions from the ?2H values of n-alkanes.

  8. Identification of a triterpenoid saponin from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Koshioka, Masaji; Okabe, Hikaru; Kawai, Akira

    2002-03-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a crucifer specialist, refuse to feed on a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, because of the presence of a feeding deterrent, which is extractable with chloroform. We isolated a feeding deterrent from B. vulgaris leaves, by successive fractionations with silica-gel, ODS, i.e., C18 reversed phase, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and ODS-HPLC, guided by a bioassay for feeding deterrent activity. The structure of the compound was determined to be a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin, based on FAB-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, and hydrolysis experiments. When the compound was applied to cabbage leaf disks at greater than 0.18 microg/mm2, consumption of the disks by third instars was less than 11% of control disks treated with the solvent alone. Furthermore, all first instars died on the disks treated with the same concentrations. Because the concentration of the compound in the fresh leaves of B. vulgaris was comparable to the effective dose in the cabbage leaf disk tested, we conclude that the unacceptability of B. vulgaris to P. xylostella larvae is primarily due to this saponin. PMID:11944835

  9. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  10. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control. PMID:23865179

  11. Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from the early 1970s to present. The model provides great insights on fluvial-marine sediment dispersal and retention within the delta which will enhance the planning and design of future land building projects of comparable design.

  12. Low severity upgrading of FT waxes with solid superacids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Tierney; I. Wender

    1992-01-01

    In the past year, we synthesized a Pt\\/ZrO[sub 2]\\/SO[sub 4] catalyst which exhibits high conversions and selectivity for desirable products from long-chain paraffins, such as n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane(n-C[sub 32]) and a SASOL wax(C[sub 58]-C[sub 64]). The catalyst preparation procedure has been carefully worked out and is reproducible. Isomerization and hydrocracking activities of long-chain paraffins and selectivities to various products were examined

  13. Chemosensory apparatus of Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Chandra; Basu, Srijoni; Das, Nabajit; Khurana, Sukant

    2015-01-01

    Many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, have a rich repertoire of olfactory behavior. Combination of robust behavioral assays, physiological and molecular tools render D. melanogaster as highly suitable system for olfactory studies. The small number of neurons in the olfactory system of fruit flies, especially the number of sensory neurons in the larval stage, makes the exploration of sensory coding at all stages of its nervous system a potentially tractable goal, which is not possible in the foreseeable future in any mammalian preparation. Advances in physiological recordings, olfactory signaling and detailed analysis of behavior, can place larvae in a position to ask previously unanswerable questions.

  14. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  15. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  16. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valaitis, Algimantas P

    2011-10-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins have been identified: an aminopeptidase N (APN-1) and a 270kDa anionic glycoconjugate (BTR-270). Studies have shown that APN-1 has a relatively weak affinity and a very narrow specificity to Cry1Ac, the only Cry1A toxin that it binds. In contrast, BTR-270 binds all toxins that are active against L. dispar larvae, and the affinities for these toxins to BTR-270 correlate positively with their respective toxicities. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was coupled with fluorescence microscopy to localize APN-1 and BTR-270 in paraffin embedded midgut sections of L. dispar larvae. The distribution of cadherin and alkaline phosphatase in the gut tissue was also examined. A strong reaction indicative of polyanionic material was detected with alcian blue staining over the entire epithelial brush border, suggesting the presence of acidic glycoconjugates in the microvillar matrix. The Cry1A toxin-binding sites were confined to the apical surface of the gut epithelial cells with intense labeling of the apical tips of the microvilli. APN-1, BTR-270, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be present exclusively along the brush border microvilli along the entire gut epithelium. In contrast, cadherin, detected only in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the basement membrane anchoring the midgut epithelial cells. The topographical relationship between the Bt Cry toxin-binding molecules BTR-270 and APN-1 and the Cry1A toxin-binding sites that were confined to the apical brush border of the midgut cells is consistent with findings implicating their involvement in the mechanism of the action of Bt Cry toxins. PMID:21767544

  17. [pp. 367-380. In WE Wallner (ed.), PROCEEDINGS Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths. New Haven,

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    include three introduced species which have become established in North America, the gypsy moth, Lymantria of the invading Lymantriids is the gypsy moth, which continues to spread in North America. With economically pseudotsugata (McD.), and the satin moth, to the more catholic appetites of the gypsy moth and browntail moth

  18. Dytiscus latissimus and D. circumcinctus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) larvae as predators on three case-making caddis larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Johansson; Anders N. Nilsson

