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1

Utility of Greater Wax Moth Larva (Galleria mellonella) for Evaluating the Toxicity and Efficacy of New Antimicrobial Agents.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents to combat infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens. Once a compound is shown to be effective in vitro, it is necessary to evaluate its efficacy in an animal infection model. Typically, this is achieved using a mammalian model, but such experiments are costly, time consuming, and require full ethical consideration. Hence, cheaper and ethically more acceptable invertebrate models of infection have been introduced, including the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Invertebrates have an immune system that is functionally similar to the innate immune system of mammals, and often identical virulence and pathogenicity factors are used by human pathogenic microbes to infect wax moth larvae and mammals. Moreover, the virulence of many human pathogens is comparable in wax moth larvae and mammals. Using key examples from the literature, this chapter highlights the benefits of using the wax moth larva model to provide a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of new antimicrobial agents in vivo and prior to the use of more expensive mammalian models. This simple insect model can bridge the gap between in vitro studies and mammalian experimentation by screening out compounds with a low likelihood of success, while providing greater justification for further studies in mammalian systems. Thus, broader implementation of the wax moth larva model into anti-infective drug discovery and development programs could reduce the use of mammals during preclinical assessments and the overall cost of drug development. PMID:22305092

Desbois, Andrew P; Coote, Peter J

2012-01-01

2

Effects of Sequential and Simultaneous Applications of Bacteriophages on Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro and in Wax Moth Larvae  

PubMed Central

Interest in using bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections (phage therapy) is growing, but there have been few experiments comparing the effects of different treatment strategies on both bacterial densities and resistance evolution. While it is established that multiphage therapy is typically more effective than the application of a single phage type, it is not clear if it is best to apply phages simultaneously or sequentially. We tried single- and multiphage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in vitro, using different combinations of phages either simultaneously or sequentially. Across different phage combinations, simultaneous application was consistently equal or superior to sequential application in terms of reducing bacterial population density, and there was no difference (on average) in terms of minimizing resistance. Phage-resistant bacteria emerged in all experimental treatments and incurred significant fitness costs, expressed as reduced growth rate in the absence of phages. Finally, phage therapy increased the life span of wax moth larvae infected with P. aeruginosa, and a phage cocktail was the most effective short-term treatment. When the ratio of phages to bacteria was very high, phage cocktails cured otherwise lethal infections. These results suggest that while adding all available phages simultaneously tends to be the most successful short-term strategy, there are sequential strategies that are equally effective and potentially better over longer time scales.

De Vos, Daniel; Friman, Ville-Petri; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Buckling, Angus

2012-01-01

3

Effects of sequential and simultaneous applications of bacteriophages on populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in wax moth larvae.  

PubMed

Interest in using bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections (phage therapy) is growing, but there have been few experiments comparing the effects of different treatment strategies on both bacterial densities and resistance evolution. While it is established that multiphage therapy is typically more effective than the application of a single phage type, it is not clear if it is best to apply phages simultaneously or sequentially. We tried single- and multiphage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in vitro, using different combinations of phages either simultaneously or sequentially. Across different phage combinations, simultaneous application was consistently equal or superior to sequential application in terms of reducing bacterial population density, and there was no difference (on average) in terms of minimizing resistance. Phage-resistant bacteria emerged in all experimental treatments and incurred significant fitness costs, expressed as reduced growth rate in the absence of phages. Finally, phage therapy increased the life span of wax moth larvae infected with P. aeruginosa, and a phage cocktail was the most effective short-term treatment. When the ratio of phages to bacteria was very high, phage cocktails cured otherwise lethal infections. These results suggest that while adding all available phages simultaneously tends to be the most successful short-term strategy, there are sequential strategies that are equally effective and potentially better over longer time scales. PMID:22660719

Hall, Alex R; De Vos, Daniel; Friman, Ville-Petri; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Buckling, Angus

2012-06-01

4

Energetic cost of sexual attractiveness: ultrasonic advertisement in wax moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth,Achroia grisella(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is initiated by male ultrasonic signals that attract receptive females. Individual males vary in attractiveness to females, and the most attractive males are distinguished by exaggeration of three signal characters: pulse rate, peak amplitude and asynchrony interval (temporal separation between pulses generated by movements of the left and right wings during

KLAUS REINHOLD; MICHAEL D. GREENFIELD; YIKWEON JANG; ALBERTO BROCE

1998-01-01

5

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

6

Dispersal of first-instar gypsy moth larvae in relation to population quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies of dispersal by first instar gypsy moth larvae indicate that almost all larvae undergo an initial dispersal episode. However, in laboratory studies large larvae (from large eggs) disperse more frequently than small larvae (from small eggs) in the presence of favored food. Large larvae may be better adapted for dispersal. When larvae encounter unacceptable food or are denied

John L. Capinera; Pedro Barbosa

1976-01-01

7

Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

8

Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

2013-07-08

9

Monoenyl hydrocarbons in female body wax of the yellow peach moth as synergists of aldehyde pheromone components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-polar components of female body wax and pheromone gland extracts of the yellow peach moth synergistically enhanced\\u000a male behavioral responses from close to pheromone sources in wind tunnel tests when mixed with an aldehyde pheromone blend.\\u000a When the non-polar fractions (NPFs) of female body wax were further separated by column chromatography, synergistic activities\\u000a were found in the 3 and

Wei Xiao; Hiroshi Honda; Shigeru Matsuyama

2011-01-01

10

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

11

Involvement of both granular cells and plasmatocytes in phagocytic reactions in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been previously found by most authors that only plasmatocytes are involved in phagocytosis of non-self in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, in the present study we demonstrate that in vitro, both granular cells and plasmatocytes are involved in this reaction, using monolayers of these haemocytes prepared from larval haemolymph by a differential cell fractionation method. The

Sumio Tojo; Fumihiko Naganuma; Kenryo Arakawa; Shinya Yokoo

2000-01-01

12

HYDROPRENE PROLONGS DEVELOPMENT TIME AND INCREASES MORTALITY IN WANDERING-PHASE INDIANMEAL MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wandering-phase Indianmeal moth larvae, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 X 10-3 mg[AI]/ cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32ºC and 57% relative humidity ...

13

Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bzdil J.: Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 643-648. The aim of the present study was to validate a new method of detection of Paenibacillus larvae spores in the debris and wax of honey bee and compare it with the method commonly used

J. Bzdil

2007-01-01

14

Caterpillar guts and ammonia volatilization: retention of nitrogen by gypsy moth larvae consuming oak foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), a major defoliator of hardwood forests in the eastern U.S., has a highly alkaline midgut pH. We hypothesized that the\\u000a high pH would cause high rates of ammonia (NH3) volatilization as larvae consumed foliage, leading to potentially large losses of N from the ecosystem to the atmosphere\\u000a during gypsy moth outbreaks. We measured NH3

Gary M. Lovett; Julie E. Hart; Lynn M. Christenson; Clive G. Jones

1998-01-01

15

Contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores to Toxicity of Purified Cry Proteins Towards Indianmeal Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The influence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 spores upon the toxicity of purified Cry1Ab and Cry1C crystal proteins toward susceptible and BT-resistant Indianmeal\\u000a moth (IMM, Plodia interpunctella) larvae was investigated. With susceptible larvae, HD-1 spores were toxic in the absence of crystal protein and highly synergistic\\u000a (approximately 35- to 50-fold) with either Cry1Ab or Cry1C protein. With BT-resistant

Donovan E. Johnson; William H. McGaughey

1996-01-01

16

Crystalline wax coverage of the cuticle in easy bleeding sawfly larvae.  

PubMed

The larvae of some sawfly species belonging to the family Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are capable of 'easy bleeding', an anti-predator defence strategy based on a specialised cuticle that can readily break, which frees droplets of distasteful haemolymph. Using high-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy, we compared the cuticle surface between easy bleeder (Rhadinoceraea micans, Phymatocera aterrima, Aneugmenus padi) and non-easy bleeder (Strongylogaster multifasciata, Nematus pavidus, Arge pagana) sawfly species. We detected crystalline waxes only on the cuticle surface of easy bleeders. Wax crystals varied in shape and dimension depending on species. We assume the reduction of surface wettability by oozed haemolymph to be the primary function of the wax crystal coverage in the easy bleeding defence strategy. PMID:21277995

Boevé, Jean-Luc; Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav N

2011-01-26

17

Evolution of ultrasonic signalling in wax moths: discrimination of ultrasonic mating calls from bat echolocation signals and the exploitation of an antipredator receiver bias by sexual advertisement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera Pyralidae), is accomplished via male-produced pulses (100 µsec) of ultrasound (100 kHz) attractive to females. A. grisella are sensitive to a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies, enabling them to hear the echolocation signals of both aerialhawking and substrate-gleaning bats. Both flying and running moths exhibit defensive behaviors, dropping to the

M. D. Greenfield; T. Weber

2000-01-01

18

Cold Hardiness and Supercooling Capacity in the Overwintering Larvae of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

PubMed Central

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25°C. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 ± 1.1°C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 ± 1.2°C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 ± 1.8°C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 ± 1.0°C and -20.2 ± 0.2°C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

2010-01-01

19

Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Behavior of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Moths Reared from Larvae Treated with Four Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) larvae were treated with the insecticides deltamethrin, endosulfan, malathion, and carbaryl at dosages causing 30% mortality (LD30), female moths reared from survivors showed similar patterns in the frequency of calling behavior. However, females reared from larvae dosed with deltamethrin had significantly higher titers of sex pheromone than those treated with endosulfan, malathion, or carbaryl, or control

Hongyi Wei; Yongping Huang; Jiawei Du

2004-01-01

20

Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes  

PubMed Central

A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images

Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

1980-01-01

21

Small plot trials documenting effective mating disruption of oriental fruit moth by using high densities of wax-drop pheromone dispensers.  

PubMed

In 2004 field experiments, we compared the effectiveness of various deployment densities of 0.1-ml paraffin wax drops containing 5% pheromone versus Isomate M-Rosso "rope" dispensers for disruption of Grapholita molesta (Busck). Treatments were evaluated in 0.05-ha (12-tree) plots of 'Delicious' apples receiving regular maintenance according to growers' standards, but not sprayed with insecticides. The application densities of 0.1-ml wax drops were 3 per tree (820/ha), 10 per tree (2,700/ha), 30 per tree (8,200/ha), and 100 per tree (27,300/ha). Wax drops were compared with 3-ml dispensers of pheromone-containing paraffin wax or Isomate M-Rosso ropes at 1.8 per tree (500/ha) and untreated control plots. Treatments were applied before the start of each of three moth generations. Orientational disruption, as measured by inhibition of moth captures in pheromone-baited delta traps, was greatest in plots that received 100 drops per tree (99.2%) and 30 drops per tree (99.4%). More than 55% of tethered, virgin females were mated in control plots after one night of deployment. However, no mating was recorded at the two highest application densities of wax drops where orientational disruption of traps exceeded 99%. Mating ranged from 7 to 20% among the other treatments, including Isomate rope dispensers. G. molesta males were observed closely approaching pheromone dispensers in plots containing ropes and wax drops, documenting competitive attraction between synthetic pheromone sources and feral females. The majority of observed G. molesta males approached within 60 cm of wax drops or pheromone ropes and departed within 20 s by flying upwind. Thirty wax drops per tree yielded higher mating disruption of G. molesta than did Isomate M-Rosso dispensers deployed at the recommended rate of 500/ha (1.8 per tree). Measurement of release rates confirmed behavioral data indicating that paraffin wax dispensers would need to be applied once per G. molesta generation in Michigan. Paraffin wax drops are a promising technology for moth mating disruption. They are cheaper and easier to produce, require less total pheromone per annual application, and produce better mating disruption at appropriate deployment densities compared with Isomate M-Rosso dispensers under high G. molesta population densities. The cost-effectiveness of this approach will require an appropriate mechanized applicator for wax drops. PMID:16156580

Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J; Mallinger, R E; Epstein, D; Reed, T P; Miller, J R

2005-08-01

22

Semiochemical-Mediated Location of Host Habitat by Apanteles carpatus (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Clothes Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, adult Apanteles carpatus (Say), were attracted to beaver or rabbit pelts infested with larvae of the casemaking clothes moth (CCM)Tinea pellionella L. Porapak Q-captured volatiles from a CCM-infested beaver pelt were also very attractive, whereas isolated CCM larvae or larval feces were not. Coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis of the Porapak Q volatile extract revealed

Stephen Takács; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries

1997-01-01

23

Evaluation of Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid as Seed Treatments to Control European Corn Borer and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

EfÞcacy of thiamethoxam (Cruiser) and imidacloprid (Gaucho) were evaluated as seed treatments for controlling European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) larvae in stored grain. At 22Ð26C, all Þfth instar European corn borers died after two o r4do fexposure to corn treated with 250and 50 0ppm thiamethoxam, respectively, while mortality of larvae exposed for two

Bisong Yue; Gerald E. Wilde; Frank Arthur

2003-01-01

24

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

25

Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Lacks Toxicity to Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) and Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)  

PubMed Central

We tested Cyt1Aa, a cytolytic endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, against susceptible and Cry1A-resistant larvae of two lepidopteran pests, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Unlike previous results obtained with mosquito and beetle larvae, Cyt1Aa alone or in combination with Cry toxins was not highly toxic to the lepidopteran larvae that we examined.

Meyer, Susan K.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.

2001-01-01

26

Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae.  

PubMed

Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1)=10microg and Cd(2)=30microg Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker. PMID:18472163

Vlahovi?, Milena; Lazarevi?, Jelica; Peri?-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdakovi?, Marija

2008-05-09

27

Contamination of honey by chemicals applied to protect honeybee combs from wax-moth (Galleria mellonela L.).  

PubMed

Greek honey was monitored during a three-year surveillance program for residues of chemicals used to protect honey-bee combs from wax-moth. A total of 115 samples purchased from stores (commercial samples) and 1060 samples collected from beekeepers (bulk samples) were analysed for 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) and naphthalene. A purge & trap-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system was used for the analysis. During the first year of the study, 82.9% of the commercial samples had residues of p-DCB that exceeded the established limit of 10 microg kg(-1), whilst during the second year 53.6% and during the third 30% exceeded the limit. The percentage of beekeepers samples that had more than 10 microg kg(-1) decreased from 46.6 to 34.7% and 39.8% respectively during the three consecutive years of analysis. Only one commercial sample (0.8%) had residues of DBE that exceeded 10 microg kg(-1) during the three years study, while 9.9% of the beekeepers samples exceeded this limit in 2003. This percentage fell to 1.9 and 2.8% during the following years. Naphthalene was found in more commercial samples than in samples from beekeepers during the first year, but decreased to similar levels during the next two years. Honeys that are produced earlier in the season are more contaminated those produced later. PMID:16449058

Tananaki, Chrisoula; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas; Karazafiris, Emmanouel; Zotou, Anastasia

2006-02-01

28

Involvement of both granular cells and plasmatocytes in phagocytic reactions in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

Although it has been previously found by most authors that only plasmatocytes are involved in phagocytosis of non-self in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, in the present study we demonstrate that in vitro, both granular cells and plasmatocytes are involved in this reaction, using monolayers of these haemocytes prepared from larval haemolymph by a differential cell fractionation method. The adhesion of granular cells to glassware and phagocytosis by granular cells of FITC-labelled silica beads were both greatly reduced by the presence of p-NPGB, a serine proteinase inhibitor, which is known to inhibit the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade, but the reactions were only partly influenced by PTU, an inhibitor of phenoloxidase. These results suggest that an enhancing factor for both reactions is phenoloxidase itself or a component induced during the course of activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade, but not the melanised substance produced by the action of this reaction. For plasmatocytes, attachment to non-self was totally blocked by the absence of CaCl(2) or by the presence of EDTA at concentrations greater than 20 mM, and phagocytosis was greatly enhanced by CaCl(2), but suppressed by EDTA. These results suggest that calcium is a factor required for adhesion of plasmatocytes, and that it also functions to enhance their phagocytic action. PMID:10817839

Tojo; Naganuma; Arakawa1; Yokoo1

2000-07-01

29

Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

2006-03-01

30

Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

PubMed Central

Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees (Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, however only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural versus artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

Shields, Vonnie D.C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole; Williams, Denise

2010-01-01

31

The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine)\\u000a were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the\\u000a ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to

Vonnie D. C. Shields; Kristen P. Smith; Nicole S. Arnold; Ineta M. Gordon; Taharah E. Shaw; Danielle Waranch

2008-01-01

32

Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.  

PubMed

A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

2011-01-01

33

DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae  

SciTech Connect

Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA))

1989-11-01

34

Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.  

PubMed

The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth. PMID:16686132

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2006-04-01

35

Protein Engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis delta -endotoxin: Mutations at Domain II of CryIAb Enhance Receptor Affinity and Toxicity toward Gypsy Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis delta -endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to

Francis Rajamohan; Oscar Alzate; Jeffrey A. Cotrill; April Curtiss; Donald H. Dean

1996-01-01

36

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

37

Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period.

Goertz, Dorte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

38

Effects of droplet density and concentration on the efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis and carbaryl against gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae exposed to two pesticide deposits (Bt and carbaryl) on oak leaf disks was monitored to determine the relationships between its efficacy and application parameters (droplet density and pesticide concentration). A range of pesticide concentrations and droplet densities (from 9 to 149 droplets\\/cm) was used to simulate high and low application rates produced by

Davide Falchieri; Karl Mierzejewski; Steven Maczuga

1995-01-01

39

EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the developm...

40

Functions of an Organ of the Larva of the Puss Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS season I am breeding, with the object of observing their gradual growth and development, a number of the larvæ of Cerura (or Dicranura) vinula, the Puss Moth; but I have sought in vain for the function performed by the slender red filaments, ejected, at the insect's will, from its twin tails. They appear to shoot from their sheathes, just

Arthur S. Thorn

1900-01-01

41

Development of gypsy moth larvae feeding on red maple saplings at elevated CO 2 and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted increases in atmospheric CO 2 and global mean temperature may alter important plant-insect associations due to the direct effects of temperature on insect development and the indirect effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment on phytochemicals important for insect success. We investigated the effects of CO 2 and temperature on the interaction between gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar

Ray S. Williams; David E. Lincoln; Richard J. Norby

2003-01-01

42

EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the devel...

43

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

44

Root damage and water stress: treatments affecting the exploitation of the buds of common ash Fraxinus excelsior L., by larvae of the ash bud moth Prays fraxinella Bjerk. (Lep., Yponomeutidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage to the buds of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) by larvae of the ash bud moth Prays fraxinella Bjerk. was investigated in trees growing in the presence, or absence, of an adjacent ditch. The presence of a ditch was correlated with increased damage levels due to bud moth. Saplings were used in an experiment to compare the effects

Andrew Foggo; Martin R. Speight

1993-01-01

45

A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

2009-06-06

46

Function of the Whips of the Larva of the Puss Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR correspondent (p. 389) will find a detailed account of the various defensive appliances of the larva of Cerura vinula in Prof. Poulton's work on the `` Colours of Animals '' (International Science Series), and in papers published by him in the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 1886 and 1887, the latter papers being illustrated by beautiful

W. F. Kirby

1900-01-01

47

Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.  

PubMed

Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs. PMID:16937685

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2006-08-01

48

An insecticidal protein from Xenorhabdus budapestensis that results in prophenoloxidase activation in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

Xenorhabdus budapestensis can produce a variety of proteins that help this bacterium and its mutualistic nematode vector kill the host insect. In this report, we purified one protein fraction from the intracellular extract of X. budapestensis D43, which was designated HIP57. By injection, HIP57 caused Galleria mellonella larval bodies to blacken and die with an LD(50) of 206.81 ng/larva. Analyzes of HIP57 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this protein was a single spot on the gel with a molecular weight of 57 kDa and a pI of ?5. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis suggested that the HIP57 toxin was homologous to GroEL. GroEL has been accepted as molecule chaperon; however, our research revealed that HIP57 (GroEL) possesses another novel function as an insecticide. A GroEL phylogenetic tree defined the relationship among the related species of mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus) from the entomopathogenic nematodes and the evolution within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Thus, GroEL could be a complement to 16S rDNA for studying the molecular phylogenies of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity analysis of G. mellonella larvae injected with HIP57 suggested that the toxin activates the PO cascade, which provides an extensive defense reaction that potentially responsible for G. mellonella larval death. PMID:22387345

Yang, Jun; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Lin, Hua-Feng; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Li-Hua; Yuan, Jing-Jing; Qiu, De-Wen

2012-02-23

49

Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.  

PubMed

To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development. PMID:21061985

Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

2010-10-01

50

Tomato fruit size, maturity and alpha-tomatine content influence the performance of larvae of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Various physical and chemical properties of host plants influence insect larval performance and subsequent adult fitness. Tomato plants are relatively new hosts to the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), with the fruit being its preferred feeding site. However, it is unclear how the biochemical and physical properties of tomato fruits relate to potato tuber moth performance. Significant amounts of alpha-tomatine were detected in maturing green and ripening fruits of cherry (cv. Ceres) and processing (cv. Serio) types of tomatoes whereas none was detected in a fresh market variety (cv. Marglobe), at comparable stages. alpha-Tomatine is negatively and significantly correlated with development rate (head capsule size) of larvae reared in the fruits of the cherry and processing type tomatoes. Generally, survival, growth and development were significantly superior for larvae reared in the ripening fruits of the fresh market cultivar. At this stage, the fruits of this cultivar are also the largest. Based on these results it is concluded that fruit alpha-tomatine content, as well as fruit size and maturity, all affect performance of P. operculella larvae in the fruits of cultivated tomatoes. PMID:16556338

Mulatu, B; Applebaum, S W; Kerem, Z; Coll, M

2006-04-01

51

Protein engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin: mutations at domain II of CryIAb enhance receptor affinity and toxicity toward gypsy moth larvae.  

PubMed

Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to gypsy moth midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) approximately 4-fold. Deletion of N372 (D3), however, substantially reduced toxicity (> 21 times) as well as binding affinity, suggesting that residue N372 is involved in receptor binding. Interestingly, a triple mutant, DF-1 (N372A, A282G and L283S), has a 36-fold increase in toxicity to gypsy moth neonates compared with wild-type toxin. The enhanced activity of DF-1 was correlated with higher binding affinity (18-fold) and binding site concentrations. Dissociation binding assays suggested that the off-rate of the BBMV-bound mutant toxins was similar to that of the wild type. However, DF-1 toxin bound 4 times more than the wild-type and N372A toxins, and it was directly correlated with binding affinity and potency. Protein blots of gypsy moth BBMV probed with labeled N372A, DF-1, and CryIAb toxins recognized a common 210-kDa protein, indicating that the increased activity of the mutants was not caused by binding to additional receptor(s). The improved binding affinity of N372A and DF-1 suggest that a shorter side chain at these loops may fit the toxin more efficiently to the binding pockets. These results offer an excellent model system for engineering delta-endotoxins with higher potency and wider spectra of target pests by improving receptor binding interactions. PMID:8962052

Rajamohan, F; Alzate, O; Cotrill, J A; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

1996-12-10

52

Olfactory receptors on the maxillary palps of small ermine moth larvae: evolutionary history of benzaldehyde sensitivity  

PubMed Central

In lepidopterous larvae the maxillary palps contain a large portion of the sensory equipment of the insect. Yet, knowledge about the sensitivity of these cells is limited. In this paper a morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological investigation of the maxillary palps of Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is presented. In addition to thermoreceptors, CO2 receptors, and gustatory receptors, evidence is reported for the existence of two groups of receptor cells sensitive to plant volatiles. Cells that are mainly sensitive to (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal or to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol were found. Interestingly, a high sensitivity for benzaldehyde was also found. This compound is not known to be present in Euonymus europaeus, the host plant of the monophagous Yponomeuta cagnagellus, but it is a prominent compound in Rosaceae, the presumed hosts of the ancestors of Y. cagnagellus. To elucidate the evolutionary history of this sensitivity, and its possible role in host shifts, feeding responses of three Yponomeuta species to benzaldehyde were investigated. The results confirm the hypothesis that the sensitivity to benzaldehyde evolved during the ancestral shift from Celastraceae to Rosaceae and can be considered an evolutionary relict, retained in the recently backshifted Celastraceae-specialist Y. cagnagellus.

