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Sample records for wax moth larvae

  1. Utility of Greater Wax Moth Larva (Galleria mellonella) for Evaluating the Toxicity and Efficacy of New Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Coote, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents to combat infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens. Once a compound is shown to be effective in vitro, it is necessary to evaluate its efficacy in an animal infection model. Typically, this is achieved using a mammalian model, but such experiments are costly, time consuming, and require full ethical consideration. Hence, cheaper and ethically more acceptable invertebrate models of infection have been introduced, including the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Invertebrates have an immune system that is functionally similar to the innate immune system of mammals, and often identical virulence and pathogenicity factors are used by human pathogenic microbes to infect wax moth larvae and mammals. Moreover, the virulence of many human pathogens is comparable in wax moth larvae and mammals. Using key examples from the literature, this chapter highlights the benefits of using the wax moth larva model to provide a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of new antimicrobial agents in vivo and prior to the use of more expensive mammalian models. This simple insect model can bridge the gap between in vitro studies and mammalian experimentation by screening out compounds with a low likelihood of success, while providing greater justification for further studies in mammalian systems. Thus, broader implementation of the wax moth larva model into anti-infective drug discovery and development programs could reduce the use of mammals during preclinical assessments and the overall cost of drug development. PMID:22305092

  2. Efficiency of bacteriophage therapy against Cronobacter sakazakii in Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) larvae.

    PubMed

    Abbasifar, Reza; Kropinski, Andrew M; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; MacKinnon, Joanne; Malig, Thomas; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen found in milk-based powdered infant formulae, has been linked to meningitis in infants, with high fatality rates. A set of phages from various environments were purified and tested in vitro against strains of C. sakazakii. Based on host range and lytic activity, the T4-like phage vB_CsaM_GAP161, which belongs to the family Myoviridae, was selected for evaluation of its efficacy against C. sakazakii. Galleria mellonella larvae were used as a whole-animal model for pre-clinical testing of phage efficiency. Twenty-one Cronobacter strains were evaluated for lethality in G. mellonella larvae. Different strains of C. sakazakii caused 0 to 98% mortality. C. sakazakii 3253, with an LD50 dose of ~2.0×10(5) CFU/larva (24 h, 37 °C) was selected for this study. Larvae infected with a dose of 5×LD50 were treated with phage GAP161 (MOI=8) at various time intervals. The mortality rates were as high as 100% in the groups injected with bacteria only, compared to 16.6% in the group infected with bacteria and treated with phage. Phage GAP161 showed the best protective activity against C. sakazakii when the larvae were treated prior to or immediately after infection. The results obtained with heat-inactivated phage proved that the survival of the larvae is not due to host immune stimulation. These results suggest that phage GAP161 is potentially a useful control agent against C. sakazakii. In addition, G. mellonella may be a useful whole-animal model for pre-screening phages for efficacy and safety prior to clinical evaluation in mammalian models. PMID:24705602

  3. Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, J Y; Whitten, M M A; Cho, M Y; Lee, K Y; Kim, M S; Ratcliffe, N A; Lee, B L

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When the early-stage encapsulated beads were coated with 47kDa protein antibody and reinjected into G. mellonella larvae, any further encapsulation reaction was inhibited. These results suggest that calreticulin is involved in non-self recognition in invertebrate cellular defense reactions. PMID:11888648

  4. Monoterpenes and epicuticular waxes help female autumn gum moth differentiate between waxy and glossy Eucalyptus and leaves of different ages.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Martin J; Schiestl, Florian P; Davies, Noel W

    2004-06-01

    The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata, is a native Australian species whose preferred host, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), is an aromatic evergreen tree that has long-lived waxy leaves during the juvenile phase of growth. We compared the behavioral and antennal responses of female moths to whole leaves (new and old) and samples of foliar chemicals (from new and old leaves) from a typical E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus with responses to a glossy, half-sibling E. g. subsp. pseudoglobulus putative hybrid (the result of natural cross-pollination). We also studied larval survival and development on leaves from the same trees. In laboratory binary-choice assays, female M. privata laid more eggs on waxy leaves than on glossy leaves thereby confirming the nonpreference for the glossy tree that was observed in the field. Analyses of the monoterpenes and waxes of both trees revealed that they had comparable suites of monoterpenes and total oil contents but different suites of epicuticular waxes. Headspace extracts differed in the intensity of component monoterpenes. Gas chromatographic analyses with electroantennographic detection showed different patterns of monoterpene detection. Leaves of the glossy tree had a less diverse array of epicuticular waxes than those of the waxy tree. Electroantennographic screening of responses to wax extracts from leaves (new and old) from either tree revealed positive dose-dependent responses of female antennae to waxes from new leaves only. Binary-choice assays also revealed a strong preference by ovipositing females for new, compared to old, leaves whether they were from the waxy or the glossy tree. However, new leaves from either tree could be manipulated (by physical abrasion of epicuticular waxes) so that females would lay almost no eggs on them. Larval survival did not differ between groups reared on leaves from both trees (new and old). Over 70% of all larvae survived to pupation. However, larvae reared on leaves from the

  5. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  6. Effects of beauverolide L and cyclosporin A on humoral and cellular immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Vilcinskas, A; Jegorov, A; Landa, Z; Götz, P; Matha, V

    1999-01-01

    The effects of beauverolide L and cyclosporin A, cyclic peptidic metabolites, produced by several genera of entomopathogenic fungi on immune responses of last instar larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been examined. Intrahemocoelic injection of either metabolite-coated silica particles or dissolved metabolites in a concentrations ranging between 10 and 30 micrograms per larvae caused no mortality but activated humoral responses in G. mellonella larvae. The challenge induced a significant release of lysozyme and cecropin-like activity into the hemolymph, suggesting stimulatory activity on humoral immune responses. Injected metabolite-coated particles were rapidly surrounded by hemocytes which subsequently accomplished formation of melanized nodules, which increased in size and number compared with controls. In vitro assays with dissolved metabolites indicated no adverse effects of beauverolide L or cyclosporin A on attachment or spreading of isolated plasmatocytes but dose-dependent inhibition of their phagocytic activity. Isolated plasmatocytes incubated with cyclosporin A or beauverolide L exhibited cytoskeleton alterations that differed from those observed in plasmatocytes from infected G. mellonella larvae or reported from other fungal secondary metabolites. The experiments provided further data to elucidate the role of fungal secondary metabolites in development of mycoses in insects. PMID:10190031

