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1

Effects of Sequential and Simultaneous Applications of Bacteriophages on Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro and in Wax Moth Larvae  

PubMed Central

Interest in using bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections (phage therapy) is growing, but there have been few experiments comparing the effects of different treatment strategies on both bacterial densities and resistance evolution. While it is established that multiphage therapy is typically more effective than the application of a single phage type, it is not clear if it is best to apply phages simultaneously or sequentially. We tried single- and multiphage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in vitro, using different combinations of phages either simultaneously or sequentially. Across different phage combinations, simultaneous application was consistently equal or superior to sequential application in terms of reducing bacterial population density, and there was no difference (on average) in terms of minimizing resistance. Phage-resistant bacteria emerged in all experimental treatments and incurred significant fitness costs, expressed as reduced growth rate in the absence of phages. Finally, phage therapy increased the life span of wax moth larvae infected with P. aeruginosa, and a phage cocktail was the most effective short-term treatment. When the ratio of phages to bacteria was very high, phage cocktails cured otherwise lethal infections. These results suggest that while adding all available phages simultaneously tends to be the most successful short-term strategy, there are sequential strategies that are equally effective and potentially better over longer time scales. PMID:22660719

De Vos, Daniel; Friman, Ville-Petri; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Buckling, Angus

2012-01-01

2

Efficiency of bacteriophage therapy against Cronobacter sakazakii in Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) larvae.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen found in milk-based powdered infant formulae, has been linked to meningitis in infants, with high fatality rates. A set of phages from various environments were purified and tested in vitro against strains of C. sakazakii. Based on host range and lytic activity, the T4-like phage vB_CsaM_GAP161, which belongs to the family Myoviridae, was selected for evaluation of its efficacy against C. sakazakii. Galleria mellonella larvae were used as a whole-animal model for pre-clinical testing of phage efficiency. Twenty-one Cronobacter strains were evaluated for lethality in G. mellonella larvae. Different strains of C. sakazakii caused 0 to 98% mortality. C. sakazakii 3253, with an LD50 dose of ~2.0×10(5) CFU/larva (24 h, 37 °C) was selected for this study. Larvae infected with a dose of 5×LD50 were treated with phage GAP161 (MOI=8) at various time intervals. The mortality rates were as high as 100% in the groups injected with bacteria only, compared to 16.6% in the group infected with bacteria and treated with phage. Phage GAP161 showed the best protective activity against C. sakazakii when the larvae were treated prior to or immediately after infection. The results obtained with heat-inactivated phage proved that the survival of the larvae is not due to host immune stimulation. These results suggest that phage GAP161 is potentially a useful control agent against C. sakazakii. In addition, G. mellonella may be a useful whole-animal model for pre-screening phages for efficacy and safety prior to clinical evaluation in mammalian models. PMID:24705602

Abbasifar, Reza; Kropinski, Andrew M; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; MacKinnon, Joanne; Malig, Thomas; Griffiths, Mansel W

2014-09-01

3

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N. In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Mass spectrometry showed close similarity of the 58-kDa protein to the Tenebrio molitor ?-amylase. PMID:21568853

Bulushova, N V; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-02-01

4

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

5

Photorhabdus virulence cassettes confer injectable insecticidal activity against the wax moth.  

PubMed

Two recently sequenced genomes of the insect-pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus and a large Serratia entomophila plasmid, pADAP, have phage-related loci containing putative toxin effector genes, designated the "Photorhabdus virulence cassettes" (PVCs). In S. entomophila, the single plasmid PVC confers antifeeding activity on larvae of a beetle. Here, we show that recombinant Escherichia coli expressing PVC-containing cosmids from Photorhabdus has injectable insecticidal activity against larvae of the wax moth. Electron microscopy showed that the structure of the PVC products is similar to the structure of the antibacterial R-type pyocins. However, unlike these bacteriocins, the PVC products of Photorhabdus have no demonstrable antibacterial activity. Instead, injection of Photorhabdus PVC products destroys insect hemocytes, which undergo dramatic actin cytoskeleton condensation. Comparison of the genomic organizations of several PVCs showed that they have a conserved phage-like structure with a variable number of putative anti-insect effectors encoded at one end. Expression of these putative effectors directly inside cultured cells showed that they are capable of rearranging the actin cytoskeleton. Together, these data show that the PVCs are functional homologs of the S. entomophila antifeeding genes and encode physical structures that resemble bacteriocins. This raises the interesting hypothesis that the PVC products are bacteriocin-like but that they have been modified to attack eukaryotic host cells. PMID:16513755

Yang, G; Dowling, A J; Gerike, U; ffrench-Constant, R H; Waterfield, N R

2006-03-01

6

Purification and characterization of ?-glucosidase from greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is one of the most ruinous pests of honeycomb in the world. Beta-glucosidases are a type of digestive enzymes that hydrolytically catalyzes the beta-glycosidic linkage of glycosides. Characterization of the beta-glucosidase in G. mellonella could be a significant stage for a better comprehending of its role and establishing a safe and effective control procedure primarily against G. mellonella and also some other insect pests. Laboratory reared final instar stage larvae were randomly selected and homogenized for beta-glucosidase activity assay and subsequent analysis. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 58-fold with an overall enzyme yield of 29%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 42 kDa. The purified beta-glucosidase was effectively active on para/ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with Km values of 0.37 and 1.9 mM and Vmax values of 625 and 189 U/mg, respectively. It also exhibits different levels of activity against para-nitrophenyl-?-d-fucopyranoside (p-NPF), para/ortho-nitrophenyl ?-d-galactopyranosides (p-/o-NPGal) and p-nitrophenyl 1-thio-?-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by beta-gluconolactone and also was very tolerant to glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The Ki and IC50 values of ?-gluconolactone were determined as 0.021 and 0.08 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with IC50 value of 213.13 mM for p-NPG. PMID:24789069

Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Turan, Yusuf; Er, Aylin; Acar, Mesut; Tümay, Sabiha; Sinan, Selma

2014-08-01

7

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from\\u000a midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N.\\u000a In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical\\u000a membranes

N. V. Bulushova; D. P. Zhuzhikov; L. I. Lyutikova; N. E. Kirillova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

2011-01-01

8

Toxicity of different diets contaminated with various fungi to rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st).  

PubMed

Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

Hegde, U C; Chandra, T; Shanmugasundaram, E R

1967-06-01

9

Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)  

PubMed Central

Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

1967-01-01

10

Female greater wax moths reduce sexual display behavior in relation to the potential risk of predation by echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female greater wax moths Galleria mellonella display by wing fanning in response to bursts of ultrasonic calls produced by males. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these calls show some similarities with the echolocation calls of bats that emit frequency-modulated (FM) signals. Female G. mellonella therefore need to distinguish between the attractive signals of male conspecifics, which may lead to

Gareth Jones; Anna Barabas; Wendy Elliott; Stuart Parsons

2002-01-01

11

A Study of Free Amino Acids in Rice Moth Larvae During Mycotoxicosis  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid pattern has been studied in rice moth larvae during aflatoxicosis and compared with normal in ground nut meal and wheat bran. It was observed that there is an increase in free amino acids in intoxicated larvae and this was directly proportional to the degree of toxicity as indicated by decrease in growth of these larvae. The study of excretary pattern of amino acids shows that intoxicated larvae excrete less amino acids than the normal larvae. The results have been discussed. PMID:4230279

Hedge, Umashashi C.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

1968-01-01

12

Effectiveness of twelve insecticides applied topically to diapausing larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.  

PubMed

Dose-mortality curves were established for 12 insecticides administered by topical application to diapausing larvae from a susceptible codling moth strain. Toxicity varied greatly among the insecticides tested. LC50 values ranged from 0.1 mg kg(-1) for fenoxycarb to over 2800 mg kg(-1) for diflubenzuron and indoxacarb. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field-collected diapausing larvae. PMID:15025243

Pasquier, Denis; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph

2004-03-01

13

Plant Essential Oils as Arrestants and Repellents for Neonate Larvae of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhost chemicals may be useful for controlling insect pests of crop plants by interfering with orientation to, and selection of, host plants. Essential oils of 27 plant species were tested in 2 different laboratory assays for evidence of arrest and repellency of neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. In an olfactometer in which larval upwind movement toward

PETER J. LANDOLT; RICHARD W. HOFSTETTER; LISA L. BIDDICK

14

Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

2012-06-01

15

Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

PubMed Central

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

16

Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae  

PubMed Central

Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

Goertz, Dorte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

17

Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness. PMID:20673068

Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

2010-01-01

18

Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin  

PubMed Central

The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

2014-01-01

19

Aminopeptidase-Like Activity in Hemolymph Plasma from Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminopeptidase was isolated from the plasma fraction of hemolymph from last instar larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Activity was detected using the synthetic substrate L-alanine-4-nitroanilide. Total aminopeptidase activity per microliter of plasma varied with developmental stage. Activity was detected throughout the last (fifth) larval instar and increased throughout the pupal stage. The relatively large volumes of hemolymph that

Edward P. Masler; Elena S. Kovaleva

1997-01-01

20

CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V  

E-print Network

was much less in laboratory assays made directly on sheets of foundation wax. Dipicolinic acid, penicillin potency. In tests on the chemicals without bacteria, only chloramphenicol and 6.7 % dipicolinic acid were. Of eleven additives tested in the hive, only p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) increased potency, by a factor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

Expression analysis of inhibitor of apoptosis and related caspases in the midgut and silk gland of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, during metamorphosis and under starvation.  

PubMed

We cloned a cDNA encoding inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) from the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that GmIAP contains two baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) motifs, followed by a RING finger. The sequence comparison showed that GmIAP had high homology to lepidopteran IAPs and baculoviral IAPs, as well as dipteran IAPs. GmIAP transcript and its protein appeared in both the midgut and the silk gland during metamorphosis and starvation where cell death was detected by TUNEL test. IAP, and capases-1, -3, -4 and -6 appeared as at least two peaks in the midgut and silk gland during metamorphosis. Caspase-1 transcript appeared at the highest level among caspases, while caspase-3 and caspase-6 seemed to be the most relevant caspases to IAP during metamorphosis suggesting that IAP and caspases may be involved in a core apoptosis pathway in the wax moth as in flies and mosquitoes. PMID:22975212

Khoa, Dao Bach; Takeda, Makio

2012-12-01

22

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

23

A study of Krebs citric acid cycle enzymes in rice moth larvae (Corcyrace phalonica St) during mycotoxicosis.  

PubMed

Krebs citric acid cycle enzymes have been studied in rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica St) reared in groundnut meal control and contaminated with A. flavus, wheat bran control and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus and also wheat bran containing aflatoxin. It was observed that the activity of enzymes other than succinic oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase and isocitric dehydrogenase were reduced significantly in larvae reared in contaminated groundnut meal when compared with the control. In the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran all the enzymes except succinic oxidase were inhibited when compared to the control larvae. It was also observed that the inhibition of these enzymes is greater in the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran than in contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran has been discussed. PMID:4229935

Hegde, U C; Shanmugasundaram, E R

1967-12-01

24

Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

2006-03-01

25

A Histological Procedure to Study Fungal Infection in the Wax Moth Galleria Mellonella  

PubMed Central

The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon.

Perdoni, F.; Falleni, M.; Tosi, D.; Cirasola, D.; Romagnoli, S.; Braidotti, P.; Clementi, E.; Bulfamante, G.

2014-01-01

26

A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

Perdoni, F; Falleni, M; Tosi, D; Cirasola, D; Romagnoli, S; Braidotti, P; Clementi, E; Bulfamante, G; Borghi, E

2014-01-01

27

Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.  

PubMed

A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

2011-01-01

28

Purification and characterization of glycogen phosphorylase A and B from the freeze-avoiding gall moth larvae Epiblema scudderiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active a and inactive b forms of glycogen phosphorylase from cold-hardy larvae of the gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, were purified using DEAE+ ion exchange and 3'-5'-AMP-agarose affinity chromatography. Maximum activities for glycogen phosphorylases a and b were 6.3±0.74 and 2.7±0.87 µmol glucose-1-P·min-1·g wet weight-1, respectively, in -4°C-acclimated larvae. Final specific activities of the purified enzymes were 396 and 82

C. P. Holden; K. B. Storey

1993-01-01

29

Attractants from Bartlett pear for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alkyl ethyl and methyl esters of (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoic acid found in head-space samples of ripe Bartlett pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stimulated a response from neonate larvae of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in both static-air Petri-plate and in upwind Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometer bioassays. In comparison with the known CM neonate attractant, ( E,E)-?-farnesene, ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive at 10-fold and 1,000-fold lower threshold dosages in the Petri-plate and in the Y-tube bioassays, respectively. Methyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive to CM neonates in these bioassays at much higher doses than ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate. Other principal head-space volatiles from ripe pear fruit and pear leaves, including butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ( Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ( E)-?-ocimene, were not attractive to CM neonates. The potential uses of these pear kairomones for monitoring and control of CM in walnuts and apple are discussed.

Knight, Alan L.; Light, Douglas M.

2001-08-01

30

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

31

Observation of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, larvae in young apple fruit by dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Infestation of young apple fruits by the larvae of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), was studied by a small dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus using the three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo method and the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D spin-echo methods. Changes from a young larva at 1.8 mm in length to a mature one ready to leave the fruit were observed in relation to the progression of infestation of the fruit tissues. The trace of larva intrusion was demonstrated by a series of sliced images in the 3D image data of an infested fruit, where it entered from outside the calyx, and migrated to near the vasculature around the carpel through the core. The small, dedicated MRI device was proven useful for ecological studies of the growth and movement of insect larvae in their food fruits. It can also be applied to detect the infestation of small fruits by insect larvae. PMID:21070179

Koizumi, Mika; Ihara, Fumio; Yaginuma, Katsuhiko; Kano, Hiromi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

2010-01-01

32

Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

Goertz, Dorte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

33

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

34

Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:19809544

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

2009-01-01

35

Tebufenozide (Mimic ®), a non-ecdysteroidal ecdysone agonist, induces spermatogenesis reinitiation in isolated abdomens of diapausing codling moth larvae ( Cydia pomonella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatogenesis discontinues during lepidopteran diapause. To elucidate the mode of action of ecdysteroids on the regulation of this phenomenon, we treated isolated abdomens of diapausing codling moth larvae with the non-ecdysteroidal ecdysone-agonist Mimic® (tebufenozide). Under similar conditions, Mimic®-treated abdomens renewed Spermatogenesis, while corresponding untreated abdomens did not. Apparently, Mimic® induces spermatogenesis reinitiation by attaching to, and saturating, a specific number

Michael Friedländer; John J. Brown

1995-01-01

36

Hormonal regulation of the expression of two storage proteins in the larval fat body of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella).  

PubMed

During larval development of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, genes of storage proteins LHP76 and LHP82 are tissue- and stage-specifically expressed. In this study, hormonal regulation of this expression has been investigated in vivo. Messenger RNAs of the juvenile hormone (JH-suppressible) Lhp82 gene are present only during the feeding period of the final larval instar, suggesting that a high level of JH during earlier stages prevents its expression and that a small rise in JH titer observed on day 8 of the final larval instar is responsible for the rapid shut-off of its transcription. Application of 1micro g of JH analog (fenoxycarb) specifically inhibits expression of Lhp82, whereas Lhp76 mRNAs remain at the same level. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) does not exert any inhibitory effects on transcription of Lhp genes when injected in a dose of 0.5 or 1.5 micro g per individual, regardless of larval age. However, the same dose of 20HE significantly lowers the rate of LHPs synthesis within the fat body and completely blocks secretion of LHPs into the hemolymph. Therefore, we propose that 20HE inhibits the synthesis of storage proteins and their secretion without altering the level of mRNAs. PMID:12804714

Godlewski, Jakub; K?udkiewicz, Barbara; Grzelak, Krystyna; Beresewicz, Ma?gorzata; Cymborowski, Bronis?aw

2003-06-01

37

Hemocyte Responses of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella, to the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora  

PubMed Central

Hemocyte encapsulation reactions of infective juveniles of two Iranian isolates of the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditina: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Tylenchina: Steinernematidae), were compared in the economic pest Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The former was a more responsive host than the latter and the hemocyte responses occurred sooner and more extensively. Complete encapsulation of some of the nematodes occurred by 4 h post injection for H. bacteriophora in both L. decemlineata and G. mellonella, and by 2 h pi for S. feltiae in L. decemlineata. The percentage of encapsulation from 24 h to 72 h pi in L. decemlineata was 86.2% for S. feltiae and 39% for H. bacteriophora. In G. mellonella there were no encapsulation or melanization responses against S. feltiae, whereas when H. bacteriophora was encapsulated and melanized (16.7%) the encapsulation level was lower than in L. decemlineata. This study may contribute to effectively selecting entomopathogenic nematode species active against significant economic pests based on the latter's cellular immune response. PMID:21867441

Ebrahimi, L.; Niknam, G.; Dunphy, G. B.

2011-01-01

38

Is resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac associated with a change in the behavior of light brown apple moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-resistant light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), created by selection of a laboratory colony with artificial diets containing the Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac, were used to explore relationships between larval behavior and resistance to toxins. Our hypothesis was that behavioral responses during the first days of exposure to diet are directly related to the toxicity of the diet, as measured by subsequent mortality. We tested two predictions from this hypothesis. The first prediction was that susceptible larvae and resistant larvae exhibit similar behavior on diet without toxins, settling at feeding sites within a few hours. The second prediction was that susceptible and resistant larvae differ in their behavior on Cry1Ac diet to the same degree that their mortality differs, i.e., on Cry1Ac diet, resistant larvae exhibit anorexia and walking to a lesser degree than susceptible larvae. Predictions were tested by making observations over 2 wk, with each larva held individually in a 10-cm-long cylindrical glass arena with two aliquots of diet. The two aliquots consisted of either the same diet (two no-choice treatments: control/control or Cry 1Ac/Cry1Ac) or different diets (one choice treatment: control/Cry 1Ac). The two predictions did not accurately describe larval behavior. On control diet, behavior differed, with resistant larvae settling more quickly than susceptible larvae. On Cry1Ac diet, behavior was more similar than expected. Thus, even though the Bt diet was much less toxic to resistant larvae, resistant larvae seemed to match the ability of susceptible larvae to reduce exposure to Bt diet while increasing exposure to nontoxic control diet. PMID:16686154

Harris, M O; Markwick, N; Sandanayake, M

2006-04-01

39

Olfactory receptors on the maxillary palps of small ermine moth larvae: evolutionary history of benzaldehyde sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lepidopterous larvae the maxillary palps contain a large portion of the sensory equipment of the insect. Yet, knowledge\\u000a about the sensitivity of these cells is limited. In this paper a morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological investigation\\u000a of the maxillary palps of Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is presented. In addition to thermoreceptors, CO2 receptors, and gustatory receptors, evidence is reported for

Peter Roessingh; Sen Xu; Steph B. J. Menken

2007-01-01

40

Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.  

PubMed

Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs. PMID:16937685

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2006-08-01

41

Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth,Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfac- es to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the ma- terial in itself neithxer elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

42

Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-?-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, ?-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-?-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

2012-09-26

43

Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae  

PubMed Central

Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e?5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were classified. The results of this study will provide useful data for future investigations on pest-resistance phytochemistry and plant breeding. PMID:23696897

Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

2013-01-01

44

Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. PMID:23651929

Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

2013-09-01

45

Mating of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths and their host plant origins as larvae within Australian cotton farming systems.  