Xu, Sen; Menken, Steph B. J.

2007-01-01

53

The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-06-01

54

In vitro metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by larvae of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella (Walker), a major pest of almonds and pistachios, and the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), the principal pest of walnuts and pome fruits, are commonly found in tree nut kernels that can be contaminated with aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen. The ability of larvae of these insects to metabolize aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined. A field strain of NOW produced three AFB1 biotransformation products, chiefly aflatoxicol (AFL), and minor amounts of aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). With AFL as a substrate, NOW larvae produced AFB1 and aflatoxicol M1 (AFLM1). A lab strain of CM larvae produced no detectable levels of AFB1 biotransformation products in comparison to a field strain which produced trace amounts of only AFL. Neither NOW nor CM produced AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), the principal carcinogenic metabolite of AFB1. In comparison, metabolism of AFB1 by chicken liver yielded mainly AFL, whereas mouse liver produced mostly AFM1 at a rate eightfold greater than AFL. Mouse liver also produced AFBO. The relatively high production of AFL by NOW compared to CM may reflect an adaptation to detoxify AFB1. NOW larvae frequently inhabit environments highly contaminated with fungi and, hence, aflatoxin. Only low amounts, if any, of this mycotoxin occur in the chief CM hosts, walnuts, and pome fruits. Characterizations of enzymes and co-factors involved in biotransformation of AFB1 are discussed. PMID:11223936

Lee, S E; Campbell, B C

2000-12-01

55

Potency of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' Strains and Formulations against Gypsy Moth and Spruce Budworm Larvae: 1980-86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hundred and sixty strains and 70 commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis were bioassayed against the gypsy moth and spruce budworm. Toxicity of individual strains differed between the two insects. Standardized commercial preparations produced in 1...

N. R. Dubois P. J. Huntley D. Newman

1989-01-01

56

Chemosensory tuning to a host recognition cue in the facultative specialist larvae of the moth Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of Manduca sexta are facultative specialists on plants in the family Solanaceae. Larvae reared on solanaceous foliage develop a strong preference for their host; otherwise, they remain polyphagous. The host- specific recognition cue in potato foliage for Manduca larvae is the steroidal glycoside, indioside D. Two pairs of galeal taste sensilla, the lateral and medial sensilla styloconica, are both

Marta L. del Campo; Carol I. Miles

2003-01-01

57

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

58

Integrative Model for Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resis- tance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis

VICTORIA BALLESTER; FRANCISCO GRANERO; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK; THOMAS MALVAR; JUAN FERRE ´

59

[Phenotypic and genetic characterization of nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolated from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae from the natural populations of Western Siberia].  

PubMed

Six nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) isolates have been isolated from dead larvae of gypsy moth in Western Siberia. Heterogeneity of virulence and reproduction activity was revealed for the NPV isolated by bioassay with Lymantria dispar L. larvae. The findings may suggest phenotypic variation of the NPV isolates. No correlation was found between virulence and reproductive activity with the only exception--the isolate Karassuk with a high virulence and a high reproductive activity. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products with primers specific to the polyhedrin gene were determined for NPV isolated Karassuk and Tatarskyi with the maximum and minimal virulence, respectively. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences demonstrated a high homology of the study polyhedrin gene fragment between NPV Western-Siberian isolates and NPV strains from the USA with two point mutations. The mutations were identical for the NPV isolated from Russia but were different from the known structures of the polyhedrin gene of the American strains. The only one from two found mutations resulted in amino acid substitution in polyhedrin protein. Consequently, the structure of both polyhedrin and encoded protein did not influence on the NPV virulence and reproductive activity. PMID:20455470

Bakhvalov, S A; Bakhvalova, V N; Martem'ianov, V V; Morozova, O V

60

Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.  

PubMed

The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

2012-12-01

61

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 and midgut bacteria in larvae of gypsy moth and spruce budworm.  

PubMed

We examined interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Foray 48B) and larval midgut bacteria in two lepidopteran hosts, Lymantria dispar and Choristoneura fumiferana. The pathogen multiplied in either moribund (C. fumiferana) or dead (L. dispar) larvae, regardless of the presence of midgut bacteria. Inoculation of L. dispar resulted in a pronounced proliferation of enteric bacteria, which did not contribute to larval death because B. thuringiensis was able to kill larvae in absence of midgut bacteria. Sterile, aureomycin- or ampicillin-treated larvae were killed in a dose-dependent manner but there was no mortality among larvae treated with the antibiotic cocktail used by Broderick et al. (2006, 2009). These results do not support an obligate role of midgut bacteria in insecticidal activity of HD-1. The outcome of experiments on the role of midgut bacteria may be more dependent on which bacterial species are dominant at the time of experimentation than on host species per se. The L. dispar cohorts used in our study had a microflora, that was dominated by Enterococcus and Staphylococcus and lacked Enterobacter. Another factor that can confound experimental results is the disk-feeding method for inoculation, which biases mortality estimates towards the least susceptible portion of the test population. PMID:20035766

van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Liu, Yuehong; Tonon, Amanda

2009-12-24

62

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1 and midgut bacteria in larvae of gypsy moth and spruce budworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Foray 48B) and larval midgut bacteria in two lepidopteran hosts, Lymantria dispar and Choristoneura fumiferana. The pathogen multiplied in either moribund (C. fumiferana) or dead (L. dispar) larvae, regardless of the presence of midgut bacteria. Inoculation of L. dispar resulted in a pronounced proliferation of enteric bacteria, which did not contribute

Kees van Frankenhuyzen; Yuehong Liu; Amanda Tonon

2010-01-01

63

Interactions between an Entomopathogenic Microsporidium and the Endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis within Their Host, the Gypsy Moth Larva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions in the host–parasitoid–pathogen system, Lymantria dispar L. (Lep., Lymantriidae)–Glyptapanteles liparidis (Bouché) (Hym., Braconidae)–Vairimorpha sp. (Protista, Microspora), were investigated. Host selection experiments revealed that G. liparidis females did not discriminate between infected and uninfected host larvae for oviposition. Transmission of the microsporidium from infected to uninfected hosts by stinging female wasps could not be ascertained. Females that developed in infected

Gernot Hoch; Axel Schopf; Joseph V Maddox

2000-01-01

64

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

65

Comparative transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana infested by diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae reveals signatures of stress response, secondary metabolism, and signalling  

PubMed Central

Background Plants are exposed to attack from a large variety of herbivores. Feeding insects can induce substantial changes of the host plant transcriptome. Arabidopsis thaliana has been established as a relevant system for the discovery of genes associated with response to herbivory, including genes for specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolism as well as genes involved in plant-insect defence signalling. Results Using a 70-mer oligonulceotide microarray covering 26,090 gene-specific elements, we monitored changes of the Arabidopsis leaf transcriptome in response to feeding by diamond back moth (DBM; Plutella xylostella) larvae. Analysis of samples from a time course of one hour to 24 hours following onset of DBM feeding revealed almost three thousand (2,881) array elements (including 2,671 genes with AGI annotations) that were differentially expressed (>2-fold; p[t-test] < 0.05) of which 1,686 also changed more than twofold in expression between at least two time points of the time course with p(ANOVA) < 0.05. While the majority of these transcripts were up-regulated within 8 h upon onset of insect feeding relative to untreated controls, cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Many of the DBM-induced genes fall into ontology groups annotated as stress response, secondary metabolism and signalling. Among DBM-induced genes associated with plant signal molecules or phytohormones, genes associated with octadecanoid signalling were clearly overrepresented. We identified a substantial number of differentially expressed genes associated with signal transduction in response to DBM feeding, and we compared there expression profiles with those of previously reported transcriptome responses induced by other insect herbivores, specifically Pieris rapae, Frankliniella occidentalis, Bemisia tabaci,Myzus persicae, and Brevicoryne brassicae. Conclusion Arabidopsis responds to feeding DBM larvae with a drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome, which has considerable overlap with the response induced by other insect herbivores. Based on a meta-analysis of microarray data we identified groups of transcription factors that are either affected by multiple forms of biotic or abiotic stress including DBM feeding or, alternatively, were responsive to DBM herbivory but not to most other forms of stress.

Ehlting, Jurgen; Chowrira, Sunita G; Mattheus, Nathalie; Aeschliman, Dana S; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Bohlmann, Jorg

2008-01-01

66

Effects of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on midgut morphology and glutathione status in Saturniid moth larvae.  

PubMed

Actias luna and Callosamia promethea larvae were fed birch foliage supplemented with juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) to determine whether juglone causes oxidative stress in midguts of these species. Juglone is a substituent of walnut foliage. A. luna, but not C. promethea, thrives on walnut foliage, as well as birch foliage supplemented with juglone. After 2 and 3 days on juglone-containing diets, midgut samples from these animals were compared histologically and were analyzed for GSH and GSSG content. C. promethea, but not A. luna, midguts revealed partial loss of epithelial structure. In contrast, GSH and GSSG did not change significantly in either species. In a separate experiment, live midgut explants from each species were cultured for 4 h in 0, 0.05, and 0.25% juglone. In juglone-treated explants, GSSG increased 2.1 and 5.6-fold, respectively, for A. luna, and 1.6 and 2.7-fold, respectively, for C. promethea. There was also a small dose-dependent decrease in GSH in C. promethea, but not A. luna. Although histology indicates that the midgut is a target of juglone toxicity in C. promethea, GSH analyses from either species do not support the expectation that changes in GSH/GSSG explain differences in susceptibility to juglone toxicity. PMID:9827067

Thiboldeaux, R L; Lindroth, R L; Tracy, J W

1998-10-01

67

The toxicity of two Bacillus thuringiensis ? -endotoxins to gypsy moth larvae is inversely related to the affinity of binding sites on midgut brush border membranes for the toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The?-endotoxin fromBacillus thuringiensis subspecieskurstaki strain HD1-9 is almost 400 times more potent than the?-endotoxin from strain HD-73 as a gypsy moth larvicide. The two?-endotoxins compete for a high-affinity binding site on the brush border membrane of larval gypsy moth midguts. The affinity for the?-endotoxin from strain HD-73 is much greater than the affinity for the?-endotoxin from strain HD1-9.

M. G. Wolfersberger

1990-01-01

68

Comparative Activity of the Codling Moth Granulovirus Against Grapholita molesta and Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., CpGV, is now com- mercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. It is highly spe- cific for codling moth and related species. Comparative assays of CpGV against neonate larvae of another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, revealed a 557 and 589

LAWRENCE A. LACEY; STEVEN P. ARTHURS; HEATHER HEADRICK

69

Chemical ecology of the luna moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of food plant on larval performance and midgut detoxification enzymes were investigated in larvae of the luna moth,Actias luna. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of black cherry, cottonwood, quaking aspen, white willow, red oak, white oak, tulip tree, paper birch, black walnut, butternut, or shagbark hickory. First instar survival, larval duration, and pupal weights were monitored as indices

Richard L. Lindroth

1989-01-01

70

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

71

Luna moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

Shawn Hanrahan (None;)

2004-01-01

72

Effect of radio frequency heating as a potential quarantine treatment on the quality of ‘Bing’ sweet cherry fruit and mortality of codling moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Bing’ sweet cherry (Prunnus avium L.) fruit quality and fifth-instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) mortality were evaluated after radio frequency (RF) heating. The fruit were heated with radio frequency energy to four target temperatures (50, 52, 53 and 54°C), held in the RF-heated water for various holding times from 0.5 to 6min, and stored under simulated air or sea

M. E. Monzon; B. Biasi; T. L. Simpson; J. Johnson; X. Feng; D. C. Slaughter; E. J. Mitcham

2006-01-01

73

INJURY OF EUROPEAN SUNFLOWER MOTH (HOMOEOSOMA NEBULELLUM DENIS ET SCHIFFERMÜLLER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyírség is the most important production area of confectionary sunflower for browning purpose. Kisvárdai cultivar, applied most frequently for this purpose, has no shield achene containing phytomelane layer) to protect the seed against chewing of moth larva. Therefore the sunflower moth is an important quality and quantity influencing factor in confectionary sunflower production. Kisvárdai cultivar developed from local varieties in

Béla SZABÓ; Ferenc TÓTH; Sándor VÁGVÖLGYI

74

Analysis of wax solubility of rubber vulcanizates using wax solution in toluene and molten wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax is commonly used as an antidegradant for rubber materials by formation of an impervious barrier. Wax solubilities in natural rubber (NR), styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR), and butadiene rubber (BR) vulcanizates were measured using wax solution in toluene and molten wax. Wax solubilities using molten wax were much higher than those using wax solution in toluene. The wax solubility of NR

Sung-Seen Choi; Song-Hee Im; Je-Hwan Park; Jae Seong Kim

2009-01-01

75

Host plant selection by larvae of the muga silk moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the role of the antenna and maxillary palp.  

PubMed

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D S; Deka, B; Sen, A

2013-01-01

76

"From freeze with moths": first discovery of a habitat in Andean salars for noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Noctuid moths flutter in the high Andes nights at 4,000 m. s. n. m. Their larvae feed on aerial or underground parts of succulent plants. Many of these species are new to science. Strategies and adaptations of the moths for survival in the high Andes mountains are: a circulatory system that includes an abdominal thoracic countercurrent heat exchanger, and they are insulated from the environment by a coat of dense hair like scales. Recently, during January and July 2004, in the northern desert of Chile, called Salar de Punta Negra, under the salt crust we found a large number of pupae and larvae that correspond to three new species of noctuid moth - this pupation site is located in a 10 m wide area surrounding a water body; the mean observed density is 13 to 15 pupae per 100 cm(2). This is a new extreme habitat conquered by noctuid moths. PMID:17061807

Angulo, Andrés O; Camaño, Andrés; Angulo, Gino A

77

Summary of efficacy evaluations using aerially applied Gypchek against gypsy moth in the U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypchek, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nucleopolyhedrosis virus product, is manufactured by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service under controlled conditions in a laboratory strain of gypsy moth larvae. Gypchek was registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978 as a general use pesticide to control gypsy moth.

R. C. Reardon; J. D. Podgwaite

1994-01-01

78

Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moths are attracted to acetic acid, and to ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester. Acetic acid is a product of microbial fermentation of sugars, and ethyl (E,Z)-decadienoate is an odorant of pear, which is a host of codling moth larvae. Many more male and female codlling moths were att...

79

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OP THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OP THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, GRAPHOLITHA MOLESTA BUSCK, IN THE UNITED STATES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oriental fruit moth has caused considerable damage to fruit crops in the United States since its introduction from Japan about 1913. The greatest damage occurred dur- ing the period between 1930 and 1950, when fruit moth larvae damaged the tender shoots and fruit of peach and quince. Biological control, in the form of widespread releases of fruit-moth parasites imported

ROY W. RINGS

80

Wax separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles of solid wax are separated from a slurry comprising said wax particles and a hydrocarbon oil by filtering the slurry through a cloth filter medium. It has been found that using, as the filter medium, a needled-felt cloth fabricated from fibers fusible by means of an open flame and having a singed surface on which the wax is collected

Broadhurst

1980-01-01

81

Suitability, digestibility and assimilation of various host plants of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and survival of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is strongly influenced by the host plant upon which they feed. The most rapid development and largest pupae were produced from grey birch fed larvae. Beech and maple-fed larvae produced the smallest pupae while maple-fed larvae exhibited prolonged development. White and red oak-fed larvae exhibited development and pupal weights intermediate

Pedro Barbosa; Jane Greenblatt

1979-01-01

82

20-hydroxyecdysone deters oviposition and larval feeding in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

European grapevine moth females (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera Tortricidae) select an oviposition site by tasting the host plant surface and then gluing a single egg on berries from grapes or from several other host plant species. In doing so, females should avoid ovipositing on plants that are detrimental to their progeny. Do they sense the same deterrent compounds as larvae, despite the fact that they do not have access to the same compartments of the plants? We tested this hypothesis with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), purified from Leuzea carthamoides. Phytoecdysteroids are usually found inside plant tissues and accessible to larvae in an aqueous phase, while adults would access them only through the epicuticular wax. We first confirmed that larvae avoid feeding on 20E and that they taste 20E with their lateral sensilla styloconica, at a threshold of 10(-6) M. Then, we tested whether adult females avoid ovipositing on glass spheres sprayed with 20E. When given a choice, females avoided laying eggs on a treated surface, at a threshold of 8 ng/cm(2). In addition, they deposited significantly fewer eggs in the presence of 20E. Presuming that legs play an important role in assessing the oviposition substrate, we assessed the sensitivity of their taste receptors. In females, 14 taste sensilla are located on the ventral side of the last tarsus of the prothoracic leg. One group of these sensilla house one neuron that is sensitive to 20E, with a detection threshold of about 10(-7) M. The same molecule is thus sensed both in larvae and adults of L. botrana where it respectively inhibits feeding and oviposition. PMID:17082989

Calas, Delphine; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

2006-11-01

83

Transcriptome Analysis of the Chinese White Wax Scale Ericerus pela with Focus on Genes Involved in Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. Conclusion/Significance The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified.

Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

2012-01-01

84

Influence of Uncultivated Habitats and Native Host Plants on Cluster Infestation by Grape Berry Moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Michigan Vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitis grapevinesare the native host of the grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and are found in uncultivated habitatsthroughout eastern North America. Levelsof infes tation by grape berry moth larvae at vineyard bordersand interiorswere compared among vineyardsadjacent to four typesof uncultivated habitats: deciduouswoods, coniferouswoods, a single row of trees, and grasses. Adult male moths were monitored at these

Natalia Botero-Garcés; Rufus Isaacs

2004-01-01

85

Impact of aerially applied Bacillus thuringiensis and carbaryl on gypsy moth [ Lep.: Lymantriidae ] and adult parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, Dipel® (Bacillus thuringiensis\\u000a Berliner) and Sevin® 4 oil (carbaryl) were applied aerially on a dense population of gypsy moths,Lymantria dispar (L.), to evaluate the effect of these biological and chemical insecticides on gypsy moth larvae and adult parasites. Both\\u000a insecticides provided excellent protection of foliage (29 % average defoliation) and gypsy moth population reduction (99 %).\\u000a Significantly fewerBrachymeria

R. Reardon; W. Metterhouse; R. Balaam

1979-01-01

86

Mechanized Applicator for Large-Scale Field Deployment of Paraffin-Wax Dispensers of Pheromone for Mating Disruption in Tree Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tractor-mounted mechanized applicator was developed for large-scale deployment of parafÞn-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The wax formulation was mostly water and emulsiÞed parafÞn wax containing 5% (by weight) pheromone (93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate: (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol). Ten milliliters of wax was applied per tree as 160 deposits (0.04 ml of wax per

L. L. Stelinski; J. R. Miller; R. Ledebuhr; L. J. Gut

2006-01-01

87

Monitoring and Temperature-Based Prediction of the Whitemarked Tussock Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Blueberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidop- tera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology

Rufus Isaacs; Steven Van Timmeren

2009-01-01

88

In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)|

Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

1994-01-01

89

The toxicity of two Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins to gypsy moth larvae is inversely related to the affinity of binding sites on midgut brush border membranes for the toxins.  

PubMed

The delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain HD1-9 is almost 400 times more potent than the delta-endotoxin from strain HD-73 as a gypsy moth larvicide. The two delta-endotoxins compete for a high-affinity binding site on the brush border membrane of larval gypsy moth midguts. The affinity for the delta-endotoxin from strain HD-73 is much greater than the affinity for the delta-endotoxin from strain HD1-9. PMID:2161350

Wolfersberger, M G

1990-05-15

90

Mechanisms of Resistance to Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides in Oriental Fruit Moth Populations ( Grapholita Molesta Busck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of resistance to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides were investigated in larvae and adults of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta(Busck). Comparative studies with an N-methyl carbamate (carbofuran) tested with or without synergists indicated that more than one factor contributed to insecticide resistance in the oriental fruit moth. Increases in esterase activity in both larvae and adults of resistant strains toward

L. H. B Kanga; D. J Pree; J. L van Lier; K. J Whitty

1997-01-01

91

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

92

Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

93

CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS AND INSECT-SPECIFIC NEMATODES FOR CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent registration of commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus C. pomonella (CpGV) in the USA expands the options for control of neonate larvae in organic orchards and provides a biological alternative for conventional growers. Our results demonstrate that residual activity of a...

94

Timing Sprays by a Heat Unit Model of Spring Flight of the Nantucket Pine Tip Moth in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sprays of dimethoate and diflubenzuron were timed by a heat unit (HU) model to coincide with the predicted 20 and 80 percent of spring flight of the Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM). Attacks by tip moth larvae on loblolly pine tips were compared for timed s...

J. A. Richmond

1992-01-01

95

Effects on behavior of Apanteles melanoscelus females caused by modifications in extraction, storage, and presentation of Gypsy moth silk kairomone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choice experiments were performed to investigate details of femaleApanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) behavior when exposed to gypsy moth silk kairomone [Lymantria dispar (L.)] and to host larvae when kairomone is present. Female parasites only responded to the kairomone when it had been placed on thin strands such as cotton fibers. Both gypsy moth silk and silk glands contain the same or

Ronald M. Weseloh

1977-01-01

96

Sublethal effects of larval exposure to indoxacarb on reproductive activities of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal effects of larval exposure to indoxacarb on reproductive activities of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) were studied. The third instar male and female larvae of the diamondback moth were fed with collard leaves dipped with a lethal dose of 20% mortality of indoxacarb in order to determine its impact on reproductive activities of adult survivors. Females from indoxacarb

Guangli Wang; Xiaoling Huang; Hongyi Wei; Henry Y. Fadamiro

97

Synergism between Bacillus thuringiensis Spores and Toxins against Resistant and Susceptible Diamondback Moths (Plutella xylostella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis spores and toxins on the mortality of dia- mondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae in leaf residue bioassays. Spores of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki increased the toxicity of crystals of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki to both resistant and susceptible larvae. For B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, resistance ratios were 1,200 for a spore-crystal

YONG-BIAO LIU; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK; WILLIAM J. MOAR; ROBERT A. SMITH

1998-01-01

98

Laboratory Bioassays Testing the Host Range of the Gypsy Moth Fungal Pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga causes epizootics in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations, but little is known about the effects of this pathogen on other insect species. The host specificity of E. maimaiga was evaluated by externally inoculating larvae with conidia in the laboratory. Larvae were considered successfully infected if E. maimaiga produced spores in\\/on cadavers. A total of 78

A. E. Hajek; L. Butler; M. M. Wheeler

1995-01-01

99

Leaf phenolic inhibition of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus Role of polyhedral inclusion body aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays with nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) administered to gypsy moth larvae on leaf disks from various tree species reveal strong viral inhibition by some tree species. Phenolic extracts from inhibitory tree leaves cause virus polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) to form large aggregations. However, aggregated PIBs treated with leaf extracts and administered to larvae on laboratory diet (without phenolics) retain virulence.

Steven T. Keating; Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

1990-01-01

100

Development of Leather Wax by Oxidized Paraffin Wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass proportion paraffin and microcrystalline wax was adopted as raw material, and under certain conditions a catalyzed oxidation reaction took place, in which a sample with qualities and performance similar to that of natural carnauba wax was obtained. By using oxidation wax as experimental material and water as solvent, under the surfactants' action, after the reaction of emulsification, polishing

W. Huang

2010-01-01

101

Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2 cDNAs encoded isozymes that reduced fatty acids to fatty alcohols. Fatty acyl-CoA esters were the substrate of FAR1, and the enzyme required NADPH as a cofactor. FAR1 preferred saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as substrates, whereas FAR2 preferred saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons. Confocal light microscopy indicated that FAR1 and FAR2 were localized in the peroxisome. The FAR1 mRNA was detected in many mouse tissues with the highest level found in the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The FAR2 mRNA was more restricted in distribution and most abundant in the eyelid, which contains wax-laden meibomian glands. Both FAR mRNAs were present in the brain, a tissue rich in ether lipids. The data suggest that fatty alcohol synthesis in mammals is accomplished by two fatty acyl-CoA reductase isozymes that are expressed at high levels in tissues known to synthesize wax monoesters and ether lipids.

Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

2009-01-01

102

Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)  

SciTech Connect

Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

103

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

2005-04-01

104

Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?  

PubMed

Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

2004-09-22

105

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

106

Effect of Host Diet and Insect Source on Synergy of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Mortality to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki by Zwittermicin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwittermicin A acts synergistically with the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) larvae. The objective of this study was to assess the inßuence of insect source and diet on this synergy. Zwittermicin A increased the mortality caused by B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in gypsy moths collected from four population sources feeding on

N. A. Broderick; R. M. Goodman; J. Handelsman; K. F. Raffa

2003-01-01

107

Host-Plant Utilization of Two Luna Moths((((Actias spp.))))on Liquidambar formosana and Cinnamomum camphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of host plants on larval performance were investigated in larvae of the luna moths, Actias selene ningpoana Felder & Felder and Actias heterogyna subaurea Kishida. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance and Cinnamomum camphora Presl. Larval survival, weight, duration, food processing efficiencies, pupal weight, and pupal duration were monitored as indices of food quality. To

Chih-Wei Wang; Li Lin; Jen-Wei Liu; Shaw-Yhi Hwang

2003-01-01

108

Diffraction Between Wax Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore diffraction by adding wax blocks to a ripple tank. The wedge-shaped blocks act as obstacles that the wave must bend around. Learners will observe this phenomenon as well as the semicircular waves that emerge from the narrow opening between the blocks. Learners experiment by changing the size of the opening and seeing what effect it has on the emerging waves. This activity is recommended as a follow-up to "The Ripple Tank" activity and can be supplemented by the "Interference in a Ripple Tank" activity (see related resources).

Cobb, Vicki; Cobb, Josh

2008-01-01

109

APPLE WAXING AFTER METHYL BROMIDE FUMIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic methyl bromide (MeBr) residue present in fumigated apples, after waxing, is dependent upon the type of wax used and the time after MeBr exposure. Use of carnauba wax allows the MeBr residue to dissipate faster than does the use of shellac wax. With carnauba wax, the MeBr residue levels were less than 0.001 ppm when apples were waxed 5

S. R. Drake; J. D. Hansen; H. R. Moffitt

110

Effects of elicitation treatment and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus : impacts on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) development and feeding behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of various wounding treatments and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus (Salicales: Salicaceae) against herbivory by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Second-instar larvae grew and consumed less on leaves from induced than non-induced trees.\\u000a Likewise, larvae preferred leaf disks from non-induced trees. Among induction treatments, gypsy moth feeding had the strongest\\u000a and

Nathan P. Havill; Kenneth F. Raffa

1999-01-01

111

Diverse population trajectories among coexisting species of subarctic forest moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of 232 moth species spanning 26 years (total catch of ca. 230,000 specimens), obtained by continuous light-trapping\\u000a in Kevo, northernmost subarctic Finland, were used to examine the hypothesis that life-history traits and taxonomic position\\u000a contribute to both relative abundance and temporal variability of Lepidoptera. Species with detritophagous or moss-feeding\\u000a larvae, species hibernating in the larval stage, and species pupating during

Mikhail V. KozlovMark; Mark D. Hunter; Seppo Koponen; Jari Kouki; Pekka Niemelä; Peter W. Price

2010-01-01

112

FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS: PERSISTENCE OF ACTIVITY AND SUCCESS OF SEASONAL APPLICATIONS AGAINST NATURAL INFESTATIONS OF CODLING MOTH IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ORCHARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Applications of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), which target neonate larvae before or during initial entry into fruit, offer potential for selective control of this key pest. In field tests we compared the persistence and efficacy of single applications of three CpGV products approved for orga...

113

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

114

EFFECTS OF INSECTICIDE-INDUCED REDUCTION IN LEPIDOPTERAN LARVAE ON REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF HOODED WARBLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of an insecticide-induced reduction of lepidopteran larvae due to spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis to eradicate gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) on the reproduction of Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina). Treatment plots had two appli- cations of Bacillus in 1994. No Bacillus application occurred in 1995. Reductions in lepidop- teran larvae were demonstrated by pheromone traps and arthropod samples

LAURA R. NAGYAND; KIMBERLY G. SMITH

115

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-07-14

116

Wax treatment of wood slows photodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waxes and wax emulsions are one of the most important solutions for non-biocidal wood protection. Wax treated wood is designed for outdoor use, therefore it is of considerable importance to elucidate the influence of weathering on the photodegradation processes. It is presumed, that wax treatment will reduce water uptake and thus reduce or slow down photodegradation processes. In order to

Boštjan Lesar; Matjaž Pavli?; Marko Petri?; Andrijana Sever Škapin; Miha Humar

2011-01-01

117

Inhibiting wax deposition from a wax-containing oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for inhibiting was deposition in an oil well producing a wax-containing oil. It comprises: injecting down-hole into the oil-pool at the base of the well a wax-inhibiting amount of a copolymer of between about 62 and about 66 weight percent ethylene and about 34 and about 38 weight percent vinyl acetate, aid copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 35,000.

Zilch, H.E.

1990-03-06

118

Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations. PMID:16022304

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2005-06-01

119

Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

1995-01-01

120

Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.  

PubMed

Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2005-06-01

121

Thermal properties of jojoba wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal behaviour of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) liquid wax was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), varying the annealing conditions. The fusion enthalpy (?Hf) of the unannealed material was 27.1 cal\\/g; the relationship between heat capacity (Cp) and temperature could be expressed by the following equation:Cp=9.51×10?4 T+0.129. It was found that Jojoba wax presents four endothermic transitions (?, ?, ?

V. González-González; R. O. Valero-Coss; E. Campos-López

1979-01-01

122

Lethal dose and associated effects of Bacillus thuringiensis in sprayed droplets against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility of third instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) to Bacillus thuringiensis in the formulated product Foray 48B (Novo Nordisk Bioindustrials, Inc., Danbury, CT) was evaluated. The bioassay technique involved feeding larvae droplets of the formulation sprayed on leaf discs. The amount of leaf material consumed, time to mortality, and weight increase were measured. The LD95 was 21.1 International Units

S. L. Ratcliffe; W. G. Yendol

1993-01-01

123

Survival of diverse Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pests, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. We have tested lepidopteran-toxic B. thuringiensis strains with diverse substrate utilization profiles for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed

Phyllis A. W. Martin; Robert R. Farrar Jr.; Michael B. Blackburn

2009-01-01

124

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

125

The Importance of Pear Ester in Codling Moth Monitoring and Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following the discovery of the attractiveness of pear ester for adult and larvae of codling moth research has developed this ripe pear volatile to improve the monitoring and management of this key pest of apple, pear, and walnut. A lure loaded with pear ester and codlemone has become the most widely...

126

Signal Mimics Derived from a Metagenomic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Gut Microbiota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial signaling is an important part of community life, but little is known about the signal transduction pathways of the as-yet-uncultured members of microbial communities. To address this gap, we aimed to identify genes directing the synthesis of signals in uncultured bacteria associated with the midguts of gypsy moth larvae. We constructed a metagenomic library consisting of DNA extracted directly

Changhui Guan; Jianhua Ju; Bradley R. Borlee; Lynn L. Williamson; Ben Shen; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jo Handelsman

2007-01-01

127

Waxworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult waxworm moths lay eggs. The eggs hatch into waxworm larvae. The larvae pupate and spin cocoons in which metamorphosis occurs. The waxworms emerge from the cocoons as adult greater waxworm moths. Adult waxworm moths can take over weak beehives and lay their eggs there. The larvae will eat the wax hives and destroy them.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-05

128

Pheromone Transduction in Moths  

PubMed Central

Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30?Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLC?-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

Stengl, Monika

2010-01-01

129

Smell and Hearing in Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

``J. C.'' seems to draw inferences that moths have not the power of smell but have that of hearing. I feel quite certain they possess the former, but am in doubt about the latter. For the purpose of catching moths I use a preparation of beer and sugar boiled together, to which (after boiling) is added a little spirit, placing

K. E. H

1877-01-01

130

IMPROVEMENTS IN MONITORING CODLING MOTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three types of experiments were conducted this year that relate to improving the monitoring of codling moth in apple and pear orchards. The Biolure 10X lure was found to catch more moths than the Superlure (Bubble lure) in orchards treated with either 200 or 400 Isomate C+ dispensers or 100 or 200 I...

131

Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.  

PubMed

We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

132

Integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in peach orchards using insecticide and mating disruption.  

PubMed

The efficacy of an integrated and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), control program was compared using 4-ha blocks of peach at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 1997-1999. In the integrated program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and mating disruption using Isomate M100 pheromone dispensers was used to control the second and third generations. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and pyrethroids were used to control larvae of the later generations. The average release rate of pheromone was 23.7-26.4 mg/ha/h over a period of 86-91 d. The pheromone treatment reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps on average by 98%, suggesting a high level of disruption. The integrated program provided control of oriental fruit moth similar to the control provided by a conventional program. The mean percentage of peach shoots infested with first- and second-generation larvae, and fruit infested with third-generation larvae was not significantly greater in the integrated-program blocks during the 3-yr study. The elimination of insecticide sprays from the integrated-program blocks did not result in an increase in damage caused by plant bugs. The incidence of damage caused by other pests was negligible in both the integrated and conventional blocks. PMID:11332842

Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Carter, N J

2001-04-01

133

Crystallization of sunflower oil waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation free energies of nucleation (?G\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a ) were calculated using induction times of crystallization measurements. Results showed that ?G\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a decreased exponentially as wax concentration increased at a constant crystallization temperature (T\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a ). In contrast, for a constant supersaturation, ?G\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a increased from 12 to 22C but decreased between 22 and 35C. Melting behavior of purified waxes and

S. Martini; M. C. Añón

2003-01-01

134

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-24

135

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known...

2009-04-01

136

Adjusting the phenology model of codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in Washington State apple orchards.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., to fit cumulative curves for the occurrence of injured fruits and male moth catches in sex pheromone-baited traps as a function of accumulated degree-days after the start of moth flight. Twelve data sets were collected from seven apple, Malus domestica Bordhausen, orchards in Washington State from 2003 to 2006. Cumulative data were grouped across years for orchards either treated with sex pheromone dispensers or untreated and fit to logistic equations for both the first and second generation. No significant differences were found for the cumulative curves of moth flight or egg hatch between pheromone-treated and untreated orchards; thus, these data were combined. These new logistic models for moth flight and egg hatch were compared with a widely used distributed-delay model originally developed in Michigan. The cumulative flight curves for the logistic and distributed-delay models were statistically different (slopes) for the first but not the second generation. Cumulative egg hatch in the logistic model was significantly different from the distributed-delay model (intercepts and slopes) for both generations. Most strikingly, the timing of 50% egg hatch during the first generation was delayed 100 DD in the logistic model. The potential impact of this change in the characterization of codling moth's phenology on the effectiveness of insecticide programs targeting eggs and newly eclosed larvae was examined. Possible explanations for this significant difference between the models are discussed. PMID:18284777

Knight, A L

2007-12-01

137

Internally Sealed Concrete: Wax Beads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the placement, heating, and testing of two test sites: a salt shed floor, and a bridge deck span. Wax beads were mixed with fresh concrete and used as a 1.5 in. (38 mm) overlay on the salt house floor slab. In the construction of the br...

J. C. Stewart

1978-01-01

138

Detection of Gypsy Moth Defoliation--Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses satellite remote sensing images to identify the forest defoliation caused by Gypsy Moth Larva. The continued annual defoliation causes the trees to die and results in a significant loss in the value of the forests. The project study area covers the highland mountain areas of Virginia and West Virginia in the 2001 growing season, as both satellite images and other proof of defoliation are available for that year. The educational materials are available for download in PDF, ZIP and RAR format.

2012-03-09

139

Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar  

SciTech Connect

Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

Rossiter, M.

1987-08-01

140

Season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by one machine application of pheromone in wax drops (SPLAT-OFM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel emulsified wax dispenser (SPLAT-OFM) of pheromone was evaluated in concert with a custom-built, tractor-mounted applicator,\\u000a designed for fast application of dispensers for mating disruption of Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in apple. The formulation consisted of microcrystalline wax emulsified in water. It was loaded with G. molesta pheromone (93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol) at 10% by weight. The

L. L. Stelinski; J. R. Miller; R. Ledebuhr; P. Siegert; L. J. Gut

2007-01-01

141

Depilatory Wax Burns: Experience and Investigation  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To retrospectively collect data on patients with burn injury due to hot depilatory wax. To investigate the effect of varying microwave output power on wax temperature. To determine whether instructions provided by manufacturers allow safe domestic use. Methods: Data from the RAH burns database was collected for patients with wax-induced burns between January 1991 and January 2010. Wax temperatures were tested in a pilot study (4 wax products heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 900 W, and 1100 (W) and a definitive study (5 wax products, 3 of each, heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 1000 W, and 1200 (W). A number of different heating regimens were employed and temperatures were recorded using an infrared thermometer. Results: Twenty-one patients were studied. Mean age was 26.5 years. The majority of burns were superficial (33.3%) or partial thickness (25.8%). The right hand was most commonly affected (38.1%), the mean total body surface area was 1%. The pilot study revealed an increase in wax temperature with the number of times the wax was heated. During definitive wax temperature testing, the maximum wax temperature recorded was 108.5°C. Seventeen of 60 wax surface temperatures recorded exceeded 90°C, 9 exceeded 100°C. Ninety-three percent of the stirred wax temperatures showed an increase in wax temperature with an increase in microwave power output. Conclusion: Microwave-heated hair-removal wax has the potential to reach unsafe temperatures and cause burn injury, even when manufacture's heating instructions are followed. Safe use in domestic setting requires improvements in instructions provided by the manufacturer.

Chang, Angela C; Watson, Katherine M; Aston, Tara L; Wagstaff, Marcus JD; Greenwood, John E

2011-01-01

142

NMR investigation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes. II. Hard wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see J.A.J. Lourens and E.C. Reynhardt, ibid., vol.12, p.1963 (1970). The proton spin-lattice relaxation time and the liquid content of polycrystalline hard wax, average chain length m=50 carbon atoms and chain length disorder Delta m=15.7, were determined as a function of temperature (385>T>118K). In the low-temperature phase (T308K) is dominated by the gradual melting of the crystalline phase

E C Reynhardt

1985-01-01

143

EFFICACY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND DIFLUBENZURON ON DOUGLAS-FIR AND OAK FOR GYPSY MOTH CONTROL IN OREGON1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticides Bacillus thuringlensis (Bt) and diflubenzuron (DFB) were tested for the effect of killing se- cond instar gypsy moth larvae on foliage of Douglas-fir and Oregon white oak. Larval mortality differed significantly bet- ween the insecticides and check treatments. No significant dif- ferences in larval mortality were observed after one treatment of Bt or DFB, or after two treatments

Jeffrey C. Miller; Kenneth J. West

144

A Stilbene Optical Brightener can Enhance Bacterial Pathogenicity to Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stilbene optical brighteners were first investigated to protect biological control agents such as viruses, fungi, and nematodes against ultraviolet light. Some are known to enhance the activity of insect viruses in Lepidoptera. In this work, one stilbene brightener, Tinopal LPW, also increased mortality of gypsy moth and Colorado potato beetle larvae when treated with bacteria\\/optical brightener combinations. This increase in

Phyllis A. W. Martin

2004-01-01

145

Modeling Seasonal Development of the Gypsy Moth in a Novel Environment for Decision Support of an Eradication Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of field -caged egg masses of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, indicate that overwinter survival of the insect is very high in this area. Emergence of larvae in the spring occurred over a period of 4 to 5 weeks. These observations were used to validate a process -oriented phenology model that

VINCENT NEALIS; JACQUES RÉGNIÈRE; DAVID GRAY

146

Efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. in the greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa collected from Ambon (Maluku, Indonesia) against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., feeding on cabbage. Three greenhouse trials were carried out using aqueous seed extracts and an aqueous emulsion of ethanolic seed extracts. At a concentration of 0.5% (w\\/v), an aqueous emulsion of an

J Audrey Leatemia; Murray B Isman

2004-01-01

147

Starvation resistance of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): tradeoffs among growth, body size, and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and body composition of starving gypsy moth larvae initially reared on aspen foliage or artificial diet differeing in nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate concentration were examined under laboratory conditions. Diet nitrogen concentration strongly affected starvation resistance and body composition, but diet carbohydrate content had no effects on these. Within any single diet treatment, greater body mass afforded greater resistance to

Brian A. Stockhoff

1991-01-01

148

Controlling Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches Using Mating Disruption and Assessing the Problem in Apples Project Leader(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increase of peach acreage in NY by 11%, and 30% in numbers of peach trees planted. The increase has mainly been in processing peaches. Most of these plantings are interplanted near apple and pear orchards. The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) larva is an internal fruit pest of peaches, apples, and pear, and it feeds on shoots

Deborah I. Breth; A. Agnello

149

Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1993-02-01

150

Decline in gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) performance in an elevated CO 2 atmosphere depends upon host plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species differ broadly in their responses to an elevated CO2 atmosphere, particularly in the extent of nitrogen dilution of leaf tissue. Insect herbivores are often limited by the availability of nutrients, such as nitrogen, in their host plant tissue and may therefore respond differentially on different plant species grown in CO2-enriched environments. We reared gyspy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar)

M. B. Traw; R. L. Lindroth; F. A. Bazzaz

1996-01-01

151

Hostplant, larval age, and feeding behavior influence midgut pH in the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The midgut pH of late instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae is strongly alkaline, and varies with diet, larval stadium, and time since feeding. Midgut pH rises with time since feeding, and does so more quickly, reaching greater maximum values, on some diets than others. Leaf tissues of 23 tree species resist increases in alkalinity differentially; this trait and

J. C. Schultz; M. J. Lechowicz

1986-01-01

152

Relationships between leaf age and the food quality of cottonwood foliage for the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides, continues to produce leaves late into the growing season, exposing midseason herbivores to leaves of a wide range of maturity. Gypsy moth larvae preferred and grew best on the oldest cottonwood leaves and suffered higher mortality and 85% less growth when fed young, expanding leaves. Concentration of phenolics in the youngest leaves was 3 times

G. A. Meyer; M. E. Montgomery

1987-01-01

153

Postembryonic development of leucokinin I-immunoreactive neurons innervating a neurohemal organ in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the abdominal ganglia of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, an antibody against the cockroach neuropeptide leucokinin I recognizes neurons with varicose fibers and terminals innervating the perisympathetic neurohemal organs. In the larva, the abdominal perisympathetic organs consist of a segmental series of discrete neurohemal swellings on the dorsal unpaired nerve and the transverse nerves originating at its bifurcation. These

Rafael Cantera; Bill S. Hansson; Erik Hallberg; Dick R. Nässel

1992-01-01

154

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

155

Wax Ester and Triacylglycerol Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral lipids such as wax esters (WEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) are frequently accumulated as energy and carbon stores\\u000a in certain groups of bacteria. The biosynthesis of these lipids is promoted in cells grown during unbalanced growth, if an\\u000a essential nutrient is limited and a surplus of a carbon source is available. They are again mobilized under conditions of\\u000a carbon and

Marc Wältermann; Alexander Steinbüchel

156

Male Oriental Fruit Moth Response to a Combined Pheromone-Based Attracticide Formulation Targeting Both Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a Þeld trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited

Maya L. Evenden; John R. McClaughlin

2005-01-01

157

Temperature dependence of the cell parameters of Fischer-Tropsch waxes: hard wax and oxidised hard wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell dimensions of two Fischer-Tropsch waxes, namely hard wax and oxidised hard wax, have been measured as a function of temperature from 80K to the melting points. Above room temperature the expansion of the lattices is less dramatic than in the n-alkane C33H68 but it is also mainly in the b direction. Potential energy calculations show that the most

E. C. Reynhardt

1986-01-01

158

Material properties for predicting wax pattern dimensions in investment casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important factor in determining tooling allowances in investment casting is the dimensional change of the wax pattern. Dimensional changes between a pattern die and its wax pattern occur as a result of complex phenomena such as thermal expansion–contraction and hot deformation (elastic, plastic, and creep). Thus, the wax pattern dimensions are determined by the wax’s thermophysical and thermomechanical properties,

Adrian S Sabau; Srinath Viswanathan

2003-01-01

159

Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

Neven, Lisa G

2012-04-01

160

The solubility of waxes in chloronitroalkanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The solubilities of waxes having different melting points and of dewaxed diesel fuels and oils in chloro-nitroalkanes, in acetone, and in methylethylketone have been investigated.2.The solubilities of wax hydrocarbons in chloronitroalkanes increases with a reduction in the melting point of the wax and with a reduction in the temperature of dissolution process.3.As the number of carbon atoms in the chloronitroalkanes

S. V. Bondarev; L. M. Kozlov

1968-01-01

161

Component composition of deresined brown coal wax  

SciTech Connect

The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

L.P. Noskova [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russia). Institute of Geology and Nature Management

2008-10-15

162

Dewaxing process using agitated heat exchanger to chill solvent-oil and wax slurry to wax filtration temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an improved process for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils, wherein said waxy oil is cooled in an indirect chilling zone to a temperature greater than the wax separation temperature whereby wax is precipitated to form a wax-oil-solvent slurry, cooling the slurry to the wax separation temperature in an indirect chilling zone thereby precipitating a further portion of wax from said

Broadhurst; Th. E

1984-01-01

163

Mechanized applicator for large-scale field deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption in tree fruit.  

PubMed

A tractor-mounted mechanized applicator was developed for large-scale deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The wax formulation was mostly water and emulsified paraffin wax containing 5% (by weight) pheromone [93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate: (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol]. Ten milliliters of wax was applied per tree as approximately 160 deposits (0.04 ml of wax per drop). An average of 23 min was required to treat 1 ha of crop. Disruption efficacy of mechanically applied wax was measured relative to an untreated control in replicated 0.4-ha blocks within a recently abandoned apple orchard. From 6 May to 27 June, 100% disruption of tethered virgin females and 97% inhibition of pheromone traps was achieved for 52 d with two applications of wax. However, during mid- to late summer (July-August), this level of efficacy was maintained for only approximately 1 wk after each of two applications. Higher temperatures later in the season may have accounted for abbreviated efficacy of the applied small drops. Mechanically applied paraffin-wax technology may increase adoption of mating disruption given that a higher level of efficacy was achieved despite deploying less active ingredient per hectare relative to that used with reservoir dispensers. The savings in labor by not requiring hand application of reservoir dispensers could be directed toward cost of machinery. However, the short duration of efficacy obtained with the current wax formulation and mechanical applicator is judged uneconomical given the eight or more applications that would have been required for high-performance disruption over the full season. Larger drops with lower surface area-to-volume ratios are expected to prolong pheromone release for extended efficacy and desirable overall economics. PMID:17066802

Stelinski, L L; Miller, J R; Ledebuhr, R; Gut, L J

2006-10-01

164

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2013-04-01

165

Evaluation of potential versus realized primary infection of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) by Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales).  