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit moth larvae treated with phosphine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    Phosphine has been used worldwide for the control of stored-product insects for many years. However, the molecular mechanism of its toxicity is not clearly understood. In the current study, larvae of the peach fruit moth were fumigated with phosphine. Proteomic analysis was then performed to identify the regulated proteins. Our results confirmed the phosphine toxicity on the peach fruit moth. The median lethal time LT50 was 38.5 h at 330 ppm at 25 degrees C. During fumigation, the respiration of the peach fruit moth was extremely inhibited. Of the 26 regulated proteins, 16 were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry after a 24 h treatment. The proteins were classified as related to metabolism (25 %), anti-oxidation (6 %), signal transduction (38 %), or defense (19 %). The rest (13 %) were unclassified. Phosphine regulation of ATP and glutathione contents, as well as of ATP synthase and glutathione S-transferase 2 activities were confirmed by enzyme activity analysis. These results demonstrate that complex transcriptional regulations underlie phosphine fumigation. New theories on the mechanism of phosphine toxicity may also be established based on these results. PMID:22201993

  9. In vivo correlates of molecularly inferred virulence among extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in the wax moth Galleria mellonella model system

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Deborah A; Mills, Grant; Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to commensal Escherichia coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains possess an array of virulence-associated genes. We sought to establish the feasibility of using the invertebrate Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for assessing ExPEC virulence and to investigate the correlation between genotypic determinants of virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. We observed a correlation between the number of virulence genes and larval survival, such that ExPEC isolates with higher virulence scores killed larvae significantly faster than isolates with lower virulence scores. By correlating genotypic and phenotypic virulence, we provide preliminary validation of this model for future studies investigating ExPEC virulence. PMID:24518442

  10. Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  12. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  13. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25509049

  14. [An increase in the immune system activity of the wax moth Galleria mellonella and of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata under effect of organophosphorus insecticide].

    PubMed

    Dubovskiy, I M; Yaroslavtseva, O N; Kryukov, V Yu; Benkovskaya, G V; Glupov, V V

    2013-01-01

    There has been performed evaluation of the effect of the organophosphorus insecticide (pirimifos-methyl) on some components of the insect immune response. The cellular (a change of the number of hemocytes and of intensity of incapsulation) and the humoral (a change of phenoloxidase activity) components of the immune response were studied in larvae of representatives of two orders--the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) and the wax moth (Galeriia mellonella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). The action of the insecticide has been found to lead to stimulation of immune reactions (an increase of phenoloxidase activities and of intensity of incapsulation, a rise of the number of hemocytes) at the contact treatment of both sublethal and the half-lethal doses of pirimifos-methyl. PMID:25490848

  15. Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

  16. When are good genes good? Variable outcomes of female choice in wax moths

    PubMed Central

    Jia, F.-Y.; Greenfield, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals. Because a female's opportunity to obtain increased somatic benefits by mating with a particular male is limited, we investigated whether females obtain genetic benefits for their offspring via mate choice. Controlled breeding experiments conducted under favourable food and temperature conditions showed that developmental characters are heritable, that sire attractiveness and offspring survivorship are unrelated, but that females mating with attractive signallers produce offspring who mature faster than the offspring of females mating with non-attractive signallers. However, under some unfavourable food or temperature conditions, it is the offspring of females mating with non-attractive males who mature faster; these offspring are heavier as well. Thus, the relationship between male attractiveness and offspring development is not environmentally robust, and support for a good genes model of mate choice in A. grisella is dependent on conditions. These findings suggest genotype–environment interactions and emphasize the necessity of testing sexual selection models under a range of natural environments.

  17. DNA hybridization assay for detection of nucleopolyhedrovirus in whitemarked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma) larvae.

    PubMed

    Ebling, P M; Smith, P A; van Frankenhuyzen, K

    2001-01-01

    DNA dot-blot hybridization assays utilizing a horseradish peroxidase-labelled whole genomic DNA probe and enhanced chemiluminescence were conducted to quantify detection thresholds of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) in whitemarked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma) larvae. The minimum detection thresholds for an aqueous suspension of occlusion bodies (OBs), OBs added to macerates of non-infected larvae and OBs in macerates of diseased larvae were 7.8 x 10(3), 7.8 x 10(3), and 1.5 x 10(3) OBs, respectively. Purified viral DNA was detected at a concentration of 1.6 x 10(-1) ng in a 20 microliters volume. The presence of pre-occluded viral nucleocapsids and DNA, inherent to infected larvae, improved the detection threshold five-fold compared with OBs alone. Larval tissues did not block the detection system utilized, nor did they bind non-specifically to the probe. Detection thresholds, upon sequential hybridization of the same membrane, on average deteriorated two-fold between the first and second hybridization and an additional six-fold between the second and third hybridization. NPV infection was detected two days post-inoculation (pi) in about one-third of the larvae examined and in almost all larvae three days pi. Microscopic analysis of stained larval smears missed NPV infection in almost all larvae two days pi and about two-thirds of the larvae three days pi. Results from the two methods of analysis were not comparable until four days pi. The detection system utilized is a reliable, efficient and simple method for the early detection of NPV infection in large numbers of larvae and may be used for further studies quantifying the role of this baculovirus in the ecology of whitemarked tussock moth populations. PMID:11455634

  18. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  19. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  20. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  1. Intra- and trans-generational effects of larval diet on susceptibility to an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Kangassalo, K; Valtonen, T M; Roff, D; Pölkki, M; Dubovskiy, I M; Sorvari, J; Rantala, M J

    2015-08-01

    In addition to nutritional conditions experienced by individuals themselves, those experienced by their parents can affect their immune function. Here, we studied the intra- and trans-generational effects of larval diet on susceptibility to an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. In the first part of the study, a split-brood design was used to compare the susceptibility of full sibs raised either on low- or on high-nutrition larval diet. In the second part of the study, a similar experimental design was employed to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal diet as well as their interaction on offspring's susceptibility. In the first part of the study, we found that individuals fed with high-nutrition diet had higher mortality from infection than individuals fed with low-nutrition diet. However, diet did not affect post-infection survival time. Conversely, in the second part of the study, maternal diet was found to have no significant effect on final mortality rate of offspring, but it affected survival time: larvae with high-nutrition maternal diet survived fewer days after infection than larvae with low-nutrition maternal diet. Paternal diet had no significant effect on offspring's susceptibility to the fungus, indicating that paternal effects are not as important as maternal effects in influencing immune function in this species. Our findings provide further indication that maternal nutrition affects immune function in insects, and suggest that the direct effects of nutrition on immunity may be different, yet parallel, to those caused by parental nutrition. PMID:26052853

  2. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  3. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  5. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

  6. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  7. Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Izadi, H

    2014-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found

  8. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  9. Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

    2006-03-01

    Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

  10. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wearing, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  11. A Histological Procedure to Study Fungal Infection in the Wax Moth Galleria Mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Perdoni, F.; Falleni, M.; Tosi, D.; Cirasola, D.; Romagnoli, S.; Braidotti, P.; Clementi, E.; Bulfamante, G.