PubMed

Transgenic (Bt) cotton dominates Australian cotton production systems. It is grown to control feeding damage by lepidopteran pests such as Helicoverpa armigera. The possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, refuge crops (with no Bt) must be grown with Bt cotton to produce large numbers of Bt-susceptible moths to reduce the risk of resistance developing. A key assumption of the refuge strategy, that moths from different host plant origins mate at random, remains untested. During the period of the study reported here, refuge crops included pigeon pea, conventional cotton (C3 plants), sorghum or maize (C4 plants). To identify the relative contributions made by these (and perhaps other) C3 and C4 plants to populations of H. armigera in cotton landscapes, we measured stable carbon isotopes (?(13)C) within individual moths captured in the field. Overall, 53% of the moths were of C4 origin. In addition, we demonstrated, by comparing the stable isotope signatures of mating pairs of moths, that mating is indeed random amongst moths of different plant origins (i.e. C3 and C4). Stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?(15)N) were recorded to further discriminate amongst host plant origins (e.g. legumes from non-legumes), but such measurements proved generally unsuitable. Since 2010, maize and sorghum are no longer used as dedicated refuges in Australia. However, these plants remain very common crops in cotton production regions, so their roles as 'unstructured' refuges seem likely to be significant. PMID:22999440

Baker, G H; Tann, C R

2013-04-01

46

Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.  

PubMed

The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

2012-12-01

47

Sequential transformation to pyramid two Bt genes in vegetable Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and its potential for control of diamondback moth larvae.  

PubMed

Vegetable Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. "Green Wave") plants that control Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) (DBM) were produced by introduction of one or two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes. A cry1Ac Bt gene associated with the nptII gene for kanamycin selection or a cry1C Bt gene with the hpt gene for hygromycin selection was introduced individually through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of seedling explants. A cry1C line was then transformed with the cry1Ac gene to produce pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants. Sixteen cry1C, five cry1Ac, and six cry1Ac + cry1C plants were produced. PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the presence of the cry1C, cry1Ac or pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C genes in the Indian mustard genome. ELISA analysis showed that production of Bt proteins varied greatly among individual transgenic plants, ranging from undetectable to over 1,000 ng Bt/mg total soluble protein. The levels of the Bt proteins were correlated with the effectiveness of control of diamondback moth (DBM) larvae. Insect bioassays indicated that both the cry1C and cry1Ac plants were toxic to susceptible DBM. The cry1C plants also controlled Cry1A-resistant DBM while cry1Ac plants controlled Cry1C-resistant DBM, and the pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants effectively controlled all three types of DBM. These Bt-transgenic plants could be used either for direct control of DBM and other lepidopteran insect pests or for tests of "dead-end" trap crops as protection of high value non-transgenic crucifer vegetables such as cabbage. PMID:17989981

Cao, Jun; Shelton, Anthony M; Earle, Elizabeth D

2008-03-01

48

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.  

PubMed

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

49

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew  

PubMed Central

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

50

Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

Popovic, Zorica; Kostic, Miroslav; Stankovic, Sladjan; Milanovic, Slobodan; Sivcev, Ivan; Kostic, Igor; Kljajic, Petar

2013-01-01

51

Host Plant Selection by Larvae of the Muga Silk Moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the Role of the Antenna and Maxillary Palp  

PubMed Central

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D. S.; Deka, B.

2013-01-01

52

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

53

Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has invaded eastern Massachusetts causing widespread defoliation and damage to many deciduous tree species and a variety of crop plants in the infested area. We identified O. brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) in winter moth larvae collected from field sites in Massachusetts by using PCR to amplify a 482 bp region of the baculovirus polyhedrin gene. Viral sequences were also detected in winter moth pupae that failed to emerge, suggesting that these insects may have died as a result of viral infection. This represents the first report of OpbuNPV in winter moth populations in the US. PMID:21893065

Burand, John P; Kim, Woojin; Welch, Anna; Elkinton, Joseph S

2011-11-01

54

Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

2009-01-01

55

European field collections and Canadian releases of Ceranthia samarensis (Dipt.: Tachinidae) , a parasitoid of the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programme to collect, import and release into Canada the gypsy moth parasitoid,Ceranthia samarensis (Diptera: Tachinidae) is described. The parasitoid's potential for biological control in Canada is also discussed.\\u000a \\u000a The parasitoid was collected in Europe by exposing experimental gypsy moth larvae in areas where local gypsy moth populations\\u000a were at low densities. Following field exposure, the host larvae were returned

N. J. Mills; V. G. Nealis

1992-01-01

56

Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

1993-03-01

57

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

58

NOTES ON THE LIFE CYCLES OF THREE PARASITES OF THE PITCH TWIG MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of larval instars was not determined, but two general types of larvae were recognized: polypodeiform and fusiform. Polypodeiform (first in- star) larvae were commonly found within young pitch twig moth caterpillars during the summer after July 1. Parasite larvae collected in July and August measured approximately 0.8 mm. in length. (Hosts had been killed in Peterson's K. A.

WILLIAM E. MILLER

59

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

E-print Network

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth Stephen B. Heard,1 Graham H. Cox--Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We

Heard, Stephen B.

60

In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

1994-01-01

61

Cherry ermine moth Yponomeuta padella Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

with a sticky secretion. After egg hatch, the first-instar larvae remain aggregated and overwinter under). Skeletonized leaves by larval feeding. Management notes For monitoring cherry ermine moths, inspect leaves

62

Transcriptome Analysis of the Chinese White Wax Scale Ericerus pela with Focus on Genes Involved in Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. Conclusion/Significance The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified. PMID:22536429

Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

2012-01-01

63

Some chemical bases for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar , larval rejection of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , foliage as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained

Ingrid Markovic; Dale M. Norris; Miodrag Cekic

1996-01-01

64

Hot Oil Removes Wax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

Herzstock, James J.

1991-01-01

65

Effects of Bt plants on the development and survival of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in susceptible and Bt-resistant larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of crops have been transformed with ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to produce transgenic plants with high levels of resistance to lepidopteran pests. Parasitoids are important natural enemies of lepidopteran larvae and the effects of Bt plants on these non-target insects have to be investigated to avoid unnecessary disruption of biological control. This study investigated the effects

Tanja H. Schuler; Ian Denholm; Suzanne J. Clark; C. Neal Stewart; Guy M. Poppy

2004-01-01

66

In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic  

E-print Network

­the freeze-avoiding gall moth Epiblema scudderiana and the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. Finally, individual fat body cells and their nuclei could be identified in intact frozen Eurosta larvae

Hammerton, James

67

Keeping Wax Liquid For Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

Meyer, Russell V.

1989-01-01

68

THE USE OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERES FOR CONTROLLING ALMOND MOTH, EPHESTIA CAUTELLA (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs 1-3 days-old, young - mature larvae, 1-3 day-old pupae and 1 day-old adults of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella were exposed to 90% and 96% CO 2 (balance normal air) at 20, 27.5 and 32.5 o C temperatures, and at 65%±5 r.h. for different exposure periods to test the effectiveness of high CO 2 levels on almond moth mortality.

S. TÜTÜNCÜ; M. EMEKCI; S. NAVARRO

69

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

2005-04-01

70

Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2 cDNAs encoded isozymes that reduced fatty acids to fatty alcohols. Fatty acyl-CoA esters were the substrate of FAR1, and the enzyme required NADPH as a cofactor. FAR1 preferred saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as substrates, whereas FAR2 preferred saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons. Confocal light microscopy indicated that FAR1 and FAR2 were localized in the peroxisome. The FAR1 mRNA was detected in many mouse tissues with the highest level found in the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The FAR2 mRNA was more restricted in distribution and most abundant in the eyelid, which contains wax-laden meibomian glands. Both FAR mRNAs were present in the brain, a tissue rich in ether lipids. The data suggest that fatty alcohol synthesis in mammals is accomplished by two fatty acyl-CoA reductase isozymes that are expressed at high levels in tissues known to synthesize wax monoesters and ether lipids. PMID:15220348

Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

2009-01-01

71

Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)  

SciTech Connect

Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

72

Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

2009-02-01

73

Bibliography of the Almond Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bibliographic references to the almond moth (known outside of North America as the cocoa moth or tropical warehouse moth). This moth is a pest of stored foods such as grain, nuts, and dried fruit. Includes references from 1883 (when the moth was described) to 1981. There are 626 references in this bibliography. It is somewhat dated (although a revision through 1995 is being prepared), but is an extremely comprhensive collection of references up to 1981. This resource will probably be of little use to undergraduate students but of significant value to graduate students working in stored product entomology.

0002-11-30

74

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-08-01

75

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None;)

2007-08-04

76

Indian meal moth (plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.  

PubMed

Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. PMID:25250888

Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

2014-10-01

77

Effect of cold treatment on survival and development of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in cherry.  

PubMed

'Bing' cherries, Prunus avium L., were obtained from an organic orchard and a conventional commercial orchard. The two groups were examined separately in replicated tests infested with each fruit initially infested with a first-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). To simulate commercial postharvest holding conditions, the treatments were 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 d cold storage at 3.3 degrees C. The fruits were examined three or more times to determine larval survival, life stage, fruit condition, and fungal disease. Survival of first instars was affected only by cold storage durations of > or = 7 d. When infested with codling moth larvae, both organic and conventionally grown cherries quickly deteriorated from fungal diseases. The rate of moth development was estimated from the surviving larvae and was significantly different between organic and conventionally grown cherries for all instars except the second. PMID:11942758

Hansen, James D

2002-02-01

78

Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.  

PubMed

Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2005-06-01

79

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

80

Nosema tyriae n.sp. and Nosema sp., Microsporidian Parasites of Cinnabar Moth Tyria jacobaeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosema tyriae n.sp. was found in 63% of a population of Cinnabar moth larvae (Tyria jacobaeae). The infection was found in the gut wall, silk glands, and fat body and was probably generalized but appeared to be of low pathogenicity. Merogony and sporogony were by binary fission of diplokaryotic stages. Fresh spores were elongate, slightly pointed at the anterior end,

Elizabeth U Canning; Alan Curry; Sarah A Cheney; Nathalie J Lafranchi-Tristem; Yuji Kawakami; Yoshinori Hatakeyama; Hidetoshi Iwano; Ren Ishihara

1999-01-01

81

Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

2014-06-01

82

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

83

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

84

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-01

85

Identification of avian wax synthases  

PubMed Central

Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

2012-01-01

86

Monarch larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monarch butterflies have extra protection against predation. When they are caterpillars, or larvae, they eat milkweed leaves. The caterpillars then store toxins in the milkweed in their bodies so that hungry animals that bite into them will have a very bad taste in their mouths. These toxins can also poison the predator.

Derek Ramsey (None;)

2007-09-03

87

Detection of Gypsy Moth Defoliation--Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses satellite remote sensing images to identify the forest defoliation caused by Gypsy Moth Larva. The continued annual defoliation causes the trees to die and results in a significant loss in the value of the forests. The project study area covers the highland mountain areas of Virginia and West Virginia in the 2001 growing season, as both satellite images and other proof of defoliation are available for that year. The educational materials are available for download in PDF, ZIP and RAR format.

2012-03-09

88

The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)  

E-print Network

, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) were studied in the laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity on artificial media. Detailed life cycle data were taken which showed the dura- tion of the egg, larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages to average 2... to that of the sunflower moth reared on artifi- cial diet under controlled temperature and humidity. The duration of the egg, larva, pupa, and adult reared under field conditions ranged from 2 to 4, 19 to 28, 7 to 14 and 8 to 13 days, respectively. The growth ratios...

Baxter, Michael Celus

2012-06-07

89

LIQUIDSLIQUIDS GISAXSGISAXSGISAXS/WAXS station  

E-print Network

LIQUIDSLIQUIDS GISAXSGISAXSGISAXS/WAXS station: * Energy range: 2.1 to 24 keV * Low divergence mode-SAXS Microfocus Gi-SAXS Low Divergence Liquids Primary Focus Primary Focus R = 3-7 km Primary Focus R = 6-12 km in 2017. Beamline Design Group: Elaine DiMasi, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Warren Halbig, and Amanda King

Ohta, Shigemi

90

Modeling Seasonal Development of the Gypsy Moth in a Novel Environment for Decision Support of an Eradication Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of field -caged egg masses of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, indicate that overwinter survival of the insect is very high in this area. Emergence of larvae in the spring occurred over a period of 4 to 5 weeks. These observations were used to validate a process -oriented phenology model that

VINCENT NEALIS; JACQUES RÉGNIÈRE; DAVID GRAY

91

Dead-end trap cropping: a technique to improve management of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of non-glossy collards as a trap crop for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in commercial fields of cabbage in New York was unsuccessful because it neither reduced the number of larvae on cabbage nor concentrated the insects on collards. In laboratory and outdoor screenhouse experiments, P. xylostella preferentially laid its eggs on the glossy-type Barbarea vulgaris,

A. M Shelton; B. A Nault

2004-01-01

92

Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

Neven, Lisa G

2012-04-01

93

Fluorescent brightener inhibits apoptosis in baculovirus-infected gypsy moth larval midgut cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent brighteners significantly lower the LC50 and LT50 in a variety of nucleopolyhedrovirus–insect host systems. In larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a European NPV strain of virus (LdMNPV) does not normally replicate in the midgut, but addition of a fluorescent brightener (Calcofluor M2R) to the virus suspension results in productive infections. In the current study, we show

Edward M. Dougherty; Neelam Narang; Marcia Loeb; Dwight E. Lynn; Martin Shapiro

2006-01-01

94

A Saponin Correlated with Variable Resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for

Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Bo M. Bibby; Hanne O. Frandsen; Lea D. Brown; Jens K. Nielsen; J. Alan A. Renwick

2003-01-01

95

Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth,Plutellaxylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage,Brassicaoleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in Þeld plots of cabbage alone were 5.2Ð11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several

Francisco R. Badenes-perez; Anthony M. Shelton; Brian A. Nault

2005-01-01

96

Temperature dependence of the cell parameters of Fischer-Tropsch waxes: hard wax and oxidised hard wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell dimensions of two Fischer-Tropsch waxes, namely hard wax and oxidised hard wax, have been measured as a function of temperature from 80K to the melting points. Above room temperature the expansion of the lattices is less dramatic than in the n-alkane C33H68 but it is also mainly in the b direction. Potential energy calculations show that the most

E. C. Reynhardt

1986-01-01

97

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN OVERWINTERING LARVAE OF COLD-HARDY GOLDENROD GALL INSECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant and pro-oxidant systems were studied in overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy gall insect species, the freeze-tolerant fly Eurosta solidaginis and the freeze- avoiding moth Epiblema scudderiana. An increase in the levels of the oxidized form of glutathione suggested slight oxidative stress in both species during the winter. Freeze- tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae generally had decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes

DENIS R. JOANISSE; KENNETH B. STOREY

98

Component composition of deresined brown coal wax  

SciTech Connect

The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

L.P. Noskova [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russia). Institute of Geology and Nature Management

2008-10-15

99

Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.  

PubMed

The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates. PMID:20857763

Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

2010-08-01

100

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2011-04-01

101

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2012-04-01

102

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2014-04-01

103

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2010-04-01

104

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2013-04-01

105

SubLethal Effects of Fenvalerate on the Development, Fecundity, and Juvenile Hormone Esterase Activity of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of fenvalerate (20% EC) to the 3rd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), reared on three host plants viz., radish, oilseed rape, and cabbage were tested. The LC50 values of fenvalerate to the 3rd instar larvae of DBM varied with host plants, however, there wasn't any significant difference among them (P > 0.05). Similarly, DBM

Hui WEI; Juan WANG; Hong-shan LI; Hua-guo DAI; Xiao-jun GU

2010-01-01

106

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in  

E-print Network

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

Firoozabadi, Abbas

107

THERMOREGULATION BY WINTER-FLYING ENDOTHERMIC MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Noctuid moths of the subfamily Cuculiinae fly in any month of the winter in the north-eastern United States when air temperatures are at least 0°C. At lower temperatures they hide under leaf litter rather than perching on trees like many summer-flying noctuid moths. Like moths of similar mass and wing-loading that fly in the summer or that reside in

BYBERN D HEINRICH

1987-01-01

108

INDIANMEAL MOTH Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)  

E-print Network

).They are very easily identified. The lower two thirds of the fore wings are reddish bronze with irregular dark except for their head, which is dark. Full-grown larvae are usually yellowish white, greenish white vegetables, seeds, dead insects, dried milk, spices, candies, chocolate, and drugs. In grain, larvae feed

Ginzel, Matthew

109

Low-temperature aeration to control Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), in stored grain in twelve locations in the United States: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeration management strategies were developed to control cold-acclimated and diapausing Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), larvae in grain bins during winter in north- and east-central regions of the US. The application in this study focuses on corn because it is the dominant crop in these regions, but we believe that the analyses can be applied to other grains as well.

Nalladurai Kaliyan; R. Vance Morey; William F. Wilcke; Mario A. Carrillo; Colleen A. Cannon

2007-01-01

110

Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

2014-04-01

111

Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.  

PubMed

The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

2014-11-01

112

Sodium: a male moth's gift to its offspring.  

PubMed Central

Males of the moth Gluphisia septentrionis acquire sodium by drinking from mud puddles. Analyses of male and female bodies indicate that such "puddling" behavior enables the male to provide his mate with a nuptial gift of sodium, presumably via the spermatophore. This gift (about 10 microg), amounting to more than half of a puddler male's total body sodium, is in large measure apportioned by the female to her eggs. Puddler-sired eggs contain 2 to 4 times more sodium than those control-sired; this difference is already apparent in eggs laid the night after mating. Paternal endowment of offspring with sodium had not previously been demonstrated for an insect to our knowledge. The potential adaptive significance of such chemical bestowal is evident, given that the foliar diet of G. septentrionis larvae is extremely low in sodium content. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:11607627

Smedley, S R; Eisner, T

1996-01-01

113

Temperature-dependent development and temperature thresholds of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Iran.  

PubMed

Developmental rate models and biological parameters estimated from them, especially lower and upper temperature thresholds and optimal temperature, can help to forecast phenological events of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple orchards. We studied the developmental time of immature stages of codling moth at eight constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C and modeled their developmental rate as a function of temperature using 13 published nonlinear and 2 linear models. Data were fitted to developmental rate models and temperature thresholds and the optimal temperatures were estimated. The models were evaluated based on adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)(adj)) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), in addition to coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual sum of squares (RSS). The thermal constants were 79.80, 312.60, 232.03, and 615.32 DD for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages of codling moth, respectively, using the Ikemoto and Takai linear model. The Ikemoto and Takai linear model estimated lower temperature thresholds as 9.97, 8.94, 10.04, and 9.63 degrees C for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages, respectively. Among the nonlinear models, the third-order polynomial fit the data well. This model estimates optimal temperature accurately. Brière-1 and Brière-2 accurately estimated the lower and upper temperature thresholds considering model evaluation criteria and accuracy of estimations. PMID:19508800

Aghdam, Hossein Ranjbar; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Radjabi, Gholamreza; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza

2009-06-01

114

Suppression of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) with an entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.  

PubMed

We tested the efficacy of the All strain of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). In laboratory bioassays we found that (1) commercially formulated nematodes produced in vitro were as effective as nematodes produced in vivo, (2) resistance of P. xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. kurstaki did not confer cross-resistance to nematodes, (3) mortality caused by nematodes was higher for early than late 3rd-instar P. xylostella larvae, and (4) no interaction occurred when B. thuringiensis and nematodes were combined against a susceptible strain of P. xylostella, but an antagonistic interaction occurred between the 2 pathogens against a strain of P. xylostella resistant to B. thuringiensis. In field trials conducted on 2 watercress [Rorippa Nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek] farms in Hawaii, nematodes provided 41% control, B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai gave 44% control, and the combined treatment (B. thuringiensis plus nematodes both at half rate) resulted in 58% control. Using nemodes to control diamondback moth can theoretically reduce resistance development in diamondback moth populations to B. thuringiensis products, but repeated applications of nematodes will probably be ineffective in attaining control (suggested in simulation model). The results of this study demonstrate that nematodes may be a useful component of integrated pest management programs if efficacy can be increased, especially for populations of P. xylostella that are resistant to B. thuringiensis. PMID:9805498

Baur, M E; Kaya, H K; Tabashnik, B E; Chilcutt, C F

1998-10-01

115

Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  

PubMed Central

Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

Rozsypal, Jan; Kostal, Vladimir; Zahradnickova, Helena; Simek, Petr

2013-01-01

116

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2004-01-01

117

Novel Surfaces with Applicability for Preventing Wax Deposition: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraffin wax deposition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the petroleum production industry. Many types of internal pipe coating materials have previously been tested for preventing wax deposition, but none have demonstrated successful performance. It has become increasingly evident that an improved knowledge of the chemistry and physics of wax deposition will be required in order to develop new wax-repellent materials.