PubMed

The fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has provided important biological control of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), since the first epizootics occurred in the northeastern United States in 1989. Epizootics are initiated by germination of soil-borne resting spores, which are highly sensitive to spring temperature and moisture. We compared gypsy moth infection by E. maimaiga in 33 oak stands in Michigan with infection under optimal laboratory conditions from 1999 to 2001 to assess differences between potential and realized efficacy of E. maimaiga. Field bioassays were conducted by exposing laboratory-reared, fourth-instar gypsy moth to soil at the base of oak trees for 4 d. Additional larvae were similarly exposed to soil collected from the field plots in laboratory bioassays with temperature, humidity, and moisture levels optimal for fungal germination. Overall E. maimaiga infection ranged from means of 3.2-29.8% in the field compared with 20.9-59.7% in the laboratory during three field seasons. Resting spore density in soil and gypsy moth egg mass density were significant predictors of field infections in two of the 3 yr, whereas resting spore density was a significant predictor of laboratory infections each year. Other variables that significantly predicted laboratory infections in one of the 3 yr included egg mass density, canopy cover, and soil pH. In laboratory bioassays, soil pH and E. maimaiga resting spore density were positively associated with increasing E. maimaiga infection rates of gypsy moth larvae. PMID:23068167

Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Wheeler, Micheal M; Hajek, Ann E

2012-10-01

166

AFM study of paraffin wax surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraffin wax surfaces cast against NaCl crystals, silicon wafers and a silicone elastomer used for microcontact printing, Sylgard®, were the subject of AFM morphology and surface roughness investigations. A distinctive stepped texture has been found on the paraffin wax surface, suggestive of layered crystals. Step heights measured across paraffin flat surface were in the range between 3 and 30nm, with

Marek ?bik; Roger G. Horn; Neil Shaw

2006-01-01

167

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19 -C23 dibasic acids and a high content of tripalmitin. It is prepared from the mesocarp by hot pressing...

2013-04-01

168

Triterpene methyl ethers from palmae epicuticular waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cylindrin and lupeol methyl ether were isolated for the first time from Palmae leaf epicuticular waxes. Butia capitata and Orbignya spp. contain large amounts of ethers, but these are absent in Arecastrum romanzoffianum. A new triterpene methyl ether was isolated from O. phalerata wax. The new compound was characterized as 3-?-methoxy lupane.

S. García; H. Heinzen; C. Hubbuch; R. Martínez; X. de Vries; P. Moyna

1995-01-01

169

Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)|

Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

1998-01-01

170

Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.  

PubMed

The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates. PMID:20857763

Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

2010-08-01

171

[Demonstration of the remote effect of baculovirus vertical transmission, with gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) as an example].  

PubMed

It is demonstrated for the first time that viral infection can be formed in insects survived after infection of gypsy moth larvae by nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), and cause subsequent mortality of individuals during, at minimum, two generations (the period of observations). The vertical virus transmission is carried by both male and female insects survived after infection. It is shown by means of PCR that the level of virus carrying in gypsy moth embryos of generations F1 and F2 is higher than the number of insects killed by NPV. PMID:23136793

Il'inykh, A V; Polenogova, O V

172

HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

173

GYPSY MOTH MATING DISRUPTION RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2000, 82% of the nearly 2.9 million acres treated in the federal Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Program (STS) used mating disruption. It is a preferred tactic because it is target specific, inexpensive, and effective. To date the program has exceeded its spread rate reduction goals, resul...

174

78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY...environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program. DATES: Effective Date...of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

2013-04-22

175

The Nantucket pine tip moth: old problems, new research ...  

Treesearch

The Pine Tip Moth Research Consortium was formed in 1995 to increase ... tip moth damage, interactions of the moth with different forest management ... However it is a larger file size and some people may experience long download times.

176

Performance of the cyclic autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, in relation to birch mast seeding.  

PubMed

The mast depression hypothesis has been put forward to explain the 9- to 10-year population cycle of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northern Fennoscandia. We analysed long-term data from Finnish Lapland in order to evaluate the critical assumption of the mast depression hypothesis: that better individual performance of herbivores, followed by high annual growth rate of populations, occurs in the year following mast seeding of the host, the mountain birch ( Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii). Since mast seeding has been suggested to occur at the expense of chemical defence against herbivores, we bioassayed the quality of birch leaves from the same trees by means of yearly growth trials with autumnal moth larvae. We also measured the size of wild adults as a determinant of potential fecundity of the species in different years. The relative growth rate of larvae was poorer in post-mast years compared to other years, rather than better as assumed by the hypothesis. Conversely, a slight indication of the increase in potential fecundity was observed due to the somewhat larger adult size in post-mast years. Population growth rate estimates, however, showed that the increase in fecundity would have to be much higher to facilitate population increase towards a cyclic peak with outbreak density. Accordingly, our two data sets do not support the assumption of a higher annual growth rate in autumnal moth populations subsequent to mast seeding of the host, thereby contradicting the predictions of the mast depression hypothesis. Temperatures, when indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation and accumulated thermal sums, were observed to correlate with the abundance or rate of population change of the autumnal moth. The factors underlying the regular population cycles of the autumnal moth, however, remain unidentified. Overall, we suggest that the causal agents in cyclic insect population dynamics should be clarified by field experimentation, since trophic interactions are complex and are further modified by abiotic factors such as climate. PMID:12721824

Klemola, Tero; Hanhimäki, Sinikka; Ruohomäki, Kai; Senn, Josef; Tanhuanpää, Miia; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Ranta, Hanna; Haukioja, Erkki

2003-03-01

177

Control of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), with Steinernema carpocapsae: Effects of Supplemental Wetting and Pupation Site on Infection Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of cocooned codling moth (cydia pomonella) larvae by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae was studied in three field experiments. Factors that varied within or between experiments included method of application, type of substrate containing cocooned larvae, time when nematodes were applied, seasonal effects, and supplemental wetting before or after nematode application. Conventional air-blast sprayer applications of 0.5–5.0 million infective

Thomas R. Unruh; Lawrence A. Lacey

2001-01-01

178

Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.  

PubMed

The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (< or = 1%) in mating disruption blocks and was generally lower than in conventional and nonmanaged blocks. Based on male moth response to pheromone traps in small plots, there was little difference among doses of sprayable pheromone, ranging from 12.4 to 49.1 g (AI)/ha, but efficacy declined at 2.4 g (AI)/ha. With the exception of one orchard, there was no significant difference between 12.4 and 37.1 g (AI)/ha under low and high oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards. PMID:16156578

Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2005-08-01

179

Process for producing a petroleum wax composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

Jones, R.L.

1991-04-23

180

Protein isolation from ear wax made easy.  

PubMed

Cerumen is a waxy substance with a mixture of different lipids and and not yet identified proteins. Analysing ear wax can be quite laborious because of the different and sometimes interfering components. Therefore, time-consuming techniques such as chromatography or spectrometry were used to gain informations about the components of ear wax. Conclusions were drawn from immunohistochemical detections of special proteins within the skin or the glands of the external ear canal about the existence of these proteins within the ear wax. But directly analysing the proteins within the ear wax was difficult. We, therefore, worked out a method to isolate proteins from ear wax. Ear wax was collected from 16 adults with no infections of the external ear canal. The protein isolation was conducted using the Qproteome Mammalian Protein Prep Kit by Qiagen in two different kind of ways (cell and lysat fraction). Afterwards, we performed a quantification of the total protein concentration using the BCA method. There was a statistical significant difference in the total protein concentration between the two different (cell and lysat fraction) described ways. Furthermore, it is a fast and easy method to extract proteins from ear wax. The benefit of the described method and the field of application will be discussed. PMID:19347346

Schwaab, Matthias; Hansen, Stefan; Gurr, Andre; Schwaab, Thomas; Minovi, Amir; Sudhoff, Holger; Dazert, Stefan

2009-04-04

181

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae’s cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD90 and LD99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

182

Aerial spray trials in 1992 and 1993 against gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), using nuclear polyhedrosis virus with and without an optical brightener compared to Bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial spray field trials were conducted in 1992 and 1993 to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the dosage of nuclear polyhedrosis virus applied against gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), larvae from a double application of 5 × 1011 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) ha?1 (total 1012 PIB ha?1) to double applications of 5 × 1010PIB ha?1 (total 1011 PIB ha?1) or

J. C. Cunningham; K. W. Brown; N. J. Payne; R. E. Mickle; G. G. Grant; R. A. Fleming; A. Robinson; R. D. Curry; D. Langevin; T. Burns

1997-01-01

183

Historical Review of Control Programs for Levuana iridescens (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) in Fiji and Examination of Possible Extinction of This Moth by Bessa remota (Diptera: Tachinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut production in Fiji was a mainstay of the economy and indig- enous culture in the late 1800s to early 1900s. From around 1877 coconut pro- duction on Viti Levu was severely affected by Levuana iridescens Betheune- Baker, a small purple moth, whose larvae trenched the underside of coconut leaves. A variety of cultural and chemical control strategies over approximately

Mark S. Hoddle

2006-01-01

184

CONTROL OF ARTIFICAL POPULATIONS OF THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPETERA: PLUTELLIDAE) ON COLLARD BY A NUCLEOPPLYTHEDROVIRUS WITH A STILLBENE-BASED ENHANCER AND AN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT PROTECTANT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nucleopolyhedrovirus of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (PxMNPV), was evaluated against artificial populations of this insect in small plots of collard, Brassica oleracea L. PxMNPV reduced numbers of larvae in all tests. Further reductions were obtained with the addition of a fl...

185

Wax or Plastic Coated Phosphor Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphor grains coated with wax or plastic coating compositions comprising hydrocarbons are useful as tagging phosphors for explosives. The coating composition can incorporate UV opacifiers, coloring agents or antistatic agents, or mixtures of them.

H. R. Heytmeijer E. S. Panaccione

1976-01-01

186

Structures and molecular dynamics of plant waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waxes from the leaves of Fagus sylvaticaL. (European beech tree) and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) have been investigated using NMR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and gas chromatographic methods. The wax from Fagus sylvatica, consisting mainly of n-alkanals, n-alkanes and 1-alkanols, has chain-lengths ranging from 20 to 52 carbon atoms with an average chain-length of 30.5 carbon atoms. The X-ray results show

E. C. Reynhardt; M. Riederer

1994-01-01

187

Melting points of synthetic wax esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated, monoenoic and dienoic wax esters, C26?C40, have been synthesized from even-numbered fatty alcohols and acids. In homologous series of saturated esters, the increments\\u000a of melting points follow a regular trend except for those esters which have an acid moiety two carbon atoms shorter than the\\u000a alcohol moiety. These wax esters have melting points higher than interpolation would predict. Monoenoic

B. T. R. Iyengar; H. Schlenk

1969-01-01

188

NMR investigation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the proton second moment and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time as a function of temperature in two Fischer-Tropsch waxes having average carbon numbers of 28 and 28.5 is reported. The temperature dependence of the motional behaviour of the chains in the waxes differs significantly from the behaviour in the normal compound n-C28H58. As revealed by the second moment

J. A. J. Lourens; E. C. Reynhardt

1979-01-01

189

Laminar Smoke Points of Wax Candles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of laminar smoke points of candle flames is presented. Adjustable wicks with diameters of 1.7–7.3 mm were used to measure smoke points in quiescent air for 14 different waxes. The measured smoke points increased with wick diameter. Smoke points interpolated to a wick diameter of 4.5 mm varied from 41–80 mm and increased from commercial waxes (candelilla, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin)

Kathryn M. Allan; John R. Kaminski; Jerry C. Bertrand; Jeb Head; Peter B. Sunderland

2009-01-01

190

Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

2010-01-01

191

Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  

PubMed Central

Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer).

Rozsypal, Jan; Kostal, Vladimir; Zahradnickova, Helena; Simek, Petr

2013-01-01

192

Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

2006-11-01

193

Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips.  

PubMed

We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. PMID:20689865

Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

2010-08-05

194

Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

2011-02-06

195

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal  

PubMed Central

Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-?-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen.

Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

2011-01-01

196

Gypsy moth mating disruption: Dosage effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small (1-hectare) plots in a dense gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infestation were treated with 5, 50, or 500 g racemic disparlure, and effects on male trap catch and mating behavior were studied. Capture of males in traps baited with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 µg (+)-disparlure declined as disruptant dosages increased. Traps with high levels of attractant caught moths when

Charles P. Schwalbe; Victor C. Mastro

1988-01-01

197

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype system that uses moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of moths trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as bombs or landmines, are present. The device was designed to be portable by making it lightweight, battery-powered,

T. L. King; Frank Moore Horine; K. C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2003-01-01

198

The Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella as an Alternative Model Host for Human Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pathogenic infections are the cause of millions of deaths all over the world. Limitations in the use of mammalian models and\\u000a requirements for novel strategies to counter resistant bugs have led to the emergence of insects as alternative models. Insects\\u000a are widely used as feasible and convenient model systems to evaluate pathogenesis of numerous human pathogens. The fruit fly\\u000a Drosophila

Krishnendu Mukherjee; Eugen Domann; Torsten Hain

199

Conversion of an Investment Casting Sprue Wax to a Pattern Wax by Chemical Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the properties of a commercial investment casting sprue wax (B97) were modified to improve its properties so it can be used as a pattern wax in investment casting. For this purpose, some colloids (gum arabic, pectin, agar, polyvinylpyrrolidone-40, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, alginic acid, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, silicon, tannic acid, saponin), some surface active agents (sodium dodecyl sulfate, sorbitane oleostearate,

Senay Ta?c?o?lu; Ne?et Akar

2003-01-01

200

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

201

EFFECTS OF GROUND-BASED APPLICATIONS OF SOAP, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, CYFLUTHRIN, AND TRUNK BARRIERS ON GYPSY MOTH DENSITY AND DEFOLIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of insecticide applications using hydraulic equipment and sticky trunk barriers was tested on individual white oak (Quercus atoajtrees under heavy gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pressure. The insecticides tested were insecticidal soap, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.), and cyfluthrin. One week after treatment, the B.t. and cyfluthrin treatments reduced larval density from 500 larvae per m2 of ground sur- face

Kevin W. Thorpe

1996-01-01

202

Gypsy moth midgut proteinases: Purification and characterization of luminal trypsin, elastase and the brush border membrane leucine aminopeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal digestive proteinases of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval midgut were identified, and the subcellular distribution of the enzyme activities was determined. Proteinase activities of fifth-instar larvae were largely attributed to two luminal serine proteinases, a trypsin-like enzyme (TLE) and an elastase 2-like enzyme (ELA). TLE was purified to homegeneity by benzamidine-Sepharose affinity chromatography. With respect to size

Algimantas P. Valaitis

1995-01-01

203

Larval Sociality in Three Species of Central-place Foraging Lappet Moths (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): A Comparative Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied three species of Lasiocampidae with social, tent-building caterpillars in Northern Bavaria, viz. Eriogaster lanestris, Eriogaster catax, and Malacosoma neustria. We used key life-history data (number of larval instars, sizes and weights of eggs, caterpillars, and moths, size of egg clutches) as well as behavioral data (activity patterns, tent-building behavior, trail following behavior) for a comparative study. Although larvae

Claudia Ruf; Anja Freese; Konrad Fiedler

2003-01-01

204

Enzymatic properties of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes  pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and ?-amylase activity was assayed using

Elham Yezdani; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Arash Zibaee; Mohammad Ghadamyari

2010-01-01

205

Estimating Population Size Using Capture and Recapture: A Gypsy Moth Study Including Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab students will learn the principles of the capture/recapture method used to estimate a population. They will perform a simple population study using capture/mark/release/recapture data. Three different data collection methods can be used: field study with gypsy moth larvae (caterpillars), a hands-on simulation, or computer-generated sample data. Students will discover that population estimates are necessary for both monitoring the spread of the gypsy moth and implementing effective control measures in infested areas. The method used in this exercise is appropriate for population estimates of the destructive larval (caterpillar) stage. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information

Rollinson, Susan

206

Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness  

PubMed Central

Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats.

Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

2010-01-01

207

Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.  

PubMed

Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

Calvo, D; Molina, J M

2010-01-01

208

Taxonomy and biology of two seed-parasitic gracillariid moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), with description of a new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species and new record of gracillariid moths from China are reported: Conopomorpha flueggella Li, sp. n. and Epicephala relictella Kuznetzov, 1979. Specimens were collected on flowers or leaves of Flueggea suffruticosa (Pall.) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) at night, and reared from fruits in captivity. Larvae of both species feed on the seeds of Flueggea suffruticosa, but they can be differentiated externally by the position of the red pattern on the thorax and abdomen. Morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae and the life history of the two species are described and compared. Images of the life history and figures of the genital structures are provided.

Hu, Bingbing; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Jing; Li, Houhun

2011-01-01

209

Influence of host plant stages on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) development and fitness.  

PubMed

Different generations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), use different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages as they become available during the summer months in southern California. These are the kimri, khalal, and tamar fruit stages. This study was conducted to determine whether carob moth development and fitness were affected by these different fruit stages. Developmental time from neonate larvae to adult, when reared at 31.9 degrees C and 82.1% RH, ranged from 30.5 to 32.3 d for females and 27.1 to 29.5 d for males on the different field-collected fruit stages. Males and females had the highest emergent weight when reared as larvae on kimri fruit and the lowest on tamar fruit. Females laid the most eggs when reared on kimri fruit and the least when reared on tamar fruit. Estimates of population doubling times ranged from 5.4 d on artificial diet (included as a control) to 7.5 d on tamar fruit. This short doubling time shows the ability of carob moth to develop rapidly under optimal conditions. Degree-day (DD) estimates for carob moth development ranged from 636 DD on kimri fruit to 658 DD on tamar fruit, which translate to 32-50 d under field temperatures in the area where dates are grown. Potential implications for field management of E. ceratoniae include improved timing of insecticide treatments to limit population growth early in the season rather than the conventional late season approach. PMID:18419930

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2008-04-01

210

Larval parasitism of the autumnal moth reduces feeding intensity on the mountain birch.  

PubMed

Plants respond to grazing by herbivorous insects by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds, which attract parasitoids to their insect hosts. However, a positive outcome for the host plant is a necessary precondition for making the attraction beneficial or even adaptive. Parasitoids benefit plants by killing herbivorous insects, thus reducing future herbivore pressure, but also by curtailing the feeding intensity of the still living, parasitised host. In this study, the effect of parasitism on food consumption of the 5th instar larvae of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) was examined under laboratory conditions. Daily food consumption, as well as the duration of the 5th instar, was measured for both parasitised and non-parasitised larvae. The results showed that parasitism by the solitary endoparasitoid Zele deceptor not only reduced leaf consumption significantly but also hastened the onset of pupation in autumnal moth larvae. On the basis of the results, an empirical model was derived to assess the affects on the scale of the whole tree. The model suggests that parasitoids might protect the tree from total defoliation at least at intermediate larval densities. Consequently, a potential for plant-parasitoid chemical signalling appears to exist, which seems to benefit the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) by reducing the overall intensity of herbivore defoliation due to parasitism by this hymenopteran parasitoid. PMID:19066967

Ammunét, Tea; Klemola, Netta; Heisswolf, Annette; Klemola, Tero

2008-12-10

211

Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions. PMID:15889719

Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

2005-04-01

212

Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax  

PubMed Central

The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

2010-01-01

213

Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.  

PubMed

To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2013-08-28

214

Lobesia botrana Larvae Develop Faster in the Presence of Parasitoids  

PubMed Central

To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host–parasite dynamics.

Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jerome

2013-01-01

215

Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

2012-06-01

216

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

2001-06-01

217

Wax Esters of Vegetable Oil Fatty Acids Useful as Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wax esters are prepared entirely from acids obtained from hydrogenated vegetable oils. Fatty alcohols, prepared by hydrogenolysis of the fatty acids, are esterified with the fatty acids to yield the wax esters. These esters have properties similar to thos...

E. W. Bell

1978-01-01

218

THE EVOLUTION OF FEEDING BEHAVIORS IN TEH PYRALOIDEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Snout moth caterpillars, or pyraloids have diverse habits. Many snout moth larvae are pests of crops worldwide, many species feeding exclusively on specific plant families. Most larvae consume living plants, but some consume dried or decaying plant or animal matter, fecal matter, or wax in bee and...

219

Laser removal of paraffin wax from glass surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waxes and thermopolymers are commonly used to mount optical and photonic materials prior to polishing and singularization. After demounting, residual wax\\/thermopolymer can adhere to the component surface, frequently in the form of particles. Dry, ultraviolet-pulsed laser cleaning has been demonstrated to effectively remove paraffin wax particles, prepared on a glass surface using a wax aerosol technique. This method produces dome-shaped

D. Hirschausen; D. M. Kane

2002-01-01

220

Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

SciTech Connect

Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

1984-10-01

221

The Brazilian Wax: New Hairlessness Norm for Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the Brazilian bikini wax—a procedure involving the removal of hair from women's genital area—has become the subject of substantial media attention. From HBO's Sex and the City to popular magazines and in several Web sites, the Brazilian wax has been described as the latest craze among Hollywood stars. This article explores the Brazilian wax practice

Megdala Peixoto Labre

2002-01-01

222

FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

223

WAX-BASED COATINGS FOR FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of coatings on fruits was reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the potential use for organically produced commodities. Ingredients used in fruit coating formulations were reviewed including beeswax, carnauba, and candelilla waxes, and shellac and wood rosin resins. Fatty acids, m...

224

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum 280 to 289 0.15 290 to 299 .12 300 to 359 .08 360 to 400 .02 (c) Petroleum wax may contain any antioxidant permitted in food by regulations issued in accordance with section 409 of the act, in an amount not greater than that...

2013-04-01

225

Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)  

PubMed Central

The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus.

Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

2009-01-01

226

Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system.

Cordes, Nils; Yigit, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

2013-01-01

227

Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth.  

PubMed

Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system. PMID:23531777

Cordes, Nils; Yi?it, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

2013-01-20

228

Swarming around Shellfish Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection of wild larvae seed as a source of raw material is a major sub industry of shellfish aquaculture. To predict when, where and in what quantities wild seed will be available, it is necessary to track the appearance and growth of planktonic larvae. One of the most difficult groups to identify, particularly at the species level are the

Vitorino Ramos; Jonathan Campbell; John Slater; John Gillespie; Ivan F. Bendezu; Fionn Murtagh

2004-01-01

229

Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

2011-01-01

230

Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs. PMID:22008291

Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

2011-10-08

231

Sex-related response to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in adult Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta.  

PubMed

During the development of a resistance-monitoring bioassay that uses males as the life-stage tested, the relationship of adult female and male susceptibility of Grapholita molesta to different classes of insecticides was investigated. Preliminary results indicated that more males survived diagnostic doses of azinphos-methyl than females. Additional research revealed that, although the body mass of adult male G molesta was only 69% of that of female moths (5.67 and 8.20 mg, respectively), their LC50 values were 2.6, 4.1 and 10.3 times higher than those of females for azinphosmethyl, malathion and parathion-methyl, respectively. However, female G molesta moths were more tolerant to methomyl than were male moths. There was no indication that this sex-related response occurred in G molesta larvae. The results presented here raise concerns regarding the use of pheromone traps for determining whether insecticide treatments are required and as part of resistance monitoring programs. PMID:11561408

Shearer, P W; Usmani, K A

2001-09-01

232

Aerial Application of Pheromones for Mating Disruption of an Invasive Moth as a Potential Eradication Tool  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, ‘false trail following’ could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, ‘sensory impairment’ and ‘masking of females’ are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Suckling, David M.; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L.; Cowan, David M.; Lance, David R.; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

2012-01-01

233

Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.  

PubMed

Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Suckling, David M; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L; Cowan, David M; Lance, David R; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

2012-08-24

234

Russian and Ukrainian literature on the gypsy moth: an annotated ...  

Treesearch

Description: This bibliography contains 1185 references to literature on the gypsy moth ... moth ecology, physiology, biochemistry, distribution, behavior, and control. ... in libraries of the former U.S.S.R., bibliographic styles used in the U.S.S.R., ...

235

Gypsy moth impacts on oak acorn production - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Description: Gypsy moth outbreaks can have drastic effects on many f a s t resources and uses. ... indirect effects of gypsy moth defoliation may result in large-scale reductions in wildlife habitat and food sources. ... Continent: North America.

236

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

237

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

238

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-11-14

239

Effect of clonal variation among hybrid poplars on susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.  