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

  12. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s⁻¹), particle size (varying 24.3 μm in 88.05 μm with regard to 110 μm the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

  13. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

  14. DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

  15. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

  16. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa. PMID:14971685

  17. Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Lacks Toxicity to Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) and Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan K.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested Cyt1Aa, a cytolytic endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, against susceptible and Cry1A-resistant larvae of two lepidopteran pests, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Unlike previous results obtained with mosquito and beetle larvae, Cyt1Aa alone or in combination with Cry toxins was not highly toxic to the lepidopteran larvae that we examined. PMID:11133481

  18. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  19. Isolation and purification of a granulosis virus from infected larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed Central

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1977-01-01

    A procedure was developed for purification of a granulosis virus inclusion body produced in vivo in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation, treatment with sodium deoxycholate, and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The adequacy of the procedure was confirmed by mixing experiments in which uninfected, radioactively labeled larvae were mixed with infected, unlabeled larvae. After purification, the virus was shown to be free of host tissue, to retain its physical integrity, and to be highly infectious per os. Preparations of purified virus consisted of homogeneous populations of intact inclusion bodies (210 by 380 nm) whose buoyant density was 1.271 g/cm3 when centrifuged to equilibrium in sucrose gradients. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned virus or of virus sequentially disrupted on electron microscope grids demonstrated three components: protein matrix, envelope, and nucleocapsid. Images PMID:334076

  20. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  1. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  2. Optimizing use of codling moth granulovirus: effects of application rate and spraying frequency on control of codling moth larvae in Pacific Northwest apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Fritts, R

    2005-10-01

    New formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulovirus (CpGV) [family Baculoviridae, genus Granulovirus] are commercially available in North America. In field tests on apple (Malus sp. 'Delicious'), we compared different application strategies for CpGV (Cyd-X, Certis USA, Clovis, CA) used in full-season programs against high pest populations. In replicated single tree plots, three rates (0.073, 0.219, and 0.438 liter ha(-1)) and application intervals (7, 10, and 14 d) killed 81-99% of larvae in fruit and reduced the number of mature larvae recovered in tree bands by 54-98%. Although the proportion of deep entries declined by 77-98%, the amount of fruit injury was not reduced compared with controls. There was a statistical trend between increasing dosage and spray frequency intervals and virus effectiveness, but no interaction between these factors. In a commercial orchard, we assessed a standard (0.219 liter ha(-1)) and two reduced rates of the virus (0.146 and 0.073 liter ha(-1)) applied in a weekly spray program in replicated 0.2-ha blocks. In the first generation, fruit injury was reduced in virus-treated compared with three untreated blocks although the decrease was only significant at the standard rate. Mortality rates of larvae (in fruit) were > or =90%, dose dependent, and comparable with rates observed from individual trees sprayed with equivalent treatments in the previous study. Rates of larval mortality declined at all dosages (81-85%) in the first part of the second generation. Most damage and proportionally less mortality occurred in the upper canopy. High pest pressures and untreated blocks contributed to significant damage and the study was terminated early. These data suggest virus programs can be tailored according to the localized pest pressure, but it may not prevent economic damage in high-pressure situations. PMID:16334311

  3. Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and other pome fruit worldwide. In temperate climate, diapausing cocooned larvae make up 100% of the population. Control of this stage would reduce or eliminate damage by first generation CM in late spring and early summer. Ento...

  4. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella-expression in larvae and adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, William B; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies. PMID:27006164

  5. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  6. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella–expression in larvae and adults

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William B.; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies. PMID:27006164

  7. EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the devel...

  8. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  9. Eicosanoids mediate melantoic nodulation reactions to viral infection in larvae of the parasitic wasp, Pimpla turionellae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

  10. Setae from larvae of the northern processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) stimulate proliferation of human blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  11. Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  12. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-05-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey.Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces.The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium.Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission.When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments.Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey.We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  13. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, V; Podgwaite, J D; Zerillo, R; Taylor, P; Fuester, R

    2013-10-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an injection of calyx-derived extract. LdMNPV was delivered per os, integrated into artificial diet. Mortality from all sources was recorded over the subsequent three-week period. Neither parasitism nor injections of purified CmeBV with toxin had any effect on the amount of mortality caused by concurrent challenges with LdMNPV. PMID:23933012

  14. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

    2009-10-20

    The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

  15. Integrative Model for Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Victoria; Granero, Francisco; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Malvar, Thomas; Ferré, Juan

    1999-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible

  16. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds. PMID:2161387

  17. The relative abundance of hemocyte types in a polyphagous moth larva depends on diet.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Hemocytes are crucial cells of the insect immune system because of their involvement in multiple immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis and encapsulation. There are various types of hemocytes, each having a particular role in immunity, such that variation in their relative abundance affects the outcome of the immune response. This study aims to characterize these various types of hemocytes in larvae of the grapevine pest insect Eupoecilia ambiguella, and to assess variation in their concentration as a function of larval diet and immune challenge. Four types of hemocytes were found in the hemolymph of 5th instar larvae: granulocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes and spherulocytes. We found that the total concentration of hemocytes and the concentration of each hemocyte type varied among diets and in response to the immune challenge. Irrespective of the diet, the concentration of granulocytes increased following a bacterial immune challenge, while the concentration of plasmatocytes and spherulocytes differentially varied between larval diets. The concentration of oenocytoids did not vary among diets before the immune challenge but varied between larval diets in response to the challenge. These results suggest that the resistance of insect larvae to different natural enemies critically depends on the effect of larval diet on the larvae's investment into the different types of hemocytes. PMID:26940771