Kristofer Paso; Thomas Kompalla; Narve Aske; Hans Petter Rønningsen; Gisle Øye; Johan Sjöblom

2009-01-01

118

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal  

PubMed Central

Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-?-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen. PMID:21552530

Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

2011-01-01

119

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

120

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Lofstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

121

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

122

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

...INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum...result from use of the polymers as processing aids (filter aids) in the production of...

2014-04-01

123

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2014-04-01

124

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2010-04-01

125

21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.  

...addresses cited in this paragraph. (d) Petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. On cheese and raw...

2014-04-01

126

21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...addresses cited in this paragraph. (d) Petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. On cheese and raw...

2011-04-01

127

21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...addresses cited in this paragraph. (d) Petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. On cheese and raw...

2012-04-01

128

21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...addresses cited in this paragraph. (d) Petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. On cheese and raw...

2013-04-01

129

Local variation in susceptibility of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) to insecticides and role of detoxification enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of five different field populations of the diamondback moth collected as larvae within 15km radius of Ottanchathiram and of the IARI 17-65 laboratory strain to Biobit© (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1), cartap, Cry1Ab, fenvalerate, fipronil, flufenoxuron and RH 2485 was studied using cabbage leaf disc feeding bioassays. All field populations were highly tolerant to fenvalerate and flufenoxuron compared

M Mohan; G. T Gujar

2003-01-01

130

Identification of a Triterpenoid Saponin from a Crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a Feeding Deterrent to the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a crucifer specialist, refuse to feed on a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, because of the presence of a feeding deterrent, which is extractable with chloroform. We isolated a feeding deterrent from B. vulgaris leaves, by successive fractionations with silica-gel, ODS, i.e., C18 reversed phase, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and ODS-HPLC, guided by a

Tetsuro Shinoda; Tsuneatsu Nagao; Masayoshi Nakayama; Hiroaki Serizawa; Masaji Koshioka; Hikaru Okabe; Akira Kawai

2002-01-01

131

Natural occurrence of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar [ Lep.: Lymantriidae ] in wild birds and mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of birds and 5 species of mammals were captured in the wild from 2 plots in which mortality from naturally occurring\\u000a nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) among gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar (L.), larvae was 15% and 70%. Bioassays of intestinal contents showed that blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata (L.), towhees,Pipilo erythrophthalmus (L.), white-footed mice,Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), redback voles,Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigers), raccoons,Procyon lotor (L.),

R. A. Lautenschlager; J. D. Podgwaite; D. E. Watson

1980-01-01

132

High abundance of herbivorous Lepidoptera larvae (Acentria ephemerella DENIS &SCHIFFERMÜllER) on submersed macrophytes in Lake Constance (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the abundance of the herbivorous moth larvae Acentria ephemere\\/la on submersed macrophytes in Lake Constance were studied between 1998 and 2000. Acentria were found feeding on many pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens, P. pectinatus, P. perfoliatus), Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum, but not on Chara spp., Najas marina ssp. intermedia or Elodea nuttallii. During the vege­ tated periods of

Elisabeth M. Gross; Claudia Feldbaum; Claudia Choi

133

Decline of the invasive submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) associated with herbivory by larvae of Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Myriophyllum spicatum, an exotic submersed macrophyte causing serious lake management problems throughout much of North America, decreased markedly in biomass in Cayuga Lake, NY, USA, since the beginning of the 1990s. Over the same period, however, the total biomass of all species of submersed macrophytes did not decline, and native macrophytes gained in abundance. The aquatic moth larva, Acentria

Robert L. Johnson; Elisabeth M. Gross; Nelson G. Hairston

1998-01-01

134

Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness  

PubMed Central

Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

2010-01-01

135

A Study of Krebs Citric Acid Cycle Enzymes in Rice Larvae (Corcyrace phalonica St) During Mycotoxicosis  

PubMed Central

Krebs citric acid cycle enzymes have been studied in rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica St) reared in groundnut meal control and contaminated with A. flavus, wheat bran control and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus and also wheat bran containing aflatoxin. It was observed that the activity of enzymes other than succinic oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase and isocitric dehydrogenase were reduced significantly in larvae reared in contaminated groundnut meal when compared with the control. In the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran all the enzymes except succinic oxidase were inhibited when compared to the control larvae. It was also observed that the inhibition of these enzymes is greater in the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran than in contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran has been discussed. PMID:4229935

Hegde, Umashashi C.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

1967-01-01

136

Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

2011-08-01

137

Influence of host plant stages on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) development and fitness.  

PubMed

Different generations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), use different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages as they become available during the summer months in southern California. These are the kimri, khalal, and tamar fruit stages. This study was conducted to determine whether carob moth development and fitness were affected by these different fruit stages. Developmental time from neonate larvae to adult, when reared at 31.9 degrees C and 82.1% RH, ranged from 30.5 to 32.3 d for females and 27.1 to 29.5 d for males on the different field-collected fruit stages. Males and females had the highest emergent weight when reared as larvae on kimri fruit and the lowest on tamar fruit. Females laid the most eggs when reared on kimri fruit and the least when reared on tamar fruit. Estimates of population doubling times ranged from 5.4 d on artificial diet (included as a control) to 7.5 d on tamar fruit. This short doubling time shows the ability of carob moth to develop rapidly under optimal conditions. Degree-day (DD) estimates for carob moth development ranged from 636 DD on kimri fruit to 658 DD on tamar fruit, which translate to 32-50 d under field temperatures in the area where dates are grown. Potential implications for field management of E. ceratoniae include improved timing of insecticide treatments to limit population growth early in the season rather than the conventional late season approach. PMID:18419930

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2008-04-01

138

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

139

Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax  

PubMed Central

The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

2010-01-01

140

Frequency distribution of larval codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., aggregations on trees in Unmanaged apple orchards of the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of pome fruits in North America. After locating a pupation site, larvae spin a cocoon from which aggregation pheromone disseminates that attracts conspecific larvae. In two unmanaged apple orchards in Wenatchee and Yakima, Washington State, we systematically surveyed cracks and crevices of tree trunks for cocooning C. pomonella larvae. Aggregates of larvae were found significantly more often than solitary larvae. The number of cocooning larvae in aggregates (=group size) was inversely correlated with the frequency occurrence of that group size. Group size ranged between 2 and 20 cocoons. Height above ground had no effect on location of aggregates. In orchard 1, the cardinal direction of the tree trunk had no effect on location of aggregations, but in orchard 2, aggregations were located significantly most often on the south side of trunks. The mean ratio of males and females in aggregations was 1.08:1 and 1.04:1 in orchards 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the number of males in aggregates did not significantly differ from that of females. Our data support the conclusion that larvae seek pupation sites not by chance but in large part in response to pheromone signal and microhabitat cues. The probability of aggregates forming is likely proportional to the population density of C. pomonella. PMID:19825294

Jumean, Zaid; Wood, Charlene; Gries, Gerhard

2009-10-01

141

Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration.

Caifu Li; Qian Liu; Zhen Mei; Jun Wang; Jian Xu; Dejun Sun

2009-01-01

142

7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition...procurement preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date,...

2014-01-01

143

7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition...procurement preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date,...

2013-01-01

144

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi-  

E-print Network

is urgently required. We hope that making knowledge of species ecol- ogy, survey and monitoring results and Moths The decline in our woodland butterflies and moths very probably indicates a serious threat

145

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

146

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

147

Aerial Application of Pheromones for Mating Disruption of an Invasive Moth as a Potential Eradication Tool  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, ‘false trail following’ could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, ‘sensory impairment’ and ‘masking of females’ are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Suckling, David M.; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L.; Cowan, David M.; Lance, David R.; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

2012-01-01

148

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... -alkyl (C12 , C14 , C16 , and C18 ) methacrylate esters where the C12 and C14 alkyl groups are derived from coconut oil and the C16 and C18 groups are derived from tallow. (e) Petroleum wax may contain 2-hydroxy-4-n...

2011-04-01

149

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... -alkyl (C12 , C14 , C16 , and C18 ) methacrylate esters where the C12 and C14 alkyl groups are derived from coconut oil and the C16 and C18 groups are derived from tallow. (e) Petroleum wax may contain 2-hydroxy-4-n...

2012-04-01

150

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... -alkyl (C12 , C14 , C16 , and C18 ) methacrylate esters where the C12 and C14 alkyl groups are derived from coconut oil and the C16 and C18 groups are derived from tallow. (e) Petroleum wax may contain 2-hydroxy-4-n...

2013-04-01

151

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... -alkyl (C12 , C14 , C16 , and C18 ) methacrylate esters where the C12 and C14 alkyl groups are derived from coconut oil and the C16 and C18 groups are derived from tallow. (e) Petroleum wax may contain 2-hydroxy-4-n...

2010-04-01

152

Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2 , that had alter- ations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was

Xinbo Chen; S. Mark Goodwin; Virginia L. Boroff; Xionglun Liu; Matthew A. Jenks

2003-01-01

153

Sex-biased predation on moths by insectivorous bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of insectivorous bats, Lasiurus cinereus and L. borealis, ate significantly more male than female moths in the wild. The observed bias was likely to be a consequence of sexual dimorphism in moth flight activity associated with sexual differences in mate acquiring mechanisms. Female moths flew less than males and their activity peaks occurred at different times. The peak

Lalita Acharya

1995-01-01

154

Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes. PMID:15791428

Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2005-05-01

155

Immunolocalization of general odorant-binding protein in antennal sensilla of moth caterpillars.  

PubMed

Antennae of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were immunolabelled with antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein or the general odorant-binding protein 2 of Antheraea polyphemus to assign the expression of these proteins to individual sensilla and to compare the localization pattern with that in sensilla of adult moths. Specific labelling of antennal sensilla was only obtained with the antiserum against general odorant-binding protein 2. Among the few sensilla present on the antenna the three large sensilla basiconica, which are suspected to be olfactory in function, were labelled. These sensilla are compound sensilla consisting of several sensillum units which form a common sensory hair. The hair is single-walled and pierced by many pores. Labelling of sensillum compartments was the same as in sensilla of adults. Prominent labelling of the sensillum lymph is accompanied by labelling of secretory organelles in the two outermost auxiliary cells and of endocytotic pathways in all sensillum cells. The results suggest that general odorant-binding protein is expressed in single-walled multiporous sensilla of presumed olfactory function on the antenna of moth larvae. The overall identity of the localization pattern for general odorant-binding protein between larval and adult sensilla implies a similar role of these proteins in olfactory stimulus transduction. PMID:18088914

Laue, M

2000-01-01

156

The pathogenicity of Vairimorpha necatrix (Microspora: Microsporidia) against the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential use for the control of lepidopteran glasshouse pests.  

PubMed

A droplet feeding technique was used to feed known amounts of Vairimorpha necatrix (Kramer) spores to larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (L) in order to assess the susceptibility of this lepidopteran pest to the pathogen. All first- to fourth-instar larvae died as a result of ingesting 1000 or more V necatrix spores. Two forms of death were observed, which were dependent on the dose and the age of the insect when treated. For first-instar larvae, rapid death (within 6days of dosing) occurred after ingestion of 2000 spores, whereas lower doses resulted in a proportion of larvae dying from chronic infection (microsporidiosis). For more advanced stages, increasing spore doses were required to give rapid death, such that a dose of 200,000 spores was needed to give 80% mortality within 6 days for third-instar larvae. Rapid death was not observed in fourth- to sixth-instar larvae. In all cases successful pupation and adult emergence were much reduced compared with non-infected larvae. Suspensions of V necatrix were sprayed on to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants maintained in small glasshouses prior to infestation of the plants with L oleracea larvae. The numbers and biomass of pest larvae retrieved from the plants sprayed with V necatrix were significantly reduced by up to 40% and 70%, respectively, compared with plants sprayed with water (control). Similarly, plants sprayed with V necatrix showed a reduction in damage of up to 45% compared with the control plants. PMID:15307667

Down, Rachel E; Bell, Howard A; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Edwards, John P

2004-08-01

157

Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

Vrieling, Klaas

2006-09-01

158

Does Athetis lepigone moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) take a long-distance migration?  

PubMed

Athetis lepigone (Möschler), a new lepidopteran pest in China, has spread quickly to seven provinces since it was first reported causing damage on summer maize in Hebei province in 2005, Whether this species is a migrant or not remains unknown. The past 3 yr searchlight trapping on an island in the center of Bohai Gulf provided direct evidence that both male and female A. lepigone moths migrate across the Bohai Gulf waters in northern China because no host crops or A. lepigone larvae were found on this island. The four migration waves observed in this study represent high-altitude movements of the overwintering, first, second, and third generations of A. lepigone moths, respectively. Carbon isotope analysis showed that 1.76-5.44% of the tested A. lepigone moths originated from C4 plants, which provides additional evidence that this species is a migrant because there are no C4 plants on this small island. The 89.24-96.89% of tested A. lepigone moths originated from C3 plants were significantly higher than that from C4 plants in all generations, suggesting that maize fields are not the main host sites for A. lepigone. Few females were trapped in spring and early summer with relatively high mating frequency and more advanced ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings reveal a new route for A. lepigone migrating to and from the northeastern agricultural region of China, and improve our knowledge of the migration ecology of A. lepigone. Further studies are needed to clarify the migration trajectories that will help in developing sound forecasting systems for this pest species. PMID:25026658

Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhe; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

2014-06-01

159

Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria. PMID:21961954

2011-01-01

160

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhue, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

161

LYMANTRIA MONACHA (NUN MOTH) AND L. DlSPA R (GYPSY MOTH) SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT ON IMPROVED PINUS RADIATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymantriid forest defoliators, Lymantria monacha L. (nun moth) and Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth) are particularly severe pests in other countries in the world, but the ability of these moths to utilise and complete development on Pinus radiata D. Don had never been established. In laboratory trials, colonies of central European L. monacha and Russian far east (flight capable)

T. M. WITHERS; M. A. KEENA

162

Concanavalin A inhibits development of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea) and peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) when expressed in transgenic potato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of concanavalin A (ConA), a glucose\\/mannose-specific lectin from jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis), on insect crop\\u000a pests from two different orders, Lepidoptera and Homoptera, were investigated. When fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia\\u000a oleracea) at a range of concentrations (0.02–2.0% of total protein) in artificial diet, ConA decreased survival, with up to\\u000a 90% mortality observed at the highest dose

Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Gillian M. Davison; Jennifer N. Stewart; Laurence N. Gatehouse; Amar Kumar; Irene E. Geoghegan; A. Nicholas E. Birch; John A. Gatehouse

1999-01-01

163

Some chemical bases for gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar, larval rejection of green ash,Fraxinus pennsylvanica, foliage as food.  

PubMed

Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained antifeedant activity. Individual fractions showed weaker antifeedant activity compared to the total ethyl acetate extractables. Acid hydrolysis of the extractables destroyed antifeedant activity and yielded feeding stimulant activity at higher concentrations. The aqueous extractables were not feeding-inhibitory. Compounds in the green ash extractables were separated by TLC, HPLC, CC, and GC. PMID:24227304

Markovic, I; Norris, D M; Cekic, M

1996-12-01

164

Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The rate of increase in thoracic temperature was strongly dependent on ambient temperature during pre-flight -warm-up in the sphinx moths,Hyles euphorbia andDeilephila elpenor (Figs. 1, 2).2.The duration of pre-flight warm-up at 19–21 ° C was not correlated with mean body weight (0.3–3.5 g) in 13 species of sphinx moths (Kg. 3).3.The mean rates of oxygen consumption during uninterrupted free flight

Bernd Heinrich; Timothy M. Casey

1973-01-01

165

Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.  

PubMed

Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture. PMID:22903747

Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-09-01

166

Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated. PMID:17599301

Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

2007-08-01

167

Nanostructure of epicuticular plant waxes: Self-assembly of wax tubules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A "surface science approach" is used to investigate the growth process of tubular wax structures on plant leaves: natural epicuticular wax from nasturtium leaves, mainly consisting of (S)-nonacosan-10-ol, has been recrystallized on artificial substrates of different structure and polarity, namely HOPG, glass and silicon oxide, and the growth process and structure have been studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a result the tubular structure as found on the living leaves is reproduced independent of the nature of the substrate and the way of wax deposition. Prerequisite for tubule formation, however, is the admixture of a few percent of alkyl-diols to the nonacosan-10-ol as shown with artificial mixtures of both components.

Koch, Kerstin; Dommisse, Aarnoud; Niemietz, Adrian; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Wandelt, Klaus

2009-06-01

168

Microsporidian Pathogens in European Gypsy Moth Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of microsporidian pathogens as mortality agents of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in Europe frequently is overlooked. Collections of isolates from 10 different countries suggest that three genera and several biotypes are extant. It is important that the taxonomic placement and phylogeny of currently described genera and species be clarified and that regulatory issues be addressed before exotic

Michael L. McManus; Leellen Solter; E. Peabody

169

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

processionary is often most abundant on urban trees, along forest edges and in amenity woodlands. Oak. This coloration provides an effective camouflage against the bark of oak trees on which the adults often restOak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak

170

Carnauba wax microparticles produced by melt dispersion technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt dispersion technique was investigated for carnauba wax microparticles production. Microbeads with spherical shape and\\u000a narrow size distribution were produced. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of significant process\\u000a variables (initial wax concentration, stirring speed, stirring time, and surfactants) on sphericity, size distribution, and\\u000a morphological properties of wax microparticles. Optimal conditions were evaluated on the

Jelena Milanovic; Steva Levic; Verica Manojlovic; Viktor Nedovic; Branko Bugarski

2011-01-01

171

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...INFORMATION: Title: Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet. OMB Number: 0579-0104. Type of...completes a gypsy moth identification worksheet (PPQ Form 305), which...