PubMed

Trees in the genus Populus can provide substantial commercial and ecological benefits, including sustainable alternatives to traditional forestry. Realization of this potential requires intensive management, but damage by defoliating insects can severely limit productivity in such systems. Two approaches to limiting these losses include cultivation of poplar varieties with inherent resistance to pests and application of microbial pesticides. Little is known about the interaction between host resistance and the ability of poplars to support the efficacy of biocontrol agents. The research described here was conducted to survey the effect of hybrid poplar clones on gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a pest on these trees. We assessed the effect of various poplar clones on larval performance and susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Larvae were reared from hatching on the foliage of 25 hybrid poplar clones and we monitored larval survival, development time, and weight at fourth instar. Eight of these clones showed high resistance against gypsy moth. The remaining clones showed high variation in their effect on larval performance. We evaluated the susceptibility of third-instar larvae to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki when reared on the 17 remaining clones. There was a significant effect of poplar clone on time to death after ingestion of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to B. thuringiensis on various clones was not correlated with the effects of these clones on larval performance in the absence of B. thuringiensis, suggesting this interaction is more complex than merely reflecting higher mortality to previously stressed larvae. PMID:20568617

Broderick, Nichole A; Vasquez, Eric; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

2010-06-01

240

Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph  

SciTech Connect

Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria)

1995-08-01

241

Catalyst and process for hydrofining petroleum wax  

SciTech Connect

A catalyst and process are described for hydrofining petroleum wax comprising contacting the wax with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst comprising at least one metal hydrogenating component on a porous alumina/silica carrier containing from about 0.2 to 5 wt.% of an alkali metal component. The catalyst has a specific surface area of about 200 to 300 m/sup 2//g and has the following characteristics: (A) volume of pores having a diameter in the range of 60 to 150 a is greater than 80% of the volume of pores having a diameter in the range of 0 to 150 a and (B) volume of pores having a diameter in the range of 0 to 600 a is in the range of about 0.45 to 0.60 ml

Itoh, T.; Iwata, O.; Obayashi, T.; Okano, S.; Sakurada, S.; Toyoizumi, T.

1980-01-29

242

Early Recorded Sounds and Wax Cylinders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is a fun site and a fine example of how the Internet has contributed to the preservation of our cultural heritage. Created and maintained by Glenn Sage, this site showcases some of the over 2,000 wax cylinder recordings that Sage has preserved by recording them digitally. A new two-minute recording is offered in RealPlayer and .wav or .mp3 format each month, and the archive contains selections since December 1996. The selections include information on the company that originally released the cylinder, category, title, performer, date, and in some cases, some additional background information. The site also includes an introduction to wax cylinders, resources for collectors, and some brief articles.

1996-01-01

243

Wax-tear and meibum protein, wax-?-carotene interactions in vitro using infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein–meibum and terpenoids–meibum lipid interactions could be important in the etiology of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. In the current model studies, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to determine if the terpenoid ?-carotene and the major proteins in tears and meibum affect the hydrocarbon chain conformation and carbonyl environment of wax, an abundant component of meibum. The main finding of these studies is that mucin binding to wax disordered slightly the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains of wax and caused the wax carbonyls to become hydrogen bonded or experience a more hydrophilic environment. Lysozyme and lactoglobulin, two proteins shown to bind to monolayers of meibum, did not have such an effect. Keratin and ?-carotene did not affect the fluidity (viscosity) or environment of the carbonyl moieties of wax. Based on these results, tetraterpenoids are not likely to influence the structure of meibum in the meibomian glands. In addition, these findings suggest that it is unlikely that keratin blocks meibomian glands by causing the meibum to become more viscous. Among the tear fluid proteins studied, mucin is the most likely to influence the conformation and carbonyl environment of meibum at the tear film surface.

Faheem, Samad; Kim, Sung-Hye; Nguyen, Jonathan; Neravetla, Shantanu; Ball, Matthew; Foulks, Gary N; Yappert, Marta C; Borchman, Douglas

2012-01-01

244

Compostability of petroleum wax-based coatings  

SciTech Connect

Composting is an important aspect of solid-waste management. Results of one independent study and a second continuing study demonstrate that waxed packaging may be composted to produce a high-quality end product with certain limitations on the proportions of materials which comprise the compost mixture. Contaminants from packaging material are the main constraints to compost quality. There are suggestions for developing readily compostable packaging.

Davie, I.N. (International Group, Inc., Agincourt, Ontario (Canada))

1993-02-01

245

Hydrogenated vegetable oils as candle wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax, is gaining attention as a renewable and biodegradable alternative\\u000a to paraffin wax for use in candles. However, current soywax candles suffer from several problems, especially poor melting\\u000a and solidification properties. Fully hydrogenated soybean oil exhibits improved melting properties but owing to its fragile\\u000a texture, it is not yet acceptable in most candle

Karamatollah Rezaei; Tong Wang; Lawrence A. Johnson

2002-01-01

246

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group.

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhue, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

247

Host and phenology shifts in the evolution of the social moth genus Thaumetopoea.  

PubMed

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-02-27

248

Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata  

PubMed Central

Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species.

Rodriguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

2008-01-01

249

Potato expressing beetle-specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin reduces performance of a moth.  

PubMed

Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis beetle-specific toxin Cry3Aa, which renders a genetically modified potato cultivar resistant to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata, exerts a deleterious effect on the polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis. The caterpillars of S. littoralis feed less and produce smaller pupae on the genetically modified cultivar (NewLeaf Superior) than on the parental nontransgenic cultivar (Superior). The conversion efficiencies of total dry matter, combustion heat, carbon, and nitrogen from leaves to insect biomass are similar on both cultivars. In spite of similar food utilization and a relatively small difference in the body mass at pupation, female adults that developed from caterpillars fed on NewLeaf Superior lay a mean of 309 eggs compared to a mean of 713 eggs deposited by females that developed from caterpillars fed on Superior. Because of this difference and a simultaneous reduction in fertility (egg hatchability) from 78 to 48%, a pair of adults that fed as larvae on NewLeaf Superior produces only 148 larvae, whereas a pair of adults that fed as larvae on Superior produces 556 larvae. We suggest that small amounts of Cry3Aa that accumulate in insect tissue and persist until the adult stage are responsible for the decline in reproduction. PMID:16525866

Hussein, Hany M; Habustová, Oxana; Turanli, Ferit; Sehnal, Frantisek

2006-02-26

250

Identification, tissue localisation and physiological effect in vitro of a neuroendocrine peptide identical to a dipteran Leu-callatostatin in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuroendocrine peptide of the Leu-callatostatin family, LPVYNFGL-NH2, has been isolated from tissue extracts of 5th instar larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera). It is identical to a peptide previously isolated from the blowfly, Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera). The distribution of this peptide within the tissues of C. pomonella has been mapped by immunocytochemistry using antisera raised against LPVYNFGL-NH2.

Hanne Duve; Anders H. Johnsen; Jose-Luis Maestro; Alan G. Scott; Norman Crook; Doreen Winstanley; Alan Thorpe

1997-01-01

251

Enhanced expression of the shape Bacillus thuringiensis cry9Aa2 gene in transgenic plants by nucleotide sequence modification confers resistance to potato tuber moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus thuringiensis cry9Aa2 gene encodes a 129 kDa protein with insecticidal activity against Lepidoptera, including the larvae of potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella). The insecticidal moiety of Cry9Aa2 resides within the N-terminal 665 amino acids. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify a truncated version of the gene (cry9Aa2T nucleotides 1–1995), removing motifs likely to be deleterious to full-length transcription

Andrew P. Gleave; Deepali S. Mitra; Ngaire P. Markwick; Bret A. M. Morris; Lesley L. Beuning

1998-01-01

252

IkB genes encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppress an antiviral response and enhance baculovirus pathogenicity against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, with its symbiotic polydnavirus, C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). This study analyzed the role of Inhibitor-kB (IkB)-like genes encoded in CpBV in suppressing host antiviral response. Identified eight CpBV-IkBs are scattered on different viral genome segments and showed high homologies with other bracoviral IkBs in their amino acid

Sungwoo Bae; Yonggyun Kim

2009-01-01

253

Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.  

PubMed

The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases. PMID:22591561

Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

254

Thermodynamic Prediction of Paraffin Wax Precipitation in Crude Oil Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oils are generally very complex chemical systems consisting predominantly of hundreds to thousands of hydrocarbon compounds from simple low-molecular-weight paraffins to high-molecular-weight waxes. At low temperatures these paraffins precipitate as a wax phase, which may cause the plugging of pipes and many other problems. In this study the cloud point and the amount of the precipitated wax at different

L. Oyekunle; O. Adeyanju

2011-01-01

255

Reduction in size and fecundity of the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, in the increase phase of a population cycle.  

PubMed

Increasing fecundity with increasing density has been observed for many cyclic herbivore populations, including some forest Lepidoptera. We monitored population density, body size and reproductive capacity of the cyclic lepidopteran, the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata, Geometridae), from the early increase phase to the devastating outbreak density in northernmost Norway. Larval density of the species increased exponentially from 1998 to 2002 and remained at the outbreak level also in 2003. Within the same period, the body size and fecundity of individuals reduced as analysed from several parallel datasets on larvae, pupae and adults. In another study area in northernmost Finland, the density increase of the autumnal moth was moderate only, and true outbreak density was not attained during the study. Despite that, a reduction was again detected in the size and fecundity of individuals. Possible factors responsible for the reduced size and fecundity of individuals in the Norwegian population were quantitative shortage of foliage, rapid and delayed inducible resistances of the host, mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), as well as crowding-induced responses of larvae. These factors likely acted in concert, although non-delayed responses to the density were emphasized. Our findings did not support the hypotheses of climatic release, inducible susceptibility of the host tree and mast depression (i.e. lowered chemical defence of the host tree after its mast seeding) as promoters of the fecundity-based density increase of the autumnal moth, since the reduced fecundity in relation to increased density was strongly against the predictions of these hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the density increase of autumnal moth populations is promoted by high survival rather than exceptionally high fecundity. PMID:15338264

Klemola, Tero; Ruohomäki, Kai; Andersson, Tommi; Neuvonen, Seppo

2004-07-29

256

Galleria mellonella larvae as an infection model for group A streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcus is a strict human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases, such as tonsillitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and acute rheumatic fever. Modeling human diseases in animals is complicated, and rapid, simple, and cost-effective in vivo models of GAS infection are clearly lacking. Recently, the use of non-mammalian models to model human disease is starting to re-attract attention. Galleria mellonella larvae, also known as wax worms, have been investigated for modeling a number of bacterial pathogens, and have been shown to be a useful model to study pathogenesis of the M3 serotype of GAS. In this study we provide further evidence of the validity of the wax worm model by testing different GAS M-types, as well as investigating the effect of bacterial growth phase and incubation temperature on GAS virulence in this model. In contrast to previous studies, we show that the M-protein, among others, is an important virulence factor that can be effectively modeled in the wax worm. We also highlight the need for a more in-depth investigation of the effects of experimental design and wax worm supply before we can properly vindicate the wax worm model for studying GAS pathogenesis.

Loh, Jacelyn MS; Adenwalla, Nazneen; Wiles, Siouxsie; Proft, Thomas

2013-01-01

257

Galleria mellonella larvae as an infection model for group A streptococcus.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcus is a strict human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases, such as tonsillitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and acute rheumatic fever. Modeling human diseases in animals is complicated, and rapid, simple, and cost-effective in vivo models of GAS infection are clearly lacking. Recently, the use of non-mammalian models to model human disease is starting to re-attract attention. Galleria mellonella larvae, also known as wax worms, have been investigated for modeling a number of bacterial pathogens, and have been shown to be a useful model to study pathogenesis of the M3 serotype of GAS. In this study we provide further evidence of the validity of the wax worm model by testing different GAS M-types, as well as investigating the effect of bacterial growth phase and incubation temperature on GAS virulence in this model. In contrast to previous studies, we show that the M-protein, among others, is an important virulence factor that can be effectively modeled in the wax worm. We also highlight the need for a more in-depth investigation of the effects of experimental design and wax worm supply before we can properly vindicate the wax worm model for studying GAS pathogenesis. PMID:23652836

Loh, Jacelyn M S; Adenwalla, Nazneen; Wiles, Siouxsie; Proft, Thomas

2013-05-07

258

Development and evaluation of an emulsified paraffin wax dispenser for season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta in commercial peach orchards.  

PubMed

The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapiholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of Check-Mate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (approximately 15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility. PMID:17849885

De Lame, Frédérique M; Miller, James R; Attrerholt, Cynthia A; Gut, Larry J

2007-08-01

259

Increased mortality of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) exposed to gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in combination with the phenolic gycoside salicin.  

PubMed

Second instar gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), larvae suffered significantly greater mortality from aerially applied gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Gypchek) when the virus was consumed on quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., versus red oak, Quercus spp. L., foliage. Laboratory assays in which various doses of Gypchek and salicin (a phenolic glycoside present in aspen foliage) were tested in combination demonstrated that salicin significantly increased total larval mortality and lowered the LD50 estimates (dose of Gypchek that resulted in 50% population mortality) for the virus, although not significantly. While salicin did not impact larval survival in the absence of Gypcek, it did act to significantly deter feeding when it was present in high concentrations (up to 5.0%) within the treatment formulations. The enhanced activity of Gypchek in the presence of salicin is similar to prior reports of enhanced activity of the bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis when consumed concurrently with phenolic glycosides commonly present in aspen foliage. The enhancement of viral activity is in contrast to the inhibitory effects on the virus reported for another common group of phenolic compounds, tannins. PMID:14977101

Cook, Stephen P; Webb, Ralph E; Podgwaite, John D; Reardon, Richard C

2003-12-01

260

HYDRODYNAMIC STUDIES IN FISCHER-TROPSCH DERIVED WAXES IN A BUBBLE COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hold-up and Sauter mean bubble diameter measurements were made in a 0.051 m diameter by 3 m long glass bubble column in the system, nitrogen-molten wax, with three different waxes (paraffin wax FT-300, Sasol's Arge wax and Mobil's reactor wax). Paraffin wax has a tendency to foam and gas hold-up is a strong function of gas distributor type, temperature

DRAGOMIR B. BUKUR; SNEHAL A. PATEL; RAPHAEL MATHEO

1987-01-01

261

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2013-01-01

262

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2010-01-01

263

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2009-01-01

264

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY...information collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider...CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul...

2011-04-04

265

Isolation of Multiple Subspecies ofBacillus thuringiensisfrom a Population of the European Sunflower Moth, Homoeosoma nebulella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from dead and diseased larvae obtained from a laboratory colony of the European sunflower moth, Homoeosoma nebulella. The subspecies isolated were B. thuringiensissubspp.thuringiensis(H1a),kurstaki(H3a3b3c),aizawai(H7),morrisoni(H8a8b),andthompsoni (H 12). Most isolates produced typical bipyramidal crystals, but theB. thuringiensissubsp.thuringiensisisolate produced spherical crystals and the B. thuringiensis subsp. thompsoni isolate produced a pyramidal crystal. Analysis of the parasporal crystals

C. ITOUA-APOYOLO; L. DRIF; J. M. VASSAL; H. DEBARJAC; J. P. BOSSY

1995-01-01

266

Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2, that had alterations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was 36.4% thicker, less opaque, and structurally disorganized. The total wax amount on wax2 leaves and stems was reduced by >78% and showed proportional deficiencies in the aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, with increased acids, primary alcohols, and esters. Besides altered cuticle membranes, wax2 displayed postgenital fusion between aerial organs (especially in flower buds), reduced fertility under low humidity, increased epidermal permeability, and a reduction in stomatal index on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Thus, wax2 reveals a potential role for the cuticle as a suppressor of postgenital fusion and epidermal diffusion and as a mediator of both fertility and the development of epidermal architecture (via effects on stomatal index). The cloned WAX2 gene (verified by three independent allelic insertion mutants with identical phenotypes) codes for a predicted 632–amino acid integral membrane protein with a molecular mass of 72.3 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.78. WAX2 has six transmembrane domains, a His-rich diiron binding region at the N-terminal region, and a large soluble C-terminal domain. The N-terminal portion of WAX2 is homologous with members of the sterol desaturase family, whereas the C terminus of WAX2 is most similar to members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. WAX2 has 32% identity to CER1, a protein required for wax production but not for cuticle membrane production. Based on these analyses, we predict that WAX2 has a metabolic function associated with both cuticle membrane and wax synthesis. These studies provide new insight into the genetics and biochemistry of plant cuticle production and elucidate new associations between the cuticle and diverse aspects of plant development.

Chen, Xinbo; Goodwin, S. Mark; Boroff, Virginia L.; Liu, Xionglun; Jenks, Matthew A.

2003-01-01

267

Wax formation in oil pipelines: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gelling of waxy crudes and the deposition of wax on the inner walls of subsea crude oil pipelines present a costly problem in the production and transportation of oil. The timely removal of deposited wax is required to address the reduction in flow rate that it causes, as well as to avoid the eventual loss of a pipeline in

Ararimeh Aiyejina; Dhurjati Prasad Chakrabarti; Angelus Pilgrim; M. K. S. Sastry

2011-01-01

268

Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

2009-06-01

269

Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings. PMID:20046773

Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

270

Role of Wax Ester Fatty Alcohols in Chronic Blepharitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. This study was performed to determine the difference in the composition of wax ester fatty alcohols from meibomian gland secretions from normal people and those with blephari- tis, and to determine which lipids are associated significantly with specific chronic blepharitis disease groups. Methods. Fatty alcohols, isolated by thin-layer chromatography from the wax and sterol ester fraction of human meibum,

Ward E. Shine; James P. McCulley

271

Thermodynamic phase equilibria of wax precipitation in crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic loss due to wax precipitation in oil exploitation and transportation has reached several billion dollars a year recently. Development of a model for better understanding of the process of wax precipitation is therefore very important to reduce the loss. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for predicting phase equilibriums of crude oils is proposed. The modified SRK EOS

Wuhua Chen; Zongchang Zhao; Xiaodong Zhang; Lijuan Wang

2007-01-01

272

Modelling wax diffusion in crude oils: The cold finger device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility values in crude oils from deposition measurements in the cold finger device with stirring. Providing a rather accurate knowledge of such quantities is of great importance in predicting the wax deposition rate in pipelines. We present a mathematical model in which the physical quantities are assumed to be

S. Correra; A. Fasano; L. Fusi; M. Primicerio

2007-01-01

273

Detection of coating waxes on apples by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Union, beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax and shellac are approved as coating agents for apple surfaces, provided that the coating is clearly stated. For detecting such coatings on apples, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was successfully applied. From the thermograms, the temperature at the peak maximum and the phase transition enthalpy were obtained as the main criteria. For

Barbara Ritter; Jörg Schulte; Erhard Schulte; Hans-Peter Thier

2001-01-01

274

[Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].  

PubMed

The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively. PMID:24059202

Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

2013-07-01

275

Thermostimulable wax@SiO2 core-shell particles.  

PubMed

We propose a new synthesis pathway without any sacrificial template to prepare original monodisperse thermoresponsive capsules made of a wax core surrounded by a silica shell. Under heating, the inner wax expands and the shell breaks, leading to the liquid oil release. Such capsules that allow triggered deliverance provoked by an external stimulus belong to the class of smart materials. The process is based on the elaboration of size-controlled emulsions stabilized by particles (Pickering emulsions) exploiting the limited coalescence phenomenon. Then the emulsions are cooled down and the obtained suspensions are mineralized by the hydrolysis and condensation of a monomer at the wax-water interface, leading to the formation of capsules. The shell break and the liquid oil release are provoked by heating above the wax melting temperature. We characterize the obtained materials and examine the effect of processing parameters and heating history. By an appropriate choice of the wax, the temperature of release can easily be tuned. PMID:20099917

Destribats, Mathieu; Schmitt, Véronique; Backov, Rénal

2010-02-01

276

Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C  

PubMed Central

Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers.

Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jurgen

2010-01-01

277

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): field studies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of microsporidia, Nosema lymantriae and Vairimorpha disparis, isolated from European populations of L. dispar and applied in field plots in Slovakia. Application of ultra low volume sprays of the microsporidia maximized coverage of infective spores in a complex natural environment and, thus, exposure of non-target species to the pathogens. Of 653 non-target larvae collected from plots treated with V. disparis in 2002, 18 individual larvae representing nine species in four families were infected. These plots were monitored for two subsequent seasons and V. disparis was not recovered from non-target species. Of 2571 non-target larvae collected in N. lymantriae-treated sites, one larva was found to be infected. Both species of microsporidia, particularly N. lymantriae, appear to have a very narrow host range in the field, even when an inundative technique is used for their introduction. V. disparis infections in L. dispar exceeded 40% of recovered larvae in the treated study sites; infection rates were lower in sites sprayed with N. lymantriae. Several naturally-occurring pathogens were recorded from the non-target species. The most common pathogen, isolated from 21 species in eight families, was a microsporidium in the genus Cystosporogenes. PMID:20435042

Solter, Leellen F; Pilarska, Daniela K; McManus, Michael L; Zúbrik, Milan; Patocka, Jan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Novotný, Julius

2010-05-08

278

North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

279

An investigation of the structures and molecular dynamics of natural waxes. II. Carnauba wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.21, p.1421 (1988). Structural aspects and the molecular dynamics of carnauba wax are reported. X-ray diffraction results show that it crystallises in an orthorhombic unit cell. DSC and proton spin-lattice measurements as a function of temperature revealed a premelting solid-solid transition at 335 K. The percentage of carbon atoms in methyl and methylene groups is approximately

I. Basson; E. C. Reynhardt

1988-01-01

280

An investigation of the structures and molecular dynamics of natural waxes. III. Montan wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.II see ibid., vol.21, p.1429 (1988). A detailed NMR investigation, supported by DSC and X-ray diffraction measurements, of montan wax is reported. The solid-state high-resolution 13C spectrum showed that it has a very high number of carbon atoms occurring in methyl and methylene groups and a relatively low ester, acid and carbonyl content. Laboratory frame spin-lattice relaxation results showed

I. Basson; E. C. Reynhardt

1988-01-01

281

Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values.

Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

2001-01-01

282

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions.

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcon, Ruben

2013-01-01

283

Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.  

PubMed

An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. PMID:21190707

Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

2010-12-28

284

[Horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.)].  

PubMed

The paper considers horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). The original method for modeling natural processes in controllable conditions allowed one to estimate the influence of factors on the occurrence of epizooties. The authors investigated 3 possible models of virus transmission from infected to uninfected gypsy moths: 1) infected and test caterpillars were kept and fed together (a complex route); 2) those which were in the immediate vicinity, but deprived of eating together (an aerial route); 3) test caterpillars were fed on the leaves on which infected caterpillars had eaten (an oral route). The investigations have shown that the complex and oral routes out of the considered models may be considered to be effective infection transmission routes for the horizontal spread of epizooties. Furthermore, the availability of sufficient amount of infected caterpillars in the population leads to a reduction in the resistance of healthy insects to other diseases. Thus, by taking into account the capacity of larvae for passive migration, the purpose of insecticidal treatment is to set up a few infection foci that will be a source for the spread of epizootias and contribute to an overall viability reduction of a pest population. PMID:21260997

Kolosov, A V; Kosogova, T A; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, A N

285

Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

2011-12-01

286

Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts. PMID:17461067

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2007-04-01

287

Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.  

PubMed

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

288

Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus  

PubMed Central

Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed an expression library from the silk glands of the ghost moth, Hepialus californicus, and characterized light chainfibroin and heavy chain fibroin gene transcripts. The predicted H. californicus silk fibroins share many elements with other lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins, such as conserved placements of cysteine, aromatic, and polar amino acid residues. Further comparative analyses were performed to determine site-specific signatures of selection and to assess whether fibroin genes are informative as phylogenetic markers. We found that purifying selection has constrained mutation within the fibroins and that light chain fibroin is a promising molecular marker. Thus, by characterizing the H. californicus fibroins, we identified key functional amino acids and gained insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped these adaptive molecules.