  18. Hemocyte Responses of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella, to the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, L.; Niknam, G.; Dunphy, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Hemocyte encapsulation reactions of infective juveniles of two Iranian isolates of the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditina: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Tylenchina: Steinernematidae), were compared in the economic pest Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The former was a more responsive host than the latter and the hemocyte responses occurred sooner and more extensively. Complete encapsulation of some of the nematodes occurred by 4 h post injection for H. bacteriophora in both L. decemlineata and G. mellonella, and by 2 h pi for S. feltiae in L. decemlineata. The percentage of encapsulation from 24 h to 72 h pi in L. decemlineata was 86.2% for S. feltiae and 39% for H. bacteriophora. In G. mellonella there were no encapsulation or melanization responses against S. feltiae, whereas when H. bacteriophora was encapsulated and melanized (16.7%) the encapsulation level was lower than in L. decemlineata. This study may contribute to effectively selecting entomopathogenic nematode species active against significant economic pests based on the latter's cellular immune response. PMID:21867441

  19. Reprint of: Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2015-12-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:26615723

  20. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  2. Response of α-glucosidase in gypsy moth larvae to acute and chronic dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena S; Mataruga, Vesna D Perić; Lazarević, Jelica M; Mrdaković, Marija M; Matić, Dragana R; Todorović, Dajana D; Ilijin, Larisa A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute and chronic treatments with cadmium at 10 μg Cd/g dry food and 30 μg Cd/g dry food on α-glucosidase activity of the 4th instar larvae of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) as well as subsequent recovery. Enzyme inhibition was recorded during acute exposure to 30 μg Cd/g dry food and during chronic treatment at the lower metal concentration. After three days recovery from 10 μg Cd/g dry food, the α-glucosidase activity returned to the control level. One-way ANOVA showed that cadmium significantly influenced the activity of α-glucosidase during all treatments. The index of phenotypic plasticity was higher during chronic treatment at 10 μg Cd/g dry food than at 30 μg Cd/g as well as during the recovery. We detected four glucosidase isoforms by NATIVE PAGE. The activities and expressions of the isoforms depended on both larval genotype and cadmium treatment. PMID:25714460

  3. Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Noah H.; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  4. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  5. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) Against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Under Semi-Controlled Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Legwaila, Mitch M.; Munthali, David C.; Kwerepe, Baone C.; Obopile, Motshwari

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30°C ± 5°C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11.02, 10.22, 5.92, and 4.01 g/L, whereas they were 7.71, 6.94, and 6.24 g/L against eggs when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicated that Btk was effective against both eggs and larvae when exposed for long periods. The slopes of the probit lines for larvae assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after application were 0.250, 1.064, 0.910, 0.383, 0.453, and 0.414, while those against eggs were 1.153, 1.246, and 0.933 when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicates a smaller change in mortality with increase in pesticide dosage for both eggs and larvae. Btk treatments achieved 85.7%–94.6% reduction in DBM damage on cabbage. Therefore, Btk can be used to achieve effective control of DBM eggs and larvae and reduce damage on cabbage under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26816488

  6. Wax sweating

    SciTech Connect

    Rueff, R.M.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a wax sweating process. It comprises: solidifying molten wax; sweating the solidified wax; withdrawing liquid drippings; determining the relationship of the melting point; monitoring the congealing point; determining the melting point; ceasing sweating of the remaining solidified wax; heating the remaining solidified wax; and discharging the melted wax product.

  7. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate, a kairomonal spray adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2010-07-14

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. The pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE), evokes attraction and arrestment of CM larvae. Microencapsulated PE formulation (PE-MEC) enhances the control efficacy of insecticides when used as a spray adjuvant. Characterization of the microencapsulated kairomone, including microcapsule size, concentrations, emission rates, and larval response, was performed. Microcapsule diameter ranged from 2 to 14 mum, with 68% of capsules being 2-3 mum, and the concentration of microcapsules averaged 25.9 x 10(4) capsules per mL of field spray solution. Headspace collections showed emission of PE was related to PE-MEC concentration and was best described as first-order power decay. Neonate larvae responded to PE-MEC applications aged through 14 days. These results demonstrated that application of PE-MEC concurrent with insecticides may increase neonate foliar wandering, thereby disrupting host location and enhancing mortality by prolonging its exposure to insecticide. PMID:20527813

  8. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent’s and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents’ and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins’ host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins’ principle, and the concept of ‘chemical legacy.’ PMID:26288070

  9. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    PubMed

    Kloezen, Wendy; van Helvert-van Poppel, Marilyn; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future. PMID:26173126

  10. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kloezen, Wendy; van Helvert-van Poppel, Marilyn; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future. PMID:26173126

  11. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  12. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  13. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  14. Metal-supplemented diets alter carbohydrate levels in tissue and hemolymph of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Larvae of Lymantria dispar were exposed to two concentrations each of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from hatching to day 3 of the fourth instar. The metals were applied via artificial diet (wheat germ diet); two control groups were reared on either an uncontaminated artificial diet (C) or on a natural diet (oak leaves, EF). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the hemolymph carbohydrates, whereas body glycogen and glucose were determined enzymatically. The results were analyzed with respect to diet-specific differences (oak leaves versus wheat germ diet) and metal exposure compared with the uncontaminated artificial diet. Hemolymph trehalose levels were higher in oak leaf-reared individuals than in those fed on the wheat germ diet (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite applied to the body glycogen and free glucose levels (p < 0.01). The average trehalose value of the control (C) (4.3 mg/ml) was reduced by metal contamination, dependent on both the metal itself and the concentration (Cd, Cu, Zn; 1.4--3.3 mg/ml). Sorbitol was not detected in the hemolymph of EF specimens, whereas it occurred in all artificial diet-fed groups. Metal- and dose-dependent differences in the hemolymph sorbitol levels were observed in the treatment groups, but not in the controls. Glycogen content increased in the low concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas a decrease was observed for the low Cd and both Zn concentrations. Tissue free glucose was enhanced only in three of the metal groups. Generally, fresh and dry weights of larvae were reduced in all groups except the high Cu-contaminated one. The results may indicate that mass outbreaks of an important forest pest insect like L. dispar may be facilitated in metal-contaminated areas because parasitization success of antagonistic species may decline due to deterioration of nourishment within the metal-stressed host.