2011-04-04

172

An isometric virus of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has a tri-segmented RNA genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the Guatemala potato tuber moth, Tecia solanivora (Povolny), collected in Ecuador. It was designated the Anchilibi virus (AnchV). The non-enveloped viral particles have an estimated diameter of 32±2nm. Three major proteins were found in virions, with estimated sizes of 102.0±2.1, 95.8±2.0 and 92.4±1.5kDa for AnchV as determined by polyacrylamide gel

Jean-Louis Zeddam; Katerine Orbe; Xavier Léry; Olivier Dangles; Stéphane Dupas; Jean-François Silvain

2008-01-01

173

Degradation of Manduca sexta allatostatin and allatotropin by proteases associated with the foregut of Lacanobia oleracea larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of synthetic Manduca sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS) and allatotropin (Manse-AT), by enzymes of the foregut of larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea was investigated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) together with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Edman sequencing. Metabolism of 1nmol Manse-AS by foregut extract (1?g protein) was rapid, t1\\/2?5min,

Neil Audsley; Robert J Weaver; John P Edwards

2002-01-01

174

Decline of the invasive submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) associated with herbivory by larvae of Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriophyllum spicatum, an exotic submersed macrophyte causing serious lake management problems throughout much of North America,\\u000a decreased markedly in biomass in Cayuga Lake, NY, USA, since the beginning of the 1990s. Over the same period, however, the\\u000a total biomass of all species of submersed macrophytes did not decline, and native macrophytes gained in abundance. The aquatic\\u000a moth larva, Acentria ephemerella,

Robert L. Johnson; Elisabeth M. Gross; Nelson G. Hairston

1997-01-01

175

Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

1991-01-01

176

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): field studies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of microsporidia, Nosema lymantriae and Vairimorpha disparis, isolated from European populations of L. dispar and applied in field plots in Slovakia. Application of ultra low volume sprays of the microsporidia maximized coverage of infective spores in a complex natural environment and, thus, exposure of non-target species to the pathogens. Of 653 non-target larvae collected from plots treated with V. disparis in 2002, 18 individual larvae representing nine species in four families were infected. These plots were monitored for two subsequent seasons and V. disparis was not recovered from non-target species. Of 2571 non-target larvae collected in N. lymantriae-treated sites, one larva was found to be infected. Both species of microsporidia, particularly N. lymantriae, appear to have a very narrow host range in the field, even when an inundative technique is used for their introduction. V. disparis infections in L. dispar exceeded 40% of recovered larvae in the treated study sites; infection rates were lower in sites sprayed with N. lymantriae. Several naturally-occurring pathogens were recorded from the non-target species. The most common pathogen, isolated from 21 species in eight families, was a microsporidium in the genus Cystosporogenes. PMID:20435042

Solter, Leellen F; Pilarska, Daniela K; McManus, Michael L; Zúbrik, Milan; Patocka, Jan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Novotný, Julius

2010-09-01

177

North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

178

Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

PubMed Central

Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12?12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (?50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

2013-01-01

179

Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2, that had alterations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was 36.4% thicker, less opaque, and structurally disorganized. The total wax amount on wax2 leaves and stems was reduced by >78% and showed proportional deficiencies in the aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, with increased acids, primary alcohols, and esters. Besides altered cuticle membranes, wax2 displayed postgenital fusion between aerial organs (especially in flower buds), reduced fertility under low humidity, increased epidermal permeability, and a reduction in stomatal index on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Thus, wax2 reveals a potential role for the cuticle as a suppressor of postgenital fusion and epidermal diffusion and as a mediator of both fertility and the development of epidermal architecture (via effects on stomatal index). The cloned WAX2 gene (verified by three independent allelic insertion mutants with identical phenotypes) codes for a predicted 632–amino acid integral membrane protein with a molecular mass of 72.3 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.78. WAX2 has six transmembrane domains, a His-rich diiron binding region at the N-terminal region, and a large soluble C-terminal domain. The N-terminal portion of WAX2 is homologous with members of the sterol desaturase family, whereas the C terminus of WAX2 is most similar to members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. WAX2 has 32% identity to CER1, a protein required for wax production but not for cuticle membrane production. Based on these analyses, we predict that WAX2 has a metabolic function associated with both cuticle membrane and wax synthesis. These studies provide new insight into the genetics and biochemistry of plant cuticle production and elucidate new associations between the cuticle and diverse aspects of plant development. PMID:12724542

Chen, Xinbo; Goodwin, S. Mark; Boroff, Virginia L.; Liu, Xionglun; Jenks, Matthew A.

2003-01-01

180

Epicuticular Wax Crystals of Wollemia nobilis: Morphology and Chemical Composition  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Methods Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. Key Results The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. Conclusions SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC–MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. PMID:17611192

Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus

2007-01-01

181

Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes  

E-print Network

/ propolis / waxes / hydrocarbon / monoester 1. INTRODUCTION Propolis is a resinous substance used by beesOriginal article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria yielded mono- esters as main constituents, followed by hydrocarbons. The methyl and acetyl esters

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.  

PubMed

The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. PMID:16660087

Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

1977-08-01

183

Parental role division predicts avian preen wax cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that preen wax composition in some sandpipers shifts from the usual monoesters to diesters during the breeding season, possibly to reduce the ability of mammalian predators to find nests using olfactory cues. To investigate further the relationship between incubation and wax secretion, we examined seven sandpiper species with different incubation patterns (species in which both sexes

JEROEN RENEERKENS; JULIANA B. ALMEIDA; DAVID B. LANK; JOOP JUKEMA; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; R. I. GUY MORRISON; W. IRENE C. RIJPSTRA; DOUGLAS SCHAMEL; HANS SCHEKKERMAN; J. S. Sinninghe Damste; PAVEL S. TOMKOVICH; DIANE M. TRACY; INGRID TULP; THEUNIS PIERSMA

2007-01-01

184

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

. Capable of feeding on 500 plants, this pest threatens Indiana forests and suburban landscapes. Gypsy moth that is produced in vats like beer in a brewery. With Bt corn, the genetic recipe for making the protein #12;2Q&A's About Using Btk -- GM-4-W Q A Q A Q A Q A crystal is in the seeds. Susceptible insects feeding on Bt

Ginzel, Matthew

185

Toward in vivo chemical imaging of epicuticular waxes.  

PubMed

Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

2010-10-01

186

Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

2013-01-01

187

Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.  

PubMed

Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity. PMID:23730681

Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawi?ski, Adam; Bana?, Antoni

2013-01-01

188

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

189

Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus  

E-print Network

Ó The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed an expression library from the silk glands of the ghost moth, Hepialus californicus, and characterized light chain fibroin and heavy chain fibroin gene transcripts. The predicted H. californicus silk fibroins share many elements with other lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins, such as conserved placements of cysteine, aromatic, and polar amino acid residues. Further comparative analyses were performed to determine site-specific signatures of selection and to assess whether fibroin genes are informative as phylogenetic markers. We found that purifying selection has constrained mutation within the fibroins and that light chain fibroin is a promising molecular marker. Thus, by characterizing the H. californicus fibroins, we identified key functional amino acids and gained insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped these adaptive molecules.

Matthew A. Collin; Kazuei Mita; Frantisek Sehnal; Cheryl Y. Hayashi; M. A. Collin; C. Y. Hayashi; K. Mita; F. Sehnal; Lepidoptera Trichoptera Silk Fibroin

190

Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

2011-12-01

191

Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts. PMID:17461067

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2007-04-01

192

Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.  

PubMed

Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

2006-04-01

193

Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

2004-08-01

194

Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

2014-02-01

195

Impact of Temperature on Postdiapause and Diapause of the Asian Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica  

PubMed Central

Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

2014-01-01

196

Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The nun moth is a serious defoliator

197

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The cabbage moth is a highly

198

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

199

Learning, odour preference and flower foraging in moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral volatiles play a major role in plant-insect communication. We examined the influence of two volatiles, phenylacetaldehyde and ?-pinene, on the innate and learnt foraging behaviour of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. In dual-choice wind tunnel tests, adult moths flew upwind towards both volatiles, with a preference for phenylacetaldehyde. When exposure to either of these volatiles was paired with a feeding

John Paul Cunningham; Chris J. Moore; Myron P. Zalucki; Stuart A. West

2004-01-01

200

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

201

Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

Juszczak, Rados?aw; Kuchar, Leszek; Le?ny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

2013-01-01

202

Laboratory evaluations of a wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris as a management tool for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

The term 'dead-end trap cropping' has recently been proposed to identify a plant that is highly attractive for oviposition by an insect pest, but on which offspring of the pest cannot survive. The potential of the wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. to allure and serve as a dead-end trap crop for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, was examined in laboratory experiments. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris, and Chinese cabbage Brassica campestris (L.), in one arena, adult moths laid 2.5-6.8 times more eggs on the former than on the latter. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris and common cabbage Brassica oleracea L., adult moths laid virtually all their eggs on the former and ignored the latter. Nearly all P. xylostella eggs laid on the three species of plants hatched successfully, but nearly all individuals on plants of B. vulgaris died as neonates or early instar larvae, while 87-100% of the larvae on Chinese cabbage and common cabbage survived to pupation. Dual choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that volatiles from B. vulgaris were much more attractive to P. xylostella adults than those from common cabbage. The results demonstrate that B. vulgaris has a great potential as a dead-end trap crop for improving management of P. xylostella. Factors that may influence the feasibility of using B. vulgaris as a trap crop in the field are discussed, and ways to utilize this plant are proposed. PMID:15541190

Lu, Jian-hua; Liu, Shu-sheng; Shelton, A M

2004-12-01

203

Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

2001-01-01

204

WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.  

SciTech Connect

Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F. (Biosciences Division); ( MCS); (Northeastern Univ.); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (Carnegie Mellon Univ.)

2011-01-01

205

Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints.  

PubMed

The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants (cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones. PMID:18548222

Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

2008-10-01

206

Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

2008-10-01

207

Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

2006-01-01

208

Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

2013-06-01

209

An experimental investigation on dimensional stability of injected wax patterns of gas turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on dimensional stability of simplified waxed models of gas turbine blade is presented. Gas turbine blades, made of a super alloy, have narrow dimensional and geometrical tolerances. Blades are manufactured by investment casting process consisting of wax injection, ceramic coating, wax removal, metal casting, and finishing. The dimensional accuracy of wax injection step introduces a great influence

S. A. M. Rezavand; A. H. Behravesh

2007-01-01

210

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

211

Oxidative stress and antioxidants in overwintering larvae of cold-hardy goldenrod gall insects  

PubMed

Antioxidant and pro-oxidant systems were studied in overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy gall insect species, the freeze-tolerant fly Eurosta solidaginis and the freeze-avoiding moth Epiblema scudderiana. An increase in the levels of the oxidized form of glutathione suggested slight oxidative stress in both species during the winter. Freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae generally had decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in the winter, indicating that these larvae do not face increased challenge from oxidative stress during the numerous freeze-thaw events they experience. Instead, existing defences must be sufficient to prevent any damage. By contrast, increased winter activities of antioxidant enzymes in freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana suggest that these larvae must defend against the formation of reactive oxygen species. This may result from the oxidative nature of winter metabolism in these larvae, as well as a dependence on lipid oxidation as their fuel over this season. Xanthine dehydrogenase activity decreased dramatically in both species during the autumn, reducing the potential for the formation of the pro-oxidant xanthine oxidase. Indeed, xanthine oxidase activity fell to undetectable levels by winter in Epiblema scudderiana and was not detectable at any time in Eurosta solidaginis. PMID:9319381

Joanisse; Storey

1996-01-01

212

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intended effect. (e) Synthetic petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In accordance with § 172.615 in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing...

2012-04-01

213

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intended effect. (e) Synthetic petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In accordance with § 172.615 in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing...

2011-04-01

214

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended effect. (e) Synthetic petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In accordance with § 172.615 in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing...

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intended effect. (e) Synthetic petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In accordance with § 172.615 in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing...

2010-04-01

216

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

...intended effect. (e) Synthetic petroleum wax is used or intended for use as follows: Use Limitations In chewing gum base, as a masticatory substance In accordance with § 172.615 in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing...

2014-04-01

217

Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences

Sejal Patel; Dennis R. Nelson; Allen G. Gibbs

2001-01-01

218

Wax deposition scale-up modeling for waxy crude production lines  

SciTech Connect

A wax deposition scale-up model has been developed to scale-up laboratory wax deposition results for waxy crude production lines. The wax deposition model allows users to predict wax deposition profile along a cold pipeline and predict potential wax problems and pigging frequency. Consideration of the flow turbulence effect significantly increases prediction accuracy. Accurate wax deposition prediction should save capital and operation investments for waxy crude production systems. Many wax deposition models only apply a molecular diffusion mechanism in modeling and neglect shear effect. However, the flow turbulence effect has significant impact on wax deposition and can not be neglected in wax deposition modeling. Wax deposition scale-up parameters including shear rate, shear stress, and Reynolds number have been studied. None of these parameters can be used as a scaler. Critical wax tension concept has been proposed as a scaler. A technique to scale up shear effect and then wax deposition is described. For a given oil and oil temperature, the laboratory wax deposition data can be scaled up by heat flux and flow velocity. The scale-up techniques could be applied to multiphase flow conditions. Examples are presented in this paper to describe profiles of wax deposition and effective inside diameter along North Sea and West Africa subsea pipelines. The difference of wax deposition profiles from stock tank oil and live oil is also presented.

Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

1995-12-01

219

Differences in Substrate Specificities of Five Bacterial Wax Ester Synthases  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production. PMID:22685145

Wahlen, Bradley D.; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C.

2012-01-01

220

EsMlp, a Muscle-LIM Protein Gene, Is Up-regulated during Cold Exposure in the Freeze-Avoiding Larvae of Epiblema scudderiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of a cDNA library identified transcripts that were up-regulated by cold (4 or ?20°C) exposure in larvae of the freeze-avoiding goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana. One clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 94 amino acids. The gene product, with 79.1% of residues identical with the Drosophila LIM protein Mlp60A, was named EsMlp and contained

Tolga Bilgen; Tamara E. English; Dave C. McMullen; Kenneth B. Storey

2001-01-01

221

Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella  

PubMed Central

Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; LaFont, Rene

2010-01-01

222

Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.  

PubMed

Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

2010-01-01

223

Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations. PMID:22525062

Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

2012-02-01

224

Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella  

PubMed Central

The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

225

Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population and for assigning individuals to genealogical classes. We describe these new methods in the context of their application to genetic structure in G. gallaesolidaginis. Population phenograms are consistent with the origin of the host forms (at least in the midwestern United States) via a single host shift: altissima and gigantea moth populations form distinct lineages with 100% bootstrap support. Genetic structure in Gnorimoschema is of particular interest because another gallmaking insect attacking the same pair of hosts, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis, includes a pair of host races with partial reproductive isolation. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis and E. solidaginis therefore represent the first reported case of parallel host-associated differentiation, that is, differentiation by evolutionarily independent insect lineages across the same pair of host plants. PMID:12206247

Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

2002-07-01

226

Using plant chemistry and insect preference to study the potential of Barbarea (Brassicaceae) as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. has been proposed as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), because its larvae do not survive on this plant species despite being highly preferred for oviposition. We compared plants of several species, varieties, and types in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) to study their potential as trap crops for P. xylostella. In terms of insect behavior, Barbarea plants were assessed based on the criteria of high oviposition preference by P. xylostella moths (compared to other Barbarea plants and to three Brassica oleracea L. crop varieties) and low survival of P. xylostella larvae. Barbarea plants were also assessed based on the criteria of high content of glucosinolates, which stimulate adult oviposition and larval feeding in P. xylostella, and high content of saponins, which are detrimental to survival of P. xylostella larvae. All Barbarea plants tested were preferred over cabbage by ovipositing P. xylostella. Among Barbarea plants, few significant differences in oviposition preference by P. xylostella were found. Ovipositing P. xylostella preferred B. vulgaris plants containing mainly 2-phenylethylglucosinolate over B. vulgaris plants containing mainly (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate, and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata plants over Barbarea rupicola and B. vulgaris var. variegata plants. Despite containing a lower content of saponins than other Barbarea plants tested, Barbarea verna did not allow survival of P. xylostella larvae. Our studies show that, except for B. rupicola and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata, which allowed survival of P. xylostella larvae, all Barbarea plants tested have potential as dead-end trap crops for P. xylostella. PMID:24342111

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

2014-02-01

227

Factors contributing to seasonal increases in inoculative freezing resistance in overwintering fire-colored beetle larvae dendroides canadensis  

PubMed

The insects and microarthropods that vary seasonally in susceptibility to cross-cuticular inoculation by external ice (inoculative freezing) represent a phylogenetically diverse group; however, few studies have explored possible mechanisms experimentally. This study documents seasonally variable inoculative freezing resistance in Dendroides canadensis beetle larvae and combines immunofluorescence, in vivo removal of epicuticular lipids and in vitro chamber studies to explore the roles of seasonal modification in the cuticle and in epidermal and hemolymph antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Seasonal cuticular modifications contribute to the inhibition of inoculative freezing since more cold-hardy larvae froze inoculatively when epicuticular waxes were removed with hexane and, in in vitro chamber experiments, cuticle patches (with the underlying epidermis removed) from winter larvae provided greater protection from inoculative freezing than did cuticle patches from summer larvae. The results indicate that seasonal modifications in epidermal and hemolymph AFPs contribute most strongly to the inhibition of inoculative freezing. Subcuticular epidermal AFPs were present in immunocytochemically labeled transverse sections of winter larvae but were absent in summer ones. Winter integument patches (cuticle with epidermis) were more resistant to inoculative freezing than were summer integument patches. Integument patches resisted inoculative freezing as well as live winter-collected larvae only when hemolymph AFP was added. The results also suggest that some integumentary ice nucleators are removed in cold-hardy larvae and that AFP promotes supercooling by inhibiting the activity of these nucleators. PMID:9556540

Olsen; Sass; Li; Duman

1998-05-01

228

Mating attempts between the Scarlet Tiger Moth, Callimorpha dominula L., and the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), involve a common sex pheromone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that a common sex pheromone composition may account for interspecific sexual interactions observed with certain moths in the Arctiidae. In this study, it is demonstrated that the sex pheromones released by females of the Scarlet Tiger Moth,Callimorpha dominula L., and the Cinnabar Moth,Tyria jacobaeae L., have similar activities and elute at the same retention time on

C. A. Clarke; A. Cronin; W. Francke; P. Philipp; J. A. Pickett; L. J. Wadhams; C. M. Woodcock

1996-01-01

229

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

230

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

231

Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.  

PubMed

Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics. PMID:19844068

El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

2009-01-01

232

Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation. PMID:24361507

Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

2014-02-01

233

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

234

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

235

Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGaAlP/GaAs red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a sub-wavelength moth-eye structure at the output surface were demonstrated. A high-resolution polydimethylsiloxane (h-PDMS) casting material was used for the fabrication of the moth-eye structure from polymer template which was fabricated by hot embossing. The h-PDMS mold was subsequently used to transfer the nanostructure on the output surface of the LED by soft embossing. We succeeded in forming a close packed hexagonal array of hemispheres with 300 nm pitch, and 128 nm depth. With 10 mA driving current, the corresponding efficiency (cd/A) of moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes was enhanced by 36% compared with those of non-patterned LEDs. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of a theoretical analysis of the effect of the moth-eye structure.

Rao, J.; Winfield, R.; Keeney, L.

2010-06-01

236

78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade name Mimic) to their list of treatments for...of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal to add tebufenozide, the agencies also proposed developing a...

2013-04-22

237

Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2013-12-01

238

The neuroethology of sound production in tiger moths (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Certain species of tiger moths emit clicks when stimulated by bat-like sounds. These clicks are generated by modified thoracic episterna (tymbals) (Fig. 1) and constitute a rhythmic behaviour activated by simple sensory input.2.Tymbal periods are indirectly related to stimulus intensity and periods (Fig. 3). Moths initiate sounds with the tymbal opposite to the stimulated ear and once a sequence commences

James H. Fullard

1992-01-01

239

Hybrid Moth-Eye Structures for Enhanced Broadband Antireflection Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid moth-eye structures were proposed to enhance broadband antireflection properties. An ultralow average reflectance down to 0.11% over the solar spectral range has been achieved, which demonstrates a ?50% enhancement in broadband antireflection capability as compared with corresponding uniform moth-eye structures. This is attributed to a smaller refractive index gradient with respect to structure height. These hybrid structures can be applied to solar cells for higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Yang, Lanying; Feng, Qin; Ng, Binghao; Luo, Xiangang; Hong, Minghui

2010-10-01

240

Wax crystal-sparse leaf2, a rice homologue of WAX2/GL1, is involved in synthesis of leaf cuticular wax.  

PubMed

Epicuticular wax in plants limits non-stomatal water loss, inhibits postgenital organ fusion, protects plants against damage from UV radiation and imposes a physical barrier against pathogen infection. Here, we give a detailed description of the genetic, physiological and morphological consequences of a mutation in the rice gene WSL2, based on a comparison between the wild-type and an EMS mutant. The mutant's leaf cuticle membrane is thicker and less organized than that of the wild type, and its total wax content is diminished by ~80%. The mutant is also more sensitive to drought stress. WSL2 was isolated by positional cloning, and was shown to encode a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes CER3/WAX2/YRE/FLP1 and the maize gene GL1. It is expressed throughout the plant, except in the root. A transient assay carried out in both A. thaliana and rice protoplasts showed that the gene product is deposited in the endoplasmic reticulum. An analysis of the overall composition of the wax revealed that the mutant produces a substantially reduced quantity of C22-C32 fatty acids, which suggests that the function of WSL2 is associated with the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids. PMID:21809091

Mao, Bigang; Cheng, Zhijun; Lei, Cailin; Xu, Fenghua; Gao, Suwei; Ren, Yulong; Wang, Jiulin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jie; Wu, Fuqing; Guo, Xiuping; Liu, Xiaolu; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

2012-01-01

241

Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). PMID:15154471

Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

2004-04-01

242

Self-Assembly of Epicuticular Waxes on Living Plant Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AFM studies of wax regeneration on living plant surfaces gave first insights into the crystal growth processes of plant waxes, while it was used to visualize the dynamic process of wax crystallization in real time, and for measuring the height of the wax layers. For the experiments presented in this paper, leaves of Thalictrum flavum were used to investigate their wax formation. Although AFM investigations on plant surfaces are limited by roughness and fragility of the epicuticular waxes, this method is preferred above SEM, because AFM measurements in tapping mode can be done without disturbing the biological processes on the leaf surface.

