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1

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula-tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria  

E-print Network

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula- tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) The larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are living in honeybee colonies where they feed on wax, honey, pollen and other organic matter. Mass-invasions of larvae can occur in weak bee colonies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Efficiency of bacteriophage therapy against Cronobacter sakazakii in Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) larvae.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen found in milk-based powdered infant formulae, has been linked to meningitis in infants, with high fatality rates. A set of phages from various environments were purified and tested in vitro against strains of C. sakazakii. Based on host range and lytic activity, the T4-like phage vB_CsaM_GAP161, which belongs to the family Myoviridae, was selected for evaluation of its efficacy against C. sakazakii. Galleria mellonella larvae were used as a whole-animal model for pre-clinical testing of phage efficiency. Twenty-one Cronobacter strains were evaluated for lethality in G. mellonella larvae. Different strains of C. sakazakii caused 0 to 98% mortality. C. sakazakii 3253, with an LD50 dose of ~2.0×10(5) CFU/larva (24 h, 37 °C) was selected for this study. Larvae infected with a dose of 5×LD50 were treated with phage GAP161 (MOI=8) at various time intervals. The mortality rates were as high as 100% in the groups injected with bacteria only, compared to 16.6% in the group infected with bacteria and treated with phage. Phage GAP161 showed the best protective activity against C. sakazakii when the larvae were treated prior to or immediately after infection. The results obtained with heat-inactivated phage proved that the survival of the larvae is not due to host immune stimulation. These results suggest that phage GAP161 is potentially a useful control agent against C. sakazakii. In addition, G. mellonella may be a useful whole-animal model for pre-screening phages for efficacy and safety prior to clinical evaluation in mammalian models. PMID:24705602

Abbasifar, Reza; Kropinski, Andrew M; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; MacKinnon, Joanne; Malig, Thomas; Griffiths, Mansel W

2014-09-01

3

Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When

J. Y. Choi; M. M. A. Whitten; M. Y. Cho; K. Y. Lee; M. S. Kim; N. A. Ratcliffe; B. L. Lee

2002-01-01

4

CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V  

E-print Network

CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, England SUMMARY Mature broodcombs were protected from attack by larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella was much less in laboratory assays made directly on sheets of foundation wax. Dipicolinic acid, penicillin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

The effect of initial dose on the recovery and final yields of Heterorhabditis megidis (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) in larvae of the great wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different initial doses of the infective juveniles (IJs) (50 IJs, 200 IJs, 1000 IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) strain IsM15/09 on recovery, final yields and percent final yields in larvae Galleria mellonella ( L.). Percent recovery was not directly related to initial dose. Final yields also did not change with the initial dose. However, percent yields was highly negatively correlated with initial dose of nematodes and was the highest with the 50 IJs dose. Additional point of the study was to investigate whether the nematodes are able to produce progeny from one hermaphroditic individual. The results showed that the invasive larvae resumed growth and transformed into hermaphroditic individuals that reproduced without cross-fertilisation. PMID:24827089

Tumialis, Dorota; Pezowicz, El?bieta; Mazurkiewicz, Anna; Skrzecz, Iwona; Popowska-Nowak, El?bieta; Petrykowska, Agnieszka

2014-06-01

6

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N. In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Mass spectrometry showed close similarity of the 58-kDa protein to the Tenebrio molitor ?-amylase. PMID:21568853

Bulushova, N V; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-02-01

7

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

8

Effects of food quality on trade-offs among growth, immunity and survival in the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The resources available to an individual in any given environment are finite, and variation in life history traits reflect differential allocation of these resources to competing life functions. Nutritional quality of food is of particular importance in these life history decisions. In this study, we tested trade-offs among growth, immunity and survival in 3 groups of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae fed on diets of high and average nutritional quality. We found rapid growth and weak immunity (as measured by encapsulation response) in the larvae of the high-energy food group. It took longer to develop on food of average nutritional quality. However, encapsulation response was stronger in this group. The larvae grew longer in the low-energy food group, and had the strongest encapsulation response. We observed the highest survival rates in larvae of the low-energy food group, while the highest mortality rates were observed in the high-energy food group. A significant negative correlation between body mass and the strength of encapsulation response was found only in the high-energy food group revealing significant competition between growth and immunity only at the highest rates of growth. The results of this study help to establish relationships between types of food, its nutritional value and life history traits of G. mellonella larvae. PMID:24771711

Krams, Indrikis; Kecko, Sanita; Kangassalo, Katariina; Moore, Fhionna R; Jankevics, Eriks; Inashkina, Inna; Krama, Tatjana; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Meija, Laila; Rantala, Markus J

2014-04-25

9

Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

10

Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae  

SciTech Connect

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

1985-03-01

11

Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella  

PubMed Central

The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal

2013-01-01

12

Purification and characterization of ?-glucosidase from greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is one of the most ruinous pests of honeycomb in the world. Beta-glucosidases are a type of digestive enzymes that hydrolytically catalyzes the beta-glycosidic linkage of glycosides. Characterization of the beta-glucosidase in G. mellonella could be a significant stage for a better comprehending of its role and establishing a safe and effective control procedure primarily against G. mellonella and also some other insect pests. Laboratory reared final instar stage larvae were randomly selected and homogenized for beta-glucosidase activity assay and subsequent analysis. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 58-fold with an overall enzyme yield of 29%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 42 kDa. The purified beta-glucosidase was effectively active on para/ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with Km values of 0.37 and 1.9 mM and Vmax values of 625 and 189 U/mg, respectively. It also exhibits different levels of activity against para-nitrophenyl-?-d-fucopyranoside (p-NPF), para/ortho-nitrophenyl ?-d-galactopyranosides (p-/o-NPGal) and p-nitrophenyl 1-thio-?-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by beta-gluconolactone and also was very tolerant to glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The Ki and IC50 values of ?-gluconolactone were determined as 0.021 and 0.08 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with IC50 value of 213.13 mM for p-NPG. PMID:24789069

Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Turan, Yusuf; Er, Aylin; Acar, Mesut; Tümay, Sabiha; Sinan, Selma

2014-08-01

13

In vivo correlates of molecularly inferred virulence among extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in the wax moth Galleria mellonella model system.  

PubMed

In contrast to commensal Escherichia coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains possess an array of virulence-associated genes. We sought to establish the feasibility of using the invertebrate Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for assessing ExPEC virulence and to investigate the correlation between genotypic determinants of virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. We observed a correlation between the number of virulence genes and larval survival, such that ExPEC isolates with higher virulence scores killed larvae significantly faster than isolates with lower virulence scores. By correlating genotypic and phenotypic virulence, we provide preliminary validation of this model for future studies investigating ExPEC virulence. PMID:24518442

Williamson, Deborah A; Mills, Grant; Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen; Wiles, Siouxsie

2014-04-01

14

Expression of ecdysteroid-regulated transcripts in the silk gland of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of six different transcripts encoding members of the nuclear receptor superfamily was studied in whole silk glands\\u000a of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, during development and in response to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH II) in vitro. Nucleic acid probes\\u000a specific to Galleria homologs of the Drosophila E75 early gene and the delayed early gene DHR3 were used

M. Jindra; L. M. Riddiford

1996-01-01

15

Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

16

Female greater wax moths reduce sexual display behavior in relation to the potential risk of predation by echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female greater wax moths Galleria mellonella display by wing fanning in response to bursts of ultrasonic calls produced by males. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these calls show some similarities with the echolocation calls of bats that emit frequency-modulated (FM) signals. Female G. mellonella therefore need to distinguish between the attractive signals of male conspecifics, which may lead to

Gareth Jones; Anna Barabas; Wendy Elliott; Stuart Parsons

2002-01-01

17

Involvement of both granular cells and plasmatocytes in phagocytic reactions in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been previously found by most authors that only plasmatocytes are involved in phagocytosis of non-self in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, in the present study we demonstrate that in vitro, both granular cells and plasmatocytes are involved in this reaction, using monolayers of these haemocytes prepared from larval haemolymph by a differential cell fractionation method. The

Sumio Tojo; Fumihiko Naganuma; Kenryo Arakawa; Shinya Yokoo

2000-01-01

18

Plant Essential Oils as Arrestants and Repellents for Neonate Larvae of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhost chemicals may be useful for controlling insect pests of crop plants by interfering with orientation to, and selection of, host plants. Essential oils of 27 plant species were tested in 2 different laboratory assays for evidence of arrest and repellency of neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. In an olfactometer in which larval upwind movement toward

PETER J. LANDOLT; RICHARD W. HOFSTETTER; LISA L. BIDDICK

19

Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

20

Host acceptance behaviour of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus: larvae and adults use different stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The sugar alcohol dulcitol is a strong feeding stimulant for larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that dulcitol also acts as an oviposition stimulant for this species. We found that\\u000a the sugar-alcohol dulcitol was present on the surface of the host Euonymus europaeus. We also showed that (as yet unidentified

Peter Roessingh; Katja H. Hora; S. Ying Fung; Anja Peltenburg; Steph B. J. Menken

2000-01-01

21

Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

22

Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae  

PubMed Central

Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

23

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2014-04-01

24

Species identification and sibship assignment of sympatric larvae in the yucca moths Tegeticula synthetica and Tegeticula antithetica (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae).  

PubMed

Ecological interactions between yucca moths (Tegeticula, Prodoxidae) and their host plants (Yucca, Agavaceae) are exemplary of obligate plant-pollinator mutualism and co-evolution. We describe a multiplex microsatellite DNA protocol for species identification and sibship assignment of sympatric larvae from Tegeticula synthetica and Tegeticula antithetica, pollinators of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia). Bayesian clustering provides correct diagnosis of species in 100% of adult moths, with unambiguous identification of sympatric larvae. Sibship assignments show that larvae within a single fruit are more likely to be full-sibs or half-sibs than larvae from different fruit, consistent with the hypothesis that larval clutches are predominantly the progeny of an individual female. PMID:21564909

Drummond, Christopher S; Smith, Christopher I; Pellmyr, Olle

2009-09-01

25

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

26

Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.  

PubMed

The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found to be a chill-intolerant insect. PMID:24819226

Heydari, M; Izadi, H

2014-10-01

27

Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

2006-03-01

28

The prophenoloxidase from the wax moth Galleria mellonella: purification and characterization of the proenzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prophenoloxidase (PPO) was purified from the hemolymph of the larvae of Galleria mellonella. A 135-fold purification of the proenzyme with 25% yield was achieved by a combination of different chromatographic methods. An alternative micropreparation of pure PPO by a novel method for native electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel is also described. The molecular mass of the native PPO was estimated

Petr Kopácek; Christoph Weise; Peter Götz

1995-01-01

29

A Histological Procedure to Study Fungal Infection in the Wax Moth Galleria Mellonella  

PubMed Central

The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

Perdoni, F.; Falleni, M.; Tosi, D.; Cirasola, D.; Romagnoli, S.; Braidotti, P.; Clementi, E.; Bulfamante, G.

2014-01-01

30

A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon. PMID:25308852

Perdoni, F; Falleni, M; Tosi, D; Cirasola, D; Romagnoli, S; Braidotti, P; Clementi, E; Bulfamante, G; Borghi, E

2014-01-01

31

The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine)\\u000a were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the\\u000a ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to

Vonnie D. C. Shields; Kristen P. Smith; Nicole S. Arnold; Ineta M. Gordon; Taharah E. Shaw; Danielle Waranch

2008-01-01

32

Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

33

Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.  

PubMed

The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Simek, Petr

2014-10-01

34

DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae  

SciTech Connect

Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA))

1989-11-01

35

Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).  

PubMed

Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa. PMID:14971685

Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

2004-02-01

36

Identification, synthesis, and behavioral activity of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane, a novel sex pheromone component of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.).  

PubMed

The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a serious and widespread pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. In contrast to most moths, for which long-range mate finding is mediated by female-produced sex pheromones, G. mellonella males attract conspecific females over long distances by emitting large amounts of a characteristic scent in combination with bursts of ultrasonic calls. The male scent for this species was previously identified as a blend of nonanal and undecanal. When these compounds were bioassayed, characteristic short-range sexual behavior, including wing fanning, was triggered in conspecific females, but the aldehyde blend failed to elicit attraction over longer distances. We identified, via analysis and synthesis, a third male-specific compound, 5,11-dimethylpentacosane. We show that it acts as a behavioral synergist to the aldehydes. In wind tunnel experiments, very few female moths responded to the aldehyde blend or to 5,11-dimethylpentacosane tested separately, but consistently showed orientation and source contact when a combination of all three compounds was applied. The level of attraction to the three-component mixture was still lower than that to male extract, indicating that the composition of compounds in the synthetic blend is suboptimal, or that additional pheromone components of G. mellonella are yet to be identified. The identification of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane is an important step for the development of an efficient long-range attractant that will be integrated with other environmentally safe strategies to reduce damage to beehives caused by wax moths. PMID:24692052

Svensson, Glenn P; Gündüz, Eylem Akman; Sjöberg, Natalia; Hedenström, Erik; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Löfstedt, Christer; Anderbrant, Olle

2014-04-01

37

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

38

Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

39

Correlation between virulence of Candida albicans mutants in mice and Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is a dimorphic human pathogen in which the yeast to hyphal switch may be an important factor in virulence in mammals. This pathogen has recently been shown to also kill insects such as the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella when injected into the haemocoel of the insect larvae. We have investigated the effect of previously characterised C. albicans

Marc Brennan; David Y. Thomas; Malcolm Whiteway; Kevin Kavanagh

2002-01-01

40

Eicosanoids mediate melantoic nodulation reactions to viral infection in larvae of the parasitic wasp, Pimpla turionellae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

41

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

42

Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are widely used to maintain the organization of the colony. Many of these species produce chemical markers

P. Roessingh

1989-01-01

43

EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the developm...

44

Sequence similarity-based proteomics in insects: characterization of the larvae venom of the Brazilian moth Cerodirphia speciosa.  

PubMed

Using a combination of tandem mass spectrometric sequencing and sequence similarity searches, we characterized the larvae venom of the moth Cerodirphia speciosa, which belongs to the Saturniidae family of the Lepidoptera order. Despite the paucity of available database sequence resources, the approach enabled us to identify 48 out of 58 attempted spots on its two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map, which represented 37 unique proteins, whereas it was only possible to identify 13 proteins by conventional non-error tolerant database searching methods. The majority of cross-species hits were made to proteins from the phylogenetically related Lepidoptera organism, the silk worm Bombyx mori. The protein composition of the venom suggested that envenoming by C. speciosa toxins might proceed through the contact with its hemolymph, similarly to another toxic Lepidoptera organism, Lonomia obliqua. PMID:15952733

Shevchenko, Anna; de Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal; Waridel, Patrice; Bittencourt, Silvia Tolfo; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Shevchenko, Andrej

2005-01-01

45

A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

2009-10-20

46

Root damage and water stress: treatments affecting the exploitation of the buds of common ash Fraxinus excelsior L., by larvae of the ash bud moth Prays fraxinella Bjerk. (Lep., Yponomeutidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage to the buds of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) by larvae of the ash bud moth Prays fraxinella Bjerk. was investigated in trees growing in the presence, or absence, of an adjacent ditch. The presence of a ditch was correlated with increased damage levels due to bud moth. Saplings were used in an experiment to compare the effects

Andrew Foggo; Martin R. Speight

1993-01-01

47

Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

2014-01-01

48

The discovery and analysis of a diverged family of novel antifungal moricin-like peptides in the wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

Screening for components with antifungal activity in the hemolymph of immune-stimulated Galleria mellonella larvae led to the identification of four novel moricin-like peptides (A, B, C3 and D). Subsequently, eight moricin-like peptide genes (A, B, C1-5 and D) were isolated and shown to code for seven unique peptides (mature C4 and C5 are identical). These genes contained single introns which varied from 180 to 1090bp. The moricin-like peptides were particularly active against filamentous fungi, preventing the growth of Fusarium graminearum at 3 microg/ml, and were also active against yeasts, gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. Searches of the databases identified 30 moricin-like peptide genes which code for 23 unique mature peptides, all belonging to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). The first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the moricin-like peptides suggested that they fall into two basic classes which diverged a long time ago. The peptides have since diversified extensively through a high level of gene duplication within species, as seen in G. mellonella and Bombyx mori. The restriction of moricin-like peptides to the Lepidoptera combined with their potent antifungal activity suggests that this diverse peptide family may play a role in the defence response of moths and butterflies. PMID:18207081

Brown, Susan E; Howard, Antoinette; Kasprzak, Annette B; Gordon, Karl H; East, Peter D

2008-02-01

49

Effect of pre-incubation temperature on susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection by Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of insects for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for determining the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs\\u000a is increasing. When larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were incubated at 4 or 37°C for 24 h. prior to infection, they manifested increased resistance to infection by the yeast\\u000a Candida albicans compared to larvae that had been pre-incubated for

Peter Mowlds; Kevin Kavanagh

2008-01-01

50

Tomato fruit size, maturity and alpha-tomatine content influence the performance of larvae of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Various physical and chemical properties of host plants influence insect larval performance and subsequent adult fitness. Tomato plants are relatively new hosts to the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), with the fruit being its preferred feeding site. However, it is unclear how the biochemical and physical properties of tomato fruits relate to potato tuber moth performance. Significant amounts of alpha-tomatine were detected in maturing green and ripening fruits of cherry (cv. Ceres) and processing (cv. Serio) types of tomatoes whereas none was detected in a fresh market variety (cv. Marglobe), at comparable stages. alpha-Tomatine is negatively and significantly correlated with development rate (head capsule size) of larvae reared in the fruits of the cherry and processing type tomatoes. Generally, survival, growth and development were significantly superior for larvae reared in the ripening fruits of the fresh market cultivar. At this stage, the fruits of this cultivar are also the largest. Based on these results it is concluded that fruit alpha-tomatine content, as well as fruit size and maturity, all affect performance of P. operculella larvae in the fruits of cultivated tomatoes. PMID:16556338

Mulatu, B; Applebaum, S W; Kerem, Z; Coll, M

2006-04-01

51

Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae  

PubMed Central

Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e?5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were classified. The results of this study will provide useful data for future investigations on pest-resistance phytochemistry and plant breeding. PMID:23696897

Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

2013-01-01

52

Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

2010-01-01

53

Olfactory receptors on the maxillary palps of small ermine moth larvae: evolutionary history of benzaldehyde sensitivity  

PubMed Central

In lepidopterous larvae the maxillary palps contain a large portion of the sensory equipment of the insect. Yet, knowledge about the sensitivity of these cells is limited. In this paper a morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological investigation of the maxillary palps of Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is presented. In addition to thermoreceptors, CO2 receptors, and gustatory receptors, evidence is reported for the existence of two groups of receptor cells sensitive to plant volatiles. Cells that are mainly sensitive to (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal or to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol were found. Interestingly, a high sensitivity for benzaldehyde was also found. This compound is not known to be present in Euonymus europaeus, the host plant of the monophagous Yponomeuta cagnagellus, but it is a prominent compound in Rosaceae, the presumed hosts of the ancestors of Y. cagnagellus. To elucidate the evolutionary history of this sensitivity, and its possible role in host shifts, feeding responses of three Yponomeuta species to benzaldehyde were investigated. The results confirm the hypothesis that the sensitivity to benzaldehyde evolved during the ancestral shift from Celastraceae to Rosaceae and can be considered an evolutionary relict, retained in the recently backshifted Celastraceae-specialist Y. cagnagellus. PMID:17372741

Xu, Sen; Menken, Steph B. J.