    1992-01-01

    The predacious behaviour of Dytiscus circumcinctus and D. latissimus larvae was studied experimentally. When offered different prey simultaneously, D. latissimus larvae preferred cased caddis larvae relative to mayfly nymphs and isopods, whereas in D. circumcinctus the preference order was reversed. Notonectid nymphs and tadpoles were consumed in higher numbers by D. circumcinctus than by D. latissimus larvae. D. circumcinctus larvae

  19. Short communication. Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae subsp larvae by the essential oils of two wild plants and their emulsifying agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Fuselli; L. B. Gende; S. B. García; M. J. Eguaras; R. Fritz

    In honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), American foulbrood (AFB) is caused by the infection of the larvae and pupae with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae. The antibacterial effects of the essential oils of wild camomile (Tagetes minuta L.) and Andean thyme (Acantholippia seriphioides A. Gray) against different strains of P. larvae subsp. larvae were evaluated in vitro. The possible

  20. Slippery surfaces of carnivorous plants: composition of epicuticular wax crystals in Nepenthes alata Blanco pitchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Riedel; Anna Eichner; Reinhard Jetter

    2003-01-01

    Plants in the genus Nepenthes obtain a substantial nutrient supply by trapping insects in highly modified leaves. A broad zone of the inner surface of these pitchers is densely covered with wax crystals on which most insects lose their footing. This slippery wax surface, capturing prey and preventing its escape from the trap, plays a pivotal role in the carnivorous

  1. Advances in the understanding of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis thaliana and crop species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung

    2015-04-01

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticle, a hydrophobic layer consisting of cutin polyester and cuticular waxes that protects them from various environmental stresses. Cuticular waxes mainly comprise very long chain fatty acids and their derivatives such as aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, ketones, primary alcohols, and wax esters that are also important raw materials for the production of lubricants, adhesives, cosmetics, and biofuels. The major function of cuticular waxes is to control non-stomatal water loss and gas exchange. In recent years, the in planta roles of many genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis have been characterized not only from model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana and saltwater cress (Eutrema salsugineum), but also crop plants including maize, rice, wheat, tomato, petunia, Medicago sativa, Medicago truncatula, rapeseed, and Camelina sativa through genetic, biochemical, molecular, genomic, and cell biological approaches. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the biological functions of genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of wax deposition from Arabidopsis and crop species, provide information on cuticular wax amounts and composition in various organs of nine representative plant species, and suggest the important issues that need to be investigated in this field of study. PMID:25693495

  2. Exposure to Ski-Wax Smoke and Health Effects in Ski Waxers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dahlqvist; R. Alexandersson; B. Andersson; K. Andersson; B. Kolmodin-Hedman; H. Malker

    1992-01-01

    Downhill as well as cross-country skis have undergone revolutionary technical development in recent decades. Parallel with innovations in ski bottoms, new types of ski wax have appeared on the market. At the same time complaints have been voiced increasingly by those who wax skis. We followed five male professional waxers at work in this combined chemical and medical study.Chemical analysis

  3. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  4. All sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from mono- to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubution, but why?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; J. Reneerkens; T. Piersma

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

  5. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Reneerkens; Theunis Piersma; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

  6. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  7. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  8. Bone wax as a cause of foreign body granuloma in the cerebellopontine angle: Case illustration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh B. Patel; Jed A. Kwartler; Richard M. Hodosh

    2000-01-01

    Bone wax is commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures as a hemostatic and sealing agent. It is particularly useful in neuro- surgical procedures because of its inert, nonreactive characteristics and its ability to be molded to fill openings within the skull. Bone wax is generally a safe material and its use rarely leads to complica- tions. To our

  9. A new composite coating containing HPMC, bee's wax and shellac for 'Valencia' oranges and 'Marisol' tangerines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial coatings used for citrus fruit include carnauba and shellac waxes or resins, which provide an attractive shine to the fruit, but are not necessarily made of 100% food grade ingredients. A new food grade formulation based on bee's wax (BW), shellac resin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (...

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramy R. Habashy; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim; Amani E. Khalifa; Mohammed M. Al-Azizi

    2005-01-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW

  11. Photodegradation of organic pollutants on the spruce needle wax surface under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jind?iška Dolinová; Jana Klánová; Petr Klán; Ivan Holoubek

    2004-01-01

    The photochemistry of selected organic compounds, including common pollutants, on the paraffin (as a model matrix) and spruce wax surfaces was studied under laboratory conditions. Two model transformations were evaluated: (1) intramolecular rearrangements of valerophenone and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, and (2) hydrogen abstraction between an excited benzophenone and the hydrocarbon paraffin\\/wax chains. The steric or polar influence of the solid matrix on

  12. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-10-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  13. Plant response to drought stress simulated by ABA application: Changes in chemical composition of cuticular waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Macková; Martina Vašková; Petr Macek; Marie Hronková; Lukas Schreiber; Ji?í Šantr??ek

    2010-01-01

    Plant cuticles form the interface between epidermal plant cells and the atmosphere. The cuticle creates an effective barrier against water loss, bacterial and fungal infection and also protects plant tissue from UV radiation. It is composed of the cutin matrix and embedded soluble lipids also called waxes. Chemical composition of cuticular waxes and physiological properties of cuticles are affected by

  14. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-print Network

    Wang, Siqun

    behavior, phenol-formaldehyde resin, wax, strand. INTRODUCTION structural material like OSB because dimenEFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin

  15. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions. PMID:17900636

  16. Importance of wax esters and other lipids in the marine food chain: Phytoplankton and copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Lee; J. C. Nevenzel; G.-A. Paffenhöfer

    1971-01-01

    Wax esters, which function as reserve fuels, account for 25 to 40% of the lipid of the pelagic copepod Calanus helgolandicus (Copepoda, Calanoida). In laboratory experiments with these crustaceans, diatoms (Lauderia borealis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, and Skeletonema costatum) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium splendens), which contained no wax esters, were used as food. Changes in the food concentration affected both the amount of

  17. Isolation, Inoculation to Insect Host, and Molecular Phylogeny of an Entomogenous Fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takema Fukatsu; Hiroki Sato; Hiroshi Kuriyama

    1997-01-01

    A parasitic fungus to moth larvae and pupae,Paecilomyces tenuipes,was isolated and cultured on liquid and agar media. Fruit bodies, or synnemata, with characteristics ofP. tenuipeswere successfully formed on the agar medium. When pupae of wax moth,Galleria mellonella,were incubated with the conidia, all the pupae were infected and the synnemata were formed out of them. Almost the entire length of 18S

  18. Parasitism of a Hawaiian endemic moth by invasive and purposely introduced Hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    The impact of invasive alien species on native organisms is a cause for serious concern. This concern is especially relevant in the Hawaiian archipelago because of its high level of endemicity, severe impacts of accidental introductions of invasive species, and long history of purposeful biological control introductions. Results from a previous study showed that the parasitoid assemblage associated with an endemic moth Udea stellata (Butler) comprised seven species: three adventive species, two purposely introduced species, and two of unknown origin. The objectives of this study were to assess the parasitism levels of alien wasps on populations of U. stellata at different sites and to determine the specific stages that were used by the spectrum of parasitoid species that attack U. stellata. Standardized collections of wild larvae were conducted at eight sites located on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. In total, 3,531 larvae were collected in a 2-yr survey. Of these, 8.0% were collected as first instar, 23.0% as second instar, 39.0% as third instar, 21.0% as fourth instar, 7.1% as fifth instar, and 1.8% as sixth instar. Of the larvae that survived laboratory rearing, 43.0% were parasitized. Information collected in the surveys was complemented with data from life-table studies to determine stage-specific parasitism. All larval stages were susceptible to parasitism by at least one parasitoid species; second and third instars were susceptible to attack by all seven parasitoid species. Adventive parasitoids rather than purposely introduced ones were responsible for the greater part of the apparent mortality observed. At low and low-medium elevations, the parasitoid assemblage was dominated by adventive species. The two purposely introduced parasitoids were present in remote relatively undisturbed sites on the islands Kauai and Hawaii. The sometimes high parasitism rates by adventive species found in this study were shown to have minimal effect at the population level in our life table study; therefore, care should be taken when interpreting field parasitism data. Carefully addressing current ecological impacts of alien parasitoids on native species is of particular importance for developing more efficient means to quantify the risks of future biological control introductions. PMID:20388272

  19. Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase and Wax Synthase from Euglena gracilis in the Biosynthesis of Medium-Chain Wax Esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapapan Teerawanichpan; Xiao Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, can accumulate a large amount of medium-chain wax esters under anaerobic growth conditions.\\u000a Here we report the identification and characterization of two genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax esters in E. gracilis. The first gene encodes a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (EgFAR) involved in the conversion of fatty acyl-CoAs to fatty alcohols and the second

  20. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Brian F. (Laramie, WY)

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.