Koch, Kerstin; Dommisse, Aarnoud; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2003-12-01

243

Development and evaluation of sustained-release propranolol wax microspheres.  

PubMed

To obtain a sustained-release dosage form with a lack of gastric unwanted effects, wax microspheres containing propranolol (I) were prepared by a congealable dispersion microencapsulation technique. The effects of the process variables; type of wax, speed of emulsification, amount of drug loaded, type and amount of emulsifier, were studied on the entrapment efficiency, angle of repose, dissolution efficiency (DE), in-vitro drug release and mean particle size of (I) microspheres, by a factorial design. The results showed that changes in the amount of emulsifier (Tween), 0.04% and 0.08%, the type of Tween (80 and 20) and the wax type; beeswax or ceresine, caused a significant decrease in the entrapment efficiency. All the variables had an effect on the angle of repose and particle size of the (I) microspheres. The only significant parameter affecting the DE was the nature of the wax. The drug release in pH 6.8 was affected by all the variables except the amount of emulsifier. The formulation with a 0.25:4 ratio of drug:ceresine wax and 0.04% of Tween 80 in 600 rpm emulsification speed showed a suitable multiparticulate delivery system for the retarded dissolution of entrapped active ingredients, allowing absorption only in the intestinal tract. PMID:11308219

Varshosaz, J; Keihanfar, M

2001-01-01

244

Comparison of wax and glyceride solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).  

PubMed

The present study compares solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) formulated with either wax or glyceride bulk material. While most published data deal with glyceride SLN, little knowledge is reported on wax carriers. The two types were compared with respect to drug encapsulation efficacy, particle size distribution after production and storage, and crystal packing. The inclusion of retinol as a model drug was investigated. Retinol is chemically unstable in water and rather stable in lipid phases. Thus, rapid degradation of retinol indicates rapid drug expulsion from the carrier. Good stability indicates an effective drug encapsulation in the lipid phase of the nanoparticles. Particle size distribution was measured by laser diffractometry. Subcell packing and assignment of polymorphic forms was investigated by WAXS measurements. Glyceride SLN showed good drug encapsulation, while physical stability was poor. In contrast, wax SLN possessed good physical stability but lacked sufficient drug encapsulation in the solidified state. These differences were attributed in part to different crystal packing. Less ordered crystal lattices favour successful drug inclusion, as in the case of glyceryl monosterate and glyceryl behenate SLN. The highly ordered crystal packing of wax SLN comprised of beeswax or cetyl palmitate, for instance, leads to drug expulsion, but also to superior physical stability. PMID:10699722

Jenning, V; Gohla, S

2000-03-10

245

Perinaphthenone phototransformation in a model of leaf epicuticular waxes.  

PubMed

Perinaphthenone (1H-phenalen-1-one, PN) is a reference photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen with a quantum yield close to one in a large variety of solvents. It is also the basic structure of a class of phototoxic phytoalexins. In this work, the PN photoreactivity was studied for the first time in a paraffinic wax, used as model of leaf epicuticular waxes. The PN photodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The triplet excited state, singlet oxygen and the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical were detected by diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis, near infrared phosphorescence and by EPR spectroscopy, respectively. The PN phototransformation was found to be fivefold faster in the wax than in n-heptane under steady-state irradiation. The hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical formation was observed in aerated irradiated paraffin wax while in n-heptane solution the radical was observed only in the absence of oxygen. These results show that under continuous irradiation, PN is much more easily phototransformed in a solid environment than in solution. Several photoproducts were identified, in particular phenalanone, PN dimers, and oxidized PN-alkanes adducts. Finally, when pyrethrum extract is added into the wax along with PN, the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical concentration was increased by a factor of 2.4. Such photochemical reactions may occur when systemic pesticides enter the plant cuticle. PMID:24300996

Trivella, Aurélien S; Monadjemi, Shirin; Worrall, David R; Kirkpatrick, Iain; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Richard, Claire

2014-01-01

246

Pathogen resistance in the moth Orgyia antiqua: direct influence of host plant dominates over the effects of individual condition.  

PubMed

The role of pathogens in insect ecology is widely appreciated but remains insufficiently explored. Specifically, there is little understanding about the sources of the variation in the outcome of insect-pathogen interactions. This study addresses the extent to which immune traits of larvae and pupae of the moth Orgyia antiqua L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) depend on the host plant species and individual condition of the insects. The two host plants, Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. and S. viminalis L., were chosen because they differ in the concentration of phenolic glycosides, harmful to most polyphagous insects. Individual condition was assumed to be reflected in body weight and development time, and was manipulated by rearing larvae either singly or in groups of four. The resistance traits recorded were survival and time to death after fungal infection in the larval stage and the efficiency of encapsulating a nylon implant by the pupae. The survival of the infected larvae was mainly determined by the species of the host plant. Encapsulation response was not associated with the resistance to the pathogen, suggesting that the host plant affected the pathogen rather than the immune system of the insect. Interestingly, the host plant supporting better larval growth led to inferior resistance to the pathogen, indicating a trade-off between different aspects of host plant quality. PMID:20626929

Sandre, S-L; Tammaru, T; Hokkanen, H M T

2011-02-01

247

Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system. PMID:23463135

Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

2013-01-01

248

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2012-11-01

249

Release from or through a wax matrix system. I. Basic release properties of the wax matrix system.  

PubMed

Release properties from a wax matrix tablet was examined. To obtain basic release properties, the wax matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of drug and wax powder (hydrogenated caster oil) at a fixed mixing ratio. Properties of release from the single flat-faced surface or curved side surface of the wax matrix tablet were examined. The applicability of the square-root time law and of Higuchi equations was confirmed. The release rate constant obtained as g/min(1/2) changed with the release direction. However, the release rate constant obtained as g/cm2 x min(1/2) was almost the same. Hence it was suggested that the release property was almost the same and the wax matrix structure was uniform independent of release surface or direction at a fixed mixing ratio. However, these equations could not explain the entire release process. The applicability of a semilogarithmic equation was not as good compared with the square-root time law or Higuchi equation. However, it was revealed that the semilogarithmic equation was available to simulate the entire release process, even though the fit was somewhat poor. Hence it was suggested that the semilogarithmic equation was sufficient to describe the release process. The release rate constant was varied with release direction. However, these release rate constants were expressed by a function of the effective surface area and initial amount, independent of the release direction. PMID:11724236

Yonezawa, Y; Ishida, S; Sunada, H

2001-11-01

250

Release from or through a wax matrix system. II. Basic properties of release from or through the wax matrix layer.  

PubMed

In order to examine basic properties of release from and through wax matrix layer, reservoir device matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of hydrogenated caster oil and drug that was the same one in the reservoir. Release process could be divided into two stages. The first stage was the formation process of water channel by dissolving the drug in the wax matrix layer, and dissolved drug was released from the matrix layer following the square-root-of-time law equation. Hence, the drug penetration coefficient and tortuosity in the matrix layer were estimated. The second stage was the zero order release process of drug in the reservoir through the wax matrix layer. The release rate constant was calculated from the slope of line. Hence, the drug permeability coefficient and tortuosity were estimated. Fundamentally, tortuosity can not be expressed by some meaningful factors, and is obtained as an experimental result. By preparing wax matrix system from a physical mixture other than melted granule method, it was suggested that the matrix structure was uniform three-dimensionally. As a result, tortuosity could be expressed by a function of porosity, because unrecognized factors such as the surface coverage and thickness of melted wax on the soluble component should not be involved. PMID:11848213

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

2002-02-01

251

Stage-specific control of grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by selective and broad-spectrum insecticides.  

PubMed

The insect growth regulators (IGRs) tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide and the broad-spectrum insecticides azinphosmethyl, carbaryl, and fenpropathrin were compared for their activity against adult, egg, and larval stages of the grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), under laboratory and vineyard conditions. Adult mortality was not affected by exposure to field-equivalent rates of tebufenozide or methoxyfenozide on grape clusters, whereas all the broad-spectrum compounds significantly reduced adult survival, compared with the untreated controls. Surviving adult moths laid significantly more eggs on berries treated with the IGRs than on berries treated with any of the broad-spectrum insecticides. Survival of these eggs through to late larval and pupal stages was significantly lower on methoxyfenozide-treated grapes than on untreated grapes, and no pupae were found when grapes were treated with azinphosmethyl or fenpropathrin. Neither of the growth regulator insecticides limited egg eclosion or larval development by E. viteana when insecticides were applied before egg laying, whereas broad-spectrum insecticides were effective against both eggs and neonates at this timing. When applied after egg eclosion, all insecticide treatments significantly reduced survival of grape berry moth larvae. Under vineyard conditions, berries with 1-d-old residues of tebufenozide or methoxyfenozide received more E. viteana eggs than berries treated with broad-spectrum compounds. After aging for 7 or 14 d, no significant effects on E. viteana survival were detected among treatments. Whereas broad-spectrum insecticides provide control of multiple life stages of E. viteana, integration of tebufenozide or methoxyfenozide into vineyard management programs for control of this pest will be most successful if applications are timed for egg hatch. PMID:15889733

Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Maxwell, Elly

2005-04-01

252

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : II. Identification and role of female pheromone.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations of mating behavior in the rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae; Galleriinae) showed that male moths are attracted at short range to live, virgin female moths and to female abdominal-tip extract. Volatiles collected from virgin female moths contained one component eliciting an electroantennographic (EAG) response from the male moth, and the chemical, spectroscopic, and Chromatographic data on this component were consistent with that of synthetic 6,10,14-tri-methyl-2-pentadecanol. This compound caused an EAG response from the male moth and attracted male moths in the bioassay. The pheromone is thought to play a role in courtship, and the synthetic material was shown to cause the male moths to search for a mate and attempt copulation. PMID:24302328

Hall, D R; Cork, A; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F; Zagatti, P

1987-07-01

253

A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

Chang, Samuel C

2010-01-01

254

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a  

E-print Network

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a lodgepole moth, and stalactiform blister rust, Cronartium coleosporioides Arth., the most prevalent stem rust: Sesiidae), comandra blister rust, Cronartium comandrae Pk., and western gall rust, Endocronartium

Lindgren, Staffan

255

Composition of Cuticular Waxes on Osmunda regalis Fronds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of rodlet-shaped wax crystals on fronds of Osmunda regalis was analyzed. In all, 139 compounds belonging to 14 homologous series were detected in the surface extract. They included typical plant wax constituents: alkanes (C25–C33), alkyl esters (C38–C50), primary alcohols (C22–C32), secondary alcohols (C27 and C29), ketones (C27–C33), aldehydes (C24–C34), fatty acids (C24–C32), and ß-sitosterol. Additionally, bifunctional C29

Reinhard Jetter; Markus Riederer

2000-01-01

256

Sustaining pattern of phenformin hydrochloride using various polymers and waxes.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to formulate matrix tablets of phenformin hydrochloride. Granules of phenformin HCl were prepared by using ethyl cellulose, eudragit RS 100, gum acacia, carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate and triethanol amine. Thus the granules were compressed and fourteen tablets formulations were prepared. All the physical parameters of granules and matrix tablets were studied including compatibility study. One commercial timed disintegration capsule was also included for study and comparison. The results of in vitro studies showed that sustained release matrix tablet might be prepared using carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, triethanol amine and magnesium stearate. PMID:12481378

Pandey, V P; Kannappan, N; Manavalan, R; Subburaj, T

2002-01-01

257

Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

Strathmann, Richard R

2014-01-01

258

Fatty Alcohols for Wax Esters in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: Two Optional Routes in the Wax Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of wax esters in bacteria is accomplished by a unique pathway that combines a fatty alcohol and a fatty acyl coenzyme A substrate. Previous in vitro enzymatic studies indicated that two different enzymes could be involved in the synthesis of the required fatty alcohol in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. In this study, we demonstrate through a series of gene deletions and transcriptional analysis that either enzyme is capable of fulfilling the role of providing the fatty alcohol required for wax ester biosynthesis in vivo, but evolution has clearly selected one of these, a previously characterized fatty aldehyde reductase, as the preferred enzyme to perform this reaction under typical wax ester-accumulating conditions. These results complement previous in vitro studies and provide the first glimpse into the role of each enzyme in vivo in the native organism. PMID:24014533

Lenneman, Eric M.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Palani, Nagendra P.

2013-01-01

259

Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection. PMID:21905729

Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

2011-10-26

260

Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance  

SciTech Connect

Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

261

Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (?). A linear relationship between t/l and ? (t/l ? ? 0.89) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, ? = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 109 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 109 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress.

Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

2014-04-01

262

Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala × interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8?g cm?2, and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves

Mark A. Teece; Thomas Zengeya; Timothy A. Volk; Lawrence B. Smart

2008-01-01

263

Effects of epicuticular wax from Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on infection by Curvularia eragrostidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular wax is a plant’s initial defence system to various foreign invasions, including invasion by fungi. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of epicuticular wax of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on invasion by the fungus Curvularia eragrostidis and the difference in components of epicuticular waxes between the two plants. The epicuticular wax of D. sanguinalis (host) significantly enhanced

Fei Wang; Peng Zhang; Sheng Qiang; Yun-Zhi Zhu; Lang-Lai Xu

2008-01-01

264

Effects of plant micro-environment on movement of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae and the relationship to a hierarchy of stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotory behaviour of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera is influenced by a complex of micro-attributes, the leaf “environment”, comprising odours, wax chemistry, trichomes and grip\\u000a texture. Larval movement speeds on leaves of different types varied more than eight fold. On garden pea, Pisum sativum, there is a hierarchy of stimuli perceived by larvae resulting in differing behavioural responses. Light and angle

Bronwen W. Cribb; Jim Hanan; Myron P. Zalucki; Lynda E. Perkins

2010-01-01

265

Effect of temperature on long-term storage of codling moth granulovirus formulations.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the major pest of apple (Malus spp.) in the western United States and many other regions of the world. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) provides a selective and safe means of its control. We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of CpGV, Cyd-X, and Virosoft. All assays were performed with individual C. pomonella neonate larvae in 2-ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 microl of the test virus suspension. Baseline quantitative assays for the two formulations revealed that the LC50 and LC95 values (occlusion bodies per vial) did not differ significantly between the formulations. For year-long studies on Cyd-X stability, the product was stored at -20, 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and quantitative bioassays were conducted after 0, 3, 6, and 12 mo of storage. Cyd-X retained good larvicidal activity from -20 to 25 degrees C, and it was the least negatively affected at the lowest temperature. Storage of Cyd-X at 35 degrees C was detrimental to its larvicidal activity within 3 mo of storage. For longer term storage studies, Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations were stored at 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and assayed for larvicidal activity over a 3-yr period. For recently produced product, a 10-microl sample of a 10(-5) dilution of both formulations resulted in 95-100% mortality in neonate larvae. Larvicidal activity for the Cyd-X formulation remained essentially unaffected for 156 wk when stored at 2 and 25 degrees C, but it began to decline significantly after 20 wk of storage at 35 degrees C. The Virosoft formulation stored at 2 degrees C also remained active throughout the 3-yr study, but it began to decline in larvicidal activity after 144 wk at 25 degrees C and 40 wk at 35 degrees C. The information reported in this study should be useful to growers and commercial suppliers for avoiding decreases in CpGV potency due to improper storage conditions. PMID:18459390

Lacey, Lawrence A; Headrick, Heather L; Arthurs, Steven P

2008-04-01

266

The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long fascinated biologists  

E-print Network

and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared4689 The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long, 2003). The primary purpose of the moth's simple ear ­ to detect bat echolocation calls ­ has made

Fullard, James H.

267

Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

E-print Network

1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

268

Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

E-print Network

across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in dataLETTER Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) E a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical

269

Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1  

E-print Network

gypsy moth strain (Trouvelot is thought to have released a European strain in which femalesSlow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990

Liebhold, Andrew

270

COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN GYPSY MOTH CONTROL BY ARBORISTS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European gypsy moth, (Lymantria dispart.) is an introduced forest pest that has significantly impacted hardwood forests and urban environments in the northeastern United States. In urban settings, homeowners allocate significant financial resources to mitigate gypsy moth damage. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of gypsy moth control-related services provided by arborists to homeowners. At present,

Christopher D. Vaughn; Thomas J. Straka; Donald L. Ham; Roy L. Hedden

1997-01-01

271

Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks  

E-print Network

(MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (LymantriaAssessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth Accepted 18 September 2010 Keywords: MODIS NDVI time series data Gypsy moth Regional forest defoliation

Hargrove, William W.

272

POPULATION ECOLOGY Parasitism of Native Luna Moths, Actias luna (L.) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

Virginia, where both C. concinnata and the gypsy moth, its biocontrol target, have become established in the past few decades. In a forest that has not yet had gypsy moth damage, we placed cohorts of second against the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) and other lepidopteran pests (Sanchez 1995, USDA 2002

Fink, Linda S.

273

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

274

The population ecology of the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study of the factors determining the abundance and distribution of the Cinnabar Moth in Britain. The main part of the study was on a population of the moth at Weeting Heath in Norfolk. This is an area of sandy heath which is heavily overgrazed by rabbits. Here the moth fluctuates violently in number

J. P. Dempster

1971-01-01

275

Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils  

E-print Network

, and the lack of knowledge of the precise mechanism whereby wax stabilizes emulsions. Numerous papers on water to aid in the investigation of the effect of wax type and quantity on water-in-crude oil emulsion chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Two distinctly different types of petroleum waxes were

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

276

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based  

E-print Network

made from inexpensive papers like paper towels ($0.2/m2 ).2 The features made using wax printingUnderstanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

Prentiss, Mara

277

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)  

E-print Network

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

Boyer, Edmond

278

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

279

Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to tebufenozide on the development, survival, and reproduction of the tufted apple bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The lethal and sublethal effects of tebufenozide on the survival, development, and reproduction of a field strain of tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were assessed by feeding first and third instars tebufenozide-treated diet until pupation. Larval mortality was 27.4 and 44.7% at 0.1 and 0.2 ppm for first instars and 21.9 and 57.8% at 0.2 and 0.4 ppm for third instars, respectively. Treated larvae exhibited higher pupal mortalities, lower pupal weights, and generally more deformed adults than untreated larvae. Larval development was not affected by tebufenozide when neonates were exposed, but development was accelerated slightly at 0.4 ppm for both males and females when third instars were exposed. All treatments produced sex ratios biased toward males. When paired with either treated or untreated males, females resulting from neonates treated at 0.2 ppm and from third instars treated at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppm laid from 37 to 65% fewer eggs. A reduction in fertility was only found when third instars were treated at the higher 0.4 ppm rate. These results suggest that tebufenozide can exhibit a significant effect on the population dynamics of the tufted apple bud moth. PMID:16813319

Biddinger, D; Hull, L; Huang, H; McPheron, B; Loyer, M

2006-06-01

280

Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1994-01-01

281

Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves  

PubMed Central

The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

2013-01-01

282

Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

Cowens, John

2006-01-01

283

Leaf wax biomarkers in transit record river catchment composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

carry organic molecules derived from terrestrial vegetation to sedimentary deposits in lakes and oceans, storing information about past climate and erosion, as well as representing a component of the carbon cycle. It is anticipated that sourcing of organic matter may not be uniform across catchments with substantial environmental variability in topography, vegetation zones, and climate. Here we analyze plant leaf wax biomarkers in transit in the Madre de Dios River (Peru), which drains a forested catchment across 4.5 km of elevation from the tropical montane forests of the Andes down into the rainforests of Amazonia. We find that the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax molecules (specifically the C28 n-alkanoic acid) carried by this tropical mountain river largely records the elevation gradient defined by the isotopic composition of precipitation, and this supports the general interpretation of these biomarkers as proxy recorders of catchment conditions. However, we also find that leaf wax isotopic composition varies with river flow regime over storm and seasonal timescales, which could in some cases be quantitatively significant relative to changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation in the past. Our results inform on the sourcing and transport of material by a major tributary of the Amazon River and contribute to the spatial interpretation of sedimentary records of past climate using the leaf wax proxy.