Mita, Kazuei; Sehnal, Frantisek; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

2010-01-01

289

Superhydrophobic cuticle with a "pinning effect" in the larvae of the iris sawfly, Rhadinoceraea micans (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae).  

PubMed

The integument of some sawfly larvae can be easily damaged causing haemolymph bleeding (easy bleeding phenomenon). In the present study, we investigated intact cuticle, cuticle without wax coverage and cuticle replicas of sawfly larvae by using cryo-scanning electron microscopy and contact angle (CA) measurements. The easy bleeder Rhadinoceraea micans was compared to the non-easy bleeder Nematus pavidus (both Tenthredinidae), and the examination showed that the surface structures of R. micans were hierarchically arranged, whereas the cuticle surface of N. pavidus appeared much smoother. The intact cuticle proved to be superhydrophobic in R. micans (CAs: 156° dorsally, 120° ventrally), but not in N. pavidus (CAs: 67° dorsally, 47° ventrally). The wettability of R. micans increased significantly after the waxes had been peeled off. Replicas of the intact cuticle surface were hardly wettable in both species. It is suggested that wax crystals in combination with cuticle microsculptures are the most important features for rendering the integument of the easy bleeder species superhydrophobic. The wax-free tips of the cuticle microsculptures in R. micans are sites where haemolymph droplets can adhere. The integument surface of easy bleeders is assumed to be adapted to their particular defence strategy, simultaneously contributing to the maintenance and "reuse" of released haemolymph droplets on the superhydrophobic surface due to this "pinning effect". PMID:21906924

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav; Boevé, Jean-Luc

2011-09-08

290

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-02-14

291

[Occupational risk by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the forestry workers of Verona].  

PubMed

Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a lepidopteran living in the Mediterranean countries whose mature larvae have microscopic hairs that can be released and carried far from the source. The hairs are responsible of urticating symptoms on the exposed areas although systemic manifestation might be involved. The study involved 94 forestry workers (92 M, 2 F) of the Regional Forest Service of Verona and the objective was to determine the prevalence of skin and respiratory disorders due to exposure to this insect. 21 chainsaw operators and 2 labourers experienced symptoms on exposed skin areas; 3 of them reported also ocular and respiratory symptoms. The chainsaw operators resulted most at risk whereas individual already suffering from others allergies do not seem to be affected. The results highlight the importance of risk assessment to Thaumetopoea pityocampa in forestry workers and the need for instruments to assess the allergic sensitization in medical surveillance. PMID:23405678

Olivieri, M; Lazzarini, G L; Goio, I; Schinella, S; Romeo, L; Perbellini, L

292

Host plant-associated population variation in the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A geometric morphometric analysis suggests a nutritional basis.  

PubMed

The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods. PMID:20337550

Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

2007-01-01

293

Host Plant-Associated Population Variation in the Carob Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis Suggests a Nutritional Basis.  

PubMed Central

The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods.

Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

2007-01-01

294

A feature extraction algorithm of wax crystal and liquid phase crude morph in waxy crude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax crystal morph is one of the prime inner factors that influence the rheological property of waxy crude at low temperature. The normal way to identify wax crystal morph is to qualitatively compare the wax crystal images obtained from video-microscopy. To develop a mechanistic rheological model of a waxy crude, quantitative characterization of wax crystal morph is necessary. In this

Kai Shuang; Ming Jin

2011-01-01

295

Chemical Signals from Avocado Surface Wax Trigger Germination and Appressorium Formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

lhe surface wax of the host, avocado (Persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most Colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. Bioassays of the thin-layer chro- matographic fractions of the avocado wax

Gopi Krishna Podila; M. Rogers; Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

296

Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality. PMID:22606802

Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

2012-04-01

297

Effect of the epicuticular waxes of fruits and vegetables on the photodegradation of rotenone.  

PubMed

The effect of epicuticular waxes extracted from fruits (apple, nectarine, pear, and plum) and vegetables (tomato and eggplant) on the photodegradation of rotenone was studied. The waxes affected the decay rate and the degradation pathway of this botanical insecticide. Tomato, nectarine, and plum waxes decreased the photodegradation rate compared to controls, whereas apple and pear waxes increased it. Rotenone irradiated under sunlight without waxes gave seven photoproducts; in contrast, in the presence of waxes it changed its behavior, leading to different pathways according to the wax employed. The main photoproduct formed was 12abeta-rotenolone. PMID:15161214

Angioni, Alberto; Cabizza, Maddalena; Cabras, Marco; Melis, Marinella; Tuberoso, Carlo; Cabras, Paolo

2004-06-01

298

Postembryonic development of leucokinin I-immunoreactive neurons innervating a neurohemal organ in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum.  

PubMed

In the abdominal ganglia of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, an antibody against the cockroach neuropeptide leucokinin I recognizes neurons with varicose fibers and terminals innervating the perisympathetic neurohemal organs. In the larva, the abdominal perisympathetic organs consist of a segmental series of discrete neurohemal swellings on the dorsal unpaired nerve and the transverse nerves originating at its bifurcation. These neurohemal structures are innervated by varicose terminals of leucokinin I-immunoreactive (LKIR) fibers originating from neuronal cell bodies located in the preceding segment. In the adult, the abdominal segmental neurohemal units are more or less fused into a plexus that extends over almost the whole abdominal nerve cord. The adult plexus consists of peripheral nerve branches and superficial nerve fibers beneath the basal lamina of the neural sheath of the nerve cord. During metamorphosis, the LKIR fibers closely follow the restructuration of the perisympathetic organs. In both larvae and adults the LKIR fibers in the neurohemal structures originate from the same cell bodies, which are distributed as ventrolateral bilateral pairs in all abdominal ganglia. The transformation of the series of separated and relatively simple larval neurohemal organs into the larger, continuous and more complex adult neurohemal areas occurs during the first of the two weeks of pupal life. The efferent abdominal LKIR neurons of the moth Agrotis segetum thus belong to the class of larval neurons which persist into adult life with substantial peripheral reorganization occurring during metamorphosis. PMID:1423486

Cantera, R; Hansson, B S; Hallberg, E; Nässel, D R

1992-07-01

299

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

2008-04-01

300

New method for testing solar sensitivity of commercial formulations of the granulovirus of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

A method for screening codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) formulation sensitivity to sunlight using specially prepared half apples and a solar simulator is described. The half apple preparation allows an even coverage of virus over the surface of the fruit that would not be possible using whole apples. Leaves and artificial medium were not usable for extended periods of exposure in the solar simulator due to excess drying. Fruit was sprayed with 10(-3) and 10(-5) dilutions of three commercial formulations of CpGV (Carpovirusine, Cyd-X, and Virosoft) and infested with codling moth neonates. Half of the sprayed fruit was exposed to 650 W/m2 for 4 h in an Atlas Suntest CPS solar simulator resulting in an accumulated radiant energy of 9.36x10(6) J/m2 before they were infested with neonate codling moth larvae. Spraying non-irradiated fruit with the 10(-3) dilution of Cyd-X and Virosoft resulted in nearly 100% mortality of neonate larvae. Irradiation reduced viral activity by 71-98% at the 10(-3) dilution and by up to 32% at the 10(-5) dilution relative to non-irradiated fruit. The procedures utilized enabled good preservation of the fruit throughout the incubation period and minimized invasion of the fruit by plant pathogens and saprophytic organisms. This laboratory method for screening candidate formulations and potential UV protectants could conserve time and resources by eliminating adjuvants with less potential in laboratory tests and field testing only the most promising candidates. It also enables year-round testing. PMID:16216263

Lacey, Lawrence A; Arthurs, Steven P

2005-10-10

301

Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in

Jean-Pierre Rospars; Petr Lánský; Vlastimil Krivan

2003-01-01

302

First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

303

Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)|

Hershkowitz, Gerald

1979-01-01

304

Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

Kurt W. Gottschalk

305

Codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ): Disruptants of sex pheromonal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a small section of an apple orchard, six traps were placed each in control and test areas and baited with live virgin female codling moths. Gray elastomer septa were used to dispense communication disruptants around the traps. Dyed male codling moths were released in control and test areas, and the numbers of males captured in control and test traps

L. M. McDonough; H. G. Davis; P. S. Chapman; C. L. Smithhisler

1994-01-01

306

Insect migration: do migrant moths know where they are heading?  

PubMed

Moth migration has been assumed to involve hitching a ride in favorable winds. A new study has shown that silver Y moths migrate only on nights when winds would displace them southward, implying that they detect their direction of movement while airborne, likely by a magnetic sense. PMID:18522818

Cardé, Ring T

2008-06-01

307

IMPROVEMENTS IN FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR NOCTUID MOTH PESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of moths, including pest moths of tree fruit crops, are attracted to fermented sweet baits. These baits have included various concoctions of brown sugar, fruit mashes, molasses, beer, and yeast. Although attractive, these baits are extremely variable in attractiveness, both in time and from batch to batch. The combination of acetic acid and 3- methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), isolated

Peter J. Landolt

308

Sex Attractant of the Codling: Moth: Characterization with Electroantennogram Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-8, trans-10-Dodecadien-1-ol is a sex attractant of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella. Antennal responses (electroantennograms) to a series of monounsaturated compounds were used in determining the location and configuration of the two double bonds. The synthetic compound is very attractive to male codling moths in the field.

Wendell Roelofs; Andre Comeau; Ada Hill; G. Milicevic

1971-01-01

309

Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; David S. Jacobs

2003-01-01

310

Female pheromonal chorusing in an arctiid moth, Utetheisa ornatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual case of communal sexual display in the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix that we designate ''female pheromonal chorusing.'' As in most moths, female U. ornatrix release a long-distance sexual advertisement pheromone during a nightly activity period. We arranged U. ornatrix females in 2 types of signaling conditions: grouped and solitary. When the females were grouped with neighboring

Hangkyo Lim; Michael D. Greenfield

2006-01-01

311

Kinetics of wax deposition and its movement in a pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.An electrical analog has been used in studying the thermal processes involved in crystallization of a wax melt as it moves within a short section of a pipeline.2.Temperature profiles have been obtained for the crystalline wax layer, cylindrical in form, at various moments of time.3.Effects have been determined for the withdrawal of heat to the cooling agent (aa and ta)

N. I. Gel'perin; G. I. Lapshenkov; A. L. Taran; A. V. Taran

1975-01-01

312

Waxing and waning pulmonary nodules and myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

A 53-year-old diabetic woman with the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of anorexia, malaise, fatigue, night sweats, and weight loss. The radiological evaluation revealed waxing and waning pulmonary nodules. A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was reached by pathologic examination of a wedge biopsy. We did not find a similar case in the literature. Clinicians should keep tuberculosis in mind as a possible etiology of waxing and waning pulmonary nodules. PMID:19488012

Köksal, Deniz; Mutluay, Neslihan; Boyac, Ebru; Basay, Nihal; Bayiz, Hülya; Berktas, M Bahadr; Aydn, Mehtap; Kaya, Sadi; Berkoglu, Mine

2009-07-01

313

Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

2013-06-01

314

Oxidative stress and antioxidants in overwintering larvae of cold-hardy goldenrod gall insects  

PubMed

Antioxidant and pro-oxidant systems were studied in overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy gall insect species, the freeze-tolerant fly Eurosta solidaginis and the freeze-avoiding moth Epiblema scudderiana. An increase in the levels of the oxidized form of glutathione suggested slight oxidative stress in both species during the winter. Freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae generally had decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in the winter, indicating that these larvae do not face increased challenge from oxidative stress during the numerous freeze-thaw events they experience. Instead, existing defences must be sufficient to prevent any damage. By contrast, increased winter activities of antioxidant enzymes in freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana suggest that these larvae must defend against the formation of reactive oxygen species. This may result from the oxidative nature of winter metabolism in these larvae, as well as a dependence on lipid oxidation as their fuel over this season. Xanthine dehydrogenase activity decreased dramatically in both species during the autumn, reducing the potential for the formation of the pro-oxidant xanthine oxidase. Indeed, xanthine oxidase activity fell to undetectable levels by winter in Epiblema scudderiana and was not detectable at any time in Eurosta solidaginis. PMID:9319381

Joanisse; Storey

1996-01-01

315

Differences in Substrate Specificities of Five Bacterial Wax Ester Synthases  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production.

Wahlen, Bradley D.; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C.

2012-01-01

316

Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

317

CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

318

Confirmation and Efficacy Tests Against Codling Moth and Oriental Fruit Moth in Apples Using Combination Heat and Controlled Atmosphere Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with

Lisa G. Neven; Linda M. Rehfield-ray; David Obenland

2006-01-01

319

Comparison of the response of midgut epithelial cells and cell lines from lepidopteran larvae to CryIA toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic responses of midgut epithelial cells (MEC) from spruce budworm (SBW), gypsy moth (GM) and silkworm (SW) larvae were compared with the cytotoxic response of lepidopteran cell lines (SF-9, SE-1a, and CF-1) to CryIA toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis. The MEC from SBW, SW and GM had binding proteins for CryIAa,b,c toxins, whereas the lepidopteran cell lines had binding proteins

D Baines; J.-L Schwartz; S Sohi; J Dedes; A Pang

1997-01-01

320

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

321

[Sorption of 1-naphthol to plant cuticular waxes with different states].  

PubMed

Wax components are ubiquitous in natural environments (such as plant and soil) and play a significant role in sorption of organic contaminants. To elucidate their sorption characteristics, cuticular waxes were isolated from the fruits of apple by organic solvent extraction method, and then the isolated-wax was reconstructed on montmorillonite with different loadings. Sorption behaviors of one polar organic pollutant, 1-naphthol, to isolated-wax, reconstructed-wax, and cuticle-associated-wax samples were compared by batch sorption method. Sorption properties of wax-montmorillonite complexes dependent on different wax-loadings were also investigated. Isotherms of 1-naphthol to wax samples were nonlinear, and fitted well with Freundlich equation. Although sorption of wax in the plant cuticle was weakened by other components of cuticle, its contribution to whole sorption of the cuticle increased with solute aqueous equilibrium concentration. Sorption coefficients at three equilibrium concentrations (1, 10, 100 microg/mL) were calculated, depending on solute concentrations and wax-loadings. Sorption coefficients normalized organic carbon contents (Koc) decreased with the increase of solute aqueous concentration. At low solute aqueous concentration, Koc values increased with the wax-loading increasing, reached maximum, and then decreased. At high solute aqueous concentration, Koc values were almost independent on wax-loadings. These observations indicated that partition was the dominant mechanism at high solute concentration, while specific interactions were involved as additional mechanisms at low solute concentration. Koc values of wax components in different states were in the order of reconstructed-wax (321.2) > isolated-wax (190.4) > cuticular-attached-wax (128.4), suggested that the sorption capability of wax was promoted once they were input into soil environment and then coated on mineral surface. PMID:18763521

Chen, Bao-liang; Zhou, Dan-dan; Li, Yun-gui; Zhu, Li-zhong

2008-06-01

322

Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed Central

The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host.

Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

1995-01-01

323

Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8-10 years and a subdominant period of 4-5 years. In this study, we used a simulation model and spatially referenced time series of outbreak intensity data from the Northeastern United States to show that the bimodal periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth outbreaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy moth abundance at and above a 4 km(2) scale of resolution. We also used geographically weighted regression models to explore the effects of gypsy moth host-tree abundance on the periodicity of gypsy moths. We found that the strength of 5-year cycles increased relative to the strength of 10-year cycles with increasing host tree abundance. We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability enhances the growth rates of gypsy moth populations. PMID:18985391

Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

2008-11-05

324

Effects of Rearing Conditions, Geographical Origin, and Selection on Larval Diapause in the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella  

PubMed Central

The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations.

Wijayaratne, Leanage K. W.; Fields, Paul G.

2012-01-01

325

Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods  

PubMed Central

Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the ?-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the ?-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community.

Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

2004-01-01

326

Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population and for assigning individuals to genealogical classes. We describe these new methods in the context of their application to genetic structure in G. gallaesolidaginis. Population phenograms are consistent with the origin of the host forms (at least in the midwestern United States) via a single host shift: altissima and gigantea moth populations form distinct lineages with 100% bootstrap support. Genetic structure in Gnorimoschema is of particular interest because another gallmaking insect attacking the same pair of hosts, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis, includes a pair of host races with partial reproductive isolation. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis and E. solidaginis therefore represent the first reported case of parallel host-associated differentiation, that is, differentiation by evolutionarily independent insect lineages across the same pair of host plants. PMID:12206247

Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

2002-07-01

327

Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed. PMID:15384347

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

2004-08-01

328

Microbial control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.(Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) using bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) and its metabolites from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae  

PubMed Central

Cells and cell-free solutions of the culture filtrate of the bacterial symbiont, Xenorhabdus nematophila taken from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in aqueous broth suspensions were lethal to larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Their application on leaves of Chinese cabbage indicated that the cells can penetrate into the insects in the absence of the nematode vector. Cell-free solutions containing metabolites were also proved as effective as bacterial cells suspension. The application of aqueous suspensions of cells of X. nematophila or solutions containing its toxic metabolites to the leaves represents a possible new strategy for controlling insect pests on foliage.

Mahar, Ali Nawaz; Munir, Muhammad; Elawad, Sami; Gowen, Simon Richard; Hague, Nigel Graham Meckenzi

2004-01-01

329

Micro encapsulation in situ with super permeating molten wax  

SciTech Connect

A new class of grout material based on molten wax offers a dramatic improvement in permeation grouting performance. This new material makes a perfect in situ containment of buried radioactive waste both feasible and cost effective. This paper describes various ways the material can be used to isolate buried waste in situ. Potential applications described in the paper include buried radioactive waste in deep trenches, deep shafts, Infiltration trenches, and large buried objects. Use of molten wax for retrieval of waste is also discussed. Wax can also be used for retrieval of air sensitive materials or drummed waste. This paper provides an analysis of the methods of application and the expected performance and cost of several potential projects. (authors)

Carter, E. [Carter Technologies Co, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

330

Release from or through a wax matrix system. I. Basic release properties of the wax matrix system.  

PubMed

Release properties from a wax matrix tablet was examined. To obtain basic release properties, the wax matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of drug and wax powder (hydrogenated caster oil) at a fixed mixing ratio. Properties of release from the single flat-faced surface or curved side surface of the wax matrix tablet were examined. The applicability of the square-root time law and of Higuchi equations was confirmed. The release rate constant obtained as g/min(1/2) changed with the release direction. However, the release rate constant obtained as g/cm2 x min(1/2) was almost the same. Hence it was suggested that the release property was almost the same and the wax matrix structure was uniform independent of release surface or direction at a fixed mixing ratio. However, these equations could not explain the entire release process. The applicability of a semilogarithmic equation was not as good compared with the square-root time law or Higuchi equation. However, it was revealed that the semilogarithmic equation was available to simulate the entire release process, even though the fit was somewhat poor. Hence it was suggested that the semilogarithmic equation was sufficient to describe the release process. The release rate constant was varied with release direction. However, these release rate constants were expressed by a function of the effective surface area and initial amount, independent of the release direction. PMID:11724236

Yonezawa, Y; Ishida, S; Sunada, H

2001-11-01

331

Release from or through a wax matrix system. II. Basic properties of release from or through the wax matrix layer.  

PubMed

In order to examine basic properties of release from and through wax matrix layer, reservoir device matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of hydrogenated caster oil and drug that was the same one in the reservoir. Release process could be divided into two stages. The first stage was the formation process of water channel by dissolving the drug in the wax matrix layer, and dissolved drug was released from the matrix layer following the square-root-of-time law equation. Hence, the drug penetration coefficient and tortuosity in the matrix layer were estimated. The second stage was the zero order release process of drug in the reservoir through the wax matrix layer. The release rate constant was calculated from the slope of line. Hence, the drug permeability coefficient and tortuosity were estimated. Fundamentally, tortuosity can not be expressed by some meaningful factors, and is obtained as an experimental result. By preparing wax matrix system from a physical mixture other than melted granule method, it was suggested that the matrix structure was uniform three-dimensionally. As a result, tortuosity could be expressed by a function of porosity, because unrecognized factors such as the surface coverage and thickness of melted wax on the soluble component should not be involved. PMID:11848213

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

2002-02-01

332

Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak ...  

Treesearch

Title: Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity ... geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. ... We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability ...

333

Status and Trends in Gypsy Moth Defoliation Hazard in Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a major defoilator of eastern hardwood forests, has become established in Virginia and is moving towards Tennessee. In preparation for its inevitable arrival, Tennessee's timberlands are hazard rated to identify thos...

D. M. May B. W. Kauffman

1990-01-01

334

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)|

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

335

The potential for trichogramma releases to suppress tip moth ...  

Treesearch

Description: Because the Nantucket pine tip moth is a native pest, ... was significantly affected by microhabitat and by the length of time capsules were in the ... Consideration might be made of plantation management practices that result in ...

336

Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). PMID:15154471

Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

2004-04-01

337

Sustaining pattern of phenformin hydrochloride using various polymers and waxes.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to formulate matrix tablets of phenformin hydrochloride. Granules of phenformin HCl were prepared by using ethyl cellulose, eudragit RS 100, gum acacia, carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate and triethanol amine. Thus the granules were compressed and fourteen tablets formulations were prepared. All the physical parameters of granules and matrix tablets were studied including compatibility study. One commercial timed disintegration capsule was also included for study and comparison. The results of in vitro studies showed that sustained release matrix tablet might be prepared using carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, triethanol amine and magnesium stearate. PMID:12481378

Pandey, V P; Kannappan, N; Manavalan, R; Subburaj, T

338

Thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and resistivity of candelilla wax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the values of some thermal and electrical properties of candelilla wax (from Euphorbia cerifera). The open-cell photoacoustic technique and another photothermic technique - based on the measurement of the temperature decay of a heated sample - were employed to obtain the thermal diffusivity (?s = 0.026 +/- 0.000 95 cm2 s-1) as well as the thermal conductivity (k = 2.132 +/- 0.16 W mK-1) of this wax. The Kelvin null method was used to measure the dark decay of the surface potential of the sample after a corona discharge, giving a resistivity of ?e = 5.98 +/- 0.19 × 1017 ? cm.

Dossetti-Romero, V.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; López-Cruz, E.

2002-10-01

339

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

340

Fatty Alcohols for Wax Esters in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: Two Optional Routes in the Wax Biosynthesis Pathway.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of wax esters in bacteria is accomplished by a unique pathway that combines a fatty alcohol and a fatty acyl coenzyme A substrate. Previous in vitro enzymatic studies indicated that two different enzymes could be involved in the synthesis of the required fatty alcohol in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. In this study, we demonstrate through a series of gene deletions and transcriptional analysis that either enzyme is capable of fulfilling the role of providing the fatty alcohol required for wax ester biosynthesis in vivo, but evolution has clearly selected one of these, a previously characterized fatty aldehyde reductase, as the preferred enzyme to perform this reaction under typical wax ester-accumulating conditions. These results complement previous in vitro studies and provide the first glimpse into the role of each enzyme in vivo in the native organism. PMID:24014533

Lenneman, Eric M; Ohlert, Janet M; Palani, Nagendra P; Barney, Brett M

2013-09-06

341

Effect of female and male genotypes and environment on wax composition in jojoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype and environment on wax composition in jojoba seed, and\\u000a thus be able to control it. Production of waxes with different compositions—and hence changed wax properties such as viscosity,\\u000a boiling point, and thermal stability—may be of importance for future requirements of the jojoba industry. Wax composition\\u000a of 23 female

Aliza Benzioni; Yiftach Vaknin

2002-01-01

342

Behaviourally mediated crypsis in two nocturnal moths with contrasting appearance  

PubMed Central

The natural resting orientations of several species of nocturnal moth on tree trunks were recorded over a three-month period in eastern Ontario, Canada. Moths from certain genera exhibited resting orientation distributions that differed significantly from random, whereas others did not. In particular, Catocala spp. collectively tended to orient vertically, whereas subfamily Larentiinae representatives showed a variety of orientations that did not differ significantly from random. To understand why different moth species adopted different orientations, we presented human subjects with a computer-based detection task of finding and ‘attacking’ Catocala cerogama and Euphyia intermediata target images at different orientations when superimposed on images of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees. For both C. cerogama and E. intermediata, orientation had a significant effect on survivorship, although the effect was more pronounced in C. cerogama. When the tree background images were flipped horizontally the optimal orientation changed accordingly, indicating that the detection rates were dependent on the interaction between certain directional appearance features of the moth and its background. Collectively, our results suggest that the contrasting wing patterns of the moths are involved in background matching, and that the moths are able to improve their crypsis through appropriate behavioural orientation.