  15. In silico and bio assay of juvenile hormone analogs as an insect growth regulator against Galleria mellonella (wax moth) - Part I.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Thakur, Sunil; Awasthi, Pamita

    2016-05-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs are nowadays in use to control harmful pests. In order to develop new bioactive molecules as potential pesticides, we have incorporated different active structural features like sulfonamide, aromatic rings, amide group, and amino acid moiety to the base structure. We have screened a series of designed novel JH analogs against JH receptor protein (jhbpGm-2RCK) of Galleria mellonella in comparison to commercial insect growth regulators (IGRs) - Pyriproxyfen (T1) and Fenoxycarb (T2). All analogs exhibit the binding energy profile comparable to commercial IGRs. Based upon these results, a series of sulfonamide-based JHAs (T3-T8) as IGRs have been synthesized and characterized. Further, the efficacy of synthesized analogs (T3-T8) and commercial IGRs (Pyriproxyfen and Fenoxycarb) has been assessed against fourth instars larvae of G. mellonella under the laboratory conditions. LC50 values of all the analogs (T1-T8) against the fourth instars larvae were 9.99, 10.12, 24.76, 30.73, 38.45, 34.15, 34.14, 19.48 ppm and the LC90 153.27, 131.69, 112.15, 191.46, 427.02, 167.13, 217.10, 172.00 ppm, respectively. Among these analogs, N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-3-aza-3-N-ethyl-pentanyl)-p-toluene sulfonamide (T8) and N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-3-aza-3-N-ethyl-pentanyl) benzene sulfonamide (T7) exhibited the good pest larval mortality at different exposure periods (in hours) and different concentrations (in ppm) in comparison to in use IGRs- T1 and T2. Bio assay results are supported by docking at higher concentration. The present investigation clearly exhibits that analog T8 could serve as a potential IGR in comparison to in use IGRs (T1 and T2). The results are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as IGRs. PMID:27070862

  16. ‘Get in Early’; Biofilm and Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella) Models Reveal New Insights into the Therapeutic Potential of Clostridium difficile Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Nale, Janet Y.; Chutia, Mahananda; Carr, Philippa; Hickenbotham, Peter T.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a global health threat associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Conventional antibiotic CDI therapy can result in treatment failure and recurrent infection. C. difficile produces biofilms which contribute to its virulence and impair antimicrobial activity. Some bacteriophages (phages) can penetrate biofilms and thus could be developed to either replace or supplement antibiotics. Here, we determined the impact of a previously optimized 4-phage cocktail on C. difficile ribotype 014/020 biofilms, and additionally as adjunct to vancomycin treatment in Galleria mellonella larva CDI model. The phages were applied before or after biofilm establishment in vitro, and the impact was analyzed according to turbidity, viability counts and topography as observed using scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The infectivity profiles and efficacies of orally administered phages and/or vancomycin were ascertained by monitoring colonization levels and larval survival rates. Phages prevented biofilm formation, and penetrated established biofilms. A single phage application reduced colonization causing extended longevity in the remedial treatment and prevented disease in the prophylaxis group. Multiple phage doses significantly improved the larval remedial regimen, and this treatment is comparable to vancomycin and the combined treatments. Taken together, our data suggest that the phages significantly reduce C. difficile biofilms, and prevent colonization in the G. mellonella model when used alone or in combination with vancomycin. The phages appear to be highly promising therapeutics in the targeted eradication of CDI and the use of these models has revealed that prophylactic use could be a propitious therapeutic option.

  17. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  18. De novo transcriptome characterization of the ghost moth, Thitarodes pui, and elevation-based differences in the gene expression of its larvae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Sun, Hongxia; Guo, Jixing; Jiang, Fengze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Guren

    2015-12-10

    Thitarodes pui larvae are the hosts of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, and are naturally distributed at an altitude of 4100-4650 m on Segrila Mountain of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we conducted transcriptome profiling of T. pui larvae based on the Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform. Subsequently, we explored elevation-based differences of T. pui by comparing gene expression profiles between larvae at high-altitude (natural conditions) and larvae exposed to short-term (2months) low-altitude conditions. A total of 105,935,208 clean reads were assembled into 70,048 unigenes with a mean length of 639 bp. All unigenes were searched against public databases, with 51.26% unigenes being successfully annotated in the NR, SWISS-PROT, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases. A total of 11,846 unigenes were functionally classified into 239 KEGG pathways. Metabolism was the most represented pathway, with 4271 unigenes (36.05%). Using the transcriptome data as a reference, 629 (311 up-regulated/318 down-regulated) genes were differentially expressed by low-altitude larvae when compared with those of high-altitude larvae. The most significantly differentially expressed genes were annotated in the processes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and respiration. This report provides valuable information about the T. pui transcriptome for future genomic studies, including how gene expression is altered in larvae reared at different elevations. PMID:26235680

  19. Production of marker-free transgenic Jatropha curcas expressing hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab/1Ac for resistance to larvae of tortrix moth (Archips micaceanus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. is affected by larvae of Archips micaceanus (Walker), a moth of the family Tortricidae. The hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac confers resistance to lepidopteran insects in transgenic rice. Results Here, we report the production of a marker-free transgenic line of J. curcas (L10) expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a chemically regulated, Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination system. L10 carries a single copy of marker-free T-DNA that contains the Cry1Ab/1Ac gene under the control of a maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos ). The P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos gene was highly expressed in leaves of L10 plants. Insecticidal bioassays using leaf explants of L10 resulted in 80-100% mortality of larvae of A. micaceanus at 4 days after infestation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the hybrid Bt δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac expressed in Jatropha curcas displays strong insecticidal activity to A. micaceanus. The marker-free transgenic J. curcas line L10 can be used for breeding of insect resistance to A. micaceanus. PMID:24808924

  20. Correlation between virulence of Candida albicans mutants in mice and Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marc; Thomas, David Y; Whiteway, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2002-10-11

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic human pathogen in which the yeast to hyphal switch may be an important factor in virulence in mammals. This pathogen has recently been shown to also kill insects such as the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella when injected into the haemocoel of the insect larvae. We have investigated the effect of previously characterised C. albicans mutations that influence the yeast to hyphal transition on virulence in G. mellonella larvae. There is a good correlation between the virulence of these mutants in the insect host and the virulence measured through systemic infection of mice. Although the predominant cellular species detected in G. mellonella infections is the yeast form of C. albicans, mutations that influence the hyphal transition also reduce pathogenicity in the insect. The correlation with virulence measured in the mouse infection system suggests that Galleria may provide a convenient and inexpensive model for the in vivo screening of mutants of C. albicans. PMID:12381467

  1. Determining Host-Plant Resistance Mechanisms for Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is a key pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Female moths deposit eggs on the outer surface of the bracts of the sunflower head. Larval feeding in the heads causes seed loss and lower oil content resulting in reduced yield. Upon reaching maturity larvae drop to the gr...