2007-01-01

54

Olfactory receptors on the maxillary palps of small ermine moth larvae: evolutionary history of benzaldehyde sensitivity.  

PubMed

In lepidopterous larvae the maxillary palps contain a large portion of the sensory equipment of the insect. Yet, knowledge about the sensitivity of these cells is limited. In this paper a morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological investigation of the maxillary palps of Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is presented. In addition to thermoreceptors, CO(2) receptors, and gustatory receptors, evidence is reported for the existence of two groups of receptor cells sensitive to plant volatiles. Cells that are mainly sensitive to (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal or to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol were found. Interestingly, a high sensitivity for benzaldehyde was also found. This compound is not known to be present in Euonymus europaeus, the host plant of the monophagous Yponomeuta cagnagellus, but it is a prominent compound in Rosaceae, the presumed hosts of the ancestors of Y. cagnagellus. To elucidate the evolutionary history of this sensitivity, and its possible role in host shifts, feeding responses of three Yponomeuta species to benzaldehyde were investigated. The results confirm the hypothesis that the sensitivity to benzaldehyde evolved during the ancestral shift from Celastraceae to Rosaceae and can be considered an evolutionary relict, retained in the recently backshifted Celastraceae-specialist Y. cagnagellus. PMID:17372741

Roessingh, Peter; Xu, Sen; Menken, Steph B J

2007-06-01

55

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

56

The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-06-01

57

Development and Evaluation of Methods To Detect Nucleopolyhedroviruses in Larvae of the Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)?  

PubMed Central

Various molecular methods are used to detect pathogenic microorganisms and viruses within their hosts, but these methods are rarely validated by direct comparison. Southern hybridization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a novel DNA extraction/PCR assay were used to detect Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) in Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae. PCR was more sensitive than Southern hybridization and ELISA at detecting semipurified virus. ELISA, however, was the most accurate method for detecting virus within larvae, given that Southern hybridization and PCR produced false-negative results (31% and 2.5%, respectively). ELISA may be preferable in some applications because virus infections can be quantified (r2 = 0.995). These results may be applicable to both applied and academic research that seeks to accurately identify the incidence of viruses and microorganisms that regulate insect populations. PMID:17189436

Thorne, Christine M.; Otvos, Imre S.; Conder, Nicholas; Levin, David B.

2007-01-01

58

Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.  

PubMed

Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards. PMID:19192482

Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

2009-04-01

59

Wax sweating  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wax sweating process. It comprises: solidifying molten wax; sweating the solidified wax; withdrawing liquid drippings; determining the relationship of the melting point; monitoring the congealing point; determining the melting point; ceasing sweating of the remaining solidified wax; heating the remaining solidified wax; and discharging the melted wax product.

Rueff, R.M.

1991-05-14

60

Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

E-print Network

susuceptibility of Diamondback moth Plvtella xylostella L. Bull. Inst. Zool. Academia Sinica 27: 265-274. Magaro, J. J. & J. V. Edelson. 1990. Diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in south Texas: A technique for resistance monitoring in the field. J... (Lepidoptera: Torticidae) exposed to Ba ci I I us thruringiensis Berliner. Can. Ent. 119: 941-954. 25 VITA Jude Joseph Magaro The author is the son of Mr. Salvatore Magaro and Mrs. Joyce Magaro. He was born September 3, 1963, in San Antonio, Texas...

Magaro, Jude Joseph

2012-06-07

61

Deposition and germination of conidia of the entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga infecting larvae of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga, an important fungal pathogen of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was investigated on water agar and larval cuticle at varying densities. Percent germination was positively associated with conidial density on water agar but not on larval cuticle. When conidia were showered onto water agar, the rate of germination was much slower than on the cuticle

Ann E. Hajek; Cristian I. Davis; Callie C. Eastburn; Francoise M. Vermeylen

2002-01-01

62

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

63

Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate, a kairomonal spray adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae.  

PubMed

Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. The pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE), evokes attraction and arrestment of CM larvae. Microencapsulated PE formulation (PE-MEC) enhances the control efficacy of insecticides when used as a spray adjuvant. Characterization of the microencapsulated kairomone, including microcapsule size, concentrations, emission rates, and larval response, was performed. Microcapsule diameter ranged from 2 to 14 mum, with 68% of capsules being 2-3 mum, and the concentration of microcapsules averaged 25.9 x 10(4) capsules per mL of field spray solution. Headspace collections showed emission of PE was related to PE-MEC concentration and was best described as first-order power decay. Neonate larvae responded to PE-MEC applications aged through 14 days. These results demonstrated that application of PE-MEC concurrent with insecticides may increase neonate foliar wandering, thereby disrupting host location and enhancing mortality by prolonging its exposure to insecticide. PMID:20527813

Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

2010-07-14

64

Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.  

PubMed

The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

2012-12-01

65

Specimen Label For control of thrips, lepidopterous larvae (such as  

E-print Network

Specimen Label For control of thrips, lepidopterous larvae (such as: cutworm, sod webworm, armyworm, Eastern tent caterpillar, gypsy moth larvae, bagworm, fall webworm, and others), sawflies, Chrysomelid

Alpay, S. Pamir

66

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak processionary moth is a major defoliator of oak in Europe. The larvae (caterpillars) feed on the foliage of many growing next to severely defoliated oaks. Oak processionary moth is also a risk to human health

67

Short Communication Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations  

E-print Network

Short Communication Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from: Nucleopolyhedrovirus Winter moth Operophtera brumata Polyhedron gene Covert infections a b s t r a c t Winter moth. brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) in winter moth larvae collected from field sites in Massachusetts

Elkinton, Joseph

68

Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

Popovi?, Zorica; Kosti?, Miroslav; Stankovi?, Sladjan; Milanovi?, Slobodan; Siv?ev, Ivan; Kosti?, Igor; Kljaji?, Petar

2013-01-01

69

Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

Popovi?, Zorica; Kosti?, Miroslav; Stankovi?, Sladjan; Milanovi?, Slobodan; Siv?ev, Ivan; Kosti?, Igor; Kljaji?, Petar

2013-01-01

70

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented  

E-print Network

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths

Renner, Susanne

71

Plant waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of plants is covered with a complex mixture of lipids, often in crystalline form, called plant waxes. The chemistry,\\u000a biosynthesis, catabolism and function of plant waxes are reviewed. The most common components are hydrocarbons, wax esters,\\u000a free fatty alcohols and acids. Ketones, secondary alcohols, diols, aldehydes, terpenes and flavones are also found. The major\\u000a function of the wax

P. E. Kolattukudy

1970-01-01

72

A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis  

PubMed Central

To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

73

Metal-supplemented diets alter carbohydrate levels in tissue and hemolymph of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera)  

SciTech Connect

Larvae of Lymantria dispar were exposed to two concentrations each of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from hatching to day 3 of the fourth instar. The metals were applied via artificial diet (wheat germ diet); two control groups were reared on either an uncontaminated artificial diet (C) or on a natural diet (oak leaves, EF). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the hemolymph carbohydrates, whereas body glycogen and glucose were determined enzymatically. The results were analyzed with respect to diet-specific differences (oak leaves versus wheat germ diet) and metal exposure compared with the uncontaminated artificial diet. Hemolymph trehalose levels were higher in oak leaf-reared individuals than in those fed on the wheat germ diet (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite applied to the body glycogen and free glucose levels (p < 0.01). The average trehalose value of the control (C) (4.3 mg/ml) was reduced by metal contamination, dependent on both the metal itself and the concentration (Cd, Cu, Zn; 1.4--3.3 mg/ml). Sorbitol was not detected in the hemolymph of EF specimens, whereas it occurred in all artificial diet-fed groups. Metal- and dose-dependent differences in the hemolymph sorbitol levels were observed in the treatment groups, but not in the controls. Glycogen content increased in the low concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas a decrease was observed for the low Cd and both Zn concentrations. Tissue free glucose was enhanced only in three of the metal groups. Generally, fresh and dry weights of larvae were reduced in all groups except the high Cu-contaminated one. The results may indicate that mass outbreaks of an important forest pest insect like L. dispar may be facilitated in metal-contaminated areas because parasitization success of antagonistic species may decline due to deterioration of nourishment within the metal-stressed host.

Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

1996-07-01

74

Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

1976-01-01

75

Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.  

PubMed

The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

1976-07-01

76

Ear wax  

MedlinePLUS

... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

77

Wax Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can use some of these websites to help you with your Wax Museum research. Do you need to find more information on your famous person? Try the link below for Biography Resource Center. REMEMBER - You must have a passward to use this database if you are not at school. See Mrs. Laz for the passward if you want to use this link at ...

Mrs. Laz

2007-03-16

78

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

79

Host Plant Selection by Larvae of the Muga Silk Moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the Role of the Antenna and Maxillary Palp  

PubMed Central

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D. S.; Deka, B.

2013-01-01

80

Contributions of cellular and humoral immunity of Galleria mellonella larvae in defence against oral infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

In this study the cellular and humoral immune reactions of the Greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been investigated during bacterial infection caused by oral administration of Bacillus thuringiensis. Two different dose strengths were investigated to assess the contribution of immune parameters to induced Bt resistance. Low-dose (sublethal LC15) infection resulted in significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, enhanced phagocytic activity of haemocytes, and increased encapsulation responses in infected larvae at 48 and 72 h post infection. Higher doses of Bt (half-lethal LC50) also triggered significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, but decreased the coagulation index and activity of phenoloxidase in haemocytes of infected larvae. In both types of infection, the pool of circulating haemocytes became depleted. The importance of cellular and humoral immune reactions in induced insect resistance to intestinal bacterial infection Bt is herein discussed. PMID:24735783

Grizanova, E V; Dubovskiy, I M; Whitten, M M A; Glupov, V V

2014-06-01

81

Peppered Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the peppered moth activity is to model the effects of natural selection on the appearance and genetic make-up of a natural population. By adjusting the amount of pollution in the environment, the student is able to see the differences in the frequencies of light and dark moths in the population. The student may also investigate the survival differences between dominant and recessive genes when one phenotype has a selective advantage over the other.

Maryland Virtual High School

82

Using entomopathogenic nematodes to manage codling moth in organic apple orchards in Michigan  

E-print Network

Using entomopathogenic nematodes to manage codling moth in organic apple orchards in Michigan equipment. The codling moth (Cydia Pomonella [L.]) is a serious pest of apples worldwide and is of critical concern in commercial apple production. Codling moth larvae pupate and overwinter in silk cocoons under

83

Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth  

E-print Network

111 Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth Sofia Gripenberg1 structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak by two means: larvae drift through the landscape inside absiced leaves, and adult moths disperse actively

Helsinki, University of

84

POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Predation on larvae and pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) was studied in a leading dispar, Peromyscus, Sorex, predation, small mammals, exclosures THE GYPSY MOTH, Lymantria dispar (L

Liebhold, Andrew

85

“This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

86

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

87

Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

2009-01-01

88

Quantification of Invasion of Two Strains of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) into Three Lepidopteran Larvae  

PubMed Central

Studies with last instar larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) were used to quantify the invasive ability of two strains (All and Mexican) of Steinernema carpocapsae and to determine how factors in the bioassay procedure affect both nematode invasion and host mortality. Nematode invasive ability was variable, with 10-50% of nematodes successfully infecting the host. The percentage of infectives invading the host (invasion efficiency) was positively related to increases in length of host exposure time and number of hosts per arena, negatively related to increases in substrate surface area per host, and not affected by nematode concentration. There was a direct relationship between concentration applied and the number of nematodes invading the host. Mortality was less affected than invasion efficiency by bioassay conditions and appears to be a much less sensitive index of nematode activity than invasive ability. PMID:19279755

Epsky, Nancy D.; Capinera, John L.

1993-01-01

89

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 119 RELATIVE POTENCIES OF GYPSY MOTH  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 119 RELATIVE POTENCIES OF GYPSY MOTH Research Station, Delaware, OH 43015 ABSTRACT Gypchek is a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) - specific-spectrum pesticides for gypsy moth management. Gypchek is a lyophilized powder produced from larvae that have been

90

HL-20 Wax Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

1993-01-01

91

Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

1993-03-01

92

Learning about Moths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

1996-01-01

93

20-hydroxyecdysone deters oviposition and larval feeding in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

European grapevine moth females (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera Tortricidae) select an oviposition site by tasting the host plant surface and then gluing a single egg on berries from grapes or from several other host plant species. In doing so, females should avoid ovipositing on plants that are detrimental to their progeny. Do they sense the same deterrent compounds as larvae, despite the fact that they do not have access to the same compartments of the plants? We tested this hypothesis with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), purified from Leuzea carthamoides. Phytoecdysteroids are usually found inside plant tissues and accessible to larvae in an aqueous phase, while adults would access them only through the epicuticular wax. We first confirmed that larvae avoid feeding on 20E and that they taste 20E with their lateral sensilla styloconica, at a threshold of 10(-6) M. Then, we tested whether adult females avoid ovipositing on glass spheres sprayed with 20E. When given a choice, females avoided laying eggs on a treated surface, at a threshold of 8 ng/cm(2). In addition, they deposited significantly fewer eggs in the presence of 20E. Presuming that legs play an important role in assessing the oviposition substrate, we assessed the sensitivity of their taste receptors. In females, 14 taste sensilla are located on the ventral side of the last tarsus of the prothoracic leg. One group of these sensilla house one neuron that is sensitive to 20E, with a detection threshold of about 10(-7) M. The same molecule is thus sensed both in larvae and adults of L. botrana where it respectively inhibits feeding and oviposition. PMID:17082989

Calas, Delphine; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

2006-11-01

94

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

95

76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Since the South American cactus moth larvae are internal feeders, they are difficult to detect during...that source. Nevertheless, APHIS and Agricultural Marketing Service internal reports, as well as informed APHIS staff,...

2011-02-23

96

Foraging pattern of pine siskins and its influence on winter moth survival in an apple orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging by migratory pine siskins in an apple orchard infested with varying densities of winter moth was observed, and winter moth mortality in the presence and absence of birds was recorded. Time spent foraging in a tree and number of birds foraging per tree was positively related to larval density but number of larvae removed per leaf cluster or per

Jens Roland; Susan J. Hannon; M. Angela Smith

1986-01-01

97

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets and other berry fruits; larvae feed on and pupate in berries. Invasion of this exotic moth may disrupt 1984 and 2003 (Venette et al. 2003). This insect is listed as an exotic organism of high invasive risk

98

Fractionation process for petroleum wax  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

1991-07-16

99

Horizontal Transmission of Entomopathogenic Fungi by the Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative potential of the pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Zoophthora radicans for use as autodisseminated biological control agents of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) was compared. The LC50 of B. bassiana conidia to third instar larvae was 499 conidia\\/mm2 of leaf surface and individual cadavers of mycosed fourth instar larvae yielded a mean of 67.5 × 106 (±7.5 ×

Michael J Furlong; Judith K Pell

2001-01-01

100

Simulating Wax Crayons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user- specified strokes. Paper is represented by a height-field tex- ture, and a crayon is modelled with a 2D mask that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon contact profile, contact force, and friction. Previously

Dave Rudolf; David Mould; Eric Neufeld

2003-01-01

101

CONTROLLING BANDED ASH CLEARWING MOTH BORER USING ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banded ash clearwing moth, Podosesia aureocincta, in 24 green ash growing in a nursery were treated with the nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (strain 25) at two different rates. Eight infested green ash were controls in the field trial. Nematodes were applied in July using a back- pack sprayer. Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes significantly reduced the number of living larvae associated

Stanton Gill; John Davidson; Wanda MacLachian; Will Potts

102

Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

103

Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

104

SYSTEMATICS Biology of a New Panamanian Bagworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

E-print Network

SYSTEMATICS Biology of a New Panamanian Bagworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) with Predatory Larvae and morphology of all stages of a new species of Psychidae from Panama, Perisceptis carnivora Davis (Lepidoptera are proposed. KEY WORDS egg case, life history, morphology, predation Whereas adult Lepidoptera depend upon

Davis, Don R.