Webster, Richard J.; Callahan, Alison; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

2008-01-01

343

Radiation biology and inherited sterility of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): developing a sterile insect release program.  

PubMed

The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and < or = 2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was significantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females < or = 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2-5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at > or = 150 Gy produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was > 99% by F2 egg. PMID:22299363

Soopaya, Rajendra; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill; Stephens, Andrea E A; Butler, Ruth C; Lacey, Ian; Kaur, Amandip; Suckling, David M

2011-12-01

344

Pathogen resistance in the moth Orgyia antiqua: direct influence of host plant dominates over the effects of individual condition.  

PubMed

The role of pathogens in insect ecology is widely appreciated but remains insufficiently explored. Specifically, there is little understanding about the sources of the variation in the outcome of insect-pathogen interactions. This study addresses the extent to which immune traits of larvae and pupae of the moth Orgyia antiqua L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) depend on the host plant species and individual condition of the insects. The two host plants, Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. and S. viminalis L., were chosen because they differ in the concentration of phenolic glycosides, harmful to most polyphagous insects. Individual condition was assumed to be reflected in body weight and development time, and was manipulated by rearing larvae either singly or in groups of four. The resistance traits recorded were survival and time to death after fungal infection in the larval stage and the efficiency of encapsulating a nylon implant by the pupae. The survival of the infected larvae was mainly determined by the species of the host plant. Encapsulation response was not associated with the resistance to the pathogen, suggesting that the host plant affected the pathogen rather than the immune system of the insect. Interestingly, the host plant supporting better larval growth led to inferior resistance to the pathogen, indicating a trade-off between different aspects of host plant quality. PMID:20626929

Sandre, S-L; Tammaru, T; Hokkanen, H M T

2010-07-14

345

Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.  

PubMed

The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings. PMID:15384348

Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2004-08-01

346

MIDGE LARVAE AS INDICATORS OF RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of midge larvae, or blood worms, as an indicator or radioactive ; pollution of surface waters was investigated. The larvae of two species were ; obtained from a silt deposit and studies were made on larvae ecology and feeding ; habits and their position in specific food chains. The uptake of Fe⁵⁹ and ; P³² by the larvae

1961-01-01

347

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

348

Wax deposition rate model for crude oil pipeline based on neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the rule of wax deposition of Daqing oilfield crude oil in oil pipeline, an experimental unit is made by self. Based on experimental results, the relationship between the wax deposition rate and its influencing factors are established by using artificial neural network. The neural network is 4-7-1 BP structure, and the factors of influencing wax deposition

Yanyan Wei; Ming Wu; Ling Zhao

2010-01-01

349

WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular wax forms a layer of hydrophobic material on plant aerial organs, which constitutes a protective barrier between the plant and its environment. We report here the identification of WIN1, an Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor-type transcription factor, which can activate wax deposition in overexpressing plants. We constitutively expressed WIN1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and found that leaf epidermal wax

Pierre Broun; Patricia Poindexter; Erin Osborne; Cai-Zhong Jiang; José Luis Riechmann

2004-01-01

350

Effect of selected physical properties of waxes on investments and casting shrinkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relationship between flow characteristics, bending strength, and softening temperature of paraffin and dental inlay waxes to casting shrinkage when patterns were invested with a phosphate-bonded investment. This study found that the casting shrinkage decreased as the flow of the wax pattern increased. If a low flow wax is used or if there is a need for

Michio Ito; Toshio Yamagishi; Yoshiki Oshida; Carlos A Munoz

1996-01-01

351

Changes in chemical wax composition of three different apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of year, picking date and storage conditions on the chemical composition of the wax layer of three apple cultivars (‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Elstar’) were investigated by means of GCMS and multivariate statistical techniques. Wax of apples with different surface characteristics also differed in chemical composition. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and subsequent shelf life affected wax properties and caused

Els A. Veraverbeke; Jeroen Lammertyn; Stijn Saevels

2001-01-01

352

Observation on the composition and biosynthesis of egg wax lipids in the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of wax lipids by Gené's organ, the egg waxing organ in ticks, was investigated. Gené's organ, a complex dermal gland system, applies a superficial wax layer to the eggs during oviposition which prevents desiccation and is essential for egg viability. The detailed anatomy and histology of the three gland cell types are unambiguously described. Serial sectioning of ticks

T. F. Booth

1992-01-01

353

The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the

E. Pastirik

1980-01-01

354

Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth  

PubMed Central

Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.

Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

355

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2012-11-01

356

Assessing species distribution using google street view: a pilot study with the pine processionary moth.  

PubMed

Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

Rousselet, Jérôme; Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-09

357

The Effects of Foul-release Coatings on the Settlement and Behaviour of Cyprid Larvae of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite amphitrite Darwin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foul-release coatings are generally assumed to affect fouling of surfaces via interfering with adhesion of fouling organisms. However, the potential effects of these coatings on other aspects of the biology of fouling organisms such as behaviour have not in general been explored. The effects of wax-based foul-release coatings containing silicone oil on the settlement and behaviour of cyprid larvae of

Anisul Afsar; Rocky De Nys; Peter Steinberg

2003-01-01

358

Ionization of Paraffin Wax by Beta-Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a quantitative experimental study of the primary ionization of paraffin wax by beta-radiation. Electrons emitted by uranium and carbon 14 were used. Interpretation, by means of a simple theory, of experimental data on the electrical conductivity permits evaluation of the ionic mobility in paraffin and the efficiency of ion-pair production. Only small primary ions of relatively long mean

Andrew Gemant

1949-01-01

359

Abnormal composition of commerical waxes revealed by supercritical fluid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of natural waxes is a complicated process because they occur as complex mixtures. A study using supercritical fluid chromatography with packed columns made it possible to observe the behavior of each family of hydrocarbons, fatty esters, alcohols, acids and triglycerides. The latter were then separated according to their function type and alkyl chain lengths using octadecyl silica as

S. Brossard; M. Lafosse; M. Dreux; J. Becart

1993-01-01

360

Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

Cowens, John

2006-01-01

361

The pressure effect on the wax formation in diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of wax formation under high pressure on new diesel engine requires a good understanding of the behaviour of the paraffin molecules crystallization. In this work a diesel from a Petrogal refinery was investigated under pressure. In particular the melting curve was measured from atmospheric pressure to 100MPa by an optical technique. The behaviour of the solid phase with

Jérôme Pauly; Jean-Luc Daridon; Jean-Marc Sansot; J. A. P. Coutinho

2003-01-01

362

Literary Theory in Practice: Rethinking Jurij Tynjanov's ‘The Wax Figure’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Iurii Tynianov's novella ‘Voskovaia persona’ (‘The Wax Figure’) in light of his ideas about tradition and innovation as outlined in his collection of articles Arkhaisty i novatory (Archaists and Innovators). In the novella, Tynianov artistically expresses his views on literary evolution, which he perceives as a continuous historical process of confrontation between old and new canons. The

Victoria Ivleva

2006-01-01

363

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than 500 nor greater than 1,200 as determined by vapor pressure osmometry. (d) Synthetic petroleum wax may contain any antioxidant permitted in food by regulations issued in accordance with section 409 of the act, in an amount not greater than that...

2013-04-01

364

Control of Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth by Aerially Applied Dimilin (TH 6040).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were made in 1976 on epidemic Douglas-fir tussock moth populations in the North Thompson River Valley north of Kamloops, British Columbia, to determine the minimum effective amount of Dimilin required for tussock moth population control. Three dosag...

J. S. Hard J. D. Ward S. Linytzky

1978-01-01

365

Composition of the Wax Particles and Surface Wax of Adult Whiteflies: Aleuroplatus coronata, Aleurothrixus floccosus, Aleurotithius timberlakei, Dialeurodes citri, Dialeurodes citrifolii, and Parabemisia myricae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external lipids produced by adult whiteflies consisted of “wax” particles adhering to body hairs and of surface lipids, largely wax esters. The wax particles of each species were composed of a mixture of long-chain aldehydes and long-chain alcohols of the same carbon numbers, the major chain lengths being C30, C32, or C34. C34 was the dominant chain length in

Dennis R Nelson; Gregory P Walker; James S Buckner; Charlotte L Fatland

1997-01-01

366

Transcutaneous DNA immunization following waxing-based hair depilation  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous DNA immunization is an attractive immunization approach. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles had been induced into growth stage by ‘cold’ waxing-based hair plucking significantly enhanced the resultant immune responses. In the present study, using a plasmid that encodes the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA63) gene fragment, it was shown that the anti-PA63 antibody responses induced by applying the plasmid onto a skin area where the hair was plucked by ‘warm’ waxing were significantly stronger than by ‘cold’ waxing, very likely because the ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation significantly i) enhanced the uptake (or retention) of the plasmid in the application area and ii) enhanced the expression of the transfected gene in the follicular and interfollicular epidermis in the skin. The antibody response induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization was hair cycle dependent, because the plasmid needed to be applied within 5 days after the hair plucking to induce a strong antibody response. The antibody responses were not affected by whether the expressed PA63 protein, as an antigen, was secreted or cell surface bound. Finally, this strategy of enhancing the immune responses induced by transcutaneous DNA immunization following ‘warm’ waxing-based hair depilation was not limited to the PA63 as an antigen, because immunization with a plasmid that encodes the HIV-1 env gp160 gene induced a strong anti-gp160 response as well. Transcutaneous DNA immunization by modifying the hair follicle cycle may hold a great promise in inducing strong and functional immune responses.

Sloat, Brian R.; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Xiao, Gang; DiGiovanni, John; Maury, Wendy; Cui, Zhengrong

2011-01-01

367

Population biology of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in two potato cropping systems in Israel.  

PubMed

The life cycle, within-field distribution, crop damage and impact of natural enemies of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) were investigated in two potato cropping systems. The two systems differed in soil type (sandy vs. loess) which in turn affected the choice of cultivars, irrigation programme, insecticide application method (ground vs. aerial), and planting and harvest times. From mid-April to the end of May, almost twice as many moths were caught in pheromone traps in sandy than in loess fields. Highest infestation of tubers was found before harvest, and infestation was greater in loess than in sandy fields. Larval densities in foliage and tubers were significantly higher at the margins of the fields than in the centre. A significant positive correlation was found between adult catch and larval infestation on foliage in sandy fields but not in loess. Tuber infestation in sand was positively correlated with foliage infestation. No such correlation was detected in loess. Five parasitic wasps emerged from P. operculella larvae collected from commercial fields and volunteer plants: Diadegma pulchripes (Kokujev) and Temelucha decorata, (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) and Bracon gelechiae Ashmead and two other unidentified Braconidae. The most abundant predators at the field site were Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Chrysopidae), Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Anthocoridae) and four ant species (Formicidae). Parasitism rate reached 40% and predation was estimated at 79%. Results are discussed with regard to the development of an integrated pest management programme for this important pest. PMID:11020789

Coll, M; Gavish, S; Dori, I

2000-08-01

368

Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

2001-01-01

369

Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance  

SciTech Connect

Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

370

Plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloid protects eggs of a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix) against a parasitoid wasp (Trichogramma ostriniae)  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA), sequestered by the moth Utetheisa ornatrix from its larval food plant, is transmitted by both males and females to the eggs. Males confer PA on the female by seminal infusion, and females pass this gift, together with PA that they themselves procured as larvae, to the eggs. Here we show that PA protects the eggs against parasitization by the chalcidoid wasp, Trichogramma ostriniae. Eggs laid subsequent to a first mating of an Utetheisa female receive most of their PA from the female. The amount they receive from the male is insufficient to provide for full protection. However, female Utetheisa are promiscuous and therefore likely to receive PA on a cumulative basis from their male partners.

Bezzerides, Alexander; Yong, Tze-Hei; Bezzerides, Julie; Husseini, Jad; Ladau, Joshua; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

2004-01-01

371

Humidity Detection and Hygropreference Behavior in Larvae of the Tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta  

PubMed Central

Water is a critical resource for any terrestrial animal, especially for a soft-bodied insect such as larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Strategies for coping with a dry environment might include seeking out regions of high relative humidity that reduce desiccative stress, or to find and imbibe liquid water. Desiccated larvae placed in a linear arena with a humidity gradient preferred the humid end, whereas un-desiccated larvae did not. This behavior was not affected by temperature. Ablation or occlusion of the antennae showed that they are required to mediate this behavior. A series of experiments showed that control larvae oriented towards and imbibed liquid water whereas those whose antennae had been occluded with wax did not. Electrophysiological recordings from the lateral basiconic sensillum of the second antennal segment revealed the presence of at least one hygroreceptive unit that greatly increased its firing rate in response to moist air, decreased firing rates in response to dry air, and showed mild post-stimulatory inhibition.

Rowley, Marc; Hanson, Frank

2007-01-01

372

Chemical Mimicry: Bolas Spiders Emit Components of Moth Prey Species Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies have indicated that bolas spiders attract male moth prey, apparently by mimicking the odor of female moth sex pheromones. Three moth sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, were identified in volatile substances emitted by hunting adult female Mastophora cornigera spiders. These compounds are components of pheromone blends that attract some of this spider's moth prey species.

Mark K. Stowe; James H. Tumlinson; Robert R. Heath

1987-01-01

373

Bat-deafness in day-flying moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Dioptinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that bat-detection is the primary function of moth ears, the ears of moths that are no longer exposed to bats should\\u000a be deaf to echolocation call frequencies. To test this, we compared the auditory threshold curves of 7 species of Venezuelan\\u000a day-flying moths (Notodontidae: Dioptinae) to those of 12 sympatric species of nocturnal moths (Notodontidae: Dudusinae, Noctuidae\\u000a and Arctiidae).

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; L. Daniel Otero; Annemarie Surlykke

1997-01-01

374

Release from or through a wax matrix system. III. Basic properties of release through the wax matrix layer.  

PubMed

Release property of reservoir device matrix tablet was examined. Wax matrix layer was prepared from physical mixture of lactose and hydrogenated castor oil to obtain basic release properties. Release process showed zero order kinetics in a steady state after a given lag times, and could be divided into two stages. The first stage was the formation process of water channel by dissolving the soluble component in the wax matrix layer. The lag time was considered to be the time required forming water channel and the time begun to release drug through the wax matrix layer at the same time. The lag time obtained by applying the square root law equation was well connected with the amount of matrix layer and mixed weight fraction of component in matrix layer. The second stage was the zero order release process of drug in the reservoir through the wax matrix layer. The release rate constants were calculated by taking into accounts of the thickness of matrix layer and permeability coefficient, and were well connected with the amount of matrix layer and mixed weight fraction of component. Also it was suggested that the tortuosity of matrix layer could be expressed by a function of the porosity defined by the mixed weight fraction. PMID:12045337

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

2002-06-01

375

Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations Using Pheromone Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone traps can be used for evaluating the success of treatments that are applied to either eradicate or delay the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed an index of treatment success, T, that measures the reduction in moth countsin the block treated adjusted by the change in moth countsin the reference area

Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; Nicholas S. Clemens

2002-01-01

376

The distance and nature of the light-trap response of moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIGHT TRAPS of various forms have been used to collect and study moths for well over 100 yr, but surprisingly little is known about how they attract moths. There has been some evaluation of the factors influencing the size of light trap catches1-5 and of the mechanics of the terminal phase of the moth's approach to a light6, but virtually

R. Robin Baker; Yvonne Sadovy

1978-01-01

377

78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas...infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance with...adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations of the gypsy moth....

2013-04-26

378

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR DEPLOYING FEMALE GYPSY MOTHS TO EVALUATE MATING DISRUPTION TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gypsy moth is a major pest of forest and shade trees in the northeastern United States. Under the National Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Project (STS), over 288,000 acres were treated in 2005 with the gypsy moth sex pheromone, disparlure, to disrupt mating and slow the advance of population...

379

The population ecology of the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study of the factors determining the abundance and distribution of the Cinnabar Moth in Britain. The main part of the study was on a population of the moth at Weeting Heath in Norfolk. This is an area of sandy heath which is heavily overgrazed by rabbits. Here the moth fluctuates violently in number

J. P. Dempster

1971-01-01

380

THE POTENTIAL FOR TRICHOGRAMMA RELEASES TO SUPPRESS TIP MOTH POPULATIONS IN PINE PLANTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the Nantucket pine tip moth is a native pest, augmentation (mass-release) of native natural enemies may be the most promising method of tip moth biocontrol. The tip moth has several important egg, larval, and pupal parasitoids. Egg parasitoids are most effective as biocontrol agents because they eliminate the host before it reaches a damaging stage. Trichogramma egg parasitoids are

David B. Orr; Charles P.-C. Suh; Michael Philip; Kenneth W. McCravy; Gary L. DeBarrl

381

Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) seed oil refineries and seed hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as astandard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for theircrystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. Theresults of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hullsshowed the melting temperature range of 13.18 °C with the onsetat 62.32 °C, for purified wax, compared to the melting

T. C. Sindhu Kanya; K. Udaya Sankar; M. C. Shamnathaka Sastry

2003-01-01

382

Response of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar to transgenic poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, expressing fusion protein gene of the spider insecticidal peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide.  

PubMed

The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ?-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ?-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth. PMID:21268699

Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

2010-01-01

383

Response of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar to Transgenic Poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, Expressing Fusion Protein Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide  

PubMed Central

The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ??-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ??-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth.

Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

2010-01-01

384

Chemical Composition of the Epicuticular and Intracuticular Wax Layers on Adaxial Sides of Rosa canina Leaves  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant–organism interactions. METHOD An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. Key Results The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. Conclusions A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed.

Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

2007-01-01

385

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

386

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone  

PubMed Central

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 ?M) in the sensillar lymph is ?20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths.

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.

2005-01-01

387

Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

2006-10-01

388

Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m\\/z 185–195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n-alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are

Carine Bryselbout; Pascale Henner; Éric Lichtfouse

1998-01-01

389

Anna Morandi's Wax Self-Portrait with Brain.  

PubMed

In her self-portrait in wax, eighteenth-century Bolognese anatomist and anatomical modeler Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-1774) represented herself in sumptuous aristocratic dress while dissecting a human brain. This essay explores the scientific and symbolic meaning of the vivid self-portrayal in terms of Anna Morandi's lifework at the intersection of art and anatomical science and within the remarkable cultural context of Enlightenment Bologna that fostered her rise to international acclaim. PMID:24041277

Messbarger, Rebecca

2013-01-01

390

Characterization of wax sediments in refined canola oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbidity components in refined canola oils were collected by filtration at 4 and 20C. Major components (thin-layer chromatography)\\u000a at both temperatures were wax esters (WE), hydrocarbons (HC) and triacylglycerols (TG) while free fatty acids (FFA) and fatty\\u000a alcohols (FAL) were found in minor amounts at 4C. WE had carbon numbers of 40 to 56 (made up of combinations of C16

Xiaojun Hu; James K. Daun; Rachel Scarth

1993-01-01

391

Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly  

PubMed Central

Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the “empty neuron” system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; Leal, Walter S.

2010-01-01

392

Confirmation and Efficacy Tests Against Codling Moth and Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches and Nectarines Using Combination Heat and Controlled Atmosphere Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, called CATTS for controlled atmosphere\\/temperature treatment system, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), infesting peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). These treatments were used in efÞcacy and conÞrmation tests to kill5,000 fourth instar oriental fruit moths

LISA G. NEVEN; LINDA M. REHFIELD-RAY; DAVID OBENLAND

393

SEDIMENTATION PATTERNS AND DEPOSITION IN THE PROGRADING WAX LAKE DELTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi River has been dammed and levied since the 1950s to control the river from flooding and support navigation and commerce. Sediments delivered to the Louisiana delta plain have decreased by half since the major projects of the 1950’s. Despite significant reductions in sediment load, the Wax Lake Delta is forming at the mouth of a man made dredged channel that flows off of the Atchafalaya River, which is the principal distributary of the Mississippi River. The remaining sediments carried by the Mississippi River are essential in the building of delta wetlands and helping to reverse coastal wetland loss. This study analyzes pre- and post-elevation data from 2008 and 2009 to understand the amount of elevation gain and sediment deposition associated with large river floods. Mean wetland elevation gain during the floods of 2008 and 2009 was 3.9 cm and 2.2 cm, respectively. Using soil bulk properties and mean elevation gain, I estimated that 2.3x106 Mt and 1.2x106Mt of sediment was deposited in the Wax Lake Delta wetlands for 2008 and 2009, respectively. If the total annual load of sediments in the Atchafalaya River is approximately 50Mt yr-1, we can estimate that <10% of the total available sediment load is deposited in the wetlands, just during spring flood events. This study provides good first order estimates of sediment deposition that can contribute to future research and understanding of the Wax Lake Delta formation and maintenance.

Bailey, C. H.; Holm, G. O.

2009-12-01

394

Release from or through a wax matrix system. VI. Analysis and prediction of the entire release process of the wax matrix tablet.  

PubMed

Analysis of the entire release process of the wax matrix tablet was examined. Wax matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of drug and wax powder to obtain basic or clear release properties. The release process began to deviate from Higuchi equation when the released amount reached at around the half of the initial drug amount. Simulated release amount increase infinitely when the Higuchi equation was applied. Then, the Higuchi equation was modified to estimate the release process of the wax matrix tablet. The modified Higuchi equation was named as the H-my equation. Release process was well treated by the H-my equation. Release process simulated by the H-my equation fitted well with the measured entire release process. Also, release properties from and through wax matrix well coincident each other. Furthermore, it is possible to predict an optional release process when the amount of matrix and composition of matrix system were defined. PMID:16079519

Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Ishida, Sumio; Sunada, Hisakazu

2005-08-01

395

IkB genes encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppress an antiviral response and enhance baculovirus pathogenicity against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

An endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, with its symbiotic polydnavirus, C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). This study analyzed the role of Inhibitor-kB (IkB)-like genes encoded in CpBV in suppressing host antiviral response. Identified eight CpBV-IkBs are scattered on different viral genome segments and showed high homologies with other bracoviral IkBs in their amino acid sequences. Compared to an insect ortholog (e.g., Cactus of Drosophila melanogaster), they possessed a shorter ankyrin repeat domain without any regulatory domains. The eight CpBV-IkBs are, however, different in their promoter components and expression patterns in the parasitized host. To test their inhibitory activity on host antiviral response, a midgut response of P. xylostella against baculovirus infection was used as a model reaction. When the larvae were orally fed the virus, they exhibited melanotic responses of midgut epithelium, which increased with baculovirus dose and incubation time. Parasitized larvae exhibited a significant reduction in the midgut melanotic response, compared to nonparasitized larvae. Micro-injection of each of the four CpBV genome segments containing CpBV-IkBs into the hemocoel of nonparasitized larvae showed the gene expressions of the encoded IkBs and suppressed the midgut melanotic response in response to the baculovirus treatment. When nonparasitized larvae were orally administered with a recombinant baculovirus containing CpBV-IkB, they showed a significant reduction in midgut melanotic response and an enhanced susceptibility to the baculovirus infectivity. PMID:19559708

Bae, Sungwoo; Kim, Yonggyun

2009-06-25

396

Structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in an agricultural ecosystem.  