  2. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  3. HOT WAX.

    PubMed

    Schneberk, Todd; Valenzuela, Rolando G; Sterling, Garrett; Mallon, William K

    2015-09-01

    High-potency marijuana wax smoked via dabbing is a newly encountered phenomenon with relevance to prehospital care providers and emergency physicians.The extract is only recently described in current peer-reviewed literature. The drug may produce paranoia and psychosis and mimic psychiatric problems. The synthetic process for this drug poses a risk for both fire and explosions creating burns and blast injuries. These four cases were encountered in a single ED in Los Angeles in a three-week period, suggesting this could be the tip of an emerging public health problem. All four of these patients were complex cases requiring advanced imaging and ICU care. Emergency personnel need to appreciate this new trend and the implications for pre-hospital care, disposition and ED treatment of these patients. PMID:26554181

  4. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

  5. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  6. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  7. HL-20 Wax Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

  8. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  9. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  10. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  11. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  12. Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

  13. Effects of Temperature and Controlled Atmospheres on Codling Moth Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although controlled atmosphere temperature treatments are effective in controlling codling moth in fruit, the mechanism by which this combination treatment kills the larvae is unknown. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the effects of elevated temperatures, low oxygen, and high ...

  14. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  15. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  16. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  17. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737

  18. Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

  19. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  20. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  1. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  2. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  4. Keeping Wax Liquid For Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Russell V.

    1989-01-01

    "Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

  5. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

  6. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  7. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended for use in... this section. (a) Reinforced wax consists of petroleum wax to which have been added certain...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or... holding food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Reinforced wax consists of petroleum wax...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or... holding food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Reinforced wax consists of petroleum wax...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or... holding food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Reinforced wax consists of petroleum wax...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or... holding food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Reinforced wax consists of petroleum wax...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and....1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble...

  19. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  20. Codling Moth Areawide IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agriculture Research Service funded a five-year multi-institutional project to implement the use of sex pheromones for codling moth in conjunction with the use of other selective control strategies for secondary pests across large contiguous areas of pome fruit production. Twenty-two sites were ...

  1. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  2. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  3. Wax Crystallization and Additive-Wax Interactions in Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma-Nair, M.; Pacansky, T. J.; Martella, D. J.

    1997-03-01

    Wax crystallization is a major problem in a petrochemical industry. Low temperature leads to crystallization causing problems for transportation, storage and use. For example, the wax crystals in lubricants involve mixtures of normal and iso paraffins (C15-C34), and are large, thin, convoluted, interlocking platelets, which entrap oil and form a network. Polymeric additives change nucleation and growth habits of wax and lead to better performance. It is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of wax crystallization and the wax-additive interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to study thermodynamics and crystallization kinetics of additized and unadditized solutions. Several comb shaped fummarate vinyl acetate copolymers are evaluated. The response of the additive is very specific to the average C number in the crystallizable ester side chains of the copolymer. These changes are concentration dependent and change with complexity of the formulation. The dominant interaction appears to be cocrystallization of the side chains of the copolymer with the crystallizable paraffins of wax. These additives also increase the metastability region. Thus, inhibition of wax crystallization is critical to the mechanism of interaction.

  4. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  5. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

  6. Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

  7. The Importance of Pear Ester in Codling Moth Monitoring and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the discovery of the attractiveness of pear ester for adult and larvae of codling moth research has developed this ripe pear volatile to improve the monitoring and management of this key pest of apple, pear, and walnut. A lure loaded with pear ester and codlemone has become the most widely...

  8. Optimizing insecticide strategies for control of banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults congregate in field margins on weeds or adjacent crops during the day and move into the crop in the evening. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the head and larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, ...

  9. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  10. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  11. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    PubMed

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. PMID:26795212

  12. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  15. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  17. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  2. Inhibiting wax deposition from a wax-containing oil

    SciTech Connect

    Zilch, H.E.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for inhibiting was deposition in an oil well producing a wax-containing oil. It comprises: injecting down-hole into the oil-pool at the base of the well a wax-inhibiting amount of a copolymer of between about 62 and about 66 weight percent ethylene and about 34 and about 38 weight percent vinyl acetate, aid copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 35,000.

  3. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

  4. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and....1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a..., India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water...

  5. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  6. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  7. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  8. Interactions of two idiobiont parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Unruh, Thomas R; Headrick, Heather L

    2003-07-01

    Simultaneous use of parasitoids and entomopathogenic nematodes for codling moth (CM) control could produce an antagonistic interaction between the two groups resulting in death of the parasitoid larvae. Two ectoparasitic ichneumonid species, Mastrus ridibundus and Liotryphon caudatus, imported for classical biological control of cocooned CM larvae were studied regarding their interactions with Steinernema carpocapsae. Exposure of M. ridibundus and L. caudatus developing larvae to infective juveniles (IJs) of S. carpocapsae (10 IJs/cm2; approximately LC(80-90) for CM larvae) within CM cocoons resulted in 70.7 and 85.2% mortality, respectively. However, diapausing full grown parasitoid larvae were almost completely protected from nematode penetration within their own tightly woven cocoons. M. ridibundus and L. caudatus females were able to detect and avoid ovipositing on nematode-infected cocooned CM moth larvae as early as 12h after treatment of the host with IJs. When given the choice between cardboard substrates containing untreated cocooned CM larvae and those treated with an approximate LC95 of S. carpocapsae IJs (25 IJs/cm2) 12, 24, or 48h earlier, ovipositing parasitoids demonstrated a significant preference for untreated larvae. The ability of these parasitoids to avoid nematode-treated larvae and to seek out and kill cocooned CM larvae that survive nematode treatments enhances the complementarity of entomopathogenic nematodes and M. ridibundus and L. caudatus. PMID:12877830