105

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

106

Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

107

Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

108

Some chemical bases for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar , larval rejection of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , foliage as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained

Ingrid Markovic; Dale M. Norris; Miodrag Cekic

1996-01-01

109

Hot Oil Removes Wax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

Herzstock, James J.

1991-01-01

110

Simulating Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf  

E-print Network

Simulating Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf dave.rudolf@usask.ca David Mould mould@cs.usask.ca Eric Neufeld a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user- specified that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon

Mould, David

111

Keeping Wax Liquid For Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

Meyer, Russell V.

1989-01-01

112

Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)  

SciTech Connect

Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

113

Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

1984-01-01

114

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None;)

2007-08-04

115

Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2 cDNAs encoded isozymes that reduced fatty acids to fatty alcohols. Fatty acyl-CoA esters were the substrate of FAR1, and the enzyme required NADPH as a cofactor. FAR1 preferred saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as substrates, whereas FAR2 preferred saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons. Confocal light microscopy indicated that FAR1 and FAR2 were localized in the peroxisome. The FAR1 mRNA was detected in many mouse tissues with the highest level found in the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The FAR2 mRNA was more restricted in distribution and most abundant in the eyelid, which contains wax-laden meibomian glands. Both FAR mRNAs were present in the brain, a tissue rich in ether lipids. The data suggest that fatty alcohol synthesis in mammals is accomplished by two fatty acyl-CoA reductase isozymes that are expressed at high levels in tissues known to synthesize wax monoesters and ether lipids. PMID:15220348

Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

2009-01-01

116

The De Havilland "Moth"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

1926-01-01

117

Midgut transcriptomic response of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar, to infection with l. dispar and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developmental resistance of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to baculovirus infection consists of both midgut-based and systemic components. To characterize the midgut response of larvae to baculovirus infection and identify larval host genes putatively involved in the midgut component of devel...

118

Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

1995-01-01

119

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent by weight of the petroleum wax. (e) Reinforced wax conforming with the specifications...obtained by exposing reinforced wax to demineralized water at 70...component of packaging materials for cheese and cheese products. [42...

2010-04-01

120

21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

2011-04-01

121

21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

2013-04-01

122

21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

2014-04-01

123

21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

2012-04-01

124

21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

2010-04-01

125

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

2005-04-01

126

Almond volatiles attract neonate larvae of Anarsia lineatella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-diapause overwintered larvae and neonates of any generation of the peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella (Zeller), seek suitable sites to bore into and mine tissue of their host plants, including almond and peach. We tested the hypothesis that larvae are at- tracted to the same almond volatiles that elicit antennal responses from adult moths. Of five candidate almond semiochemicals (?-bourbonene,

MARK SIDNEY; REGINE GRIES; ADELA DANCI; GARY J. R. JUDD; GERHARD GRIES

127

Gypsy Moth in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

128

Oak Processionary Moth -Thaumetopoea processionea  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth - Thaumetopoea processionea Summary of activity 2007 to 2009 #12;23 March and traps - 2008 Total Nests - 506 Total Moths -182 #12;23 March Interested Parties Meeting6 Pheromone Traps of nests and traps - 2009 Map 2 Year Nests 2009 2400 2008 506 2007 708 Moths 2009 166 (*136 traps) 2008 182

129

Wax Crystallization and Additive-Wax Interactions in Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wax crystallization is a major problem in a petrochemical industry. Low temperature leads to crystallization causing problems for transportation, storage and use. For example, the wax crystals in lubricants involve mixtures of normal and iso paraffins (C15-C34), and are large, thin, convoluted, interlocking platelets, which entrap oil and form a network. Polymeric additives change nucleation and growth habits of wax and lead to better performance. It is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of wax crystallization and the wax-additive interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to study thermodynamics and crystallization kinetics of additized and unadditized solutions. Several comb shaped fummarate vinyl acetate copolymers are evaluated. The response of the additive is very specific to the average C number in the crystallizable ester side chains of the copolymer. These changes are concentration dependent and change with complexity of the formulation. The dominant interaction appears to be cocrystallization of the side chains of the copolymer with the crystallizable paraffins of wax. These additives also increase the metastability region. Thus, inhibition of wax crystallization is critical to the mechanism of interaction.

Varma-Nair, M.; Pacansky, T. J.; Martella, D. J.

1997-03-01

130

Note: Field evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea in controlling the diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella ) in Chinese kale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve entomopathogenic fungi were screened for controlling diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) eggs and larvae in the laboratory. None had any significant ovicidal effect.Isaria fumosorosea CKPF-095 showed the best efficacy in controlling the 2\\u000a nd\\u000a instar larvae. It was formulated into a wettable powder at a concentration of 1 × 109 conidia g?1 and used in two field tests. Both

Monchan Maketon; Patricia Orosz-Coghlan; Jantima Jaengarun

2008-01-01

131

Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuticle covers the aerial portions of land plants. It consists of amorphous intracuticular wax embedded in cutin polymer, and epicuticular wax crystalloids that coat the outer plant surface and impart a whitish appearance. Cuticular wax is mainly composed of long-chain aliphatic compounds derived from very long chain fatty acids. Wax biosynthesis begins with fatty acid synthesis in the plastid.

L. Kunst; A. L. Samuels

2003-01-01

132

Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance  

E-print Network

GM-6 Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance Gypsy moths are insects with a big appetite for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything

Ginzel, Matthew

133

Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations. PMID:16022304

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2005-06-01

134

Inhibiting wax deposition from a wax-containing oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for inhibiting was deposition in an oil well producing a wax-containing oil. It comprises: injecting down-hole into the oil-pool at the base of the well a wax-inhibiting amount of a copolymer of between about 62 and about 66 weight percent ethylene and about 34 and about 38 weight percent vinyl acetate, aid copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 35,000.

Zilch, H.E.

1990-03-06

135

Butenolides in small ermine moths,Yponomeuta spp. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), and spindle-tree,Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae).  

PubMed

A new butenolide, isosiphonodin [3-hydroxymethyl-2(5H)-furanone], along with a trace of siphonodin [4-hydroxymethyl-2(5H)-furanone], was isolated from fifth-instar larvae of the small ermine mothYponomeuta cagnagellus. Leaves of its host plant spindle-tree,Euonymus europaeus, were found to contain the same two butenolides with siphonodin being present as the major compound. TLC showed that isosiphonodin was also present in larvae or pupae of six other small ermine moths which did not feed on spindle-tree. InY. cagnagellus butenolides might be plant derived, while isosiphonodin in the other investigated small ermine moths is probably synthesized by the insect. The possible role of butenolides in the chemical defense of small ermine moths is discussed. PMID:24276196

Fung, S Y; Herrebout, W M; Verpoorte, R; Fischer, F C

1988-04-01

136

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

137

Chemistry of Moth Repellents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

138

Monarch larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monarch butterflies have extra protection against predation. When they are caterpillars, or larvae, they eat milkweed leaves. The caterpillars then store toxins in the milkweed in their bodies so that hungry animals that bite into them will have a very bad taste in their mouths. These toxins can also poison the predator.

Derek Ramsey (None;)

2007-09-03

139

The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

140

The Importance of Pear Ester in Codling Moth Monitoring and Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following the discovery of the attractiveness of pear ester for adult and larvae of codling moth research has developed this ripe pear volatile to improve the monitoring and management of this key pest of apple, pear, and walnut. A lure loaded with pear ester and codlemone has become the most widely...

141

Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

142

Conflicts between a Fungal Entomopathogen, Zoophthora radicans, and Two Larval Parasitoids of the Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are all natural enemies of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Adult C. plutellae are not susceptible to Z. radicans infection but the pathogen can infect and kill adult D. semiclausum. Infection of adult D. semiclausum prior to exposure to P. xylostella host larvae significantly reduced

Michael J Furlong; Judith K Pell

2000-01-01

143

The predation of predispersed Juncus squarrosus seeds by Coleophora alticolella (Lepidoptera) larvae over a range of altitudes in northern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed production by the rush Juncus squarrosus and its subsequent predation by the larvae of the moth Coleophora alticolella were measured at a series of sites at different altitudes in northern England. The density of seeds produced is progressively reduced with increasing altitude. The density of larvae was greatest in the middle region of the transect. Seed predation was therefore

Martin G. M. Randall

1986-01-01

144

Caterpillars and moths.  

PubMed

Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies, and caterpillars) are an uncommon cause of adverse reactions in humans. Most reactions to Lepidoptera are mild and self-limited; however, reactions in sensitive individuals and reactions to particular species can be severe and life threatening. Specific syndromes caused by Lepidoptera include erucism (cutaneous reactions from contact with caterpillars, moths, or cocoons), lepidopterism (systemic involvement), ophthalmia nodosa (ocular involvement), dendrolimiasis and pararamose (each with joint symptoms relating to a specific species of caterpillar), lonomism (a severe hemorrhagic disease related to Lonomia species), and seasonal ataxia (related to ingestion of Anaphe venata). In most cases, reactions to Lepidoptera can be treated symptomatically with prompt removal of offending hairs. Antipruritic or anesthetic topical preparations, topical steroids, and oral antihistamines are often used. In the case of potentially fatal Lonomia envenomation, an effective antivenin has been manufactured. PMID:19580579

Hossler, Eric W

2009-01-01

145

Waxed windshields are hazardous in the rain.  

PubMed

Seven automobiles were washed and waxed at four car washes. Photographic determinations were made of the glare produced by the wet or dry waxed windshield in a headlight beam. When wet, the waxed windshields scattered three times more light than in the normal human eye. The wet wax scattering was 24.8 times higher than when dry. No wax residues should be permitted on windshields and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration should issue a mandatory windshield cleaning requirement after waxing. PMID:1078358

Allen, M J; Bennett, D W

1975-08-01

146

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

147

Identification of avian wax synthases  

PubMed Central

Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

2012-01-01

148

Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.  

PubMed

Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces. PMID:24421221

Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

2014-06-01

149

Growth and regeneration of waxes on the leaves of Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of wax morphology to wax chemistry and the effects of light intensity on wax development were investigated using rubbing techniques to produce nearly wax free cuticular surfaces. Wax regeneration took place rapidly on leaves which were in their exponential stage of expansion, but only slowly on those that had fully expanded. The pattern of wax development suggested that

N. D. Hallam

1970-01-01

150

Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.  

PubMed

Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

2014-05-01

151

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-2-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A GYPSY MOTH Q IN A COUNTY THAT IS QUARANTINED FOR GYP- SY MOTH. CAN I SHIP TREES TO UNINFESTED COUN- TIES? Not unless you get your crop inspected and certified as being free of all viable gypsy moth life stages from either

Ginzel, Matthew

152

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-1-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology THE GYPSY MOTH IN INDIANA Clifford S. Sadof Resources, Divsion of Entomology and Plant Pathology Gypsy Moth, the most serious forest and urban landscape food, but gypsy moth caterpillars can eat the foliage of 500 species of trees and plants. While most

Ginzel, Matthew

153

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-5-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT PHEROMONES & CONTROLLING GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Joe N. Caudell, Wildlife Biologist WHAT IS GYPSY MOTH PHEROMONE ? Gypsy moth pheromone (pronounced fair-o-moan) is a powerful scent

Ginzel, Matthew

154

Automatic species identification of live moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by

Michael Mayo; Anna T. Watson

2007-01-01

155

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

156

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2012-04-01

157

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2014-04-01

158

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2011-04-01

159

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2010-04-01

160

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2013-04-01

161

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained...

2012-04-01

162

21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained...

2012-04-01

163

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or component...

2012-04-01

164

21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained...

2011-04-01

165

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained...

2011-04-01

166

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained...

2013-04-01

167

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or component...

2013-04-01

168

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained...

2010-04-01

169

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained...

2014-04-01

170

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or component...

2011-04-01

171

ORIGINAL PAPER Leaf wax d2  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Leaf wax d2 H and varve-thickness climate proxies from proglacial lake sediments Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract We present a multiproxy paleoclimate record using leaf wax Á Leaf wax Á Proglacial lake Á Varve Introduction Arctic proglacial lake sediments are excellent

Briner, Jason P.

172

21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained...

2013-04-01

173

21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained...

2014-04-01

174

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or component...

2014-04-01

175

Developmental Temperature Effects on Five Geographic Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of five geographic isolates of Steinernema feltiae at 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 28°C in wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae was examined. The isolates were from Mediterranean (Sinop from Turkey, SN from France, and Monterey from California), subtropical (Rafaela from Argentina), and tropical (MG-14 from Hawaii) regions. All isolates caused 100% mortality of wax moth larvae

Selçuk Hazir; S. Patricia Stock; Harry K Kaya; Albrecht M Koppenhöfer; Nevin Keskin

2001-01-01

176

The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1  

E-print Network

The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1 Owen Rowlanda with waxes. The Arabidopsis CER3 gene is important for cuticular wax biosynthesis and was reported and instead corresponds to WAX2/ YRE/FLP1 (At5g57800), a gene of unknown function required for wax

Kunst, Ljerka

177

Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth  

E-print Network

Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth Agriculture Pest Survey program). The photographs of the European pepper moth were used with permission from

Watson, Craig A.

178

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

179

ConcepTest: Wax Reshaping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine that you find a wax candle on a table in a warm room. The candle bends when you push down on both ends and push up in the middle. When you put the candle back on the table it maintains the bent shape. This ...

180

Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar  

SciTech Connect

Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

Rossiter, M.

1987-08-01

181

Moth hearing and sound communication.  

PubMed

Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

2015-01-01

182

Starvation resistance of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): tradeoffs among growth, body size, and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and body composition of starving gypsy moth larvae initially reared on aspen foliage or artificial diet differeing in nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate concentration were examined under laboratory conditions. Diet nitrogen concentration strongly affected starvation resistance and body composition, but diet carbohydrate content had no effects on these. Within any single diet treatment, greater body mass afforded greater resistance to

Brian A. Stockhoff

1991-01-01

183

Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1993-02-01

184

Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

2013-07-01

185

Moth Repellent Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

186

Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes  

E-print Network

Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria; accepted 20 April 1998) Abstract - Waxes of 23 samples of propolis of Apis mellifera mostly from Brazil of propolis wax is similar to that of comb wax, which suggests that propolis waxes are probably secreted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics Hussein Hoteit, Reza Banki of the wax deposit. However, most of these models assume that the wax-oil (gel) deposit has a constant wax content. In this work, we analyze wax deposition in laminar flow regime to predict the thickness

Firoozabadi, Abbas

188

Wax Segregation in Oils: A Multiscale Mario Primicerio  

E-print Network

Wax Segregation in Oils: A Multiscale Problem. Mario Primicerio Department of Mathematics "Ulisse the behaviour of a real oil. It is a mixture of a given standard "wax" and a "solvent" (decane). The wax we/dissolution of wax For any waxy crude oil, and in particular for our "ideal mixture" with a given wax concentration c

Primicerio, Mario

189

Characterization of the wax precipitation in Mexican crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the rheological and thermodynamic characterization of the wax formation phenomenon in three Mexican crude oils where the effect of waxes and asphaltenes content on wax precipitation and rheological behavior of crude oils is evaluated and discussed. Wax appearance temperature is measured by using differential scanning calorimetry, rheometry and densitometry. The wax precipitation curves were obtained by fourier

Luis Alberto Alcazar-Vara; Eduardo Buenrostro-Gonzalez

2011-01-01

190

Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

Montoya, Benjamina G.

1995-01-01

191

Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework assumes that the precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid-phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent which does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

Firoozabadi, A.; Lira-Galeana, C.L. [Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

192

Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework uses the experimentally supported assumption that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent that does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax-precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

Lira-Galeana, C.; Firoozabadi, A. [Reservoir Engineering Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Reservoir Engineering Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1996-01-01

193

Component composition of deresined brown coal wax  

SciTech Connect

The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

L.P. Noskova [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russia). Institute of Geology and Nature Management

2008-10-15

194

Relative performance of European grapevine moth ( Lobesia botrana ) on grapes and other hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative\\u000a species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized\\u000a that larvae reared on

Denis Thiéry; Jérôme Moreau

2005-01-01

195

Coumarins in Prunus mahaleb and its herbivore, the small ermine moth Yponomeuta mahalebellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the small ermine mothYponomeuta mahalebellus were reared on foliage ofPrunus mahaleb, a plant known to contain coumarins. Thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography showed that coumarin, umbelliferone, and herniarin were present in leaves ofP. mahaleb and in pupae and adults ofY. mahalebellus. Overall concentrations of simple coumarins in the plant and insect were, respectively, 0.54% and 0.003–0.004% (dry weight).

Suen-Ying Fung; Wim M. Herrebout

1987-01-01

196

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species,\\u000a was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature\\u000a vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by

Michael Mayo; Anna T. Watson

2007-01-01

197

75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

2010-07-01

198

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2014-04-01

199

75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely...Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China:...

2010-12-23

200

75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

2010-10-14

201

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2012-04-01

203

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2010-04-01

204

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2011-04-01

205

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-4-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT USING BTK TO CONTROL GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof & Adam Witte, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Jodie Ellis, Executive Director at Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine WHAT IS THE GYPSY MOTH, AND WHY IS IT A PROB- LEM

Ginzel, Matthew

206

Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths  

E-print Network

Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1 from the antennae serves a similar role during flight in hawk moths, which are four-winged insects. The antennae of flying moths vibrate and experience Coriolis forces during aerial maneuvers. The antennal

Daniel, Tom

207

Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella  

E-print Network

Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most are tiny, colorless to Diamondback Moth in Virginia Roberto J. Cordero, Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, Eastern Shore AREC, Virginia Tech. Fig. 1. Diamondback moth eggs. yellow, and have a dark head

Liskiewicz, Maciej

208

Spatial and temporal dynamics of aroga moth (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.  

PubMed

Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage. PMID:25314103

Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

2014-12-01

209

Leaf wax of Portulaca oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax coating the leaves and stems ofPortulaca oleracea consists of hydrocarbons (21%), esters (53%), acids (2%), alcohols (4%), diol monoesters (2%), and unidentified material\\u000a (15%). Lesser amounts of esterified and free ?-amyrin and lupeol, stigmast-4-en-3-one and free diols also are present. The\\u000a principal component of the hydrocarbons is C33. The C40-C56 esters are C22-C28 alcohol esters of C20-C26 acids; free

A. P. Tulloch

1974-01-01

210

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,  

E-print Network

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE, PACIFIC COAST, 1956 Marine Biological Laboratory, Arnie J. Suomela, Conimissioner SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE PACIFIC COAST, 1956 of fish eggs and larvae off the coasts of California and Baja California during 1956. The eggs and larvae

211

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in  

E-print Network

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

Firoozabadi, Abbas

212

Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

1998-01-01

213

Classification and terminology of plant epicuticular waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cuticles are covered by waxes with considerable ultrastructural and chemical diversity. Many of them are of great systematic significance. Waxes are an essential structural element of the surface and of fundamental functional and ecological importance for the interaction between plants and their environment. An extensive literature has been published since the introduction of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hitherto, the

WILHELM BARTHLOTT; CHRISTOPH NEINHUIS; DAVID CUTLER; FRIEDRICH DITSCH; IRIS MEUSEL; INGE THEISEN; HILTRUD WILHELMI

1998-01-01

214

Comparative activity of baculoviruses against the codling moth Cydia pomonella and three other tortricid pests of tree fruit.  

PubMed

The granulovirus of Cydia pomonella (L.) (CpGV) offers potential for selective control of codling moth. Two major limitations of CpGV are its narrow host range and lack of persistence in the orchard agroecosystem. The nucleopolyhedroviruses of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) (AcMNPV) and those of the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV) have broad host ranges. Comparative assays of CpGV, AcMNPV, and AfMNPV against codling moth neonate larvae revealed a 54-93-fold greater susceptibility of codling moth to the granulovirus than to the two nucleopolyhedroviruses based on the LC(50) values for each virus. The LC(50)s for CpGV, AfMNPV, and AcMNPV were 32.7 capsules/mm(2), 1.77 x 10(3) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mm(2), and 3.05 x 10(3)OBs/mm(2), respectively. The LT(50) determined for AfMNPV using an approximate LC(95) of the virus against neonate larvae was 3.6 days. Histological examination of tissues in moribund codling moth larvae that had been treated with AfMNPV revealed the presence of nonoccluded and unenveloped virus rods in midgut tissue. Neither OBs nor signs of infection were detected in other tissues. The activity of AfMNPV was also evaluated in three other tortricid apple pests (obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott; and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck)). Codling and Oriental fruit moths were significantly more susceptible to AfMNPV than were the two leafroller species. PMID:12234544

Lacey, L A; Vail, P V; Hoffmann, D F

2002-05-01

215

Auditory system of noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Insect-eating bats find their aerial food by sonar, through emitting ultrasonic chirps and locating sources of echoes. Certain moths have ears sensitive to these chirps and can detect bats well beyond the range of the bats' sonar. On hearing a distant bat, many moths turn and fly directly away from the source of ultrasound. Only one sense cell in each ear of a moth provides the primary nervous information for this response. This article describes my initial attempts to find out how a moth's central nervous system processes the train of chirps reaching its two ears. The ear of a restrained moth is exposed to a sequence of artifically generated ultrasonic pulses that approximates the cries made by a bat. This stimulus can be varied with respect to ultrasonic frequency (pitch), pulse intensity, pulse duration, the interval between pulses, and pulse-train duration. The more sensitive acoustic sense cell responds to all frequencies between about 15,000 and 80,000 cycles per second, but the signal that it transmits to the moth's central nervous system contains no measure of frequency within this range. However, this nerve signal reports variations in the other parameters of the stimulus. The acoustic fiber connects, in the central nervous system, with various nerve cells that transform the signal farther. The signal from a pulse-marker neuron contains no measures of pulse intensity or pulse duration, reporting only changes in interpulse interval and pulse-train duration. A train-marker neuron reports only the duration of the pulse train. The stimulus parameters may be likened to keys, each of which is necessary to gain admittance through a given door but becomes superfluous once this door has been passed. This analogy suggests one of the ways in which a signal is transformed in its passage through the nervous system, and how its specificity is assured in eliciting a given response. In addition to undergoing this kind of transformation, neural signals generated in the two directionally sensitive ears must be combined if a flying moth is to steer a course away from a distant bat. Neurons have been discovered in the central ganglia which summate signals from the right and left ears. Other neurons are inhibited in their activity by stimulation of one ear. The moth may combine signals from these neurons with motor-nerve information on the attitude of its own wings, which act as oscillating baffles modifying its directional acoustic sensitivity 20 to 40 times a second as it flaps an erratic path through the darkness. PMID:5924920

Roeder, K D

1966-12-23

216

Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the  

E-print Network

Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the United or scaffolds. The first moth of the season usually appears shortly in late bloom or petal fall. Moths emerge, where the insecticides do not affect them. Are conditions right for codling moth? Forecast models

217

HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

218

Process for producing a petroleum wax composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

Jones, R.L.

1991-04-23

219

Rifts in Spreading Wax Layers  

E-print Network

We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

Rolf Ragnarsson; J. Lewis Ford; Christian D. Santangelo; Eberhard Bodenschatz

1995-10-19

220

Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

1971-01-01

221

The treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl bromide chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in fresh fruit exports. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines...

222

NATIVE SUNFLOWERS IN THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN PLAINS AS SOURCES FOR RESISTANCE AND NATURAL ENEMIES OF INSECT PESTS OF CULTIVATED SUNFLOWER: BANDED SUNFLOWER MOTH AND SUNFLOWER STEM WEEVIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflowers are native to North America and thus the associated insects have coevolved with the plants. The objective of this project was to survey the insect fauna of native sunflowers in the central and northern Plains. We collected heads containing banded sunflower moth larvae and stalks containin...

223

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi Abstract Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

224

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,  

E-print Network

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE, PACIFIC COAST, 1954 Marine Biological Laboratory, John L . Farley, Director SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE, PACIFIC COAST, 1954 by Elbert. 186 Washington, D.C. November 1956 #12;ABSTRACT Basic data on abundance of sardine eggs and larvae off

225

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE,  

E-print Network

SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE, PACIFIC COAST, 1955 M A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service SARDINE EGGS AND LARVAE AND OTHER FISH LARVAE PACIFIC 1957 #12;ABSTRACT This report contains the results of quantitative sampling of fish eggs and larvae off

226

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2010-04-01

227

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2012-04-01

228

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2013-04-01

229

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2014-04-01

230

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2011-04-01

231

Characteristics of wax extracted from lubricant basestocks  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a process for characterizing wax extracted from lubricant basestocks. The authors chose seven basestocks coming from different global regions and having a wide range of low-temperature properties. The wax was extracted from each basestock at-40{degrees}C using a cold-filtering method. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), and optical microscopy (OM) were used to characterize these waxes. These data were compared to each basestock/s viscosity, pour point, and borderline pumping temperature, and some correlations were found between the wax characteristics and the cold temperature properties of the basestocks. This method of characterization can be useful when trying to select the optimal pour point depressant for engine lubricants. 10 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

Guzauskas, J.F.; Abbott, F.P. [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States); Baumgartner, N.R. [John Carroll Univ., Univ. Heights, OH (United States)

1994-04-01

232

Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

2012-06-01

233

A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera,  

E-print Network

A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution Jadranka Rota1, , Scott E. Miller2 genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution. Zoo

234

Melting points of synthetic wax esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated, monoenoic and dienoic wax esters, C26?C40, have been synthesized from even-numbered fatty alcohols and acids. In homologous series of saturated esters, the increments\\u000a of melting points follow a regular trend except for those esters which have an acid moiety two carbon atoms shorter than the\\u000a alcohol moiety. These wax esters have melting points higher than interpolation would predict. Monoenoic

B. T. R. Iyengar; H. Schlenk

1969-01-01

235

Molten Wax As A Dust Control Agent  

SciTech Connect

Molten wax shows considerable promise as a fixative and dust control agent in demolition of radioactively contaminated facilities. Sticky molten wax, modified with special surfactants and wetting agents, is capable of not only coating materials but also penetrating into friable or dusty materials and making them incapable of becoming airborne during demolition. Wax also shows significant promise for stabilization of waste residuals that may be contained in buildings undergoing demolition. Some of the building materials that have been tested to date include concrete, wood, sheet-rock, fiber insulation, lime, rock, and paper. Protective clothing, clay, sand, sulfur, and bentonite clay have been tested as surrogates for certain waste materials that may be encountered during building demolition. The paper describes several potential applications of molten wax for dust control in demolition of radioactive contaminated facilities. As a case-study, this paper describes a research test performed for a pipeline closure project being completed by the Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The project plans to excavate and remove a section of buried Duriron drain piping containing highly radioactive and friable and 'flighty' waste residuals. A full-scale pipeline mockup containing simulated waste was buried in sand to simulate the direct-buried subsurface condition of the subject piping. The pipeline was pre-heated by drawing hot air through the line with a HEPA vacuum blower unit. Molten wax was pumped into the line and allowed to cool. The line was then broken apart in various places to evaluate the permeation performance of the wax. The wax fully permeated all the surrogate materials rendering them non-friable with a consistency similar to modeling clay. Based on the performance during the mockup, it is anticipated that the wax will be highly effective in controlling the spread of radiological contamination during pipe demolition activities. A larger test was completed this year to simulate the work in more realistic conditions. (authors)

Carter, E.E. [P.E. Carter Technologies Co, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

2008-07-01

236

Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  

PubMed Central

Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

2013-01-01

237

Carbaryl resistance in populations of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in New York and Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

We collected grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (from cultivated and wild Vitis along Lake Erie in Pennsylvania and New York), and measured carbaryl susceptibility in first instars. A model of susceptibility was based on the concentration-mortality curve of laboratory-maintained colonies originating from wild Vitis with no prior history of carbaryl exposure, and a noncommercial vineyard with modest previous exposure to carbaryl. We estimated LC50 and LC90 for susceptible grape berry moth larvae at 45.4 and 2319 microg/ml, respectively. Bioassays on field-collected larvae from commercial vineyards in both states, where grape growers were abiding by current pest management guidelines for carbaryl use, revealed carbaryl resistance ratios from 7 to 71 at the LC50 level. With the loss or restriction of alternative chemical control tactics in the Food Quality Protection Act era, resistance management programs for grape berry moth should be immediately developed and implemented to regain the efficacy of this once effective insecticide and other related chemical compounds. PMID:12403430

Nagarkatti, Sudha; Tobin, Patrick C; Muza, Andrew J; Saunders, Michael C

2002-10-01

238

Infectivity studies of a new baculovirus isolate for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutellidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

This study describes a new baculovirus isolate recovered from infected larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), and identified as a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV). The plaque purified isolate designated as PxMNPVCL3 was found to be pathogenic to P. xylostella, Heliothis virescens (F.), Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), H. subflexa (Guenée), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae in decreasing order of susceptibility. The LC50 for diamondback moth, the most susceptible, was 6 occlusion bodies (OB)/cm2, whereas the most resistant species, namely S. frugiperda, was 577 OB/cm2. PxMNPVCL3 was more pathogenic to diamondback moth by 3-4 log cycles as compared with 2 broad-spectrum baculoviruses, namely Autographa california (alfalfa looper) MNPV and Anagrapha falcifera (celery looper) MNPV. The 3 baculoviruses were compared with each other and characterized by restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis, hybridization, and neutralization tests. Fragmentation profiles generated by REN showed that the 3 baculoviruses shared some fragments in common. Hybridization studies employing digoxigenin labeled PxMNPVCL3 DNA as a probe revealed the close but distinct relationship of these 3 viruses. Neutralization tests confirmed the hybridization studies, namely that the 3 viruses although genetically similar are distinguishable from each other. PMID:10582047

Kariuki, C W; McIntosh, A H

1999-10-01

239

Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.  

PubMed

To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2013-01-01

240

Lobesia botrana Larvae Develop Faster in the Presence of Parasitoids  

PubMed Central

To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host–parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2013-01-01

241

Insecticidal activity of Maytenus species (Celastraceae) nortriterpene quinone methides against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: tortricidae).  

PubMed

The insecticidal effects of nortriterpene quinone methides (pristimerin, tingenonee, and 20-alpha-hydroxytingenone) are reported for the first time. The natural products were isolated from Maytenus sp. (Celastraceae) and their effects tested on larvae of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The three metabolites produce the same effects on codling moth larvae that azadirachtin does, although at higher concentrations. 20-alpha-Hydroxytingenone was the most active compound, showing lethal, antifeedant, and insect growth regulation activities. Pristimerin showed also a high antifeedant activity together with its molt effect suppression. Tingenone showed the lowest activity. The differences in the activity of the three products are related to the structure of the E ring. PMID:10637057

Avilla, J; Teixidò, A; Velázquez, C; Alvarenga, N; Ferro, E; Canela, R

2000-01-01

242

Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth\\u000a (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th

Hyung Uk Jeong; Hye Yeon Mun; Hyung Keun Oh; Seung Bum Kim; Kwang Yeol Yang; Iksoo Kim; Hyang Burm Lee

2010-01-01

243

Growth and Partial Metamorphosis of Imaginal Disks of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella, in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE most important of the problems of insect metamorphosis is the nature of the action of ecdysone. There is a particular lack of knowledge of the stages between the initiation of metamorphosis by ecdysone and the final differentiation into the adult. Experiments on the action of pure ecdysone in vitro have been conducted with systems which respond in a limited

H. Oberlander; L. Fulco

1967-01-01

244

Identification of immunorelevant genes from greater wax moth ( Galleria mellonella) by a subtractive hybridization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have analyzed bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced genes in hemocytes of the Lepidopteran species Galleria mellonella using subtractive hybridization, followed by suppressive PCR. We have found genes that show homologies to molecules, such as gloverin, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and transferrin known to be involved in immunomodulation after bacterial infection in other species. In addition, a few molecules

V Seitz; A Clermont; M Wedde; M Hummel; A Vilcinskas; K Schlatterer; L Podsiadlowski

2003-01-01

245

Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base.  

PubMed

Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

2004-07-01

246

Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.  

PubMed

To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth. PMID:20799099

Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

2010-08-01

247

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

248

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard: Adaptation and natural selection.  

E-print Network

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Grade: 4th Standard: Adaptation and natural selection. Supplements: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials to trace Sticky tape to stick moths onto surfaces Overview 1. Divide class into 2 groups 2. Each kid

249

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

250

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

251

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

252

A plant factory for moth pheromone production.  

PubMed

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

253

A new method for evaluating wax inhibitors and drag reducers  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wax inhibitor evaluation methods such as cold finger and laminar flow loop are not adequate and accurate for evaluating wax inhibitors to be used in a wide operating temperature range and flow regimes such as North Sea subsea transport pipelines. A new method has been developed to simultaneously measure fluid rheology change and wax inhibition and to evaluate wax inhibitors or drag reducers at the field operating conditions. Selection criteria have been defined to search for an effective wax inhibitor. The criteria ensure the chemical selected is the most effective one for the specific oil and flow conditions. The operation cost savings by this accurate method is significant. Nine chemical companies joined the project of finding an wax inhibitor for a North Sea prospect. More than twenty wax inhibitors have been tested and evaluated with this new method for several waxy oil fields. The new method provides data of fluid rheology, war deposition rates and wax inhibition in the operating temperature range, overall average wax inhibition and degree of fluid flow improvement. These data are important to evaluate a wax inhibitor or drag reducer. Most of the wax inhibitors tested have good wax inhibition at high temperatures, but not many chemicals work well at low temperatures. The chemical tested may improved fluid flow behavior at low temperature but not wax deposition. Drag reducers tested did not work well at North Sea seabed temperature.

Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

1995-12-01

254

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

255

Conflicts between a fungal entomopathogen, Zoophthora radicans, and two larval parasitoids of the diamondback moth.  

PubMed

Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are all natural enemies of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Adult C. plutellae are not susceptible to Z. radicans infection but the pathogen can infect and kill adult D. semiclausum. Infection of adult D. semiclausum prior to exposure to P. xylostella host larvae significantly reduced the number of parasitoid cocoons subsequently developing from the host larvae. Although Z. radicans infection of P. xylostella larvae prior to parasitism by D. semiclausum or C. plutellae always resulted in the death of the immature parasitoids, neither species discriminated between healthy and Z. radicans-infected host larvae in an oviposition choice experiment. However, host larvae recently killed by Z. radicans were always rejected by D. semiclausum but sometimes accepted by C. plutellae. At 20 degrees C, egg to pupa development took 6.7 and 7.8 days for D. semiclausum and C. plutellae, respectively. C. plutellae parasitism significantly increased host instar duration but D. semiclausum parasitism did not. Cadavers of P. xylostella larvae parasitized 1 day prior to fungal infection showed no reduction in Z. radicans conidia yield. However, cadavers of larvae parasitized 3 days prior to fungal infection demonstrated a marked decrease in Z. radicans conidia yield. Z. radicans infection of P. xylostella larvae < or = 4 days after parasitism resulted in 100% parasitoid mortality; thereafter, the reduction in parasitoid cocoon yield decreased as the time between parasitism and initiation of fungal infection increased. The extended duration of the host larval stage induced by C. plutellae parasitism increased the availability of the parasitoid to the pathogen. Estimates of interspecific competition indicated a similar pattern for the interaction between Z. radicans and each species of parasitoid. PMID:11023731

Furlong, M J; Pell, J K

2000-08-01

256

The Thermodielectric Effect in Paraffin Wax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with results of the thermodielectric effect measurement. A paraffin wax as a dielectric material was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and potentiometry during a phase transition. Possible description of the thermodielectric effect based on fundamental laws of thermodynamics is shown; to be more specific, the link between the potential difference and the latent heat is presented. The thermodynamic model of thermodielectric effect based on electrochemical equilibrium and charge generation at the solid/liquid interface is introduced. Results of the thermodielectric effect measurement are used for the calculation of a molecular mass of the paraffin wax. The relation for a surface area (interface) between liquid and solid phase of the paraffin wax during solidification is derived from the presented theoretical description of the thermodielectric effect.

Tomas, Martin; Novotny, Pavel

2015-02-01

257

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed.

Jubin, R.T.

2002-04-08

258

The Thermodielectric Effect in Paraffin Wax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with results of the thermodielectric effect measurement. A paraffin wax as a dielectric material was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and potentiometry during a phase transition. Possible description of the thermodielectric effect based on fundamental laws of thermodynamics is shown; to be more specific, the link between the potential difference and the latent heat is presented. The thermodynamic model of thermodielectric effect based on electrochemical equilibrium and charge generation at the solid/liquid interface is introduced. Results of the thermodielectric effect measurement are used for the calculation of a molecular mass of the paraffin wax. The relation for a surface area (interface) between liquid and solid phase of the paraffin wax during solidification is derived from the presented theoretical description of the thermodielectric effect.

Tomas, Martin; Novotny, Pavel

2014-11-01

259

Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax  

PubMed Central

The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

2010-01-01

260

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

2001-06-01

261

Silver Carp Larva  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

262

Silver Carp Larvae  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

263

Original article Uncapping of worker bee brood, a component  

E-print Network

feces of larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), but no indication of mites. The remaining/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris Varroa jacobsoni / Africanized bee / resistance / Galleria mellonella / hygienic behavior 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

265

Coumarins inPrunus mahaleb and its herbivore, the small ermine mothYponomeuta mahalebellus.  

PubMed

Larvae of the small ermine mothYponomeuta mahalebellus were reared on foliage ofPrunus mahaleb, a plant known to contain coumarins. Thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography showed that coumarin, umbelliferone, and herniarin were present in leaves ofP. mahaleb and in pupae and adults ofY. mahalebellus. Overall concentrations of simple coumarins in the plant and insect were, respectively, 0.54% and 0.003-0.004% (dry weight). The possible role of coumarins in the chemical defense of both the plant and insect is discussed. PMID:24301473

Fung, S Y; Herrebout, W M

1987-10-01

266

Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

SciTech Connect

Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

1984-10-01

267

The Brazilian Wax: New Hairlessness Norm for Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the Brazilian bikini wax—a procedure involving the removal of hair from women's genital area—has become the subject of substantial media attention. From HBO's Sex and the City to popular magazines and in several Web sites, the Brazilian wax has been described as the latest craze among Hollywood stars. This article explores the Brazilian wax practice

Megdala Peixoto Labre

2002-01-01

268

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2012-04-01

269

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2010-04-01

270

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2011-04-01

271

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2013-04-01

272

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2014-04-01

273

Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal  

E-print Network

Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal Materials - Slide - Cover Slip - Paraffin Wax Candle - Pasteur Pipette (suggested size 5 3/4 inch) - Matches Preparation of the Slide - You may want to protect the work surface from melted wax. We use a sheet of aluminum foil taped

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

274

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs ...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

2011-04-01

275

7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79...Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products...preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date, Federal...

2014-01-01

276

Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees  

E-print Network

Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees PATRIZIA D'ETTORRE*, TOM WENSELEERS 2006; MS. number: 8465) Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition

Wenseleers, Tom

277

Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR®  

E-print Network

Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR® treatment Stefan Bogdanov Anton and foundation were exposed to the air during storage. © Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris honey / wax / residue to accumulation of these substances in beeswax and less so in honey [1, 17]. The accumulation in wax depends

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex  

E-print Network

Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex and secretion of beeswax in the worker; accepted 22 September 1994) Summary — The wax gland complex of the honey bee worker consists of 3 cell types, epithelial cells, oenocytes and adipocytes, which act synergistically to secrete wax

Boyer, Edmond

279

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs ...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

2012-04-01

280

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs ...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

2014-04-01

281

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs ...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

2013-04-01

282

A Bidirectional Deposition Model of Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf  

E-print Network

A Bidirectional Deposition Model of Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf dave.rudolf@usask.ca David Mould mould present a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon

Mould, David

283

7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79...Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products...preference for qualifying biobased candles and wax melts. By that date, Federal...

2013-01-01

284

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

285

The preservation of Lanette Wax Cream (FNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the free concentration methylparaben in Lanette Wax Cream (fna) were studied. These factors are the partitioning of the preservative between oil and water phase and solubilisation by the micelles of emulsifier, sodium lauryl sulphate. Solubilisation could be described as simple partitioning provided that the free concentration of methylparaben did not exceed 0.1% (w\\/v). The influence of propylene glycol

H. Van Doorne; F. L. Dubois

1980-01-01

286

Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)  

PubMed Central

The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

2009-01-01

287

Prediction of cloud point temperatures and amount of wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a vapor-liquid-solid model for predicting phase equilibria of oil mixtures taking into account the possible formation of a wax phase. The gas and liquid phases are described using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state while the wax phase is assumed to be an ideal mixture. Only part of the heavy hydrocarbons are considered to be able to potentially enter into a wax phase. A procedure is developed for estimating the fraction of the heavy hydrocarbons which may potentially form wax. Calculation results agree very well with experimental wax precipitation data.

Pedersen, K.S. (CALSEP A/S, Lyngby (Denmark))

1995-02-01

288

Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system. PMID:23531777

Cordes, Nils; Yi?it, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

2013-01-01

289

FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

290

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

291

Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph  

SciTech Connect

Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria)

1995-08-01

292

Kauri seeds and larval somersaults: the larval trunk of the seed mining basal moth Agathiphaga vitensis (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae).  

PubMed

The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to orientate itself within the chamber. PMID:22549907

Dupont, Steen

2012-09-01

293

Dewaxing process using agitated heat exchanger to chill solvent-oil and wax slurry to wax filtration temperature  

SciTech Connect

In an improved process for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils, wherein said waxy oil is cooled in an indirect chilling zone to a temperature greater than the wax separation temperature whereby wax is precipitated to form a wax-oil-solvent slurry, cooling the slurry to the wax separation temperature in an indirect chilling zone thereby precipitating a further portion of wax from said waxy oil and separating said precipitated wax from the wax-oil-solvent slurry in solid-liquid separation means, the improvement comprises using as the indirect chilling zone an indirect heat exchanger means operated at a high level of agitation. Expressed in terms of Impeller Reynolds Number the agitation is on the order of about 1,000 to 1,000,000. Alternatively, the direct chilling zone is totally replaced by the high agitation indirect heat exchanger means.

Broadhurst, Th.E.

1984-04-10

294

[Optimization model of spatial population structure: example of poplar moth laying eggs on leaves].  

PubMed

The authors analyze spatial distribution and survival of populations of poplar moth Litchcolletis populifoliella Tr. on its feeding plant--balsam poplar Populus balsamifera. Imago of the moth glue its eggs on the leaves thus determining the future location of their offspring on the host plant. Spatial distribution of eggs on leaf surface and distribution of leaves according egg numbers are not random. On the short distance from each egg the average number of eggs is less, than it should be in case of random distribution. While this distance increases up to some particular value the occurrence of eggs is higher than random. Thus, the eggs of moth are located by groups on the leaf surface. Within each group eggs are situated not very close to each other, this allowing larvae to lower competition for common resource. It is suggested that on the same feeding plant individuals have different interactions: competition, caused by limited quantity of resource and cooperation that is necessary to resist leaf defensive (antibiosis) reaction. PMID:12298182

Sekretenko, O P; Sukhovol'ski?, V G; Tarasova, O V

2002-01-01

295

Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs. PMID:22008291

Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

2012-01-01

296

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

297

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

298

Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes. PMID:15791428

Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2005-05-01

299

Immunolocalization of general odorant-binding protein in antennal sensilla of moth caterpillars.  

PubMed

Antennae of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were immunolabelled with antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein or the general odorant-binding protein 2 of Antheraea polyphemus to assign the expression of these proteins to individual sensilla and to compare the localization pattern with that in sensilla of adult moths. Specific labelling of antennal sensilla was only obtained with the antiserum against general odorant-binding protein 2. Among the few sensilla present on the antenna the three large sensilla basiconica, which are suspected to be olfactory in function, were labelled. These sensilla are compound sensilla consisting of several sensillum units which form a common sensory hair. The hair is single-walled and pierced by many pores. Labelling of sensillum compartments was the same as in sensilla of adults. Prominent labelling of the sensillum lymph is accompanied by labelling of secretory organelles in the two outermost auxiliary cells and of endocytotic pathways in all sensillum cells. The results suggest that general odorant-binding protein is expressed in single-walled multiporous sensilla of presumed olfactory function on the antenna of moth larvae. The overall identity of the localization pattern for general odorant-binding protein between larval and adult sensilla implies a similar role of these proteins in olfactory stimulus transduction. PMID:18088914

Laue, M

2000-01-01

300

Early Recorded Sounds and Wax Cylinders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is a fun site and a fine example of how the Internet has contributed to the preservation of our cultural heritage. Created and maintained by Glenn Sage, this site showcases some of the over 2,000 wax cylinder recordings that Sage has preserved by recording them digitally. A new two-minute recording is offered in RealPlayer and .wav or .mp3 format each month, and the archive contains selections since December 1996. The selections include information on the company that originally released the cylinder, category, title, performer, date, and in some cases, some additional background information. The site also includes an introduction to wax cylinders, resources for collectors, and some brief articles.

301

Wax-tear and meibum protein, wax–?-carotene interactions in vitro using infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein–meibum and terpenoids–meibum lipid interactions could be important in the etiology of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. In the current model studies, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to determine if the terpenoid ?-carotene and the major proteins in tears and meibum affect the hydrocarbon chain conformation and carbonyl environment of wax, an abundant component of meibum. The main finding of these studies is that mucin binding to wax disordered slightly the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains of wax and caused the wax carbonyls to become hydrogen bonded or experience a more hydrophilic environment. Lysozyme and lactoglobulin, two proteins shown to bind to monolayers of meibum, did not have such an effect. Keratin and ?-carotene did not affect the fluidity (viscosity) or environment of the carbonyl moieties of wax. Based on these results, tetraterpenoids are not likely to influence the structure of meibum in the meibomian glands. In addition, these findings suggest that it is unlikely that keratin blocks meibomian glands by causing the meibum to become more viscous. Among the tear fluid proteins studied, mucin is the most likely to influence the conformation and carbonyl environment of meibum at the tear film surface. PMID:22564968

Faheem, Samad; Kim, Sung-Hye; Nguyen, Jonathan; Neravetla, Shantanu; Ball, Matthew; Foulks, Gary N; Yappert, Marta C; Borchman, Douglas

2012-01-01

302

Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated. PMID:17599301

Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

2007-08-01

303

Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

Ricklefs, Steven K.

1990-01-01

304

Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) -life cycle & control  

E-print Network

March 2010 Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) - life cycle & control #12;March 2010 distances. Readily caught in pheromone traps or light traps. Adult moths #12;March 2010 Pppppp ppp Pppppp

305

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

306

Wax and hydrate control with electrical power  

SciTech Connect

Electrical heating of subsea flowlines is an effective way to prevent wax and hydrate information, especially for long transportation distances and in low-temperature deep water. Systems are available for use in conjunction with bundles, pipe-in-pipe, and wet-thermal-insulation systems. These systems provide environmentally friendly fluid-temperature control without chemicals or flaring for pipeline depressurizing. Enhanced production is achieved because no time is lost by unnecessary depressurizing, pigging, heating-medium circulation, or removal of hydrate and wax blockages. The seabed temperature at 100-m and greater water depths may range from 7 to {minus}1.5 C, causing a rapid cooling of the hot well streams being transported in subsea flowlines. Under these supercooling conditions, vulnerable crude oils and multiphase compositions will deposit wax and asphalts; also the gas/water phase may freeze solid with hydrate particles. The paper discusses thermal-insulated flowlines, heat-loss compensation with electrical power, electrical power consumption and operation, and subsea electrical-power distribution system.

NONE

1997-08-01

307

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

308

Identification, tissue localisation and physiological effect in vitro of a neuroendocrine peptide identical to a dipteran Leu-callatostatin in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuroendocrine peptide of the Leu-callatostatin family, LPVYNFGL-NH2, has been isolated from tissue extracts of 5th instar larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera). It is identical to a peptide previously isolated from the blowfly, Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera). The distribution of this peptide within the tissues of C. pomonella has been mapped by immunocytochemistry using antisera raised against LPVYNFGL-NH2.

Hanne Duve; Anders H. Johnsen; Jose-Luis Maestro; Alan G. Scott; Norman Crook; Doreen Winstanley; Alan Thorpe

1997-01-01

309

Does Athetis lepigone moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) take a long-distance migration?  

PubMed

Athetis lepigone (Möschler), a new lepidopteran pest in China, has spread quickly to seven provinces since it was first reported causing damage on summer maize in Hebei province in 2005, Whether this species is a migrant or not remains unknown. The past 3 yr searchlight trapping on an island in the center of Bohai Gulf provided direct evidence that both male and female A. lepigone moths migrate across the Bohai Gulf waters in northern China because no host crops or A. lepigone larvae were found on this island. The four migration waves observed in this study represent high-altitude movements of the overwintering, first, second, and third generations of A. lepigone moths, respectively. Carbon isotope analysis showed that 1.76-5.44% of the tested A. lepigone moths originated from C4 plants, which provides additional evidence that this species is a migrant because there are no C4 plants on this small island. The 89.24-96.89% of tested A. lepigone moths originated from C3 plants were significantly higher than that from C4 plants in all generations, suggesting that maize fields are not the main host sites for A. lepigone. Few females were trapped in spring and early summer with relatively high mating frequency and more advanced ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings reveal a new route for A. lepigone migrating to and from the northeastern agricultural region of China, and improve our knowledge of the migration ecology of A. lepigone. Further studies are needed to clarify the migration trajectories that will help in developing sound forecasting systems for this pest species. PMID:25026658

Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhe; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

2014-06-01

310

WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano -Mario Primicerio  

E-print Network

WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano - Mario Primicerio abstract. The complex phenomenon of solid wax deposition in wax sat- urated crude oils subject to thermal gradients has- tween dissolved wax and the wax suspended in the oil as a crystallized phase). Here we want to consider

Primicerio, Mario

311

Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.  

PubMed

The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases. PMID:22591561

Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

2012-01-01

312

INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston  

E-print Network

267 INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869, it has and result in severe ecological and economic effects. It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue. 750 km from the expanding front of gypsy moth defoliation. Based on an historical rate of spread of ca

Liebhold, Andrew

313

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi-  

E-print Network

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi- cators of the changes af- fecting the wider since 1990. Woodlands are one of the most important habitats for butterflies and moths. Woodland are specifi- cally reliant on woodland. Over 500 species of the larger Brit- ish moths occur regularly

314

Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD  

E-print Network

Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD Department, 1982 FULLARD,J. H. 1982. Echolocation assemblages and their effects on moth auditory systems. Can. J. Zool. 60: 2572-2576. I analyzed the auditory characteristics of a variety of tympanate moths from areas

Fullard, James H.

315

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis  

E-print Network

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in North trap types and at different loads for trapping the Douglas-Ã?r pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis Columbia. This moth causes considerable problems in lodgepole pine seed orchards at this location. No signi

Lindgren, Staffan

316

POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera(2): 293Ð296 (2006) ABSTRACT Predation is an important factor in the dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria. Here we compare predation rates on freeze-dried gypsy moth pupae af�xed with beeswax to pieces

Berkowitz, Alan R.

317

ORIGINAL PAPER Defoliation by processionary moth significantly reduces tree  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Defoliation by processionary moth significantly reduces tree growth: a quantitative and cedar processionary moths (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). & Method We conducted a meta-analysis based on 45 study cases, to estimate the effect of processionary moth defolia- tion on tree growth. & Result

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M  

PubMed Central

The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

2014-01-01

319

Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.  

PubMed

The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

2014-12-01

320

Some chemical bases for gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar, larval rejection of green ash,Fraxinus pennsylvanica, foliage as food.  

PubMed

Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained antifeedant activity. Individual fractions showed weaker antifeedant activity compared to the total ethyl acetate extractables. Acid hydrolysis of the extractables destroyed antifeedant activity and yielded feeding stimulant activity at higher concentrations. The aqueous extractables were not feeding-inhibitory. Compounds in the green ash extractables were separated by TLC, HPLC, CC, and GC. PMID:24227304

Markovic, I; Norris, D M; Cekic, M

1996-12-01

321

Wax D from Different Bovine Strains of Mycobacterium1  

PubMed Central

Wax DP, a peptido-glycolipid found in extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis, was not found in extracts of three strains of still-grown M. tuberculosis var. bovis (BCG, Marmorek and Dupray). However, extracts from three other bovine strains (Behring, LA and BB) did yield waxes DP, and these did not differ as to their molar ratios of alanine/glutamic acid/diaminopimelic acid from human waxes DP. PMID:5000307

Migliore, D.; Augier, J.; Boisvert, H.; Jollès, P.

1971-01-01

322

Wax D from different bovine strains of Mycobacterium.  

PubMed

Wax D(P), a peptido-glycolipid found in extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis, was not found in extracts of three strains of still-grown M. tuberculosis var. bovis (BCG, Marmorek and Dupray). However, extracts from three other bovine strains (Behring, LA and BB) did yield waxes D(P), and these did not differ as to their molar ratios of alanine/glutamic acid/diaminopimelic acid from human waxes D(P). PMID:5000307

Migliore, D; Augier, J; Boisvert, H; Jollès, P

1971-08-01

323

Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.  

PubMed

Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture. PMID:22903747

Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-09-01

324

Description of the larva of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899 (Acari: Ixodidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The larval stage of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann is described using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Unfed larvae were obtained from a colony of A. calcaratum originating from engorged females collected on Tamandua tetradactyla in the Jaraguá Mountain (23°40'S, 45°44'W), São Paulo County, Brazil. Eleven larvae were prepared and mounted on slides and observed under a light microscope equipped with a drawing tube. Three specimens were prepared for SEM. Several morphological characters are described, including the chaetotaxy of the idiosoma, palpi, and Haller's organ, as well as morphological features of the idiosoma, gnathosoma, and legs of A. calcaratum larvae. In addition, topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures on the larval idiosoma are described using a recently proposed nomenclature. On the idiosoma, setaes, lyrifissures, small glands, and large wax glands were found. These structures were observed isolated or associated over the entire idiosoma, except on the scutum, which lacks large wax glands. The topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures of the A. calcaratum larva showed only minor differences when compared with patterns of other Amblyomma larvae; however, a few key features can be used to differentiate A. calcaratum from other members of this genus. PMID:24169118

Barbieri, Fábio S; Brito, Luciana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Famadas, Kátia M

2013-12-01

325

Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

1991-01-01

326

Parental role division predicts avian preen wax cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that preen wax composition in some sandpipers shifts from the usual monoesters to diesters during the breeding season, possibly to reduce the ability of mammalian predators to find nests using olfactory cues. To investigate further the relationship between incubation and wax secretion, we examined seven sandpiper species with different incubation patterns (species in which both sexes

JEROEN RENEERKENS; JULIANA B. ALMEIDA; DAVID B. LANK; JOOP JUKEMA; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; R. I. GUY MORRISON; W. IRENE C. RIJPSTRA; DOUGLAS SCHAMEL; HANS SCHEKKERMAN; J. S. Sinninghe Damste; PAVEL S. TOMKOVICH; DIANE M. TRACY; INGRID TULP; THEUNIS PIERSMA

2007-01-01

327

POTENTIAL OF CARNUBA WAX IN AMELIORATING BRITTLE FRACTURE DURING TABLETING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch

UHUMWANGHO MU; OKOR RS; ADOGAH JT

328

Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings. PMID:20046773

Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

2008-01-01

329

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOEpatents

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

1987-08-04

330

Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

2009-06-01

331

Very-long-chain alkyl esters in Cereus peruvianus wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very-long-chain alkyl esters were detected in the wax from Cereus peruvianus and their individual molecular species up to C62 were analysed by means of reversed-phase HPLC, TLC and capillary GC-mass spectrometry. More than 80 isomeric alkyl wax esters were identified.

Tomᚠ?ezanka; Valery M. Dembitsky

1998-01-01

332

Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees.  

PubMed

Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance. PMID:19259641

Hepburn, H Randall; Radloff, Sarah E; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

2009-06-01

333

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOEpatents

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

1987-01-01

334

[Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].  

PubMed

The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively. PMID:24059202

Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

2013-07-01

335

Toward in vivo chemical imaging of epicuticular waxes.  

PubMed

Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

2010-10-01

336

Activities in support of the wax-impregnated wallboard concept  

SciTech Connect

The concept of octadecane wax impregnated wallboard for the passive solar application is a major thrust of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) program. Thus, ORNL has initiated a number of internal efforts in support of this concept. The results of these efforts are: The immersion process for filling wallboard with wax has been successfully sealed up from small samples to full-size sheets; analysis shows that the immersion process has the potential for achieving higher storage capacity than adding wax filled pellets to wallboard during its manufacture; analysis indicates that 75/degree/F is close to an optimum phase change temperature for the non-passive solar application; and the thermal conductivity of wallboard without wax has been measured and will be measured for wax impregnated wallboard. In addition, efforts are underway to confirm an analytical model that handles phase change wallboard for the passive solar application. 4 refs., 10 figs.

Kedl, R.J.; Stovall, T.K.

1989-01-01

337

Dynamic Automata in Larva John Paul Cassar  

E-print Network

Dynamic Automata in Larva John Paul Cassar Dept. of Comp. Science University of Malta jcas0021@um at runtime. In this paper, we present dLarva -- an extension of the Larva runtime verification tool of dLarva, we provide an implementation of dLarva that accepts properties using regular expressions

Pace, Gordon J.

338

Pheromone-Regulated Anemotaxis in Flying Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals.

J. S. Kennedy; D. Marsh

1974-01-01

339

MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

340

Pheromone-regulated anemotaxis in flying moths.  

PubMed

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals. PMID:4826172

Kennedy, J S; Marsh, D

1974-05-31

341

Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

342

Wax esters in tropical zooplankton and nekton and the geographical distribution of wax esters in marine copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of zooplankton and nekton from the central South Pacific showed that surface an d epipclagic zooplankton had small amounts of neutral lipids, mainly triglyccridcs, while deep-water tropical copepods had wax esters as the major lipid type, presumed to function as a rcscrvc srtoragc. The total lipid content and wax esters of tropical copepods captured at about 500 m were

RICHARD F. LEE; JED HIROTA

1973-01-01

343

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...INFORMATION: Title: Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet. OMB Number: 0579-0104. Type of...completes a gypsy moth identification worksheet (PPQ Form 305), which...

2011-04-04

344

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2011-01-01

345

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four  

E-print Network

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four, 2009) Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologistsbecauseofthe complex the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa

346

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2010-01-01

347

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2012-01-01

348

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2014-01-01

349

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2013-01-01

350

Methoxyfenozide, a reliable IPM compatible compound against Lepidoptera in pome fruit and vegetables with sterilising, ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy on codling moth.  

PubMed

Methoxyfenozide (Runner 240 SC), a Moulting Accelerating Compound (MAC) currently submitted for registration in Belgium, is an IPM (Integrated Pest Management) compatible compound with strong, broad spectrum activity against lepidopterous pests in pome frunit and vegetables. Field trials have confirmed reliable efficacy against larvae of winter moth O. brumata , both the overwintering and summer generation of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana and also the tomato looper, Chrysodeixes chalcites. Methoxyfenozide can be applied in pome fruit from green cluster onwards, and due to its bee safety it can be used also during flowering. The high consistency obtained with methoxyfenozide on the overwintering caterpillars of fruit tortrix moth relates in part to its minimal temperature dependence, to its high rain fastness and to the high intrinsic activity (low EC50) and to the ability to control all larval feeding stages. The effects of a treatment of the hibernating generation of A. orana on the subsequent summer generations is discussed. By special caged trials (semi-field) the pest- stage specificity against codling moth Cydia pomonella was investigated. Applications of methoxyfenozide were made just prior to egg deposition, at peak of egg laying and at the black head capsule stage of the embryo of codling moth. Results revealed evidence of reduced fecundity of female moths and confirmed the outstanding larvicidal and ovicidal properties of the compound (Charmillot, 2001). Application from just before egg deposition to the black head stage in the eggs is recommended and the additional sterilising effect completes the activity profile of methoxyfenozide. Treated females show reduced egg deposition whereas treated males increase the percentage of sterile eggs. Reduced field performance of methoxyfenozide in orchards showing resistance to diflubenzuron (chitin synthesis inhibitor), supports the findings of other authors on the cross-resistance of MACs and diflubenzuron. It is recommended that such orchards are not treated with methoxyfenozide. PMID:15149109

Bylemans, D; De Maeyer, L; Auwerkerken, A; De Craen, H; Wijsmuller, J W; Peeters, D

2003-01-01

351

Electrospray mass spectrometry of human hair wax esters.  

PubMed

Wax esters extracted from human hair have been examined by capillary GC-MS and by nano electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry using a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. Initially, the wax esters were examined by capillary GC-MS using conventional means, thus revealing an incomplete chromatographic resolution of the complex array of >200 wax esters ranging from 28 to 40 carbons in length, including saturated/straight-chained, unsaturated/straight-chained, saturated/branched, and unsaturated/branched molecular species. ESI of wax esters produced ammonium adduct ions [M+NH4]+, and collisional activation of these ions formed abundant [RCO2H2]+ product ions. Wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty acyl or fatty alcohol portion of the molecule revealed identical behavior, suggesting little influence of the double bond on the ionization process or subsequent decomposition. The wax ester mixture was analyzed by ESI and tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring and neutral loss scanning. The neutral loss experiment [loss of NH3 and CH2=CH-(CH2)nCH3] was particularly effective at rapidly surveying the complex biological mixture, identifying>160 different wax esters that range from 24 to 42 total carbons. PMID:17277382

Fitzgerald, Mark; Murphy, Robert C

2007-05-01

352

Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

2008-10-01

353

Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax L. Kunst, A.L. Samuels*  

E-print Network

Review Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax L. Kunst, A.L. Samuels* Department the aerial portions of land plants. It consists of amorphous intracuticular wax embedded in cutin polymer, and epicuticular wax crystalloids that coat the outer plant surface and impart a whitish appearance. Cuticular wax

Kunst, Ljerka

354

Acrinathrin, effective varroacide and its residues in stores, honey and wax  

E-print Network

Acrinathrin, effective varroacide and its residues in stores, honey and wax Synthetic pyrethroids in honey, stores and wax. Honey and stores were extracted by hexane, wax was dissolved in acetonitrile quantity of acrinathrin into the untreated honey and wax. After 25 d exposure of the preparation

Boyer, Edmond

355

WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.  

PubMed

WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes. PMID:10662094

Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

1999-11-01

356

Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling  

SciTech Connect

The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

1983-09-01

357

Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

2013-01-01

358

Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

2014-02-01

359

Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

2011-12-01

360

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

361

Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus  

PubMed Central

Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed an expression library from the silk glands of the ghost moth, Hepialus californicus, and characterized light chainfibroin and heavy chain fibroin gene transcripts. The predicted H. californicus silk fibroins share many elements with other lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins, such as conserved placements of cysteine, aromatic, and polar amino acid residues. Further comparative analyses were performed to determine site-specific signatures of selection and to assess whether fibroin genes are informative as phylogenetic markers. We found that purifying selection has constrained mutation within the fibroins and that light chain fibroin is a promising molecular marker. Thus, by characterizing the H. californicus fibroins, we identified key functional amino acids and gained insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped these adaptive molecules. PMID:20458474

Mita, Kazuei; Sehnal, Frantisek; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

2010-01-01

362

A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

2013-01-01

363

Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.  

PubMed

The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

2015-02-01

364

Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae  

PubMed Central

The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

2015-01-01

365

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system. PMID:18066706

Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D

2008-04-01

366

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

2008-04-01

367

Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

2013-06-01

368

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions. PMID:23991154

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

2013-01-01

369

Inhibition of Epicuticular Wax Deposition on Cabbage by Ethofumesate 1  

PubMed Central

The weight of epicuticular wax on the surface of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata `Market Prize') leaves was reduced by soil treatments of ethofumesate (2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate) and EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate). Separation of epicuticular wax into major components by gas-liquid chromatography indicated that ethofumesate decreased the deposition of n-nonocosane and n-nonocosan-15-one on cabbage leaves but increased the deposition of a minor component, the long chain waxy esters. EPTC was less inhibitory to n-nonocosan-15-one deposition than was ethofumesate. EPTC did not increase long chain waxy ester deposition. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that ethofumesate almost totally eliminated the epicuticular wax on cabbage leaves while EPTC only diminished it. Cuticular transpiration was increased by ethofumesate but not by EPTC. Ethofumesate appears to be a more potent inhibitor of epicuticular wax deposition than EPTC. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:16660411

Leavitt, J. Robert C.; Duncan, David N.; Penner, Donald; Meggitt, William F.

1978-01-01

370

Inhibition of epicuticular wax deposition on cabbage by ethofumesate.  

PubMed

The weight of epicuticular wax on the surface of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata ;Market Prize') leaves was reduced by soil treatments of ethofumesate (2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate) and EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate). Separation of epicuticular wax into major components by gas-liquid chromatography indicated that ethofumesate decreased the deposition of n-nonocosane and n-nonocosan-15-one on cabbage leaves but increased the deposition of a minor component, the long chain waxy esters. EPTC was less inhibitory to n-nonocosan-15-one deposition than was ethofumesate. EPTC did not increase long chain waxy ester deposition. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that ethofumesate almost totally eliminated the epicuticular wax on cabbage leaves while EPTC only diminished it. Cuticular transpiration was increased by ethofumesate but not by EPTC. Ethofumesate appears to be a more potent inhibitor of epicuticular wax deposition than EPTC. PMID:16660411

Leavitt, J R; Duncan, D N; Penner, D; Meggitt, W F

1978-06-01

371

Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.  

PubMed

The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

372

Wax deposition scale-up modeling for waxy crude production lines  

SciTech Connect

A wax deposition scale-up model has been developed to scale-up laboratory wax deposition results for waxy crude production lines. The wax deposition model allows users to predict wax deposition profile along a cold pipeline and predict potential wax problems and pigging frequency. Consideration of the flow turbulence effect significantly increases prediction accuracy. Accurate wax deposition prediction should save capital and operation investments for waxy crude production systems. Many wax deposition models only apply a molecular diffusion mechanism in modeling and neglect shear effect. However, the flow turbulence effect has significant impact on wax deposition and can not be neglected in wax deposition modeling. Wax deposition scale-up parameters including shear rate, shear stress, and Reynolds number have been studied. None of these parameters can be used as a scaler. Critical wax tension concept has been proposed as a scaler. A technique to scale up shear effect and then wax deposition is described. For a given oil and oil temperature, the laboratory wax deposition data can be scaled up by heat flux and flow velocity. The scale-up techniques could be applied to multiphase flow conditions. Examples are presented in this paper to describe profiles of wax deposition and effective inside diameter along North Sea and West Africa subsea pipelines. The difference of wax deposition profiles from stock tank oil and live oil is also presented.

Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

1995-12-01

373

Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.  

PubMed

The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:24846572

Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

2014-08-01

374

Incidence and transmission of a granulovirus in a large codling moth [Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] rearing facility.  

PubMed

Incidences of potential per os Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) transmission within a large codling moth colony were identified. CpGV was detected in the water which is used to wash egg sheets. When pre-neonates were extracted from eggs prior to emergence and tested for the presence of CpGV, 40% were found to carry amounts of CpGV detectable by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, suggesting possible transovarial transmission of the virus. Although symptoms typical of virus infection and larval death were found infrequently within communal rearing trays, the frequency with which CpGV DNA was detected by PCR assays increased from a mean of 31% of 10-day-old larvae to 94% of 25-day-old larvae. CpGV in codling moth cadavers remained virulent after being held at 60 degrees C for 3 days under conditions similar to the treatment of spent diet at the rearing facility before its disposal. PCR tests of surface samples taken from air filters and rearing rooms of the rearing facility were found to contain CpGV. Bioassays of surface samples from the diet trash bin and a filter through which outside air is passed before entering the rearing chambers resulted in significant codling moth neonate mortality. The virulence of CpGV in dust from the spent diet and the original inadvertent positioning of the diet trash bin directly below one of the air intake ducts are suggested as a possible additional source of CpGV contamination within the facility. PMID:16303132

Cossentine, J E; Jensen, L B M; Eastwell, K C

2005-11-01

375

Occurrence, function and biosynthesis of wax esters in marine organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax esters occur as a major lipid-type in at least 30 species of marine animals, distributed among 17 orders and 3 phyla.\\u000a They are of limited usefulness as a chemotaxonomic character, since only in two suborders, the calanoid copepods, Calanoidei,\\u000a and the toothed whales, Odontoceti, do the wax esters occur in all members so far examined. In bony fishes their

Judd C. Nevenzel

1970-01-01

376

Molecular species of wax esters in Cereus peruvianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyl esters were detected in the wax from Cereus peruvianus and their individual molecular species up to C58 identified by means of capillary GC-mass spectrometry. The wax esters were composed of fatty acids up to 30:0 and alcohols up to iso-34:0. The main fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 18:0 and 18:1. The main fatty alcohols were 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1,

Valery M. Dembitsky; Tomas Rezanka

1996-01-01

377

Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results.We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system. PMID:23463135

Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Rawls, John F.

2013-01-01

378

Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

Juszczak, Rados?aw; Kuchar, Leszek; Le?ny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

2013-01-01

379

Differences in Substrate Specificities of Five Bacterial Wax Ester Synthases  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production. PMID:22685145

Wahlen, Bradley D.; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C.

2012-01-01

380

Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

381

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

382

Operating experience firing waxed corrugated cardboard waste  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific operates a corrugated packaging facility in Doraville, Georgia which a suburb of Atlanta. The plant processes bulk brown paper into corrugated sheets for corrugated packaging. The plant`s process and building heat requires approximately 15,000 PPH steam at 150 psig which was supplied by a natural gas fired package boiler. The mill disposed of the cardboard trimmings and waste in a nearby landfill at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars per month. In 1992, the mill recognized that the landfill would close in several years which would result in a significant increase in monthly cardboard waste disposal costs. Therefore, the mill sought an alternate yet economical solution for waste disposal. After evaluating several different alternatives including recycling, the mill installed a boiler system designed to fire the waxed corrugated cardboard waste (WCW) as both a solution for disposal of this waste and as an alternate source of boiler fuel. This paper reviews plant design, operating performance and maintenance history.

McBurney, B.

1995-09-01

383

Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

384

Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

Hershkowitz, Gerald

1979-01-01

385

Sex Attractant of the Codling: Moth: Characterization with Electroantennogram Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-8, trans-10-Dodecadien-1-ol is a sex attractant of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella. Antennal responses (electroantennograms) to a series of monounsaturated compounds were used in determining the location and configuration of the two double bonds. The synthetic compound is very attractive to male codling moths in the field.

Wendell Roelofs; Andre Comeau; Ada Hill; G. Milicevic

1971-01-01

386

Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; David S. Jacobs

2003-01-01

387

Worldwide Variability of Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Codling Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Known resistance mechanisms including the action of detoxifying enzymes and insensitive variants of target proteins were examined in individual male and female moths from 29 populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L collected in 11 countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Australian c...

388

ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

389

Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

390

CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

391

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

392

First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

393

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

394

Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can provide significant energy savings when compared to reverse cleaning or dispersion.

M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

2000-01-31

395

If you've got it, flaunt it: ingested alkaloids affect corematal display behavior in the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea.  

PubMed

Plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids play an important role in the biology of the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). They are phagostimulants for larvae and they stimulate the growth and development of adult male androconial organs called coremata. In this study, we have shown that the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline N-oxide (MNO) fed to larvae also affects the courtship behavior of adult males. Males fed a diet containing MNO display their coremata while males fed on the same diet without alkaloid rarely display. This explains why it has been difficult to replicate field observations of the "lekking" behavior of this species in the laboratory where animals are frequently raised on commercially available diets devoid of alkaloids. Corematal inflation was observed in isolated males and in laboratory leks. The effect of larvae feeding on pyrrolizidine alkaloid on the reproductive behavior of adults suggests that this substance may modify the development of the moth's nervous system and contribute to their unusual dual mating strategies. MNO was also shown to be an adequate precursor for the production of the courtship pheromone hydroxydanaidal. PMID:16299591

Jordan, Alex T; Jones, Tappey H; Conner, William E

2005-01-01

396

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

397

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

398

Parasite, 2012, 19, 117-128 THE MOTH HYLESIA METABUS AND FRENCH GUIANA LEPIDOPTERISM  

E-print Network

117Review Parasite, 2012, 19, 117-128 THE MOTH HYLESIA METABUS AND FRENCH GUIANA LEPIDOPTERISM of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique  

E-print Network

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique The codling moth Cydia for Lepidopteran pests is very often underestimated. There has been an increasing interest to develop codling moth series compiles and summarizes available information on the rearing of the codling moth in relation

Ray, David

400

1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth  

E-print Network

1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth Pine-tree Lappet Moth Outbreak S attending in place of David Jardine. A 2 A A #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 2 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18 outstanding from the fifth meeting held on 20 December 2011: Item 5: Research Update: Origin of the Moth Tom

401

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle.  

E-print Network

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle Life cycle of oak processionary moth (OPM): note that the timings of the various stages are approximate.uk/pdf/fr_advice_note_oak_processionary_moth.pdf/$FILE/fr_advice_ note_oak_processionary_moth

402

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3  

E-print Network

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3 Evidence Outcomes: Use: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials Several to trace Sticky tape to stick moths onto surfaces Overview 1. Divide class into 2 groups 2. Each kid

403

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America  

E-print Network

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America Masha to Biological invasions Gypsy moth- biology and formulation of mathematical model SI model results Predator invasion #12;Gypsy moth #12;Gypsy moth: introduction Introduced in late 1860s and currently occupies all

404

INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation  

E-print Network

3808 INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation calls towards the prey's incidental sounds (e.g. wing fanning) may be at an advantage in capturing eared moths and moths co-habit (Roeder and Fenton, 1973). In a North American mine, the noctuid moth, Scoliopteryx

Fullard, James H.

405

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle.  

E-print Network

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle (revised 2011) Life cycle of oak processionary moth (OPM): note that the timings of the various stages://www.forestresearch.gov.uk/pdf/fr_advice_note_oak_processionary_moth.pdf/$FILE/fr_advice_ note_oak_processionary_moth

406

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian  

E-print Network

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation@credit.erin.utoronto.ca) The islands of Hawai`i o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded

Fullard, James H.

407

CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Household & Structural E-18-W PURDUE EXTENSION CLOTHES MOTH CONTROL The clothes moth and feathers. Damage done will depend upon the type of item being fed upon and the species of clothes moth

Ginzel, Matthew

408

Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

2006-01-01

409

VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

410

Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation. PMID:24361507

Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

2014-02-01

411

CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

412

Effects of Rearing Conditions, Geographical Origin, and Selection on Larval Diapause in the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella  

PubMed Central

The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations. PMID:23451807

Wijayaratne, Leanage K. W.; Fields, Paul G.

2012-01-01

413

Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods  

PubMed Central

Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the ?-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the ?-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

2004-01-01

414

Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella  

PubMed Central

The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

415

Scaling of Individual Phosphorus Flux by Caterpillars of the Whitemarked Tussock Moth, Orygia leucostigma  

PubMed Central

We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effects of body mass, environmental temperature, and food quality on phosphorus (P) efflux by caterpillars of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orygia leucostigma, J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We found that individual phosphorus efflux rate (Q the rate at which excreted and unassimilated P was egested in frass, mgP/day) was related to larval mass (M, mg dry) and environmental temperature (T,K) as Q = e14.69 M1.00e-0.54/kT, where K is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10-19J). We also found that P efflux was not related to food phosphorous concentration, and suggest that this result was due to compensatory feeding by larvae eating low quality leaves. The P efflux model resulting from this analysis was simple and powerful. Thus, it appears that this type of model can be used to scale P flux from individual larvae to the population level and link species of insect herbivores to ecosystem processes. PMID:19619031

Meehan, T. D.; Lindroth, R. L.

2009-01-01

416

Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.  

PubMed

Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

2010-01-01

417

Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations. PMID:22525062

Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

2012-02-01

418

Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella  

PubMed Central

Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; LaFont, René

2010-01-01

419

Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar

2015-02-01

420

La souche type P. larvae larvae ATCC 9545 est tout aussi infectieuse que les isolats  

E-print Network

La souche type P. larvae larvae ATCC 9545 est tout aussi infectieuse que les isolats naturels protéase doit être échangé contre le gène du type sauvage après transformation dans P. larvae larvae, de sorte à obtenir une souche de P. larvae larvae négative à la pro- téase et donc éventuellement une

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

422

Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2013-12-01

423

Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population and for assigning individuals to genealogical classes. We describe these new methods in the context of their application to genetic structure in G. gallaesolidaginis. Population phenograms are consistent with the origin of the host forms (at least in the midwestern United States) via a single host shift: altissima and gigantea moth populations form distinct lineages with 100% bootstrap support. Genetic structure in Gnorimoschema is of particular interest because another gallmaking insect attacking the same pair of hosts, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis, includes a pair of host races with partial reproductive isolation. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis and E. solidaginis therefore represent the first reported case of parallel host-associated differentiation, that is, differentiation by evolutionarily independent insect lineages across the same pair of host plants. PMID:12206247

Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

2002-07-01

424

76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...the scope of antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic...1\\ See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's...

2011-08-02

425

Perinaphthenone phototransformation in a model of leaf epicuticular waxes.  

PubMed

Perinaphthenone (1H-phenalen-1-one, PN) is a reference photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen with a quantum yield close to one in a large variety of solvents. It is also the basic structure of a class of phototoxic phytoalexins. In this work, the PN photoreactivity was studied for the first time in a paraffinic wax, used as model of leaf epicuticular waxes. The PN photodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The triplet excited state, singlet oxygen and the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical were detected by diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis, near infrared phosphorescence and by EPR spectroscopy, respectively. The PN phototransformation was found to be fivefold faster in the wax than in n-heptane under steady-state irradiation. The hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical formation was observed in aerated irradiated paraffin wax while in n-heptane solution the radical was observed only in the absence of oxygen. These results show that under continuous irradiation, PN is much more easily phototransformed in a solid environment than in solution. Several photoproducts were identified, in particular phenalanone, PN dimers, and oxidized PN-alkanes adducts. Finally, when pyrethrum extract is added into the wax along with PN, the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical concentration was increased by a factor of 2.4. Such photochemical reactions may occur when systemic pesticides enter the plant cuticle. PMID:24300996

Trivella, Aurélien S; Monadjemi, Shirin; Worrall, David R; Kirkpatrick, Iain; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Richard, Claire

2014-01-01

426

WAX : A High Performance Spatial Auto-Correlation Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the algorithms employed by WAX, a spatial auto-correlation application written in C and C++ which allows for both rapid grouping of multi-epoch apparitions as well as customizable statistical analysis of generated groups. The grouping algorithm, dubbed the swiss cheese algorithm, is designed to handle diverse input databases ranging from the 2MASS working point source database (an all sky database with relatively little coverage depth) to the 2MASS working calibration source database (a database with sparse but very deep coverage). WAX retrieves apparitions and stores groups directly from and to a DBMS, generating optimized C structures and ESQL/C code based on user defined retrieval and output columns. Furthermore, WAX allows generated groups to be spatially indexed via the HTM scheme and provides fast coverage queries for points and small circular areas on the sky. Finally, WAX operates on a declination based sky subdivision, allowing multiple instances to be run simultaneously and independently, further speeding the process of merging apparitions from very large databases. The Two Micron All Sky Survey will use WAX to create merged apparition catalogs from their working point and calibration source databases, linking generated groups to sources in the already publicly available all-sky catalogs. For a given 2MASS source, this will allow astronomers to examine the properties of many related (and as yet unpublished) 2MASS extractions, and further extends the scientific value of the 2MASS data sets.

Monkewitz, S.; Wheelock, S.

2005-12-01

427

Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed Central

The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

1995-01-01

428

[Effects of different host plants on the cold-resistant substances in overwintering larvae of Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)].  

PubMed

To evaluate the influence of different host plants including apple, wild jujube, jujube, pear and hawthorn on the cold-tolerance substances in overwintering larvae of the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii Matsumura, we measured the larvae super-cooling capacity, the water content (W), total fat content (TFC), total protein content (TPC) and total glycogen content (TGC) in the body. Results showed that the mean super-cooling point (SCPs) and freezing point (FPs) of overwintering larvae from the 5 host plant fruits differed significantly, ranging from -15.53 to -8.50 degrees C and -11.31 to -4.04 degrees C, respectively. The overwintering larvae fed on hawthorn owned the highest SCP, FP, TGC and the lowest W, while those fed on apple had the lowest SCP, FP, TFC and TGC but the highest W and TPC. The fresh mass (FM) of the overwintering larvae fed on pear was the highest, while those fed on jujube was very low. Those fed on jujube accumulated the highest TFC but the lowest TPC. PMID:25129956

Wang, Peng; Yu, Yi; Xu, Yong-Yu; Li, Li-Li; Zhang, An-Sheng; Men, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Cong; Zhou, Xian-Hong

2014-05-01

429

On the susceptibility of the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis to Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV).  

PubMed

The box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis is an invasive insect pest in many European countries. Caterpillars of this species cause widespread damage on box tree plants. In this study, a new opportunity to control this pest with the baculovirus Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV) was investigated. Initially, AnfaNPV was identified to infect larvae of Diaphania nitidalis by determining the partial nucleotide sequence of the three highly conserved genes polh, lef-8 and lef-9 of the infection causing agent. Two AnfaNPV isolates, termed Dn10 and BI-235, were then propagated in larvae of C. perspectalis and purified by sucrose density centrifugation. A bioassay using leaf disks of box tree was established to evaluate the virulence of both AnfaNPV isolates to neonate C. perspectalis larvae. After 7days, the mortality of larvae was scored and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined to 7.8×10(5)OBs/ml for isolate BI-235 and 2.3×10(6)OBs/ml for isolate Dn10 by using probit analysis. Thus, AnfaNPV BI-235 was significantly more virulent to neonate C. perspectalis larvae than Dn10 based on a three times higher LC50 value. Additionally, light and transmission electron microscopic investigations verified high rates of infection in fat body, epidermis and tracheal matrix of C. perspectalis by both AnfaNPV isolates BI-235 and Dn10. In conclusion, the performed laboratory experiments indicate the susceptibility of C. perspectalis to AnfaNPV. PMID:23562977

Rose, Jana; Kleespies, Regina G; Wang, Yongjie; Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A

2013-07-01

430

Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild. PMID:24788023

Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

2014-08-01

431

The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.  

PubMed

Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated. PMID:23063984

Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

2013-04-01

432

Micro encapsulation in situ with super permeating molten wax  

SciTech Connect

A new class of grout material based on molten wax offers a dramatic improvement in permeation grouting performance. This new material makes a perfect in situ containment of buried radioactive waste both feasible and cost effective. This paper describes various ways the material can be used to isolate buried waste in situ. Potential applications described in the paper include buried radioactive waste in deep trenches, deep shafts, Infiltration trenches, and large buried objects. Use of molten wax for retrieval of waste is also discussed. Wax can also be used for retrieval of air sensitive materials or drummed waste. This paper provides an analysis of the methods of application and the expected performance and cost of several potential projects. (authors)

Carter, E. [Carter Technologies Co, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

433

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribue : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr  

E-print Network

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribuée : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre des moteurs de

Grigoras, .Romulus

434

Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.  

PubMed

Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

2009-01-01

435

Thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and resistivity of candelilla wax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the values of some thermal and electrical properties of candelilla wax (from Euphorbia cerifera). The open-cell photoacoustic technique and another photothermic technique - based on the measurement of the temperature decay of a heated sample - were employed to obtain the thermal diffusivity (?s = 0.026 +/- 0.000 95 cm2 s-1) as well as the thermal conductivity (k = 2.132 +/- 0.16 W mK-1) of this wax. The Kelvin null method was used to measure the dark decay of the surface potential of the sample after a corona discharge, giving a resistivity of ?e = 5.98 +/- 0.19 × 1017 ? cm.

Dossetti-Romero, V.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; López-Cruz, E.

2002-10-01

436

Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (?). A linear relationship between t/l and ? (t/l ? ? 0.89) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, ? = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 109 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 109 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress.

Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

2014-04-01

437

Effects of epicuticular wax from Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on infection by Curvularia eragrostidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular wax is a plant’s initial defence system to various foreign invasions, including invasion by fungi. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of epicuticular wax of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea on invasion by the fungus Curvularia eragrostidis and the difference in components of epicuticular waxes between the two plants. The epicuticular wax of D. sanguinalis (host) significantly enhanced

Fei Wang; Peng Zhang; Sheng Qiang; Yun-Zhi Zhu; Lang-Lai Xu

2008-01-01

438

A modified technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis.  

PubMed

This article describes a technique for fabricating a wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis by tracing the shape of a sliced cast of the contralateral ear at an interval of 1-mm and transferring the shape of each 1-mm slice to a similar dimension modeling wax sheet. In this way, slices of modeling wax are obtained, which can be reversed and placed over the previous slice to produce a mirror image wax pattern of the contralateral ear. PMID:25277032

Gajdhar, Shaiq; Gajdhar, Sajda Khan; Salakalakonda, Srikanth Reddy; Vasthare, Abubakkar

2015-01-01

439

MODELLING OF THE SOLVENT-DEOILING PROCESS OF WAXES BY CONTINUOUS THERMODYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waxes as petroleum slack waxes are multicomponent mixtures of mainly paraffinic species. Usually, for application the oily components of the waxes are undesired. Therefore, separation processes are needed which, in some cases, base on a solvent-deoiling process. Modelling such a process is the aim of this paper. For this purpose the solid–liquid equilibrium of a wax–solvent system is considered.

D. Browarzik; M. Matthäi

2002-01-01

440

Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed. PMID:15384347

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

2004-08-01

441

Epicuticular waxes of two arctic species: Compositional differences in relation to winter snow cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf wax characteristics of Dryas octopetala and Saxifraga oppositifolia, collected from the high Arctic semi-desert of Svalbard, Norway (79° N, 13° E), were compared and differences in their wax composition related to winter snow cover. The leaf wax composition of the winter-green D. octopetala differed from that of the herbaceous S. oppositifolia in that high abundances of the triterpenoids,

Gareth Rieley; Jeffrey M. Welker; Terry V. Callaghan; Geoffrey Eglinton

1995-01-01

442

Epicuticular Wax Accumulation and Fatty Acid Elongation Activities Are Induced during Leaf Development of Leeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular wax production was evaluated along the length of expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) leaves to gain insight into the regulation of wax production. Leaf segments from the bottom to the top were analyzed for (a) wax composition and load; (b) microso- mal fatty acid elongase, plastidial fatty acid synthase, and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities; and (c) tissue

Yoon Rhee; Alenka Hlousek-Radojcic; Jayakumar Ponsamuel; Dehua Liu; Dusty Post-Beittenmiller

1998-01-01

443

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based  

E-print Network

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

Prentiss, Mara

444

Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes  

E-print Network

Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes Li Gao1 States of America Abstract Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (dD) have been widely that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership

Edwards, Erika J.

445

A PHASE CHANGE MICROVALVE USING A MELTABLE MAGNETIC MATERIAL: FERRO-WAX  

E-print Network

A PHASE CHANGE MICROVALVE USING A MELTABLE MAGNETIC MATERIAL: FERRO-WAX Kwang W. Oh, Kak Namkoong This paper presents a novel phase change microvalve using a paraffin-based ferrofluid plug (called "Ferro-Wax"). The Ferro-Wax plug is essentially leak-proof because of the phase change nature of the material; once

Oh, Kwang W.

446

Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

447

Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond, Massachusetts (USA)  

E-print Network

Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond interpretation of the hydrogen isotope ratios of plant leaf waxes extracted from sediments requires a thor- ough at a single site to determine how leaf wax hydro- gen isotope (D/H) ratios differ in different plant types

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

448

aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover  

E-print Network

aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate discriminate cuticular waxes based on esters and polar components Birgit FR�HLICHa, Markus RIEDERERa, Jürgen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments  

E-print Network

Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments Pratigya J. Polissar Abstract We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 fractionation (ea) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type

Polissar, Pratigya J.

450

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis and export  

E-print Network

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis stresses. It is composed of cutin polymer matrix and waxes, produced and secreted by epidermal cells involved in fatty acid elongation and biosynthesis of wax components, as well as transporters required

Kunst, Ljerka

451

MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER , A. Fasano  

E-print Network

MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER DEVICE S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio Abstract In this paper we show how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in crude oils from of agitation. Comparison with available laboratory results is provided, showing that the wax diffusivity values

Primicerio, Mario

452

Hyperspectral visible-near infrared imaging for the detection of waxed rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently, unscrupulous traders in the market use the industrial wax to wax the rice. The industrial wax is a particularly hazardous substance. Visible-near infrared hyperspectral images (400-1,000 nm) can be used for the detection of the waxed rice and the non-waxed rice. This study was carried out to find effective testing methods based on the visible-near infrared imaging spectrometry to detect whether the rice was waxed or not. An imaging spectroscopy system was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images from 80 grains of waxed rice and 80 grains of non-waxed rice over visible and near infrared spectral region. Spectra of 100 grains of rice were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the information of hyperspectral images. PCA provides an effective compressed representation of the spectral signal of each pixel in the spectral domain. We used PCA to acquire the effective wavelengths from the spectra. Based on the effective wavelengths, the predict models were set up by using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Also, compared with the PLS of 80% for the waxed rice and 86.7% for the non-waxed rice detection rate, LDA gives 93.3% and 96.7% detection rate. The results demonstrated that the LDA could detect the waxed rice better, while illustrating the hyperspectral imaging technique with the visible-near infrared region could be a reliable method for the waxed rice detection.

Zhao, Mantong

2014-11-01

453

Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface  

E-print Network

Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 #12;Abstract: Epicuticular plant waxes are nearly omnipresent of origin. These waxes can provide that information in real time when collected in aerosols, or from

Vallino, Joseph J.

454

Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios  

E-print Network

Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios plant's leaf waxes D/H ratios are affected by these parameters remains in question. Understanding Coast of the US, from Florida to Maine. Hydrogen isotopic compo- sitions of leaf wax n-alkanes, stem

Tipple, Brett

455

Bonding is carried out by building up Quartz Wax on the sample holder to  

E-print Network

Bonding is carried out by building up Quartz Wax on the sample holder to support and bond the tooth that the Quartz Wax should cover as much of the sample face as possible to ensure a strong bond. Application Note Tooth Wax layer Figure 1 Sample holder Tooth Thin Section #12;B. Cutting - SIngle Selection Figure 2

Smith, Tanya M.

456

A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis  

E-print Network

A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax is an extracellular matrix composed of cutin polyester and waxes that covers aerial organs of land plants and protects them from environmental stresses. The Arabidopsis thaliana cer7 mutant exhibits reduced cuticular wax

Kunst, Ljerka

457

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)  

E-print Network

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred An electron microscopic study was initiated to elucidate the ultrastructure of the wax gland in an actively wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles

Boyer, Edmond

458

Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax experiments  

E-print Network

Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax perform a set of analogue wax experiments aimed at understanding the processes and conditions that lead to lineament formation on Europa. We heat a layer of wax from below and cool it from above so that a solid

Manga, Michael

459

Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils  

E-print Network

Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils Barbara J. Musser and Peter Carolina 27695-7905 Received November 5, 1997 Petroleum waxes from sixteen different crude oils were analyzed after isolation from the crude in a two-step process. These waxes were characterized molecularly

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

460

Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax Antonio Fasano1  

E-print Network

Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax solutions Antonio Fasano1 Mario Primicerio1 Abstract Deposition of wax at the wall of pipelines during the flow of mineral oils of the main mechanisms at the origin of wax deposition, i.e. diffusion in non-isothermal solutions. We

Primicerio, Mario

461

The effect of wax components on cuticular transpiration-model experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaporation of water through a plastic membrane coated with plant was (30–70 µg cm2) from grape berries or fractions thereof was determined. The hydrocarbon, alcohol and aldehyde fractions caused the highest reduction of evaporation. Their effect was identical to the complete wax or to mineral paraffin wax. The main constituent of the grape cuticle wax, the triterpene oleanolic acid,

M. Grncarevic; F. Radler

1967-01-01

462

Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model , A. Fasano  

E-print Network

Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio , F. Rosso Abstract In this paper we describe how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in a saturated crude oil using the measurements of solid wax deposit in the experimental apparatus

Primicerio, Mario

463

Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits  

E-print Network

Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits Waxes and asphaltenes are the major components in organic deposits from petroleum fluids. A key unresolved issue is whether there are significant intermolecular interactions between wax and asphaltene

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

464

Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios  

E-print Network

Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios the degree to which an individual plant's leaf waxes D/H ratios are affected by these parameters remains- sitions of leaf wax n-alkanes, stem and surface waters were analyzed and compared against high

465

Experience in Manufacture of Hard Waxes. Combined Dewaxing and Deoiling Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the country's oil units are primarily oriented toward production of lube oils. The by–products formed are used as components of furnace residual fuel oil. Even the slack wax obtained in dewaxing of selectively refined raffinates goes into furnace residual fuel oil. The slack wax contains from 80 to 90% hard waxes which, like dewaxed oil, are a valuable

I. N. Kachlishvili; T. F. Filippova

2003-01-01

466

Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore\\/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close

J. M. Leis; J. M. Miller

1976-01-01

467

YOUNG LARVAE OF ECITON (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE: DORYLINAE)  

E-print Network

YOUNG LARVAE OF ECITON (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE: DORYLINAE) BY GEORGE C. WHEELER AND JEANETTE larvae we have been concerned primarily with generic characterizations and differences based on mature larvae. We described immature stages when available, which wasn't often. And even when we did, we didn

Villemant, Claire

468

Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in injection drug users.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts. PMID:20202425

Rieg, Siegbert; Martin Bauer, Tilman; Peyerl-Hoffmann, Gabriele; Held, Jurgen; Ritter, Wolfgang; Wagner, Dirk; Kern, Winfried Vinzenz; Serr, Annerose

2010-03-01

469

Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

470

The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)  

E-print Network

et al. (1962) modified the Ackisson et al. (1960) wheat germ media by substituting ascorbic acid for sodium alginate. Russell (1961) found that salted pistachio nuts made a simple rearing medium for the Indian meal moth, Plodia inter unctella...

Baxter, Michael Celus

2012-06-07

471

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

472

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

473

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

474

How the pilidium larva feeds  

PubMed Central

Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

2013-01-01

475

Wax crystal-sparse leaf2, a rice homologue of WAX2\\/GL1, is involved in synthesis of leaf cuticular wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular wax in plants limits non-stomatal water loss, inhibits postgenital organ fusion, protects plants against damage\\u000a from UV radiation and imposes a physical barrier against pathogen infection. Here, we give a detailed description of the genetic,\\u000a physiological and morphological consequences of a mutation in the rice gene WSL2, based on a comparison between the wild-type and an EMS mutant. The

Bigang MaoZhijun; Zhijun Cheng; Cailin Lei; Fenghua Xu; Suwei Gao; Yulong Ren; Jiulin Wang; Xin Zhang; Jie Wang; Fuqing Wu; Xiuping Guo; Xiaolu Liu; Chuanyin Wu; Haiyang Wang; Jianmin Wan

476

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2012-11-01

477

Resource selection by female moths in a heterogeneous environment: what is a poor girl to do?  

PubMed

1. According to the preference-performance hypothesis, female insects select resources that maximize offspring performance. To achieve high fitness, leaf miner females should then adjust their oviposition behaviour in response to leaf attributes signalling high host quality. 2. Here we investigate resource selection in Tischeria ekebladella, a leaf-mining moth of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), in relation to two alternative hypotheses: (1) females select their resources with respect to their future quality for developing larvae; or (2) temporal changes in resource quality prevent females from selecting the best larval resources. 3. Specifically, we test whether females show the strongest selection at the levels at which quality varies the most (shoots and leaves); whether they respond to specific leaf attributes (leaf size, phenolic content and conspecific eggs); and whether female preference is reflected in offspring performance. 4. Female choice of leaves was found to be non-random. Within trees, the females preferred certain shoots, but when the shoots were on different trees the degree of discrimination was about four times larger than when they were on the same trees. 5. While females typically lay more eggs on large leaves, this is not a result of active selection of large leaves, but rather a result of females moving at random and ovipositing at regular intervals. 6. The females in our study did not adjust their oviposition behaviour in response to leaf phenolic contents (as measured by the time of larval feeding). Neither did they avoid leaves with conspecific eggs. 7. Female choice of oviposition sites did not match patterns of offspring performance: there was no positive association between offspring survival and counts of eggs. 8. We propose that temporal variation in resource quality may prevent female moths from evaluating resource quality reliably. To compensate for this, females may adopt a risk-spreading strategy when selecting their resources. PMID:17714263

Gripenberg, Sofia; Morriën, Elly; Cudmore, Aileen; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Roslin, Tomas

2007-09-01

478

Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.  

PubMed

Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization. PMID:25475786

Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

2015-01-01

479

Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves  

PubMed Central

The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

2013-01-01

480

Wellbore Heat Transfer Model for Wax Deposition in Permafrost Region  

E-print Network

was sufficient to produce the oil during the production process. Besides, a user friendly GUI was developed by VB and MATLAB to run the simulation. The effects of permafrost, thermal insulation, well geometry and wax deposition on the heat transfer calculation...

Cui, Xiaoting

2012-05-31

481

Mathematical modeling of wax deposition in oil pipeline systems  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of wax on the wall of oil pipelines is often regarded as a problem since the tube diameter is reduced. Consequently, more power is needed to force the same amount of oil through the system. A mathematical model for quantitative prediction of wax deposition for each hydrocarbon component has been developed. Each component is characterized by weight fraction, heat of fusion, and melting point temperature. A model explains how a phase transition in the flow from liquid oil to waxy crystals may create a local density gradient and mass flux, which depends on the local temperature gradient. The model predicts that wax deposition can be considerably reduced even when the wall temperature is below the wax appearance point, provided the liquid/solid phase transition, expressed by the change in moles of liquid with temperature, is small at the wall temperature. Deposition as function of time has been obtained as a solution of differential equations derived from the principles of mass and energy conservation and the laws of diffusion.

Svendsen, J.A. (Hydro Research Centre, Porsgrunn (Norway). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01

482

Isolation and analysis of wax esters from activated sludge.  

PubMed

Neutral lipid from activated sludge (AS) as a potential source for biodiesel production has recently received considerable attentions. The utilization of useful compounds in AS may help reducing the cost of biodiesel production from AS. One of these compounds is the valuable wax esters (WEs) found in AS from a food processing company in Taiwan. About 4.13% (based on dry sludge weight) bleached wax was obtained after pretreatment and bleaching of crude sludge wax obtained from the dewaxing of crude sludge oil. The major WEs detected in the bleached wax were C46-C60 with small amounts of C37-C43 and C62 WEs. The fatty acids (FAs) and fatty alcohols (FALs) profiles of WEs were also investigated. Activated sludge WEs are mainly mixture of C14-C28 FAs and C24-C37 FALs, in which the predominant FAs are C16 and C18 while the predominant FALs are C32 and C34. PMID:21873048

Huynh, Lien-Huong; Do, Quy-Diem; Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2011-10-01

483

Leaf wax biomarkers in transit record river catchment composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

carry organic molecules derived from terrestrial vegetation to sedimentary deposits in lakes and oceans, storing information about past climate and erosion, as well as representing a component of the carbon cycle. It is anticipated that sourcing of organic matter may not be uniform across catchments with substantial environmental variability in topography, vegetation zones, and climate. Here we analyze plant leaf wax biomarkers in transit in the Madre de Dios River (Peru), which drains a forested catchment across 4.5 km of elevation from the tropical montane forests of the Andes down into the rainforests of Amazonia. We find that the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax molecules (specifically the C28 n-alkanoic acid) carried by this tropical mountain river largely records the elevation gradient defined by the isotopic composition of precipitation, and this supports the general interpretation of these biomarkers as proxy recorders of catchment conditions. However, we also find that leaf wax isotopic composition varies with river flow regime over storm and seasonal timescales, which could in some cases be quantitatively significant relative to changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation in the past. Our results inform on the sourcing and transport of material by a major tributary of the Amazon River and contribute to the spatial interpretation of sedimentary records of past climate using the leaf wax proxy.

Ponton, Camilo; West, A. Joshua; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier

2014-09-01

484

Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

Cowens, John

2006-01-01

485

Characterization of wax manufactures of historical and artistic interest.  

PubMed

Purpose of this scientific research is the physic and chemical characterization of two historical wax manufactures, made at the end of XIX century by Francesco Bianchi, a papal engraver. The chemical and analytical investigation was necessary to complete and to confirm the restorer's work. The IR Spectroscopy, X-Ray and GC-MS, the best technique to characterise wax, allowed us to obtain the following results. The two manufactures were made with commercial beeswax: in fact, the relative chromatograms showed unchanged peaks about esters of palmitic acid with C24 to C32 alcohol molecules; using standard beeswax we determined the same amount of hydrocarbons present in the wax manufactures. We found several hydrocarbons in these beeswax materials so that it is reasonable to think about successive modifications. ZnO (white zinc), a pigment, was added, probably due to its colour and covering capacity. Sb2S3, Anthimoniun vermilion, a red-orange pigment, was added to these manufactures to give them a soft pink-orange colour. By all used techniques we determined some modifications in the original beeswax; surely they were made to get a more malleable, mouldable, and then more able to be modelled wax. PMID:16485658

Campanella, Luigi; Chicco, Federica; Colapietro, Marcello; Gatta, Tania; Gregori, Emanuela; Panfili, Manuela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

2005-01-01

486

Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

2014-01-01

487

Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester. PMID:23829499

2013-01-01

488

Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.  

PubMed

The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings. PMID:15384348

Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2004-08-01

489

DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticular wax layer, which is the first barrier between a plant and its environment. Although cuticular wax deposition increases more in the light than in the dark, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis. Recently DEWAX (Decrease Wax Biosynthesis) encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor was found to be preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Wax analysis of the dewax knockout mutant, wild type, and DEWAX overexpression lines (OX) indicates that DEWAX is a negative regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis. DEWAX represses the expression of wax biosynthetic genes CER1, LACS2, ACLA2, and ECR via direct interaction with their promoters. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX; throughout the night and another for stomata closing. Taken together, it is evident that DEWAX-mediated negative regulation of the wax biosynthetic genes plays role in determining the total wax loads produced in Arabidopsis during daily dark and light cycles. In addition, significantly higher levels of DEWAX transcripts in leaves than stems suggest that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression might be involved in the organ-specific regulation of total wax amounts on plant surfaces. PMID:24905919

Suh, Mi Chung; Go, Young Sam

2014-06-01

490

Quantitative analysis of cosmetics waxes by using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)\\/supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and multivariate data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waxes play an indispensable role in the formulation of modern cosmetics. Quantitative measurement of the level of different waxes in cosmetics is essential to the understanding of the performance characteristics of the cosmetics. Conventionally, waxes in cosmetics are extracted by Soxhlet extraction using an organic solvent. This extraction is not quantitative. By using SFE, quantitative extraction of the waxes was

Jianjun Li

1999-01-01

491

Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated  

E-print Network

Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated wax phase can exhibit retrograde phenomena similar of precipitated wax may first increase, then decrease, then increase again. The effect of pressure on wax

Firoozabadi, Abbas

492

Dear APUNSC Member, This sheet is to help get you started in ski waxing. As you become more proficient and  

E-print Network

Dear APUNSC Member, This sheet is to help get you started in ski waxing. As you become more will need. This sheet includes the Swix waxes and tools that we use the most in Anchorage and Alaska. My in any condition. By using this sheet and attending our program wax clinics waxing should become a more

Scheel, David

493

CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production  

E-print Network

CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex and characterization of CER4, a wax bio- synthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4

Kunst, Ljerka

494

Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) seed oil refineries and seed hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as astandard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for theircrystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. Theresults of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hullsshowed the melting temperature range of 13.18 °C with the onsetat 62.32 °C, for purified wax, compared to the melting

T. C. Sindhu Kanya; K. Udaya Sankar; M. C. Shamnathaka Sastry

2003-01-01

495

Chemical Composition of the Epicuticular and Intracuticular Wax Layers on Adaxial Sides of Rosa canina Leaves  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant–organism interactions. METHOD An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. Key Results The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. Conclusions A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed. PMID:17933845

Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

2007-01-01

496

Sex-specific and hormone-controlled expression of a vitellogenin-encoding gene in the gypsy moth.  

PubMed

Microvitellogenin and vitellogenin cDNA from Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) were tested for use as molecular probes to investigate the expression of genes coding for vitellogenins in Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) and Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). Cross-hybridization was not observed between the M. sexta cDNAs and S. frugiperda DNA and mRNA. Vitellogenin cDNA from M. sexta did not hybridize to L. dispar DNA or mRNA. However, the 834 bp microvitellogenin cDNA from M. sexta hybridized to an approximately 850 bp transcript in L. dispar mRNA. A 2.5 kb cDNA clone, pz64, was isolated from late last instar larvae of female L. dispar by differential screening. This clone has 38% amino acid sequence (deduced) and 55% nucleic acid sequence similarities with the 3'-end of high molecular weight vitellogenin in Bombyx mori (silkworm). When used as a probe in northern analysis of L. dispar mRNA, this cDNA hybridized to