Ponton, Camilo; West, A. Joshua; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier

2014-09-01

284

Influence of canopy aspect and height on codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation in apple, and relationship between infestation and fruit size.  

PubMed

Monitoring systems based on traps with female attractants are expected to enhance forecasting of insect population size and damage. The optimal placement of such traps should match the small-scale distribution of ovipositing females. In the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), fruit infestation takes place in proximity to the oviposition site. We characterized the within-tree distribution of codling moth infestations and the size of uninfested fruit based on a survey of 40,000 apples (Malus spp.) from trees belonging to 160 different apple genotypes and growing in two different environments. Each tree was subdivided into 12 sectors, considering canopy aspect (north, east, south, and west) and canopy height (bottom, middle, and top). This study revealed that fruit infestation by the first but not by the second generation of larvae correlated significantly with canopy aspect. Similarly, fruit size differed significantly between the north- and the south-facing tree side for the period of infestation by the first but not by the second larval generation. Significantly lower fruit infestation was observed on the north- compared with the south- or east-facing tree side for the first generation. A significant influence of canopy height on larval infestation was observed in three of eight assessments, in which the middle height level showed the highest infestations. Significant differences in within-tree distribution of codling moth infestation suggest that oviposition preference is guided by nonrandom factors including microclimate, fruit phenology, and wind direction. These cultivar-independent findings should be considered in future monitoring systems that focus on female codling moth. PMID:18330120

Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

2008-02-01

285

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.  

PubMed

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2005-09-27

286

RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

287

The evolutionary ecology of cheating: does superfi cial oviposition facilitate the evolution of a cheater yucca moth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major question in the study of mutualism is to understand how mutualists may revert to antagonists that exploit the mutualism (i.e. switch to cheating ). In the classic pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths, the cheater moth Tegeticula intermedia is sister to the pollinator moth T. cassandra . These moth species have similar ovipositor morphology, but T. intermedia

KARI A. SEGRA V ES; DA V ID; M. AL; T HOFF

288

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt, and Clyde F. Martin  

E-print Network

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt to predict observed, biological behaviors. In particular, we study the silkworm moth, the Bombyx Mori, and we by the female moths, as is the case in actual silkworm moths as well. I. INTRODUCTION The research on multi

Egerstedt, Magnus

289

Transcutaneous DNA immunization following waxing-based hair depilation  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous DNA immunization is an attractive immunization approach. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles had been induced into growth stage by ‘cold’ waxing-based hair plucking significantly enhanced the resultant immune responses. In the present study, using a plasmid that encodes the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA63) gene fragment, it was shown that the anti-PA63 antibody responses induced by applying the plasmid onto a skin area where the hair was plucked by ‘warm’ waxing were significantly stronger than by ‘cold’ waxing, very likely because the ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation significantly i) enhanced the uptake (or retention) of the plasmid in the application area and ii) enhanced the expression of the transfected gene in the follicular and interfollicular epidermis in the skin. The antibody response induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization was hair cycle dependent, because the plasmid needed to be applied within 5 days after the hair plucking to induce a strong antibody response. The antibody responses were not affected by whether the expressed PA63 protein, as an antigen, was secreted or cell surface bound. Finally, this strategy of enhancing the immune responses induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization following ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation was not limited to the PA63 as an antigen, because immunization with a plasmid that encodes the HIV-1 env gp160 gene induced a strong anti-gp160 response as well. Transcutaneous DNA immunization by modifying the hair follicle cycle may hold a great promise in inducing strong and functional immune responses. PMID:21907253

Sloat, Brian R.; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Xiao, Gang; DiGiovanni, John; Maury, Wendy; Cui, Zhengrong

2011-01-01

290

Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

2014-09-01

291

Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester. PMID:23829499

2013-01-01

292

Wax esters in the liver and serum of steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri (Richardson).  

PubMed

1. Wax esters were identified in the serum and liver of steelhead trout. 2. Confirmation of the identity was made by thin-layer chromatography of the wax ester hydrolysis products: long chain alcohols and fatty acids. 3. Tissue concentrations of the wax are 0.34 mg/ml and 0.12 mg/g in the serum and liver respectively. 4. The presence of the wax esters in these two particular tissues suggests that the wax is synthesized in the liver, incorporated into lipoproteins, and functions as a lipid transport molecule. PMID:6831863

Sheridan, M A; Allen, W V

1983-01-01

293

Release from or through a wax matrix system. III. Basic properties of release through the wax matrix layer.  

PubMed

Release property of reservoir device matrix tablet was examined. Wax matrix layer was prepared from physical mixture of lactose and hydrogenated castor oil to obtain basic release properties. Release process showed zero order kinetics in a steady state after a given lag times, and could be divided into two stages. The first stage was the formation process of water channel by dissolving the soluble component in the wax matrix layer. The lag time was considered to be the time required forming water channel and the time begun to release drug through the wax matrix layer at the same time. The lag time obtained by applying the square root law equation was well connected with the amount of matrix layer and mixed weight fraction of component in matrix layer. The second stage was the zero order release process of drug in the reservoir through the wax matrix layer. The release rate constants were calculated by taking into accounts of the thickness of matrix layer and permeability coefficient, and were well connected with the amount of matrix layer and mixed weight fraction of component. Also it was suggested that the tortuosity of matrix layer could be expressed by a function of the porosity defined by the mixed weight fraction. PMID:12045337

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

2002-06-01

294

Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity  

PubMed Central

The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control.

Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Junior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, Jose R. P.

2014-01-01

295

Using yellow rocket as a trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in field plots of cabbage alone were 5.2-11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several rows of yellow rocket. In an outdoor experiment in screenhouses, P. xylostella oviposition on cabbage was compared among six treatments that varied in the percentage of yellow rocket in relation to cabbage (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the plants were yellow rocket). Results indicated that the percentage of eggs laid on cabbage decreased as the percentage of yellow rocket in the treatment increased, but this decrease was not significant beyond 20% of the plants being yellow rocket. In 2004, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae in field plots of cabbage alone were 1.6-2.4 and 1.7-2.8 times higher than numbers in treatments with 10 and 20% trap crop, respectively. Sticky trap and sweep net captures of P. xylostella adults indicated that within-field dispersal was reduced by the presence of yellow rocket and aggregation occurred around yellow rocket plants. Our study suggests that using yellow rocket as a trap crop may reduce P. xylostella infestations in cabbage fields, and this possibility is discussed in the context of general crop and insect pest management practices in crucifers. PMID:16022317

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

2005-06-01

296

Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

1984-01-01

297

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

298

Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated  

E-print Network

Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated wax phase can exhibit retrograde phenomena similar of precipitated wax may first increase, then decrease, then increase again. The effect of pressure on wax

Firoozabadi, Abbas

299

Chemical Composition of the Epicuticular and Intracuticular Wax Layers on Adaxial Sides of Rosa canina Leaves  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant–organism interactions. METHOD An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. Key Results The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. Conclusions A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed. PMID:17933845

Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

2007-01-01

300

ANALYSIS OF THE Vitellogenin GENE OF RICE MOTH, Corcyra cephalonica STAINTON.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (Vg) is a precursor of the major yolk protein, an essential nutrient for the embryonic development of oviparous animals including insects. Here, the gene(CceVg [Corcyra cephalonica Vg] ) encoding the Vg (CceVg of moth, C. cephalonica, was cloned and sequenced. The gene sequence was 6,721-bp long and contained 5five introns and six exons that together formed a 5,382-bp open reading frame. The deduced protein (CceVg) consisted of 1,793 amino acid residues, including a 16-amino-acid signal peptide. The putative molecular weight of the primary Vg protein was 202.46 kDa. The CceVg contained all conserved domains and motifs that were commonly found in most insect Vgs except the presence of a polyserine tract at the C-terminal region, which had not been reported in other lepidopteran Vgs. The expression pattern showed thatCceVg was first transcribed at a very low level in the early larval stage but disappeared in later stage larva. In female, theCceVg mRNA was detected in early pupal stage and throughout adult stage. Interestingly, theCceVg mRNA was detected only in mated males at low levels, not in the virgin ones. Injection ofCceVg double-stranded RNA into early-emergent females caused severely abnormal ovaries. PMID:25052135

Veerana, Mayura; Kubera, Anchanee; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

2014-11-01

301

A saponin correlated with variable resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Platella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for flea beetle resistance. The P-type was always susceptible. Extracts of resistant leaflets inhibited larval growth in a bioassay, and a growth-inhibiting fraction was isolated by activity-guided fractionation. A triterpenoid saponin (1) was isolated from this fraction and identified as 3-O-beta-cellobiosyloleanolic acid from spectroscopic data and analysis of hydrolysis products. The decrease in resistance of the G-type in the fall was correlated with a decrease in the level of 1, from 0.6-0.9 to < 0.2 micromol/g dry wt. Compound 1 was not detected in the susceptible P-type. We conclude that 1 is correlated with the variable resistance of B. vulgaris foliage to the DBM. PMID:12918925

Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl E; Bibby, Bo M; Frandsen, Hanne O; Brown, Lea D; Nielsen, Jens K; Renwick, J Alan A

2003-06-01

302

Signal Mimics Derived from a Metagenomic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Gut Microbiota? †  

PubMed Central

Bacterial signaling is an important part of community life, but little is known about the signal transduction pathways of the as-yet-uncultured members of microbial communities. To address this gap, we aimed to identify genes directing the synthesis of signals in uncultured bacteria associated with the midguts of gypsy moth larvae. We constructed a metagenomic library consisting of DNA extracted directly from the midgut microbiota and analyzed it using an intracellular screen designated METREX, which detects inducers of quorum sensing. In this screen, the metagenomic DNA and a biosensor reside in the same cell. The biosensor consists of a quorum-sensing promoter, which requires an acylhomoserine lactone or other small molecule ligand for activation, driving the expression of the reporter gene gfp. We identified an active metagenomic clone encoding a monooxygenase homologue that mediates a pathway of indole oxidation that leads to the production of a quorum-sensing inducing compound. The signal from this clone induces the activities of LuxR from Vibrio fischeri and CviR from Chromobacterium violaceum. This study is the first to identify a new structural class of quorum-sensing inducer from uncultured bacteria. PMID:17435000

Guan, Changhui; Ju, Jianhua; Borlee, Bradley R.; Williamson, Lynn L.; Shen, Ben; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Handelsman, Jo

2007-01-01

303

A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant. PMID:24973793

Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

2014-08-01

304

Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

1983-10-01

305

Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore\\/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close

J. M. Leis; J. M. Miller

1976-01-01

306

Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control. PMID:23865179

Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

2013-06-01

307

Identification of a developmentally and hormonally regulated Delta-Class glutathione S-transferase in rice moth Corcyra cephalonica.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, known for their role in cellular detoxification. Here we report a cytosolic GST with optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.3) from the visceral fat body of late-last instar (LLI) larvae of a lepidopteran insect rice moth Corcyra cephalonica. All previously known GSTs are active between pH 6.0 to 6.5. Purification and characterization revealed the Corcyra cephalonica GST (CcGST) as a 23-kDa protein. HPLC and 2D analysis showed a single isoform of the protein in the LLI visceral fat body. Degenerate primer based method identified a 701-nucleotide cDNA and the longest open reading frame contained 216 amino acids. Multiple sequence and structural alignment showed close similarity with delta-class GSTs. CcGST is present mainly in the fat body with highest activity at the late-last instar larval stage. Juvenile hormone (JH) negatively inhibits the CcGST activity both ex vivo and in vivo. We speculate that high expression and activity of CcGST in the fat body of the late-last instar larvae, when endogenous JH titer is low may have role in the insect post-embryonic development unrelated to their previously known function. PMID:20138238

Gullipalli, Damodar; Arif, Abul; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Svenson, Gavin J; Whiting, Michael F; Reddanna, Pallu; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

2010-05-01

308

Identification of a triterpenoid saponin from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a crucifer specialist, refuse to feed on a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, because of the presence of a feeding deterrent, which is extractable with chloroform. We isolated a feeding deterrent from B. vulgaris leaves, by successive fractionations with silica-gel, ODS, i.e., C18 reversed phase, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and ODS-HPLC, guided by a bioassay for feeding deterrent activity. The structure of the compound was determined to be a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin, based on FAB-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, and hydrolysis experiments. When the compound was applied to cabbage leaf disks at greater than 0.18 microg/mm2, consumption of the disks by third instars was less than 11% of control disks treated with the solvent alone. Furthermore, all first instars died on the disks treated with the same concentrations. Because the concentration of the compound in the fresh leaves of B. vulgaris was comparable to the effective dose in the cabbage leaf disk tested, we conclude that the unacceptability of B. vulgaris to P. xylostella larvae is primarily due to this saponin. PMID:11944835

Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Koshioka, Masaji; Okabe, Hikaru; Kawai, Akira

2002-03-01

309

Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most destructive cosmopolitan insect pests of brassicaceous crops. It was the first crop insect reported to be resistant to DDT and now, in many crucifer producing regions, it has shown significant resistance to almost every synthetic insecticide applied in the field. In certain parts of the world,

Muhammad Sarfraz; Andrew B Keddie; Lloyd M Dosdall

2005-01-01

310

Moth Sounds and the Insect-Catching Behavior of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Captive bats trained to catch mealworms tossed in midair turned away from most of these targets when simultaneously confronted with a recorded train of the ultrasonic pulses generated by an Arctiid moth. When similarly exposed to the recorded echolocation pulses of another bat, presented at the same intensity as the \\

Dorothy C. Dunning; Kenneth D. Roeder

1965-01-01

311

Modeled global invasive potential of Asian gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian populations of gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), remain poorly characterized - indeed, they are not presently accorded any formal taxonomic status within the broader species. Their ecology is similarly largely uncharacterized in the literature, except by assumption that it will resemble that of European populations. We developed ecological niche models specific to Asian populations of the species,

A. Townsend Peterson; Richard Williams; Guojun Chen

2007-01-01

312

ASIAN VERSUS EUROPEAN ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA\\/GYPSY MOTH RELATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives for our studies were (1) to determine whether non-North American gypsy moth strains are susceptible to North American strains of E. maimaiga; (2) to compare the genetic diversity of North American and Asian populations of E. maimaiga; and (3) to determine the origin of the North American E. maimaiga population.

Charlotte Nielsen; Melody Keena; Michael G. Milgroom; Ann E. Hajek

313

Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.  

PubMed

The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

Riddiford, L M

1967-10-01

314

Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.  

PubMed

Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

1976-08-01

315

Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed Central

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

2000-01-01

316

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth  

E-print Network

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth Ve´ronique Martel1 *¤ , Fredrik investigated the impact of a terrestrial micropredator, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, on its unusual of mosquitoes showed a slower development and reached a smaller pupal weight when compared to a control without

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

2007-08-01

318

Light extraction process in moth-eye structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically calculated the light extraction efficiency of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a moth-eye structure by rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). The dependences of light extraction efficiency on aspect ratio and period were measured. Light extraction efficiency was almost constant until the period of 170 nm and then gradually decreased with increasing of period.

Kasugai, H.; Nagamatsu, K.; Miyake, Y.; Honshio, A.; Kawashima, T.; Iida, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Kinoshita, H.; Shiomi, H.

2006-06-01

319

How the pilidium larva feeds  

PubMed Central

Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

2013-01-01

320

EXTRACTING PROTOSTRONGYLID NEMATODE LARVAE FROM UNGULATE FECES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTIIA( T: A major weakness of the Baermann funnel technique for extracting nematode larvae from feces is the funnel. As umny as 67% of Parclaphostrongylus temiis first-stage larvae lodged on the sloping surface of glass Baermann funnels. The number of larvae collected after 24 hr was not significantly correlated with total numbers in the samples, whether feces were supported over

Sean G. Forrester; Murray W. Lankester

321

Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

322

Intensive rearing system for fish larvae research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae nutrition and in general larvae culture is considered to be the ‘bottle neck’ for marine finfish culture. Fish larvae rearing experiments investigating nutritional factors or rearing protocols are carried out in various systems, from small beakers to very large commercial tanks, making it difficult to compare data across systems.A continuous supply of live or dry feeds and a controlled

Sagiv Kolkovski; John Curnow; Justin King

2004-01-01

323

Variable Attachment to Plant Surface Waxes by Predatory Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we will (1) provide an overview of evidence of the influence of habitat characteristics on predation, (2)\\u000a provide specific evidence for the importance of the plant as habitat, and of variability in plant morphology’s impact on the\\u000a foraging of insect predators and parasitoids, (3) focus on the role of crystalline waxes on plant surfaces in mediating these

Sanford D. Eigenbrode; William E. Snyder; Garrett Clevenger; Hongjian Ding; Stanislav N. Gorb

324

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

2014-04-01

325

Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths  

PubMed Central

Summary The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull-off forces of polydimethylsiloxane probes on wax surfaces having a higher density of wax coverage, created by smaller crystals. PMID:25161838

Bohm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

2014-01-01

326

Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths.  

PubMed

The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull-off forces of polydimethylsiloxane probes on wax surfaces having a higher density of wax coverage, created by smaller crystals. PMID:25161838

Gorb, Elena; Böhm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

2014-01-01

327

Composition differences between epicuticular and intracuticular wax substructures: how do plants seal their epidermal surfaces?  

PubMed

The protective wax coating on plant surfaces has long been considered to be non-uniform in composition at a subcellular scale. In recent years, direct evidence has started to accumulate showing quantitative compositional differences between the epicuticular wax (i.e. wax exterior to cutin that can be mechanically peeled off) and intracuticular wax (i.e. wax residing within the mechanically resistant layer of cutin) layers in particular. This review provides a first synthesis of the results acquired for all the species investigated to date in order to assign chemical information directly to cuticle substructures, together with an overview of the methods used and a discussion of possible mechanisms and biological functions. The development of methods to probe the wax for z-direction heterogeneity began with differential solvent extractions. Further research employing mechanical wax removal by adhesives permitted the separation and analysis of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax. In wild-type plants, the intracuticular (1-30 ?g cm(-2)) plus the epicuticular wax (5-30 ?g cm(-2)) combined to a total of 8-40 ?g cm(-2). Cyclic wax constituents, such as triterpenoids and alkylresorcinols, preferentially or entirely accumulate within the intracuticular layer. Within the very-long-chain aliphatic wax components, primary alcohols tend to accumulate to higher percentages in the intracuticular wax layer, while free fatty acids and alkanes in many cases accumulate in the epicuticular layer. Compounds with different chain lengths are typically distributed evenly between the layers. The mechanism causing the fractionation remains to be elucidated but it seems plausible that it involves, at least in part, spontaneous partitioning due to the physico-chemical properties of the wax compounds and interactions with the intracuticular polymers. The arrangement of compounds probably directly influences cuticular functions. PMID:21193581

Buschhaus, Christopher; Jetter, Reinhard

2011-01-01

328

Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations. PMID:18037304

Kim, Ki Woo

2008-10-01

329

Release from or through a wax matrix system. VI. Analysis and prediction of the entire release process of the wax matrix tablet.  

PubMed

Analysis of the entire release process of the wax matrix tablet was examined. Wax matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of drug and wax powder to obtain basic or clear release properties. The release process began to deviate from Higuchi equation when the released amount reached at around the half of the initial drug amount. Simulated release amount increase infinitely when the Higuchi equation was applied. Then, the Higuchi equation was modified to estimate the release process of the wax matrix tablet. The modified Higuchi equation was named as the H-my equation. Release process was well treated by the H-my equation. Release process simulated by the H-my equation fitted well with the measured entire release process. Also, release properties from and through wax matrix well coincident each other. Furthermore, it is possible to predict an optional release process when the amount of matrix and composition of matrix system were defined. PMID:16079519

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Sunada, Hisakazu

2005-08-01

330

Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States.  

PubMed

Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to detection and population growth, we focused on the persistence dynamics of an established invader, the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States. The spread of gypsy moth is largely thought to be the result of the growth and coalescence of isolated colonies in a transition zone ahead of the generally infested area. One important question is thus the ability of these isolated colonies to persist when subject to Allee effects and inimical stochastic events. We analyzed the US gypsy moth survey data and identified isolated colonies of gypsy moth using the local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. We then determined region-specific probabilities of colony persistence given the population abundance in the previous year and its relationship to a suite of ecological factors. We observed that colonies in Wisconsin, US, were significantly more likely to persist in the following year than in other geographic regions of the transition zone, and in all regions, the abundance of preferred host tree species and land use category did not appear to influence persistence. We propose that differences in region-specific rates of persistence may be attributed to Allee effects that are differentially expressed in space, and that the inclusion of geographically varying Allee effects into colony-invasion models may provide an improved paradigm for addressing the establishment and spread of gypsy moth and other invasive exotic species. PMID:16341893

Whitmire, Stefanie L; Tobin, Patrick C

2006-03-01

331

Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

2008-01-01

332

Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense  

SciTech Connect

Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

2006-11-20

333

Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

2008-09-01

334

Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

2008-01-01

335

NMR investigation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes. III. 13C and 1H study of oxidised hard wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.II see ibid., vol.18, p.1185 (1985). The proton spin-lattice relaxation time and the liquid content of polycrystalline oxidised hard wax were determined as a function of temperature (355>T>125K). In Phase I(TT>294K) the melting process contributes to the observed relaxation times but it is clear that an additional process also contributes to T1. In phase III (355>T>333K) T1 is dominated

E. C. Reynhardt

1985-01-01

336

Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

2013-01-01

337

Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts. PMID:25038447

Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

2014-09-01

338

Comparative evaluation of rice bran wax as an ointment base with standard base.  

PubMed

Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P M; Lakhotiya, C L

2009-01-01

339

Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach  

PubMed Central

The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4–8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. PMID:24165663

Gorb, Elena V.; Baum, Martina J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2013-01-01

340

Study of crystallization and melting of solid waxes by photometric and thermal methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization temperature and melting point of individual waxes and mixtures of them were determined by the regular\\u000a reflection (RR) photometric method combined with a thermal method. In the region of phase transitions, plateaus are observed\\u000a on the heating curves of the individual waxes and steps were observed on the RR curve. In the case of mixtures of waxes, there

Yu. L. Shishkin; I. V. Yazynina; E. V. Ovchar

2008-01-01

341

Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids  

PubMed Central

With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K.; Spalding, Adrian; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

2013-01-01

342

Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness. PMID:23750808

Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

2013-10-01

343

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

344

Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

PubMed

We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species. PMID:21510197

Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

2011-04-01

345

Fabrication of high-efficiency LED using moth-eye structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize high-efficiency light-emitting diodes (LEDs), it is essential to increase light extraction efficiency. The moth-eye structure, consisting of periodic cones with a submicron-scale pitch on a surface/interface, is known to enhance the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes. Previously, nitride-based flip-chip blue LEDs with the moth-eye structure on the backside of the substrate were demonstrated to exhibit high light extraction efficiency. In this report, face-up blue LEDs with a double moth-eye structure are described. One moth-eye structure was formed on the sapphire substrate and the other structure was formed on the ITO contact, where the pitch of the cones in both structures was 500 nm. The patterning of cones with such a small pitch was carried out by a low-energy electron-beam lithography technique. The output powers of mounted LEDs without resin encapsulation were measured using an integrated sphere. For reference, face-up LEDs without a moth-eye structure and with a single moth-eye structure on an ITO contact were also examined. The single moth-eye and double moth-eye LEDs have 1.2 and 1.4 times higher output power than the non-moth-eye LED, receptively.

Sakurai, H.; Kondo, T.; Suzuki, A.; Kitano, T.; Mori, M.; Iwaya, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Kamiyama, S.; Akasaki, I.

2011-02-01

346

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America  

E-print Network

effect) Common causes: inbreeding depression, absence of cooperative feeding, failure to satiate natural" dynamics Gypsy moth is univoltine (produces one generation per year) Females flightless whilst males

347

Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from the early 1970s to present. The model provides great insights on fluvial-marine sediment dispersal and retention within the delta which will enhance the planning and design of future land building projects of comparable design.

Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

2013-12-01

348

Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with a wax printer.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a rapid and inexpensive approach for the fabrication of high resolution poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices. The complete process of fabrication could be performed in several hours (or less) without any specialized equipment other than a consumer-grade wax printer. The channels produced by this method are of high enough quality that we are able to demonstrate the sizing and separation of DNA fragments using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with no apparent loss of resolution over that found with glass chips fabricated by conventional photolithographic methods. We believe that this method will greatly improve the accessibility of rapid prototyping methods. PMID:17330171

Kaigala, Govind V; Ho, Sunny; Penterman, Roel; Backhouse, Christopher J

2007-03-01

349

Predator mimicry: metalmark moths mimic their jumping spider predators.  

PubMed

Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L

2006-01-01

350

Antennal carboxylesterases in a moth, structural and functional diversity  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly degrading pheromone molecules. Because esters are widespread insect pheromone components, PDEs belonging to the carboxylesterase (CCE) family have been the most studied. However, only two CCEs were both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized as PDEs until recently. In the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, we have identified an unsuspected diversity of antennal CCEs, with a total number of 30 genes. Two CCEs, enriched in antennae and belonging to distinct clades, were shown to present different substrate specificities toward pheromone and plant compounds. A same CCE was also shown to efficiently degrade both pheromone and plant components. Our results suggest that the structural evolution of antennal CCEs reflects their functional diversity and that a complex set of CCE-mediated reactions take place is the olfactory organs of moths. PMID:22896794

Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Maibeche-Coisne, Martine

2012-01-01

351

Paraffin wax emulsion for increased rainfastness of insecticidal bait to control Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

In regions with a humid summer climate, the use of water-soluble bait to control apple maggot is often limited by rainfall. We studied increasing the rainfastness of GF-120 fruit fly bait by adding paraffin wax emulsion. First, we verified that adding 10% wax to a mixture containing 16.7% GF-120 did not reduce the mortality of female apple maggot compared with GF-120 without wax. In addition, we determined that fly mortality caused by GF-120 plus wax subjected to simulated rain was similar to that caused by GF-120 without wax not subjected to rain. Other assays showed that higher fly mortality resulted from increasing the proportion of wax from 10 to 15%, and lower mortality resulted from decreasing GF-120 from 16.7 to 10 or 5%. The availability of spinosad on or near droplets of a mixture consisting of 5, 10, or 15% GF-120 and 15% wax was determined before and after the droplets were subjected to three 15-min periods of simulated rain. We found an initial steep decline in dislodgeable spinosad and smaller decreases after subsequent periods of rain. In a small-plot field trial, fruit infestation by apple maggot in plots treated with a mixture consisting of 16.7% GF-120 and 19.2% wax was less than in plots treated with 16.7% GF-120 without wax but not less than in control plots. Overall, we found that adding paraffin wax emulsion to GF-120 increased rainfastness in laboratory bioassays, and specifically that it retained the active ingredient spinosad. However, our field data suggest that optimal rainfastness requires the development of mixtures with > 19.2% wax, which may preclude application using standard spray equipment. PMID:19610426

Teixeira, Luís A F; Wise, John C; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus

2009-06-01

352

Quantifying an anti-bat flight response by eared moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using near-infrared videotaping we measured the nocturnal flight times of six species of eared moths (Amphipyra pyramidoidesGuenée, Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer), Feltia jaculifera (Guenée), Phlogophora periculosa Guenée, Lymantria dispar (Linné), and Ennomos magnaria Guenée) in cages in which they flew, under randomized conditions, fo r3hi n theabsence an d3hi n thepresence of simulated bat-attack sounds. When exposed to the ultra- sound,

J. H. Fullard; K. E. Muma; J. W. Dawson

2003-01-01

353

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential\\u000a for our understanding of plant–insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects.\\u000a Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine\\u000a moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a

Marco Tasin; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Claudio Ioriatti; Peter Witzgall

2006-01-01

354

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

355

PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

E-print Network

. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ef�cacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth of Bt-cry5 Transgenic Potato Lines AHMED MOHAMMED,1 D. S. DOUCHES,2 W. PETT,3 E. GRAFIUS,3 J. COOMBS,2 in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi

Douches, David S.

356

Visual feedback influences antennal positioning in flying hawk moths.  

PubMed

Insect antennae serve a variety of sensory functions including tactile sensing, olfaction and flight control. For all of these functions, the precise positioning of the antenna is essential to ensure the proper acquisition of sensory feedback. Although antennal movements in diverse insects may be elicited or influenced by multimodal sensory stimuli, the relative effects of these cues and their integration in the context of antennal positioning responses are not well understood. In previous studies, we have shown that fields of Böhm's bristles located at the base of the antennae provide crucial mechanosensory input for antennal positioning in flying hawk moths. Here, we present electrophysiological and behavioral evidence to show that, in addition to the Böhm's bristles, antennal muscles of hawk moths also respond to bilateral visual input. Moreover, in contrast to the mechanosensory-motor circuit, which is entirely contained within the ipsilateral side, visual feedback influences antennal positioning on both contralateral and ipsilateral sides. Electromyograms recorded from antennal muscles show that the latency of muscle responses to visual stimulation ranged from 35 to 60 ms, considerably slower than their responses to mechanosensory stimuli (<10 ms). Additionally, the visual inputs received by antennal muscles are both motion-sensitive and direction-selective. We characterized the influence of visual feedback on antennal positioning by presenting open-loop translational and rotational visual stimuli to tethered flying moths. During rotational stimuli, we observed that the antenna contralateral to the direction of the turn moved forward through larger angles than the ipsilateral antenna. These observations suggest that whereas input from the Böhm's bristles mediates rapid corrections of antennal position, visual feedback may be involved in slower, bilaterally coordinated movements of the antenna during visually guided flight maneuvers. Thus, visual feedback can modulate the set point at which the antenna is held during flight in hawk moths. PMID:24265427

Krishnan, Anand; Sane, Sanjay P

2014-03-15

357

Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.  

PubMed

Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

2014-08-22

358

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

359

Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation.  

PubMed

Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

2014-01-01

360

Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.  

PubMed

The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed. PMID:23519009

Szakiel, Anna; P?czkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

2012-06-01

361

Induced accumulation of cuticular waxes enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by changes in development of stomata.  

PubMed

Cuticular waxes are involved in the regulation of the exchange of gases and water in plants and can impact tolerance to drought. However, the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between wax accumulation and drought tolerance are largely unknown. We applied the methoxyfenozide gene switching system to regulate expression of the WIN1/SHN1 gene (WAX INDUCER 1/SHINE1; At1G15360), a transcriptional activator, to regulate production of cuticular waxes and cutin and followed changes of gene expression, metabolites, and drought tolerance. Treatment with the inducer resulted in expression of the target gene and specific downstream genes, and gradually increased cuticular waxes. Induction of cuticular wax conferred tolerance to drought and recovery from drought, and was correlated with reduced numbers of stomata. Quantitative RT-PCR assays using RNAs from transgenic plants revealed that when expression of the WIN1/SHN1 gene was induced there was increased expression of genes involved in wax development, and reduced expression of selected genes, including SPCH (At5g53210); MUTE (At3g06120); and FAMA (At3g241400); and YODA (At1g63700), each of which is involved in stomatal development. These studies suggest that drought tolerance caused by the induction of WIN1/SHIN gene may be due to reduced numbers of stomata as well as to cuticular wax accumulation. PMID:22078383

Yang, Jaemo; Isabel Ordiz, M; Jaworski, Jan G; Beachy, Roger N

2011-12-01

362

Analysis of the Compositional Variation in the Epicuticular Wax Layer of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

Epicuticular waxes form a layer on the outer surface of all land plants and play a fundamental role in their interaction with the environment. Development of a rapid and accurate method for the characterization of these waxes could allow the use...

Beecher, Francis Ward

2013-05-08

363

Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Methodology Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Principal results Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C20–C36 (in esters C36–C56). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes—surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata—showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. Conclusions The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses. PMID:22476480

Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

2011-01-01

364

EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

Wang, Siqun

365

Rapid analysis of 13 C in plant-wax n-alkanes for  

E-print Network

Rapid analysis of 13 C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals, Massachusetts 02543, USA [1] Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35 n-alkanes are characteristic components analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass

Sessions, Alex L.

366

Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plantwater environment at leaf ush  

E-print Network

Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant­water environment at leaf ush Brett J. Tipple1 , Melissa A, UT, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review August 13, 2012) Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2 H/1 H- ship between n-alkanes 2 H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy

Tipple, Brett

367

Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

2012-01-01

368

Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the ? oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

1977-01-01

369

Critical processing factors affecting rheological behavior of a wax based formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a wax-based vehicle is one approach to stabilize a drug which is susceptible to hydrolysis and\\/or oxidation. The drug used in the study, as a microfine powder, is dispersed in the wax mixture and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule. To ensure reproducibility of drug content uniformity and encapsulability of the soft gelatin capsule dosage form, optimal

W Phuapradit; N. H Shah; Y Lou; S Kundu; M. H Infeld

2002-01-01

370

Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.  

PubMed

The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions. PMID:17900636

Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

2008-01-01

371

MODELLING OF THE WAX INJECTION PROCESS FOR THE INVESTMENT CASTING PROCESS: PREDICTION OF DEFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax injection is the first step of the investment casting process. It is therefore an essential step, as many of the defects created in the wax can be reproduced in the final casting if they are not detected. This paper will present the models set up and experimentation carried out to validate these models. The numerical simulation has been carried

Jean-Christophe GEBELIN; Aleksander M. CENDROWICZ; Mark R. JOLLY

372

All sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from mono- to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubution, but why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; J. Reneerkens; T. Piersma

2002-01-01

373

Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is

Jeroen Reneerkens; Theunis Piersma; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

2002-01-01

374

What Do Microbes Encounter at the Plant Surface? Chemical Composition of Pea Leaf Cuticular Waxes1  

PubMed Central

In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed. PMID:16113231

Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L.W.; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

2005-01-01

375

Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.  

PubMed

Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

2014-04-01

376

Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop. PMID:16022312

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

2005-06-01

377

Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.  

PubMed

The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

2010-04-01

378

Preference--Performance Linkage in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, and Implications for Its Management  

PubMed Central

Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference—performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference-performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella. Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella. Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella, favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

Marchioro, Cesar Augusto; Foerster, Luis Amilton

2014-01-01

379

Preference?performance linkage in the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella, and implications for its management.  

PubMed

Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference?performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference-performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella. Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella. Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella, favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

Marchioro, Marchioro; Foerster, Luís Amilton

2014-01-01

380

Dispersal strategies in sponge larvae: integrating the life history of larvae and the hydrologic component  

Microsoft Academic Search

While known to be uniformly non-feeding, short-lived, and potentially short dispersing, sponge larvae display different behaviours (swimming ability and taxis). Our aim was to show whether sponge larvae with different behaviours exhibit different dispersal strategies under variable intensity of water movements. We first assessed the distribution of larvae of six taxa: Dictyoceratida spp., Dysidea avara, Crambe crambe, Phorbas tenacior, Scopalina

Simone Mariani; María-J. Uriz; Xavier Turon; Teresa Alcoverro

2006-01-01

381

Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern  

PubMed Central

Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

2013-01-01

382

Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual expression of a  

E-print Network

selection theory suggests that the negative effects on female function could be over- come with greater all female function. Moth herbivory has little effect on male function in young trees, but has an important effect on older trees, where moth-susceptible trees produced 1.5 times more pollen than moth

Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

383

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The islands of Hawaii o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving

James H. Fullard

2001-01-01

384

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

386

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2012-07-01

388

Development of a viral biopesticide for the control of the Guatemala potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora.  

PubMed

The Guatemala potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Povolny) (Lep. Gelechiidae) is an invasive species from Mesoamerica that has considerably extended its distribution area in recent decades. While this species is considered to be a major potato pest in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, currently no specific control methods are available for farmers. To address this issue we developed a biopesticide formulation to be used in integrated pest management of T. solanivora, following three steps. First, search for entomopathogenic viruses were carried out through extensive bioprospections in 12 countries worldwide. As a result, new Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) isolates were found in T. solanivora and five other gelechid species. Second, twenty PhopGV isolates, including both previously known and newly found isolates, were genetically and/or biologically characterized in order to choose the best candidate for a biopesticide formulation. Sequence data were obtained for the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene, a single copy gene known to play a role in pathogenicity. Three different sizes (1086, 1305 and 1353 bp) of egt were found among the virus isolates analyzed. Unexpectedly, no obvious correlation between egt size and pathogenicity was found. Bioassays on T. solanivora neonates showed a maximum of a 14-fold difference in pathogenicity among the eight PhopGV isolates tested. The most pathogenic PhopGV isolate, JLZ9f, had a medium lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 10 viral occlusion bodies per square mm of consumed tuber skin. Third, we tested biopesticide dust formulations by mixing a dry carrier (calcium carbonate) with different adjuvants (magnesium chloride or an optical brightener or soya lecithin) and different specific amounts of JLZ9f. During laboratory experiments, satisfactory control of the pest (>98% larva mortality compared to untreated control) was achieved with a formulation containing 10 macerated JLZ9f-dead T. solanivora larvae per kg of calcium carbonate mixed with 50 mL/kg of soya lecithin. The final product provides an interesting alternative to chemical pesticides for Andean farmers affected by this potato pest. PMID:23232473

Carpio, Carlos; Dangles, Olivier; Dupas, Stéphane; Léry, Xavier; López-Ferber, Miguel; Orbe, Katerine; Páez, David; Rebaudo, François; Santillán, Alex; Yangari, Betty; Zeddam, Jean-Louis

2013-02-01

389

Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants exposed to water deficit.  

PubMed

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops, having seeds and oil that are highly valued as a traditional health food. The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf cuticular wax constituents across a diverse selection of sesame cultivars, and the responses of these waxes to drought-induced wilting. Water-deficit was imposed on 18 sesame cultivars by withholding irrigation for 15d during the post-flowering stage, and the effect on seed yield and leaf waxes compared with a well-watered control. Leaf cuticular waxes were dominated by alkanes (59% of total wax), with aldehydes being the next-most abundant class. Compared to well-irrigated plants, drought treatment caused an increase in wax amount on most cultivars, with only three cultivars having a notable reduction. When expressed as an average across all cultivars, drought treatment caused a 30% increase in total wax amount, with a 34% increase in total alkanes, a 13% increase in aldehydes, and a 28% increase in the total of unknowns. In all cultivars, the major alkane constituents were the C27, C29, C31, C33, and C35 homologs, whereas the major aldehydes were the C30, C32, and C34 homologs, and drought exposure had only minor effects on the chain length distribution within these and other wax classes. Drought treatments caused a large decrease in seed yield per plant, but did not affect the mean weight of individual seeds, showing that sesame responds to post-flowering drought by reducing seed numbers, but not seed size. Seed yield was inversely correlated with the total wax amount (-0.466*), indicating that drought induction of leaf wax deposition does not contribute directly to seed set. Further studies are needed to elucidate the ecological role for induction of the alkane metabolic pathway by drought in regulating sesame plant survival and seed development in water-limiting environments. PMID:16904233

Kim, Kwan Su; Park, Si Hyung; Jenks, Matthew A

2007-09-01

390

Characterization of Glossy1-homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance.  