  9. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  10. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  11. Cold adaptation mechanisms in the ghost moth Hepialus xiaojinensis: Metabolic regulation and thermal compensation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xuan; Meng, Qian; Shu, Ruihao; Wang, Menglong; Zhou, Guiling; Wang, Hongtuo; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Jihong; Qin, Qilian

    2016-02-01

    Ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) are cold-adapted stenothermal species inhabiting alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau. They have an optimal developmental temperature of 12-16°C but can maintain feeding and growth at 0°C. Their survival strategies have received little attention, but these insects are a promising model for environmental adaptation. Here, biochemical adaptations and energy metabolism in response to cold were investigated in larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus xiaojinensis. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient decreased dramatically with decreasing temperature (15-4°C), suggesting that the energy metabolism of ghost moths, especially glycometabolism, was sensitive to cold. However, the metabolic rate at 4°C increased with the duration of cold exposure, indicating thermal compensation to sustain energy budgets under cold conditions. Underlying regulation strategies were studied by analyzing metabolic differences between cold-acclimated (4°C for 48h) and control larvae (15°C). In cold-acclimated larvae, the energy generating pathways of carbohydrates, instead of the overall consumption of carbohydrates, was compensated in the fat body by improving the transcription of related enzymes. The mobilization of lipids was also promoted, with higher diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol and free fatty acid content in hemolymph. These results indicated that cold acclimation induced a reorganization on metabolic structure to prioritise energy metabolism. Within the aerobic process, flux throughout the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was encouraged in the fat body, and the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase was the likely compensation target. Increased mitochondrial cristae density was observed in the midgut of cold-acclimated larvae. The thermal compensation strategies in this ghost moth span the entire process of energy metabolism, including degration of metabolic substrate, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, and from an energy budget

  12. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  13. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  14. Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiter, M.

    1987-08-01

    Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

  15. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  19. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  6. Isolation of three diterpenoid acids from sunflowers, as oviposition stimulants for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth (BSFM), Cochylis hospes Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) is a specialist insect, the larvae of which feed on sunflowers, Helianthus spp., and a few other species of Compositae. It is one of the most important pests of sunflower in the USA. Previous work on H. annuus, t...

  7. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  8. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken'Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective 'single pgFARs' produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a 'single reductase' can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  9. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films.

    PubMed

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill; Bell, Gordon; Lu, Jian R

    2016-07-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid-liquid and solid-air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  10. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  11. Size and dispersion of urticating setae in three species of processionary moths.

    PubMed

    Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Perin, Chiara; Paolucci, Paolo; Roques, Alain; Battisti, Andrea; Horvath, Helmuth

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the processionary moths of the Palaearctic region bear urticating setae that are released against vertebrate predators, especially insectivorous birds. A few species are pests of forest and urban trees and, consequently, may threaten human and animal health during outbreaks, causing dermatitis, conjunctivitis and respiratory distress. Although some studies provide detailed information about the setae, particularly those of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, there is little knowledge on the morphological traits of the setae and their release by the larvae. In the present study we identify major traits of the setae of 3 species of processionary moth, T. pityocampa, T. pinivora and T. processionea, which are potentially helpful in the understanding of setae dynamics in the environment: (i) diameter and length of setae and (ii) analysis of dynamical properties of the setae in the airborne state. Setae are highly variable in size, with bimodal distribution in T. pityocampa and T. pinivora; in these 2 species, short and long setae are interspersed within the integument fields where they occur. The difference in the seta size has important consequences in dispersion, as smaller setae can spread 5 times further than their bigger counterparts. This information is relevant for a full understanding of the defensive importance of larval setae against natural enemies of the processionary moths, as well for elucidating the importance of the processionary setae as air pollutants, both close to the infested trees and at longer distances. PMID:24952969

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage. PMID:25314103

  13. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth. PMID:26487743

  14. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  15. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures. PMID:26484481

  16. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  17. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  18. Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Lira-Galeana, C.L.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework assumes that the precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid-phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent which does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

  19. Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lira-Galeana, C.; Firoozabadi, A.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1996-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework uses the experimentally supported assumption that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent that does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax-precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

  20. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  1. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  2. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  3. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  4. Variability of Bacterial Communities in the Moth Heliothis virescens Indicates Transient Association with the Host

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Heike; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.; Menken, Steph B. J.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes associated with insects can confer a wide range of ecologically relevant benefits to their hosts. Since insect-associated bacteria often increase the nutritive value of their hosts' diets, the study of bacterial communities is especially interesting in species that are important agricultural pests. We investigated the composition of bacterial communities in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens and its variability in relation to developmental stage, diet and population (field and laboratory), using bacterial tag-encoded FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. In larvae, bacterial communities differed depending on the food plant on which they had been reared, although the within-group variation between biological replicates was high as well. Moreover, larvae originating from a field or laboratory population did not share any OTUs. Interestingly, Enterococcus sp. was found to be the dominant taxon in laboratory-reared larvae, but was completely absent from field larvae, indicating dramatic shifts in microbial community profiles upon cultivation of the moths in the laboratory. Furthermore, microbiota composition varied strongly across developmental stages in individuals of the field population, and we found no evidence for vertical transmission of bacteria from mothers to offspring. Since sample sizes in our study were small due to pooling of samples for sequencing, we cautiously conclude that the high variability in bacterial communities suggests a loose and temporary association of the identified bacteria with H. virescens. PMID:27139886

  5. Organophosphate Resistance and its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maritza; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Ramírez, Claudio C; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity. PMID:26470131

  6. The treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in fresh fruit exports. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines...

  7. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. PMID:26314026

  8. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T

    1999-05-11

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  9. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin. PMID:20423490

  10. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  11. A Study of Krebs Citric Acid Cycle Enzymes in Rice Larvae (Corcyrace phalonica St) During Mycotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Krebs citric acid cycle enzymes have been studied in rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica St) reared in groundnut meal control and contaminated with A. flavus, wheat bran control and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus and also wheat bran containing aflatoxin. It was observed that the activity of enzymes other than succinic oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase and isocitric dehydrogenase were reduced significantly in larvae reared in contaminated groundnut meal when compared with the control. In the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran all the enzymes except succinic oxidase were inhibited when compared to the control larvae. It was also observed that the inhibition of these enzymes is greater in the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran than in contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran has been discussed. PMID:4229935

  12. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  15. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is permitted in subchapter B of...