PubMed

Intercontinental trade has led to multiple introductions of invasive pest species at a global scale. Molecular analyses of the structure of populations support the understanding of ecological strategies and evolutionary patterns that promote successful biological invasions. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita (= Cydia) molesta, is a cosmopolitan and economically destructive pest of stone and pome fruits, expanding its distribution range concomitantly with global climate warming. We used ten newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structure of G. molesta populations in an agricultural ecosystem in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Larvae collected in eight sampling sites were assigned to a mosaic of five populations with significant intra-regional structure. Inferred measures of gene flow within populations implicated both active dispersal, and passive dispersal associated with accidental anthropogenic displacements. Small effective population sizes, coupled with high inbreeding levels, highlighted the effect of orchard management practices on the observed patterns of genetic variation within the sampling sites. Isolation by distance did not appear to play a major role at the spatial scale considered. Our results provide new insights into the population genetics and dynamics of an invasive pest species at a regional scale. PMID:20561191

Torriani, Marco V G; Mazzi, Dominique; Hein, Silke; Dorn, Silvia

2010-06-17

397

NMR investigation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes. III. 13C and 1H study of oxidised hard wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.II see ibid., vol.18, p.1185 (1985). The proton spin-lattice relaxation time and the liquid content of polycrystalline oxidised hard wax were determined as a function of temperature (355>T>125K). In Phase I(TT>294K) the melting process contributes to the observed relaxation times but it is clear that an additional process also contributes to T1. In phase III (355>T>333K) T1 is dominated

E. C. Reynhardt

1985-01-01

398

Coral Larvae Move toward Reef Sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae

Mark J. A. Vermeij; Kristen L. Marhaver; Chantal M. Huijbers; Ivan Nagelkerken; Stephen D. Simpson; Steve Vollmer

2010-01-01

399

Coral larvae move toward reef sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae

Mark J. A. Vermeij; Kristen L. Marhaver; Chantal M. Huijbers; Ivan Nagelkerken; Stephen D. Simpson

2010-01-01

400

Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts.

Bauer, Tilman Martin; Peyerl-Hoffmann, Gabriele; Held, Jurgen; Ritter, Wolfgang; Wagner, Dirk; Kern, Winfried Vinzenz; Serr, Annerose

2010-01-01

401

Comparative Evaluation of Rice Bran Wax as an Ointment Base with Standard Base  

PubMed Central

Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases.

Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P. M.; Lakhotiya, C. L.

2009-01-01

402

Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids. PMID:20388288

Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

2010-04-01

403

Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach.  

PubMed

The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4-8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. PMID:24165663

Gorb, Elena V; Baum, Martina J; Gorb, Stanislav N

2013-10-29

404

Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach  

PubMed Central

The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4–8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate.

Gorb, Elena V.; Baum, Martina J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2013-01-01

405

Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control. PMID:23865179

Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

2013-06-01

406

Chemical composition of the slippery epicuticular wax blooms on Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) ant-plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The stems of many Macaranga ant-plants (Euphorbiaceae) are covered by epicuticular wax crystals rendering the surface very slippery for most insects.\\u000a These wax blooms act as selective barriers protecting the symbiotic ant partners, which are specialized “wax-runners”, against\\u000a the competition of other ants. Glaucous stems occur almost exclusively among the ant-plants of the genus Macaranga (). We analyzed the

Claus Markstädter; Walter Federle; Reinhard Jetter; Markus Riederer; Bert Hölldobler

2000-01-01

407

A WAX INHIBITION SOLUTION TO PROBLEMATIC FIELDS: A CHEMICAL REMEDIATION PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax crystallization and deposition during production can lead to severe pipeline and flow line restrictions. Over time, the build-up of wax will reduce the internal diameter and eventually block the line or well. Remediation is normally performed by mechanical pigging or through solvent washes or hot oiling. All have their advantages and limitations. Wax inhibitors\\/dispersants and anti-sticking agents are an

D. Groffe; P. Groffe; S. Takhar; S. I. Andersen; E. H. Stenby; N. Lindeloff; M. Lundgren

2001-01-01

408

Structure and molecular dynamics of the cuticular wax from leaves of Citrus aurantium L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuticles and wax from the leaves of Citrus aurantium L. have been investigated by using NMR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and gas chromatographic methods. The wax, consisting mainly of 1-alkanols and n-alkyl esters, has chain lengths ranging from 25 to 53 carbon atoms with an average chain length of 34 carbon atoms. The X-ray results show that the wax is to

E. C. Reynhardt; M. Riederer

1991-01-01

409

Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727\\/30\\/3\\/018\\/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles

Douglas L. Dorset

1997-01-01

410

Effect of surface waxes on the persistence of chlorpyrifos-methyl in apples, strawberries and grapefruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the cuticle and epicuticular waxes of grapefruit, strawberry and apple on the photodegradation and penetration of chlorpyrifos-methyl were studied. Photodegradation experiments were conducted by exposing the insecticide to the light of a xenon lamp in the presence of a film of wax extracted from the fruit surface. The half-life of chlorpyrifos-methyl irradiated in absence of waxes was

R. Riccio; M. Trevisan; E. Capri

2006-01-01

411

Epicuticular wax content and morphology as related to ethylene and storage performance of ‘Navelate’ orange fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethylene (2?LL?1) on total and soft epicuticular wax content and wax morphology has been investigated in mature ‘Navelate’ (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck) oranges held under non-stressful environmental conditions (22°C and constant high relative humidity (90–95% RH)). In addition, the objective of the study was to understand whether the ethylene-induced changes in epicuticular wax might participate in the

Jacques F. Cajuste; Luis González-Candelas; Ana Veyrat; Francisco J. García-Breijo; José Reig-Armiñanab; María T. Lafuente

2010-01-01

412

Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins have been identified: an aminopeptidase N (APN-1) and a 270kDa anionic glycoconjugate (BTR-270). Studies have shown that APN-1 has a relatively weak affinity and a very narrow specificity to Cry1Ac, the only Cry1A toxin that it binds. In contrast, BTR-270 binds all toxins that are active against L. dispar larvae, and the affinities for these toxins to BTR-270 correlate positively with their respective toxicities. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was coupled with fluorescence microscopy to localize APN-1 and BTR-270 in paraffin embedded midgut sections of L. dispar larvae. The distribution of cadherin and alkaline phosphatase in the gut tissue was also examined. A strong reaction indicative of polyanionic material was detected with alcian blue staining over the entire epithelial brush border, suggesting the presence of acidic glycoconjugates in the microvillar matrix. The Cry1A toxin-binding sites were confined to the apical surface of the gut epithelial cells with intense labeling of the apical tips of the microvilli. APN-1, BTR-270, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be present exclusively along the brush border microvilli along the entire gut epithelium. In contrast, cadherin, detected only in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the basement membrane anchoring the midgut epithelial cells. The topographical relationship between the Bt Cry toxin-binding molecules BTR-270 and APN-1 and the Cry1A toxin-binding sites that were confined to the apical brush border of the midgut cells is consistent with findings implicating their involvement in the mechanism of the action of Bt Cry toxins. PMID:21767544

Valaitis, Algimantas P

2011-07-13

413

Effects of Laboratory Rearing on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Jersey Standard Strain (NJSS) accounts for about 90 percent of the laboratory-reared gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), used for research and development in the United States. The history and performance of NJSS since its establishment in the labo...

M. A. Keena T. M. Odell

1994-01-01

414

HOW WE CAN MAKE CODLING MOTH MATING DISRUPTION WORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of several approaches that use the sex pheromone of codling moth to manage this important pest in apple have been investigated over the past 14 years. These tactics include the use of hand-applied dispensers, microencapsulated sprayables, widely-spaced high emission sources such as puff...

415

Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

416

PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of yolk spheres in the oocyte of the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia (L.), is known immunologically to result largely from uptake of a sex-limited blood protein. Recent electron microscope analyses of insect and other animal oocytes have demonstrated fine structural configurations consistent with uptake of proteins by pinocytosis. An electron microscope analysis of the cecropia ovary confirms the

BARBARA STAY

2009-01-01

417

EFFECT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-eight strains of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt spore/crystal preparations...

418

Integrated Pest Management of Diamondback Moth: Practical Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a serious and important pest of crucifers in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. Although many studies have been conducted oil this pest, the development of realistic integrated pest management (IPM) for it is not progressing as it should, and even less so on its practical implementation. The many reasons for

Lim Guan-Soon

419

Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

420

Carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing gypsy moth frass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defoliation of forests by insects is often assumed to produce a pulse of available nitrogen (N) from the decomposition of frass pellets. In this study we measured rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization from gypsy moth frass incubated with and without soil, and for soil alone. Incubations were at constant temperature and soil moisture conditions and lasted for 120

Gary M. Lovett; Adriana E. Ruesink

1995-01-01

421

Evidence for short-range sonic communication in lymantriine moths.  

PubMed

Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and L. fumida produce species- and sex-specific wing beat and associated click sounds that could contribute to reproductive isolation. Evidence for short-range communication in these lymantriines includes (i) scanning electron micrographs revealing metathoracic tympanate ears, (ii) laser interferometry showing particular sensitivity of tympana tuned to frequency components of sound signals from conspecifics, and (iii) phonotaxis of male L. monacha and L. fumida to speakers playing back sound signals from conspecific females. We conclude that tympanate ears of these moths have evolved in response not only to bat predation, but also for short-range mate finding and possibly recognition. PMID:21115014

Rowland, E; Schaefer, P W; Belton, P; Gries, G

2010-11-27

422

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

423

Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

424

Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

2006-01-01

425

Preventive Programme Against the Cactus Moth Cactoblastis cactorum in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) as a successful biological control agent against ten Opuntia invaders in 20 countries is widely documented. Nevertheless, this species has also become a serious threat to the high diversity\\u000a of both native and cultivated Opuntia species in many regions of the world. In particular its presence in the Caribbean islands, and

J. Hernández; H. Sánchez; A. Bello; G. González

426

Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most destructive cosmopolitan insect pests of brassicaceous crops. It was the first crop insect reported to be resistant to DDT and now, in many crucifer producing regions, it has shown significant resistance to almost every synthetic insecticide applied in the field. In certain parts of the world,

Muhammad Sarfraz; Andrew B Keddie; Lloyd M Dosdall

2005-01-01

427

Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

428

INTERACTION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TIP MOTH DAMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also increase the need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. The Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)) is one insect that is expected to become more important with more intensive forest management practices. Two

John T. Nowakl

429

Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

1986-12-09

430

THE R?LE OF THE "WAX" OF THE TUBERCLE BACILLUS IN ESTABLISHING DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY  

PubMed Central

Guinea pigs sensitized with egg albumin along with the purified wax fraction of the human tubercle bacillus respond with delayed hypersensitive reactivity to the protein antigen. Previous publications have reported a similar activity of the wax with respect to tuberculoprotein and picryl chloride. The effect is not referable to an ordinary adjuvant activity of the bacillary wax, since antibody titers are not increased in animals which receive it, and since a known adjuvant, water-in-oil emulsion, has no effect with respect to the induction of delayed hypersensitivity. This report further extends the rôle of the tubercle bacillary wax in the induction of delayed hypersensitive states.

Raffel, Sidney; Arnaud, Louis E.; Dukes, C. Dean; Huang, Jwo S.

1949-01-01

431

Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness. PMID:23750808

Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

2013-06-10

432

The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

Pastirik, E.

1980-11-01

433

Bioecology of pistachio twig borer moth Kermania pistaciella Amsel, in Rafsanjan and Isfahan-Iran.  

PubMed

Pistachio woodborer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel. (Lep.: Oinophylidae) is one of the most important pests of pistachio in Iran. Some of morphological characters and its biology were studied in two orchards in Rafsanjan. For this study, 80 pistachio branches were selected and visited once a week. The larval emergence was recorded and cocoon formation was located. Seasonal occurrence of adults were recorded based on marked cocoons on branches, caged cocoons and the number of captured males in cylindrical pheromone traps bated with virgin females. To determine sex ratio, six hundred cocoons were caged and emerged moths (males or females) were recorded. For determination of the pest oviposition period, totally 10 trees and from each tree two branches and two fruit clusters were randomly selected. Number of hatched and unhatched eggs was recorded in two days interval. By visual observation, larval tunneling behavior and locomotion were recorded on 50 branches and 50 fruit clusters. By visiting 15 pistachio producing regions in Isfahan, distribution areas, and percent of pest damage was determined. For this study, 110 pistachio branches were selected and visited twice a week. Percent of infestation of the pest in Burkhart, Ardestan, Najafabad, Kashan, Natanz, Naiin and Shahreza were 88.9+/-17, 15.25, 41, 0.0, 23.46+/-32 and 0, respectively. Overwintering was identified as 4th larval instars. This study disclosed 7th and 15th of March and 7th of April as larval emergence initiation, its peak, and termination, respectively and this takes usually 32 days whereas the pupae period was identified one month. Cocoons were formed underside of branches. Larval emergence time was not affected by location of branches and their vertical and horizontal position. By using marked cocoons, adults' emergence initiation, its peak and termination was recognized 18th and 20th of April and 2nd of May, respectively. Start, peak and end of male moth capture in pheromone traps was 18th and 26th of April and 2nd of May, respectively. The number of captured males in two last days at traps with two and four day's old females was not significantly different. Start, peak, and end of oviposition were 24th of April and 4-10th of May, respectively. The eggs hatched almost after one week and larvae tunneled in the pedicel of fruit cluster and branches and began to feed. This study revealed that, there are four larval instars in pistachio woodborer life cycle and different larval instars could be separated by measuring the width of head-capsule and pronotum. Sex ratio was also determined as 1 per 2.79. Also by collecting larvae and pupae from five different geographical areas and placing them in cages the emerged natural enemies were collected. Three parasitoids and two predators were collected. The parasitoids were identified as: Chelonus sp (Hym.: Braconidae), pteromalus sp (Hym.: Pteromalidae) and one unidentified species from Ichneumonidae. An ant as a pupal predator and a spider feeding on the larvae were collected. PMID:17385525

Abbaszadeh, G; Seiedoleslami, H; Samih, M A; Hatami, B

2006-01-01

434

Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

1986-04-08

435

Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

2008-12-31

436

Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions  

SciTech Connect

Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

Leontaritis, K.J. [Kosta Oil Field Technologies, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)]|[AsphWax, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

437

Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release. PMID:9532605

Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

1998-02-01

438

Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.  

PubMed

With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

2013-05-29

439

Attraction of male gypsy and nun moths to disparlure and some of its chemical analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractive power of disparlure—the sex attractant of the gypsy moth (Lymantria\\/Porthetria dispar)—vs. four synthetic analogous epoxides was tested in 1972 in a pine forest near Heidelberg. With two levels of concentration in the traps (2 and 20 µg), a total of 1112 nun moths (Lymantria\\/Porthetria monacha) and 257 gypsy moths were caught in 9 experiments. Approximately equal percentages of

D. Schneider; R. Lange; F. Schwarz; M. Beroza; B. A. Bierl

1974-01-01

440

Slippery surfaces of carnivorous plants: composition of epicuticular wax crystals in Nepenthes alata Blanco pitchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the genus Nepenthes obtain a substantial nutrient supply by trapping insects in highly modified leaves. A broad zone of the inner surface of these pitchers is densely covered with wax crystals on which most insects lose their footing. This slippery wax surface, capturing prey and preventing its escape from the trap, plays a pivotal role in the carnivorous

Michael Riedel; Anna Eichner; Reinhard Jetter

2003-01-01

441

Plant response to drought stress simulated by ABA application: Changes in chemical composition of cuticular waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cuticles form the interface between epidermal plant cells and the atmosphere. The cuticle creates an effective barrier against water loss, bacterial and fungal infection and also protects plant tissue from UV radiation. It is composed of the cutin matrix and embedded soluble lipids also called waxes. Chemical composition of cuticular waxes and physiological properties of cuticles are affected by

Jana Macková; Martina Vašková; Petr Macek; Marie Hronková; Lukas Schreiber; Ji?í Šantr??ek

2010-01-01

442

Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance tem...

J. Liang J. A. Walker T. Zhu

2008-01-01

443

Development and Evaluation of Sustained-Release Ibuprofen–Wax Microspheres. II. In Vitro Dissolution Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified USP paddle method using minibaskets was used to study the effects of various formulations on in vitro dissolution of ibuprofen microspheres. Formulations containing waxes such as paraffin or ceresine wax without modifiers exhibited very slow dissolution profiles and incomplete release, which did not improve with increased drug loading or the preparation of smaller microspheres. The addition of modifiers

Christianah M. Adeyeye; James C. Price

1994-01-01

444

Mechanical-dry coating of wax onto copper powder by ball milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical dry coating process has been applied to formation of the oxidation protecting film of polymer wax onto spherical copper particles (median diameter of 69.1 ?m) using a conventional ball milling. The wax used here showed poor adhesiveness to the metal surface and low plasticity at room temperature due to relatively hard and high melting point (446 K). In order

Jeonghwan Kim; Munetake Satoh; Tomohiro Iwasaki

2003-01-01

445

In vitro Release Kinetics Study of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from Wax and Kollidon SR Based Matrix Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended-release matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) were prepared using waxy materials alone or in combination with Kollidon SR. Matrix waxy materials were carnauba wax (CW), bees wax (BW), cetyl alcohol (CA) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS). Dissolution studies were carried out by using a six stations USP XXII type 1 apparatus. The in vitro drug release study was done in

Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Selim Reza; Habibur Rahman

2008-01-01

446

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DISSOLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMERIC AND WAX GRANULATIONS OF THEOPHYLLINE AND THEIR TABLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix (non disintegrating) granules of theophylline have been formed and their dissolution characteristics investigated for sustained release application. The polymeric granulations were formed by massing the drug powder with a concentrated (40%w\\/w) ethanolic solution of an acrylatemethacrylate copolymer (ERS100 R ). Wax granulations were also formed by massing the drug powder with previously melted carnuba wax followed by screening and

MICHAEL U UHUMWANGHO; ROLAND S OKOR

447

Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants.

Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

2012-01-01

448

Phase change materials based on low-density polyethylene\\/paraffin wax blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase change materials, based on low-density polyethylene blended with soft and hard paraffin waxes respectively, were studied in this paper. DSC, DMA, TGA and SEM were employed to determine the structure and properties of the blends. The blends were able to absorb large amounts of heat energy due to melting of paraffin wax, whereas the LDPE matrix kept the material

I. Krupa; G. Miková; A. S. Luyt

2007-01-01

449

The chemical composition of cuticular waxes from leaves of the gboma eggplant ( Solanum macrocarpon L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gboma eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon L.) is an important but still underutilized African green leafy vegetable. During the screening of the leaf cuticular waxes from Solanum plants, an unusual profile with elevated sterols and low hydrocarbon contents was detected for S. macrocarpon cv. UVPP. Detailed analysis of waxes from two cultivars has shown that sterols are made up of 19

?ukasz P. Hali?ski; Monika Paszkiewicz; Marek Go??biowski; Piotr Stepnowski

450

Effect of waxing and cellophane lining on chemical quality indices of citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of waxing of the fruit and of the use of cellophane for lining storage boxes on chemical quality indices (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) and flavour scores of Feutrell's Early mandarin during storage at room conditions were determined. Maximum changes during storage of waxed mandarins in film-lined boxes occurred in ethanol contents which were followed by acetaldehyde, total soluble solids

Maqbool Ahmad; Ismail Khan

1987-01-01

451

Leaf cuticular waxes of potted rose cultivars as affected by plant development, drought and paclobutrazol treatments.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to evaluate how plant growth and cultural practices influence the amount and composition of cuticular waxes on leaves of rose cultivars. The total amount of cuticular wax per leaf area was higher for rose cultivar Apollo Parade than for Charming Parade. Both cultivars had waxes dominated by alkanes, with the major alkanes being the C31 and C33 homologues. Primary alcohols were the next most abundant constituent class, with C26 as the dominant homologue. Compared with Charming Parade, Apollo Parade had higher proportions of its total wax load as primary alcohols but lower acids and aldehydes. The proportion of alkanes in the total load on these cultivars was similar. Commercially produced roses are routinely treated with paclobutrazol (PBZ) to retard growth. PBZ treatments caused a 10% increase in total wax load and changes in the proportions of certain wax constituents within 11 days of application. Notable was an increase in the total proportion of acids in the total load 25 days after PBZ application, primarily because of increased C28 acids. An alternative method of retarding plant growth is production of roses under limited water availability. When Apollo Parade roses experienced periods of moderate drought stress during production, the wax load per leaf area increased 14 and 8% above control levels at 24 and 38 days after imposition of drought, respectively. Drought caused similar changes in the proportions of individual wax constituents as did PBZ application. PMID:11319016

Jenks, Matthew A.; Andersen, Lise; Teusink, Rebecca S.; Williams, Michelle H.

2001-05-01

452

A new composite coating containing HPMC, bee's wax and shellac for 'Valencia' oranges and 'Marisol' tangerines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial coatings used for citrus fruit include carnauba and shellac waxes or resins, which provide an attractive shine to the fruit, but are not necessarily made of 100% food grade ingredients. A new food grade formulation based on bee's wax (BW), shellac resin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (...

453

WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Epicuticular wax forms a layer of hydrophobic material on plant aerial organs, which constitutes a protective barrier between the plant and its environment. We report here the identification of WIN1, an Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor-type transcription factor, which can activate wax deposition in overexpressing plants. We constitutively expressed WIN1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and found that leaf epidermal wax accumulation was up to 4.5-fold higher in these plants than in control plants. A significant increase was also found in stems. Interestingly, ?50% of the additional wax could only be released by complete lipid extractions, suggesting that not all of the wax is superficial. Gene expression analysis indicated that a number of genes, such as CER1, KCS1, and CER2, which are known to be involved in wax biosynthesis, were induced in WIN1 overexpressors. This observation indicates that induction of wax accumulation in transgenic plants is probably mediated through an increase in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of the wax biosynthesis pathway.

Broun, Pierre; Poindexter, Patricia; Osborne, Erin; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Riechmann, Jose Luis

2004-01-01

454

WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Epicuticular wax forms a layer of hydrophobic material on plant aerial organs, which constitutes a protective barrier between the plant and its environment. We report here the identification of WIN1, an Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor-type transcription factor, which can activate wax deposition in overexpressing plants. We constitutively expressed WIN1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and found that leaf epidermal wax accumulation was up to 4.5-fold higher in these plants than in control plants. A significant increase was also found in stems. Interestingly, approximately 50% of the additional wax could only be released by complete lipid extractions, suggesting that not all of the wax is superficial. Gene expression analysis indicated that a number of genes, such as CER1, KCS1, and CER2, which are known to be involved in wax biosynthesis, were induced in WIN1 overexpressors. This observation indicates that induction of wax accumulation in transgenic plants is probably mediated through an increase in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of the wax biosynthesis pathway. PMID:15070782

Broun, Pierre; Poindexter, Patricia; Osborne, Erin; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Riechmann, José Luis

2004-03-22

455

Statistical analysis on accuracy of wax patterns used in investment casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research work is to determine the accuracy of wax patterns produced by hard and soft tooling and optimise the injection parameters used in low pressure injection moulding. Wax patterns are produced using both the hard (polyurethane mould) and soft (RTV mould) tools. It is essential to use the optimal injection parameters during moulding in order

Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda; Teo Siang Hock

2003-01-01

456

21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120 Section 155.120...wash to remove phenolphthalein. Dry the screen containing the fibrous...the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...

2009-04-01

457

21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120 Section 155.120...wash to remove phenolphthalein. Dry the screen containing the fibrous...the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...

2013-04-01

458

21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120 Section 155.120...wash to remove phenolphthalein. Dry the screen containing the fibrous...the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans falls...

2010-04-01

459

Growth, Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration, and Morphological Adaptation of Selected Wax Apple Cultivars in Response to Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, leaf chlorophyll concentration and morphological adaptation of young wax apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill & Perry) cvs. Plastic (PT), Thunklao (TK), Phetnamphueng (PP) and Thapthimchan (TC) and Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense) (MA) plants under flooding conditions were investigated. Potted wax apple and Malay apple plants were flooded to 5 cm above the soil surface for 70 days continuously. MA,

Phaisan Tanchai; Lop Phavaphutanon