PubMed

The outermost surfaces of plants are covered with an epicuticular wax layer that provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. Glossy 1 (GL1) is one of the reported genes controlling wax synthesis. This study analyzed GL1-homologous genes in Oryza sativa and characterized the key members of this family involved in wax synthesis and stress resistance. Sequence analysis revealed 11 homologous genes of GL1 in rice, designated OsGL1-1 to OsGL1-11. OsGL1-1, -2 and -3 are closely related to GL1. OsGL1-4, -5, -6, and -7 are closely related to Arabidopsis CER1 that is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. OsGL1-8, -9, -10 and -11 are closely related to SUR2 encoding a putative sterol desaturase also involved in epicuticular wax biosynthesis. These genes showed variable expression levels in different tissues and organs of rice, and most of them were induced by abiotic stresses. Compared to the wild type, the OsGL1-2-over-expression rice exhibited more wax crystallization and a thicker epicuticular layer; while the mutant of this gene showed less wax crystallization and a thinner cuticular layer. Chlorophyll leaching experiment suggested that the cuticular permeability was decreased and increased in the over-expression lines and the mutant, respectively. Quantification analysis of wax composition by GC-MS revealed a significant reduction of total cuticular wax in the mutant and increase of total cuticular wax in the over-expression plants. Compared to the over-expression and wild type plants, the osgl1-2 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress at reproductive stage, suggesting an important role of this gene in drought resistance. PMID:19322663

Islam, Mohammad Asadul; Du, Hao; Ning, Jing; Ye, Haiyan; Xiong, Lizhong

2009-07-01

391

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : I. Identification of male pheromone.  

PubMed

Behavioral observations of the rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica, Pyralidae, Galleriinae) in the laboratory have shown that a male wing-gland pheromone induces attraction of female moths. This pheromone was identified as a blend of (E,E) and (Z,E)-farnesal. Wing-gland extracts or synthetic compounds were shown to be attractive to females by inducing walking. PMID:24302327

Zagatti, P; Kunesch, G; Ramiandrasoa, F; Malosse, C; Hall, D R; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F

1987-07-01

392

Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The plum fruit moth is a pest

393

Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The light brown apple moth

394

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The Silver Y moth is a highly

395

Balanced Olfactory Antagonism as a Concept for Understanding Evolutionary Shifts in Moth Sex  

E-print Network

/Published online: 2 May 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract In the sex pheromoneBalanced Olfactory Antagonism as a Concept for Understanding Evolutionary Shifts in Moth Sex communication systems of moths, both heterospecific sex pheromone components and individual conspecific

396

Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation detection products and methods that could be applied in near real time

Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; Kenton Ross; Donald Prados; Jeffrey Russell; Gerald Gasser; Rodney McKellip; William Hargrove

2011-01-01

397

Apparent long-term bodily contamination by disparlure, the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) Attractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive attraction of male gypsy moths to the body of the author, now four years after his last known direct contact with disparlure, the synthetic pheromone, is documented. A designed test showed that moths responded to him in highly significantly greater numbers than to others who had had less or no previous exposure to the insect and \\/ or disparlure.

E. Alan Cameron

1983-01-01

398

Mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths: Benefits, costs, and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I report the discovery of a pollinating seed-eater mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths, then use it as a model system to investigate the impact of benefits and costs on demography, population dynamics, and evolution of mutualistic populations. I examined the benefits (pollination) and costs (fruit consumption) of senita moths on reproduction of senita cacti, along with other factors

Julian Nathaniel Holland

2001-01-01

399

A DIRECTIONALLY SENSITIVE MOTION DETECTING NEURONE IN THE BRAIN OF A MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. In the moth, Manduca sexta, a pair of neurones, one on each side of the brain, were characterized morphologically and physiologically as descending interneurones, selective for horizontal motion over a large area of the moth's visual field. 2. Their cell bodies and dendritic processes are located in the protocerebrum of the brain. Their axons, 12-15 (im in diameter,

F. CLAIRE RIND

1983-01-01

400

GRIZZLY BEAR USE OF ARMY CUTWORM MOTHS IN THE YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they

STEVEN P. FRENCH; MARILYNN G. FRENCH; RICHARD R. KNIGHT

401

Notodonta dedmazai sp. nov., a new notodontid moth from Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).  

PubMed

Recently, a small series of an unidentified notodontid moth from Bhutan was presented to me by Pavel Morozov (Moscow). The moth is described below, and represents a hitherto unknown species of the holarctic genus Notodonta Ochsenheimer, 1810 and the first record for the genus in the Himalayas. PMID:24614472

Schintlmeister, Alexander

2013-01-01

402

Is the insect or the plant the driving force in the cinnabar moth — Tansy ragwort system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. and its food plant, tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. were studied for 4 to 6 years at 9 sites in North America to assess if the herbivore drove the dynamics of the plants or if the plants determined the dynamics of the insects. Cinnabar moth larval density is not closely related to

Judith H. Myers

1980-01-01

403

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids as Oviposition Stimulants for the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In choice experiments with artificial leaves, we tested related pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) for their stimulatory effects on the oviposition of the cinnabar moth, a specialist on the PA-containing plant Senecio jacobaea. The PAs from S. jacobaea that we tested stimulated oviposition. Monocrotaline also stimulated oviposition although this PA is not found in plants of the genus Senecio. The moths preferred

Mirka Macel; Klaas Vrieling

2003-01-01

404

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

E-print Network

,*, James H. Fullard2,, Benjamin J. Arthur3 and Ronald R. Hoy3 1 Center for Sound Communication, Institute; neuroethology 1. INTRODUCTION The primary function of a moth's ear is to detect bat bio- sonar [1,2], and moth's ears have almost certainly evolved through and are maintained by selective pressures from sympatric

Hoy, Ronald R.

405

"Lagring av Solenergi" Kasper Moth-Poulsen, PhD, FoAss  

E-print Network

-Poulsen, K., oso, D., Börjesson, K., Vinokurov, N., Meier, S., Majumdar, A., Vollhardt, K.P.C., Segalman, R.5) Liquid Collection Outlet Inlet Syrringe pump Microfluidic Solar Collector Device Moth-Poulsen, K., oso, D. Sci. 5, 8534-8537, 2012. #12;Irradiated area 6.51 cm2 Moth-Poulsen, K., oso, D., Börjesson, K

Lemurell, Stefan

406

Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several compounds that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to the key floral odorant PAA. The floral odorants cis -jasmone, linalool, benzyl acetate, limonene, ? -myrcene, methyl salicylate, and methyl 2- methoxybenzoate all increased captures

Robert L. Meagher; Peter J. Landolt

2008-01-01

407

Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

Gottschalk, K.W.

1993-02-02

408

Receptor Neuron Discrimination of the Germacrene D Enantiomers in the Moth Helicoverpa armigera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants release complex mixtures of volatiles, including chiral constituents. In the search for the biologically relevant plant odorants, gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single receptor neurons has been employed. In heliothine moths, including the females of the Eurasian cotton bollworm moth Helicoverpa armigera, a major type of receptor neurons is identified, showing high sensitivity and selectivity for the

M. Stranden; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2002-01-01

409

Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls  

PubMed Central

Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

410

Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication

Takuma Takanashi; Ryo Nakano; Annemarie Surlykke; Haruki Tatsuta; Jun Tabata; Yukio Ishikawa; Niels Skals

2010-01-01

411

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths flying over water Cassandra Guignion the surface of a lake in eastern Ontario, Canada, 61% were eaten, on average, by fish in 31.3 s with no effect of wing surface area on escape success. These results suggest that nocturnal predation on moths by fish

Fullard, James H.

412

The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior. PMID:312231

Lehman, G C

1978-12-01

413

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern  

PubMed Central

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

2012-01-01

414

Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

2014-05-01

415

Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye antireflection structure for mid-infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing high-throughput optical elements with the moth-eye structures for mid-infrared optical systems. The moth-eye structures are optimized for the wavelength of 25-45?m. It consists of cones with a height of 15-20?m arranged at an interval of 5?m. They are formed on silicon substrate by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. As a verification of the usefulness of moth-eye, a double-sided moth-eye silicon plane was fabricated. It shows a transmittance increase of 60% compared with the unprocessed silicon plane. As the first trial of the moth-eye optical element, two silicon lenses with single-sided moth-eye were fabricated. One is a plane-convex lens with the moth-eye on the convex surface. The size of the moth-eye formed region is 30 mm x 30 mm. Its focal length is 186 mm. The other one is a biconvex lens with moth-eye formed region of ? 33 mm and a focal length of 94 mm. Uniform moth-eye pattern was fabricated especially for the second lens sample. Imaging test with the first sample showed that neither image degradation nor focal length variation was induced by the moth-eye fabrication. As a step to grism with moth-eye, a moth-eye grating sample was fabricated. The grating pattern (Grating constant: 124.9?m, Blaze angle: 4 deg) was successfully fabricated with anisotropic etching. Moth-eye patterns were fabricated on the grating surface. Although the resulted moth-eye was successfully fabricated in the most regions, some non-uniformity was found. It can be attributed to unevenness of resist coating, and improvement of coating method is needed.

Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

2012-09-01

416

Reversible phosphorylation regulation of NADPH-linked polyol dehydrogenase in the freeze-avoiding gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana: role in glycerol metabolism.  

PubMed

Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use a freeze avoidance strategy of cold hardiness to survive the winter. A key metabolic adaption that supports subzero survival is the accumulation of large amounts of glycerol as a colligative antifreeze. Production of glycerol relies on polyol dehydrogenase (PDH) which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of glyceraldehyde into glycerol. Kinetic analysis of PDH from E. scudderiana revealed significant changes in properties as a result of subzero temperature acclimation; the K(m) for glyceraldehyde in 5°C-acclimated larvae was 7.0?mM and doubled in - 15°C-exposed larvae. This change suggested that PDH is regulated by a state-dependent covalent modification. Indeed, high and low K(m) forms could be interconverted by incubating larval extracts in vitro under conditions that stimulated either endogenous protein kinases or protein phosphatases. Protein kinase incubations doubled the K(m) glyceraldehyde of the 5°C enzyme, whereas protein phosphatase incubations decreased the K(m) of the - 15°C enzyme by about 50%. PDH was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography steps and then subjected to electrophoresis. Staining with ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein stain showed a much higher phosphate content of PDH from - 15°C-acclimated larvae, a result that was further confirmed by immunoblotting that showed a much greater phosphoserine content on the - 15°C enzyme. These experiments established that PDH is regulated by state-dependent reversible phosphorylation in E. scudderiana and suggest that this regulatory mechanism makes a significant contribution to controlling the synthesis, maintenance, and degradation of glycerol pools over the winter months. PMID:21400585

Holden, Helen A; Storey, Kenneth B

2011-05-01

417

Brain-independent development in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caterpillars of Sesamia nonagrioides developing under long-day (LD) photoperiod pupate in the 5th or 6th instar whereas under short day (SD) conditions they enter diapause and undergo several extra larval molts. The diapause is terminated within 1–3 instars upon transfer of SD larvae to the LD conditions. Brain removal from the 6th instar larvae promotes pupation followed by imaginal

Meritxell Pérez-Hedo; Matilde Eizaguirre; František Sehnal

2010-01-01

418

Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

E-print Network

temperatures were used to develop a model for optimizing applications of these insecticides in south Texas. DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis to my wife, Betty J. Magaro, who has always believed in me and encouraged me to hold on to my... on the toxicity of insecticides to insects has been known for many years. Two distinct trends have been noted by previous researchers concerning toxicity as a function of temperature; an increase in toxicity with decreased temperatures and an increase...

Magaro, Jude Joseph

2012-06-07

419

Paenibacillus larvae enolase as a virulence factor in honeybee larvae infection.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus larvae is a gram-positive spore-forming bacteria, causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a severe disease affecting larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In an attempt to detect potential virulence factors secreted by P. larvae, we identified an enolase among different secreted proteins. Although this protein is a cytosolic enzyme involved in glycolytic pathways, it has been related to virulence. The aim of the present work was to evaluate its role during the infection of honeybee larvae. Toxicity assays showed that enolase was highly toxic and immunogenic to honeybee larvae. Its production was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. P. larvae enolase production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyze milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation, maybe through the plasmin(ogen) system. These results suggest that P. larvae enolase may have a role in virulence and could contribute to a general insight about insect-pathogen interaction mechanisms. PMID:20609532

Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Arredondo, Daniela; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

2011-01-10

420

Ridge transform fault spreading pattern in freezing wax.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment shows that ridge-ridge transform faults, inactive fracture zones, and other features characteristic of spreading oceanic ridges can be produced in a variety of paraffins. Although the resultant pattern depends upon the temperature of the wax and the ratio of spreading rate to surface cooling, the characteristic orthogonal ridge transform fault system is a preferred mode of separation. Symmetric spreading occurs under conditions of no tensile strength across the ridge, and the stability of transform faults is a consequence of their lack of shear strength. The experiment also shows that properties characteristic of oceanic ridges occur under conditions of passive convection where upwelling of material at the ridge crest is a result only of hydrostatic forces in the fluid; that is, the plate separation is caused not by large convective forces beneath the ridge but rather by tensile forces in the plate. PMID:17735477

Oldenburg, D W; Brune, J N

1972-10-20

421

Formulation of wax oxybenzone microparticles using a factorial approach.  

PubMed

Oxybenzone wax microparticles (MPs) were prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The formulation of oxybenzone-loaded MPs was optimized using a 2? experimental design. Factorial analysis indicated that the main MP characteristics were influenced by initial drug loading, emulsification speed, emulsifier concentration and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. MPs were spherical with 50.5–88.1 ?m size range, 17.8–38.9 drug content in mg/100 mg MPs and 33.1–87.2% oxybenzone release in 1 h. A wide range of sunscreen delivery systems suitable for different formulation purposes were generated which may contribute to the advanced formulation of sunscreen products with improved performance. PMID:20681744

Gomaa, Y A; Darwish, I A; Boraei, N A; El-Khordagui, L K

2010-01-01

422

CELLULAR REACTIONS TO WAXES FROM MYCO- BACTERIUM LEPRAE  

E-print Network

The plan for chemical analysis of the Mycobacteria sponsored by the National Tuberculosis Association included an acid-fast strain isolated from a case of leprosy, as well as selected strains of human, bovine, and avian tubercle bacilli, and this study deals with the waxes extracted from Mycobacterium leprae. 1 The chemical analyses have not yet been completely reported (1, 2). The materials used have been in different stages of purification and have therefore provided the opportunity to compare the complex cellular reactions to mixtures of substances with the simple response to highly purified crystalline alcohols. Materials and Methods The strain of organisms used for the analysis was obtained from a case of leprosy (Apa case) in Honolulu, about 1909. It has been kept at the Hygienic

B F. R. Sabin; K. C. Smithburn; Ani R. M. Thomas

1935-01-01

423

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

1998-10-31

424

Self-healing of voids in the wax coating on plant surfaces.  

PubMed

The cuticles of plants provide a multifunctional interface between the plants and their environments. The cuticle, with its associated waxes, is a protective layer that minimizes water loss by transpiration and provides several functions, such as hydrophobicity, light reflection and absorption of harmful radiation. The self-healing of voids in the epicuticular wax layer has been studied in 17 living plants by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the process of wax film formation is described. Two modes of wax film formation, a concentric layer formation and striped layer formation, were found, and the process of multilayer wax film formation is discussed. A new method for the preparation of small pieces of fresh, water-containing plant specimens for AFM investigations is introduced. The technique allows AFM investigations of several hours duration without significant shrinkage or lateral drift of the specimen. This research shows how plants refill voids in their surface wax layers by wax self-assembly and should be useful for the design of self-healing materials. PMID:19376765

Koch, Kerstin; Bhushan, Bharat; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2009-05-13

425

Micromorphology of epicuticular wax structures of the garden strawberry leaves by electron microscopy: syntopism and polymorphism.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular wax structures were investigated in the garden strawberry Fragariaxananassa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of two cultivars (Maehyang and Red Pearl) were collected and subjected to surface observations and ultrathin sections. The most prominent leaf epicuticular wax structures included membraneous platelets and angular rodlets. Most wax platelets were membraneous, and appeared to protrude from the surface at an acute angle. Angular rodlets were usually bent and had rather distinct facets in the abaxial surface of the two cultivars. Membraneous platelets were predominant on the adaxial surface of Maehyang, whereas the adaxial surface of Red Pearl was characterized by angular rodlets. However, both cultivars possessed angular rodlets on the abaxial surface, simultaneously. The combination of air-drying without vacuum and in-lens imaging of secondary electron signals with a field emission gun could impart the superb resolution at low electron dose with minimal specimen shrinkage. In vertical profiles of the leaf epidermis, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle layer, and measured approximately as 50nm in thickness. The natural epicuticular waxes were seemingly mixtures of electron-dense microfibrils, and heterogeneous in shape on ultrathin sections. Distinct crystal-like strata could be hardly discernable in the wax structures. These results suggest that the garden strawberry has the nature of syntopism within one plant and polymorphism within the same species in the formation and occurrence of leaf epicuticular waxes. PMID:19101160

Kim, Ki Woo; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Lee, Joon-Ho

2009-04-01

426

Phase Change Insulation for Energy Efficiency Based on Wax-Halloysite Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase change materials (PCMs) have gained extensive attention in thermal energy storage. Wax can be used as a PCM in solar storage but it has low thermal conductivity. Introducing 10% halloysite admixed into wax yields a novel composite (wax-halloysite) which has a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK. To increase the base conductivity, graphite and carbon nanotubes were added into the PCM composite improving its thermal energy storage. Thermal conductivity of wax-halloysite-graphite (45/45/10%) composite showed increased conductivity of 1.4 W/mK (3 times higher than the base wax-halloysite composite). Wax- halloysite-graphite-carbon nanotubes (45/45/5/5%) composite showed conductivity of 0.85 W/mK while maintaining the original shape perfectly until 91 °C (above the original wax melting point). Thermal conductivity can be further increased with higher doping of carbon nanotubes. This new composites are promising heat storage material due to good thermal stability, high thermal/electricity conductivity and ability to preserve its shape during phase transitions.

Zhao, Yafei; Thapa, Suvhashis; Weiss, Leland; Lvov, Yuri

2014-08-01

427

Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.  

PubMed

The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-?-ocimene and (E)-?-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-?-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of ?-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the ?-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

2014-04-01

428

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

429

Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.  

PubMed

Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons. PMID:25108132

Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

2014-11-01

430

Gamma irradiation testing of montan wax barrier materials for in-situ waste containment  

SciTech Connect

A scoping study was carried out to quantify the potential use of a montan wax as a barrier material for subsurface use. If it possesses resistance to chemical and structural change, it could be used in a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. The main emphasis was to quantify the wax`s long-term ability to withstand radiation-induced mechanical, chemical, and microbial degradation.

Soo, P.; Heiser, J.

1996-02-01

431

Identification of a Residue Affecting Fatty Alcohol Selectivity in Wax Ester Synthase  

PubMed Central

The terminal enzyme in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a fatty alcohol and a fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. In this report, we identify a specific residue in WS/DGAT enzymes obtained from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 and Acinetobacter baylyi that alters fatty alcohol selectivity and kinetic parameters when modified to alternative residues. PMID:23087036

Mann, Rachel L.; Ohlert, Janet M.

2013-01-01

432

CELLULAR REACTIONS TO WAX-LIKE MATERIALS FROM ACID-FAST BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

1. The unsaponifiable fractions of the Mycobacteria, though insoluble in water and extremely stable chemical compounds, are nevertheless remarkable stimulants of cells. 2. They give rise to new monocytes which surround these waxes and then fuse into giant cells which engulf them. 3. The property of acid-fastness of the waxes makes it possible to identify them within the giant cells which have phagocytized them. 4. Within the foreign body giant cells the waxes are slowly disintegrated. They appear not to damage the cells which engulf them, and hence one