  17. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  20. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic in...

  1. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  3. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  4. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  6. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  8. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  9. Transepithelial flux of an allotostatin and analogs across the anterior midgut of Manduca sexta larvae in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transepithelial transport of cydiastatin 4 and analogues across flat sheet preparations of the anterior midgut of larvae of the tobacco hawkmoth moth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), enzyme linked immunosorbe...

  10. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  11. Pathogenicity of a Microsporidium Isolate from the Diamondback Moth against Noctuid Moths:Characterization and Implications for Microbiological Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Idris Abd; Dieng, Hamady; Abu Hassan, Zainal Abidin; Ramli, Norazsida; Kermani, Nadia; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX) and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL) isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE) exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. Conclusion/Significance The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a valuable

  12. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

  13. Taxonomy and biology of two seed-parasitic gracillariid moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bingbing; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Jing; Li, Houhun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species and new record of gracillariid moths from China are reported: Conopomorpha flueggella Li, sp. n. and Epicephala relictella Kuznetzov, 1979. Specimens were collected on flowers or leaves of Flueggea suffruticosa (Pall.) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) at night, and reared from fruits in captivity. Larvae of both species feed on the seeds of Flueggea suffruticosa, but they can be differentiated externally by the position of the red pattern on the thorax and abdomen. Morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae and the life history of the two species are described and compared. Images of the life history and figures of the genital structures are provided. PMID:21594087

  14. Molten Wax As A Dust Control Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.

    2008-07-01

    Molten wax shows considerable promise as a fixative and dust control agent in demolition of radioactively contaminated facilities. Sticky molten wax, modified with special surfactants and wetting agents, is capable of not only coating materials but also penetrating into friable or dusty materials and making them incapable of becoming airborne during demolition. Wax also shows significant promise for stabilization of waste residuals that may be contained in buildings undergoing demolition. Some of the building materials that have been tested to date include concrete, wood, sheet-rock, fiber insulation, lime, rock, and paper. Protective clothing, clay, sand, sulfur, and bentonite clay have been tested as surrogates for certain waste materials that may be encountered during building demolition. The paper describes several potential applications of molten wax for dust control in demolition of radioactive contaminated facilities. As a case-study, this paper describes a research test performed for a pipeline closure project being completed by the Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The project plans to excavate and remove a section of buried Duriron drain piping containing highly radioactive and friable and 'flighty' waste residuals. A full-scale pipeline mockup containing simulated waste was buried in sand to simulate the direct-buried subsurface condition of the subject piping. The pipeline was pre-heated by drawing hot air through the line with a HEPA vacuum blower unit. Molten wax was pumped into the line and allowed to cool. The line was then broken apart in various places to evaluate the permeation performance of the wax. The wax fully permeated all the surrogate materials rendering them non-friable with a consistency similar to modeling clay. Based on the performance during the mockup, it is anticipated that the wax will be highly effective in controlling the spread of radiological contamination during pipe demolition activities. A larger test

  15. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. PMID:20689865

  16. Wax ester-synthesizing activity of lipases.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis/hydrolysis of wax esters was studied in an aqueous solution using purified rat pancreatic lipase, porcine pancreatic carboxylester lipase, and Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase. The equilibrium between wax ester synthesis and hydrolysis favored ester formation at neutral pH. The synthesizing activities were measured using free fatty acid or triacylglycerol as the acyl donor and an equimolar amount of long-chain alcohol as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with these lipases, wax ester was synthesized, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the apparent equilibrium ratio of palmityl oleate/free oleic acid was about 0.9/0.1. These lipases catalyzed the hydrolysis of palmityl oleate emulsified with gum arabic, and the apparent equilibrium ratio of palmityl oleate/free oleic acid was also about 0.9/0.1. The apparent equilibrium ratio of wax ester/free fatty acid catalyzed by lipase depended on incubation pH and fatty alcohol chain length. When equimolar amounts of trioleoylglycerol and fatty acyl alcohol were incubated with pancreatic lipase, carboxylester lipase, or P. fluorescens lipase, wax esters were synthesized dose-dependently. These results suggest that lipases can catalyze the synthesis of wax esters from free fatty acids or through degradation of triacylglycerol in an aqueous medium. PMID:10606038

  17. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  18. Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

  19. Influences of Cry1Ac Broccoli on Larval Survival and Oviposition of Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  20. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  1. Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

    2012-06-01

    Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

  2. Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

    1984-10-01

    Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base.

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-07-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

  4. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  5. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation.

  6. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H; Moawad, S

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  7. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  8. A new method for evaluating wax inhibitors and drag reducers

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional wax inhibitor evaluation methods such as cold finger and laminar flow loop are not adequate and accurate for evaluating wax inhibitors to be used in a wide operating temperature range and flow regimes such as North Sea subsea transport pipelines. A new method has been developed to simultaneously measure fluid rheology change and wax inhibition and to evaluate wax inhibitors or drag reducers at the field operating conditions. Selection criteria have been defined to search for an effective wax inhibitor. The criteria ensure the chemical selected is the most effective one for the specific oil and flow conditions. The operation cost savings by this accurate method is significant. Nine chemical companies joined the project of finding an wax inhibitor for a North Sea prospect. More than twenty wax inhibitors have been tested and evaluated with this new method for several waxy oil fields. The new method provides data of fluid rheology, war deposition rates and wax inhibition in the operating temperature range, overall average wax inhibition and degree of fluid flow improvement. These data are important to evaluate a wax inhibitor or drag reducer. Most of the wax inhibitors tested have good wax inhibition at high temperatures, but not many chemicals work well at low temperatures. The chemical tested may improved fluid flow behavior at low temperature but not wax deposition. Drag reducers tested did not work well at North Sea seabed temperature.

  9. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.

    2002-04-08

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed.

  10. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  11. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  12. Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Nils; Yiğit, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system. PMID:23531777

  13. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. PMID:27465144

  14. Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs. PMID:22008291

  15. Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Roger F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

  16. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  19. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  2. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum wax candles from China (70 FR 56890, September 29, 2005). The Commission is now conducting a third... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from...

  3. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  4. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Suckling, David M; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L; Cowan, David M; Lance, David R; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  6. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  7. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. PMID:27072407

  8. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum...

  9. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum...

  10. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum...