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1

Virulence Mechanisms of Photorhabdus sp. Strain K122 toward Wax Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence of Photorhabdus sp. strain K122 was assessed by injecting whole cells, spent culture medium, and lysate fractions into the hemocoel of larvae of wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Virulence correlated with the growth rate of the cultures and all larvae died after the cultures entered the stationary phase. Maximal production of protease and lipase exoenzymes occurred at the stationary phase

David J Clarke; Barbara C. A Dowds

1995-01-01

2

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregulation and growth of wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory cultures of larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella show drastically increased temperatures a few days after the start of cultures. To examine this phenomenon, we performed direct calorimetric measurements on isolated eggs and larvae of different larval stages. Fourth and fifth instar larvae have significantly increased mass-specific heat production rates (up to 160 mW g?1). These high heat

Erik Schmolz; Olaf Schulz

1995-01-01

3

A Streptococcus pneumoniae infection model in larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading human opportunistic pathogen. The limitations of the current vaccine have led to increased recognition of the need to understand bacterial behaviour and competitive dynamics using in vivo models of infection. Here, we investigate the potential application of the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as an informative infection model. Larvae were challenged with a range of doses of S. pneumoniae isolates differing in known virulence factors to determine the LD(50) values. Infection dynamics were determined by obtaining bacterial counts from larvae over a time course. Differences in virulence between serotypes could be distinguished in this host. Infection with strains differing in known virulence factors demonstrated predicted differences in virulence. Acapsulate and pneumolysin-negative strains were less virulent than their respective wild types. A large reduction in virulence was seen in strains lacking cell wall D-alanylation. The mortality of G. mellonella larvae is attributable to bacterial growth within larvae, while surviving larvae are able to clear infections by reducing bacterial numbers. These data demonstrate that G. mellonella larvae represent an in vivo infection model with applications for investigating aspects of bacterial-host interactions such as the role of antimicrobial peptide activity and resistance. PMID:22466968

Evans, B A; Rozen, D E

2012-10-01

4

The effects of dietary nickel on the detoxification enzymes, innate immunity and resistance to the fungus Beauveria bassiana in the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we tested the effects of dietary nickel on the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), esterases, phenoloxidase, and encapsulation in the haemolymph of larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. We also explored the effects of dietary nickel on larval resistance to infection by the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Larvae fed a low dose of nickel (10?gg?1) had

I. M. Dubovskiy; E. V. Grizanova; N. S. Ershova; M. J. Rantala; V. V. Glupov

2011-01-01

5

EFFECT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS) SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST GREATER WAX MOTH (GALLERIA MELLONELLA L.) LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed (NSE) at different concentrations, viz., 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%, were tested against Greater wax moth, (Galleria mellonella L.). Post spray mean mortality (83.33%) of the pest insect was with 4% aqueous NSE, followed by 73.33%, 56.67%, 50%, 50 % with 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 per cent NSE as compared to

M. Izhar-ul-Haq; Muhammad Saleem; Sohail Ahmed

6

Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When

J. Y. Choi; M. M. A. Whitten; M. Y. Cho; K. Y. Lee; M. S. Kim; N. A. Ratcliffe; B. L. Lee

2002-01-01

7

The effects of dietary nickel on the detoxification enzymes, innate immunity and resistance to the fungus Beauveria bassiana in the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the effects of dietary nickel on the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), esterases, phenoloxidase, and encapsulation in the haemolymph of larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. We also explored the effects of dietary nickel on larval resistance to infection by the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Larvae fed a low dose of nickel (10 ?g g(-1)) had significantly higher GST, phenoloxidase activity and encapsulation responses than controls fed on a nickel-free diet. We also found that larvae fed a sublethal dose of nickel (50 ?g g(-1)) had increased GST, esterase activity and encapsulation rates but decreased phenoloxidase activity. Although, a sublethal dose of dietary nickel enhanced innate immunity, we found that this reduced resistance against the real pathogen. Our results suggest that enhanced immunity and detoxification enzyme activity of insects may not be beneficial to resistance to fungal infection. It appears that there is a trade off between different resistance mechanisms in insects under different metal treatments. PMID:21676429

Dubovskiy, I M; Grizanova, E V; Ershova, N S; Rantala, M J; Glupov, V V

2011-09-01

8

Changes in the Activity and Pattern of Hemolymph Esterases in the Larvae of Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonellaL. (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) during Mycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extended pattern of multiple esterase forms has been revealed in the hemolymph of wax moth Galleria mellonellalarvae infected by the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassianaor Paecilomyces fumoso-roseus. The total esterase activity of the hemolymph also increases during mycosis. Mechanical damage of the cuticle, treatment with deltamethrin, and chilling of the caterpillars induced similar changes in the hemolymph pattern of

V. V. Serebrov; A. A. Alekseev; V. V. Glupov

2001-01-01

9

Effects of Different Honeycomb and Sucrose Levels on the Development of Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of different honeycomb and sucrose amounts on the development of Galleria mellonella larvae has been investigated by using synthetic diet. These results showed that the Galleria mellonella larvae could tolerate different diets without any serious problem during their development. In a period of seven days maximum growth is determined on the larvae, which are fed

M. COSKUN; T. KAYIS; M. SULANC; P. OZALP

10

Ultrasonic Signal Competition Between Male Wax Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyral- idae), is effected by male ultrasonic signals that are attractive to receptive fe- males within 1-2 m. The males typically aggregate in the vicinity of the larval food resource, honeybee colonies, and signal for 6-10 h each night. Females are known to choose males on a relative basis and

Feng-You Jia; Michael D. Greenfield; Robert D. Collins

2001-01-01

11

Replacement of midgut epithelium in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonela , during larval-pupal moult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelium of larval midgut of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonela, was replaced during the larval-pupal moult. The development of this moth was tentatively divided into 11 stages, from the full-grown larva of last instar to the 4-day-old pupa. The midgut at each stage was observed for (1) overall structure, (2) the position of goblet cells, and (3) the

Makiko F. Uwo; Kumiko Ui-Tei; Makio Takeda

2002-01-01

12

Effect of the bee glue (propolis) on the calorimetrically measured metabolic rate and metamorphosis of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the moth pests of the honeybee, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) causes the greatest damage, unless controlled at an early stage, because it feeds on wax, pollen, and cocoon of the bee larvae. This leads to the destruction of honeycomb and subsequent deterioration of weakened colonies. For controlling the pest, natural products are second to none,

Assegid Garedew; Erik Schmolz; Ingolf Lamprecht

2004-01-01

13

Effects of beauverolide L and cyclosporin A on humoral and cellular immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of beauverolide L and cyclosporin A, cyclic peptidic metabolites, produced by several genera of entomopathogenic fungi on immune responses of last instar larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been examined. Intrahemocoelic injection of either metabolite-coated silica particles or dissolved metabolites in a concentrations ranging between 10 and 30 ?g per larva caused no mortality but

A. Vilcinskas; A. Jegorov; Z. Landa; P. Götz; V. Matha

1999-01-01

14

Effects of two hemolymph proteins on humoral defense reactions in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hemolymph proteins were isolated from the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae by a two-step procedure consisting of acid extraction and reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. One was an apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) previously characterized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein in the hemolymph of G. mellonella. The other was confirmed to be a new protein with a molecular mass of 23,768.69Da, referred

Shin Yong Park; Chong Han Kim; Woo Hyuk Jeong; Joon Ha Lee; Sook Jae Seo; Yeon Soo Han; In Hee Lee

2005-01-01

15

Metamorphosis and collagen-IV-fragments stimulate innate immune response in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel link between development and immunity in insects is introduced. Transiently enhanced expression of lysozyme, gallerimycin and the insect metalloproteinase inhibitor was discovered at the onset of metamorphosis of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Relative quantification of mRNAs encoding for these antimicrobial peptides using real-time PCR documents their induced expression during transformation of last instar larvae into prepupae

Boran Altincicek; Andreas Vilcinskas

2006-01-01

16

Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Gamma Irradiation Efficiency Against the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria melonella (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana; 10 and 10 spores ml? against 4 8 1 the fourth larval instar of the greater wax moth; G. melonella. There was a positive correlation between the fungal concentration and its lethality for the treated larvae. The larval mortality percentages increased significantly with 10 spores ml? as it reached 75.87%, after 96

N. H. El-Sinary; S. A. Rizk

17

Entomopathogenic nematode- Heterorhabditis indica and its compatibility with other biopesticides on the Greater wax moth- Galleria mellonella (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic effect of an indigenous entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica and commercial biopesticides of three fungal pathogens (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana and T. viride), one antagonistic bacteria (P. fluorescence), and two neem based biopesticides (Neem and Nimor) were tested on the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella larva under laboratory condition. The efficacy of the biopesticides was tested individually or in combination

M. Sankar; V. Sethuraman; M. Palaniyandi; J. S. Prasad

18

Behavior of neonate diamondback moth larvae [ Plutella xylostella (L.)] on leaves and on extracted leaf waxes of resistant and susceptible cabbages  

Microsoft Academic Search

NeonatePlutella xylostella moved more rapidly, spent more time walking, and engaged in searching behaviors more often on leaves of NY 8329, a resistant cabbage with glossy leaves, than on Round-Up, a susceptible variety with normal wax bloom. The neonates also spent significantly more time palpating and more time biting and spinning silk on the susceptible cabbage (although the latter two

Sanford D. Eigenbrode; Karl E. Espelie; Anthony M. Shelton

1991-01-01

19

Energetic cost of sexual attractiveness: ultrasonic advertisement in wax moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth,Achroia grisella(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is initiated by male ultrasonic signals that attract receptive females. Individual males vary in attractiveness to females, and the most attractive males are distinguished by exaggeration of three signal characters: pulse rate, peak amplitude and asynchrony interval (temporal separation between pulses generated by movements of the left and right wings during

KLAUS REINHOLD; MICHAEL D. GREENFIELD; YIKWEON JANG; ALBERTO BROCE

1998-01-01

20

The effect of initial dose on the recovery and final yields of Heterorhabditis megidis (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) in larvae of the great wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different initial doses of the infective juveniles (IJs) (50 IJs, 200 IJs, 1000 IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) strain IsM15/09 on recovery, final yields and percent final yields in larvae Galleria mellonella ( L.). Percent recovery was not directly related to initial dose. Final yields also did not change with the initial dose. However, percent yields was highly negatively correlated with initial dose of nematodes and was the highest with the 50 IJs dose. Additional point of the study was to investigate whether the nematodes are able to produce progeny from one hermaphroditic individual. The results showed that the invasive larvae resumed growth and transformed into hermaphroditic individuals that reproduced without cross-fertilisation. PMID:24827089

Tumialis, Dorota; Pezowicz, El?bieta; Mazurkiewicz, Anna; Skrzecz, Iwona; Popowska-Nowak, El?bieta; Petrykowska, Agnieszka

2014-06-01

21

Expression of larval hemolymph proteins ( Lhp) genes and protein synthesis in the fat body of greater wax moth ( Galleria mellonella) larvae during diapause  

Microsoft Academic Search

When one-day-old, last instar Galleria mellonella larvae are exposed to 18°C they enter diapause and cease further development for several months. During diapause a group of proteins (72–84 kDa) synthesized in the fat body and secreted into the hemolymph is markedly elevated. Partial sequencing of the N-terminus of two proteins from this group confirmed their identity with larval hemolymph proteins

Jakub Godlewski; Barbara K?udkiewicz; Krystyna Grzelak; Bronis?aw Cymborowski

2001-01-01

22

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N. In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Mass spectrometry showed close similarity of the 58-kDa protein to the Tenebrio molitor ?-amylase. PMID:21568853

Bulushova, N V; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-02-01

23

Calorimetric measurements of energy contents and heat production rates during development of the wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the energy content of different developmental stages in the wax moth Galleria mellonella were investigated by means of combustion calorimetry. The energy content (Q) is highest in L7-larvae (2.94kJ per individual), the last stage in Galleria ontogenesis which takes up food, and the specific energy content (q) is highest in adults (37.5±2.4kJg?1) with fat as energy reserve. Galleria

E. Schmolz; S. Drutschmann; B. Schricker; I. Lamprecht

1999-01-01

24

Effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and its secondary metabolites on morphology and cytoskeleton of plasmatocytes isolated from the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Metarhizium anisopliae infection and three different secondary metabolites released by the fungus, destruxin A and E and cytochalasin D, on the morphology and cytoskeleton of plasmatocytes of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were studied. Plasmatocytes isolated from M. anisopliae infected larvae exhibited impairment of attachment, spreading and cytoskeleton formation accompanied with the occurrence of blebbing and

Andreas Vilcinskas; Vladimir Matha; Peter Götz

1997-01-01

25

Contact Toxicity of 40 Insecticides Tested on Pandora Moth Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty insecticides and an antifeeding compound were tested on pandora moth larvae (Coloradia pandora Blake) in the second and third instars. A total of 21 insecticides were more toxic at LD90 than DDT, providing a good choice of candidates for field testi...

R. L. Lyon

1971-01-01

26

A survey of the Agrothereutes hospes , an ectoparasitoid on wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrothereutes hospes (Tschek.) (Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae), a solitary ectoparasitoid, is redescribed. Details of tyloids on male flagellum are\\u000a presented and discussed. Investigations on the development of the parasitoid on wax moth host Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera) were made. Longevity of A. hospes females is between 10 days and 40 days, while in males it is 7–20 days. The egg productivity and the hatching of

M. F. Gürbüz; J. Kolarov; M. Y. Aksoylar; N. Akdura

2006-01-01

27

Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenesis by infection of the wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

2013-10-01

28

Physiological Age of Host Plant Foliage and Survival of Gypsy Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of leaf homogenates of common birch (Betula verrucosa L.), a food plant of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, was measured at different times of day in the course of leaf organogenesis, and midgut pH was measured in gypsy moth larvae phenotypically differing in the color of the hypodermis at the fifth instar. A possible relation between these

V. I. Ponomarev

2003-01-01

29

In vivo correlates of molecularly inferred virulence among extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in the wax moth Galleria mellonella model system.  

PubMed

In contrast to commensal Escherichia coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains possess an array of virulence-associated genes. We sought to establish the feasibility of using the invertebrate Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for assessing ExPEC virulence and to investigate the correlation between genotypic determinants of virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. We observed a correlation between the number of virulence genes and larval survival, such that ExPEC isolates with higher virulence scores killed larvae significantly faster than isolates with lower virulence scores. By correlating genotypic and phenotypic virulence, we provide preliminary validation of this model for future studies investigating ExPEC virulence. PMID:24518442

Williamson, Deborah A; Mills, Grant; Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen; Wiles, Siouxsie

2014-04-01

30

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from\\u000a midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N.\\u000a In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical\\u000a membranes

N. V. Bulushova; D. P. Zhuzhikov; L. I. Lyutikova; N. E. Kirillova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

2011-01-01

31

Involvement of both granular cells and plasmatocytes in phagocytic reactions in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been previously found by most authors that only plasmatocytes are involved in phagocytosis of non-self in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, in the present study we demonstrate that in vitro, both granular cells and plasmatocytes are involved in this reaction, using monolayers of these haemocytes prepared from larval haemolymph by a differential cell fractionation method. The

Sumio Tojo; Fumihiko Naganuma; Kenryo Arakawa; Shinya Yokoo

2000-01-01

32

Female greater wax moths reduce sexual display behavior in relation to the potential risk of predation by echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female greater wax moths Galleria mellonella display by wing fanning in response to bursts of ultrasonic calls produced by males. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these calls show some similarities with the echolocation calls of bats that emit frequency-modulated (FM) signals. Female G. mellonella therefore need to distinguish between the attractive signals of male conspecifics, which may lead to

Gareth Jones; Anna Barabas; Wendy Elliott; Stuart Parsons

2002-01-01

33

Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bzdil J.: Detection of Paenibacillus larvae Spores in the Debris and Wax of Honey Bee by the Tween 80 Method. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 643-648. The aim of the present study was to validate a new method of detection of Paenibacillus larvae spores in the debris and wax of honey bee and compare it with the method commonly used

J. Bzdil

2007-01-01

34

Effectiveness of twelve insecticides applied topically to diapausing larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.  

PubMed

Dose-mortality curves were established for 12 insecticides administered by topical application to diapausing larvae from a susceptible codling moth strain. Toxicity varied greatly among the insecticides tested. LC50 values ranged from 0.1 mg kg(-1) for fenoxycarb to over 2800 mg kg(-1) for diflubenzuron and indoxacarb. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field-collected diapausing larvae. PMID:15025243

Pasquier, Denis; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph

2004-03-01

35

When are good genes good? Variable outcomes of female choice in wax moths  

PubMed Central

Female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals. Because a female's opportunity to obtain increased somatic benefits by mating with a particular male is limited, we investigated whether females obtain genetic benefits for their offspring via mate choice. Controlled breeding experiments conducted under favourable food and temperature conditions showed that developmental characters are heritable, that sire attractiveness and offspring survivorship are unrelated, but that females mating with attractive signallers produce offspring who mature faster than the offspring of females mating with non-attractive signallers. However, under some unfavourable food or temperature conditions, it is the offspring of females mating with non-attractive males who mature faster; these offspring are heavier as well. Thus, the relationship between male attractiveness and offspring development is not environmentally robust, and support for a good genes model of mate choice in A. grisella is dependent on conditions. These findings suggest genotype–environment interactions and emphasize the necessity of testing sexual selection models under a range of natural environments.

Jia, F.-Y.; Greenfield, M. D.

1997-01-01

36

Evolution of ultrasonic signalling in wax moths: discrimination of ultrasonic mating calls from bat echolocation signals and the exploitation of an antipredator receiver bias by sexual advertisement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera Pyralidae), is accomplished via male-produced pulses (100 µsec) of ultrasound (100 kHz) attractive to females. A. grisella are sensitive to a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies, enabling them to hear the echolocation signals of both aerialhawking and substrate-gleaning bats. Both flying and running moths exhibit defensive behaviors, dropping to the

M. D. Greenfield; T. Weber

2000-01-01

37

Effects of microhabitat, time of day, and weather on predation of gypsy moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire cages with different-sized meshes were placed on trunks and around leaves at different heights in oak trees and in forest litter. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, instars II–V tethered with threads were placed in each cage (instars II–III only in leaf cages) as well as outside the cages. Predation of larvae decreased from near ground to mid-crown in trees and

Ronald M. Weseloh

1988-01-01

38

The effect of Habrobracon hebetor venom on the activity of the prophenoloxidase system, the generation of reactive oxygen species and encapsulation in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular and humoral immune reactions in haemolymph of the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae naturally injected by venom of ectoparasitic wasp Habrobracon hebetor were analyzed. A strong decline of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the haemolymph and the number of haemocytes with PO activity of envenomated wax moth was observed. In addition, it has been shown that the rate of

N. A. Kryukova; I. M. Dubovskiy; E. A. Chertkova; Ya. L. Vorontsova; I. A. Slepneva; V. V. Glupov

2011-01-01

39

Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes  

PubMed Central

A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images

Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

1980-01-01

40

Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae  

PubMed Central

Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey.

Goertz, Dorte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

41

Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin  

PubMed Central

The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects.

Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

2014-01-01

42

Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin.  

PubMed

The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

2014-01-01

43

Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.  

PubMed

Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

2014-06-01

44

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2014-04-01

45

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

46

The prophenoloxidase from the wax moth Galleria mellonella: purification and characterization of the proenzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prophenoloxidase (PPO) was purified from the hemolymph of the larvae of Galleria mellonella. A 135-fold purification of the proenzyme with 25% yield was achieved by a combination of different chromatographic methods. An alternative micropreparation of pure PPO by a novel method for native electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel is also described. The molecular mass of the native PPO was estimated

Petr Kopácek; Christoph Weise; Peter Götz

1995-01-01

47

Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

2006-03-01

48

Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.  

PubMed

A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

2011-01-01

49

The effect of Habrobracon hebetor venom on the activity of the prophenoloxidase system, the generation of reactive oxygen species and encapsulation in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae.  

PubMed

The cellular and humoral immune reactions in haemolymph of the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae naturally injected by venom of ectoparasitic wasp Habrobracon hebetor were analyzed. A strong decline of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the haemolymph and the number of haemocytes with PO activity of envenomated wax moth was observed. In addition, it has been shown that the rate of capsule melanization in the envenomated larvae was half that of the control. Also production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the haemolymph of envenomated larvae decreased. The obtained data casts light on the suppression of the main immune reactions in G. mellonella larvae during natural envenomation by H. hebetor. PMID:21419772

Kryukova, N A; Dubovskiy, I M; Chertkova, E A; Vorontsova, Ya L; Slepneva, I A; Glupov, V V

2011-06-01

50

Identification, synthesis, and behavioral activity of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane, a novel sex pheromone component of the greater wax moth, galleria mellonella (L.).  

PubMed

The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a serious and widespread pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. In contrast to most moths, for which long-range mate finding is mediated by female-produced sex pheromones, G. mellonella males attract conspecific females over long distances by emitting large amounts of a characteristic scent in combination with bursts of ultrasonic calls. The male scent for this species was previously identified as a blend of nonanal and undecanal. When these compounds were bioassayed, characteristic short-range sexual behavior, including wing fanning, was triggered in conspecific females, but the aldehyde blend failed to elicit attraction over longer distances. We identified, via analysis and synthesis, a third male-specific compound, 5,11-dimethylpentacosane. We show that it acts as a behavioral synergist to the aldehydes. In wind tunnel experiments, very few female moths responded to the aldehyde blend or to 5,11-dimethylpentacosane tested separately, but consistently showed orientation and source contact when a combination of all three compounds was applied. The level of attraction to the three-component mixture was still lower than that to male extract, indicating that the composition of compounds in the synthetic blend is suboptimal, or that additional pheromone components of G. mellonella are yet to be identified. The identification of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane is an important step for the development of an efficient long-range attractant that will be integrated with other environmentally safe strategies to reduce damage to beehives caused by wax moths. PMID:24692052

Svensson, Glenn P; Gündüz, Eylem Akman; Sjöberg, Natalia; Hedenström, Erik; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Löfstedt, Christer; Anderbrant, Olle

2014-04-01

51

The Effects of the Water, Protein and Polyphenolic Contents of four Host Plant Species on the Development and Egg Yield of Female Larvae of Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of the water, protein and polyphenolic contents of the host plant leaves on the development and egg yield of the female larvae of a polyphagous herbivorous moth namely Lymantria dispar L. In a 14-day feeding experiment, L. dispar female larvae at the last two larval stages were fed by Quercus cerris, Quercus

Nurver ALTUN

2007-01-01

52

A mid-gut microbiota is not required for the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to diamondback moth larvae.  

PubMed

The mode of action of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) remains a matter of debate. Recent reports have claimed that aseptic lepidopteran hosts were not susceptible to Bt and that inoculation with mid-gut bacteria restores pathogenicity. These claims are controversial because larvae were rendered aseptic by consuming antibiotics, although the effect of these antibiotics on Bt was not examined. We tested the generality of the mid-gut bacteria hypothesis in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella using properly controlled experiments that investigated the effect of antibiotic consumption and absence of gut microbiota separately. We found that purified Bt toxin and spore/toxin mixtures were fully pathogenic to larvae reared aseptically. Persistence of antibiotics in larval tissues was implicated in reducing host mortality because larval consumption of the antibiotic rifampicin reduced the pathogenicity of rifampicin-sensitive Bt strains but not rifampicin-resistant strains. Inoculating larvae with Enterobacter sp. Mn2 reduced the mortality of larvae feeding on Bt HD-1 and the presence of a culturable gut microbiota also reduced the pathogenicity of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, in agreement with other studies indicating that an intestinal microbiota can protect taxonomically diverse hosts from pathogen attack. As ingestion of antibiotics suppresses host mortality the vegetative growth of Bt in the host must be important for its pathogenicity. Furthermore, claims that aseptic larvae are not susceptible to Bt must be supported by experiments that control for the effect of administering antibiotics. PMID:19555371

Raymond, Ben; Johnston, Paul R; Wright, Denis J; Ellis, Richard J; Crickmore, Neil; Bonsall, Michael B

2009-10-01

53

Effect of gamma-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae).  

PubMed

This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., gamma-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F(1) generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found. PMID:20363640

El-Kholy, Eman M S; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

2010-09-01

54

Attract-and-Kill and other pheromone-based methods to suppress populations of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Three attract-and-kill formulations, a gel, a wax panel, and a plastic cylinder were tested in simulated warehouses at three densities of devices and at three densities of moths, Plodia interpunctella Hübner, per room. Wax panels and the cylinder formulations suppressed all the densities of moths with only one device per room. Two field experiments were then conducted during 2005 and 2006 in replicated commercial pet food and grocery stores that harbored natural populations of P. interpunctella. In the summer of 2005, the wax panel formulation suppressed adult male response to monitoring traps and also reduced the numbers of larvae in food bait oviposition cups after the first month of being established. This suppression was maintained until the third month. The second field experiment in 2006 compared three pheromone-based methods of moth suppression in buildings with moth populations in untreated buildings. The mass-trapping treatment showed the lowest adult moth capture after the first month of the experiment until the end of the third month. However, this treatment was similar statistically to use of attract-and-kill panels, mating disruption, and untreated control establishments in most of the weeks. Monitoring of larvae in food cups revealed the pheromone-based methods were not significantly different from each other, but that they suppressed moth populations in most of the weeks when compared with untreated control buildings. This research shows potential for successful pheromone-based suppression methods for Indianmeal moths in commercial applications. PMID:24665735

Campos, Manuel; Phillips, Thomas W

2014-02-01

55

Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period.

Goertz, Dorte; Hoch, Gernot

2013-01-01

56

The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in soilof the Bodega marine reserve: distribution and dependenceon nematode-parasitized moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 13 nematode-trapping fungi previously detected at the Bodega Marine Reserve (BMR, Sonoma County, CA, USA), Arthrobotrys oligospora is by far the most abundant. Why A. oligospora is so abundant is unclear, but the answer may involve bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus), ghost moth larvae (Hepialus californicus), and insect-parasitic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus). Previous research documented a dramatic increase of A.

F. C. Farrell; B. A. Jaffee; D. R. Strong

2006-01-01

57

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

58

Elastase B of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulates the humoral immune response in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B in activation of the humoral immune response in Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated. The results of our study showed that elastase B injected at a sublethal concentration was responsible for eliciting the humoral immune response in G. mellonella larvae. The insects exhibited increased antibacterial activity, namely, we observed appearance of antimicrobial peptides and

Mariola Andrejko; Magdalena Mizerska-Dudka

2011-01-01

59

Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment.

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

2009-01-01

60

Correlation between virulence of Candida albicans mutants in mice and Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is a dimorphic human pathogen in which the yeast to hyphal switch may be an important factor in virulence in mammals. This pathogen has recently been shown to also kill insects such as the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella when injected into the haemocoel of the insect larvae. We have investigated the effect of previously characterised C. albicans

Marc Brennan; David Y. Thomas; Malcolm Whiteway; Kevin Kavanagh

2002-01-01

61

Pathogenicity of Bacteria Symbiotically Associated with Insect Pathogenic Nematodes against the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria Mellonella (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial symbionts isolated from the entomopathogenic nematodes were compared for their pathogenicity to last instar larvae of G. mellonella at both Phases I and II. Most bacterial symbionts at Phase I cause 100% mortality within 2-3 days post-injection with 1 times; 10 3 cells\\/larva. The pathogenicity of Phase I decreased in the following order: Xenorhabdus nematopbilus, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Photorhabdus

A. S. Abdel-Razek

2002-01-01

62

Detection of Lipophorin as the Major Cyclosporin-Binding Protein in the Hemolymph of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body distribution and binding of Cyclosporin A (CsA) to hemolymph proteins have been studied in Galleria mellonella larvae. 3H dihydrocyclosporin A (3HdCsA), a radiolabelled analogue of CsA, was used to determine the body distribution and clearance of CsA in the hemocoel of treated larvae and to label hemolymph binding proteins in vitro. The experiments with 3HdCsA showed that the

Andreas Vilcinskas; Petr Kopacek; Alexandr Jegorov; Alain Vey; Vladimir Matha

1997-01-01

63

Hormonal regulation of the expression of two storage proteins in the larval fat body of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella).  

PubMed

During larval development of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, genes of storage proteins LHP76 and LHP82 are tissue- and stage-specifically expressed. In this study, hormonal regulation of this expression has been investigated in vivo. Messenger RNAs of the juvenile hormone (JH-suppressible) Lhp82 gene are present only during the feeding period of the final larval instar, suggesting that a high level of JH during earlier stages prevents its expression and that a small rise in JH titer observed on day 8 of the final larval instar is responsible for the rapid shut-off of its transcription. Application of 1micro g of JH analog (fenoxycarb) specifically inhibits expression of Lhp82, whereas Lhp76 mRNAs remain at the same level. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) does not exert any inhibitory effects on transcription of Lhp genes when injected in a dose of 0.5 or 1.5 micro g per individual, regardless of larval age. However, the same dose of 20HE significantly lowers the rate of LHPs synthesis within the fat body and completely blocks secretion of LHPs into the hemolymph. Therefore, we propose that 20HE inhibits the synthesis of storage proteins and their secretion without altering the level of mRNAs. PMID:12804714

Godlewski, Jakub; K?udkiewicz, Barbara; Grzelak, Krystyna; Beresewicz, Ma?gorzata; Cymborowski, Bronis?aw

2003-06-01

64

Hemocyte Responses of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella, to the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora  

PubMed Central

Hemocyte encapsulation reactions of infective juveniles of two Iranian isolates of the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditina: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Tylenchina: Steinernematidae), were compared in the economic pest Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The former was a more responsive host than the latter and the hemocyte responses occurred sooner and more extensively. Complete encapsulation of some of the nematodes occurred by 4 h post injection for H. bacteriophora in both L. decemlineata and G. mellonella, and by 2 h pi for S. feltiae in L. decemlineata. The percentage of encapsulation from 24 h to 72 h pi in L. decemlineata was 86.2% for S. feltiae and 39% for H. bacteriophora. In G. mellonella there were no encapsulation or melanization responses against S. feltiae, whereas when H. bacteriophora was encapsulated and melanized (16.7%) the encapsulation level was lower than in L. decemlineata. This study may contribute to effectively selecting entomopathogenic nematode species active against significant economic pests based on the latter's cellular immune response.

Ebrahimi, L.; Niknam, G.; Dunphy, G. B.

2011-01-01

65

Elastase B of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulates the humoral immune response in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B in activation of the humoral immune response in Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated. The results of our study showed that elastase B injected at a sublethal concentration was responsible for eliciting the humoral immune response in G. mellonella larvae. The insects exhibited increased antibacterial activity, namely, we observed appearance of antimicrobial peptides and a higher level of lysozyme in cell-free hemolymph. Elastase B seems to be a more potent elicitor than thermolysin because similar maximal antibacterial activity levels were observed at a 5-fold lower concentration. We also demonstrated that there were differences in the kinetics of induction of antimicrobial activity between thermolysin and elastase B. The maximum level was observed 18h post challenge of thermolysin and 38h after injection of elastase B. It was also shown that, 24h after elastase injection, the relative levels of apoLp-III in the hemolymph significantly increased in comparison with control G. mellonella larvae. The activation of immune responses in metalloproteinase-challenged larvae involved synthesis of metalloproteinase inhibitors which increased the survival rates of insects both against the lethal dose of thermolysin as well as against viable pathogenic bacterial cells of P. aeruginosa. PMID:21236262

Andrejko, Mariola; Mizerska-Dudka, Magdalena

2011-05-01

66

Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment.

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

2010-01-01

67

An insecticidal protein from Xenorhabdus budapestensis that results in prophenoloxidase activation in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

Xenorhabdus budapestensis can produce a variety of proteins that help this bacterium and its mutualistic nematode vector kill the host insect. In this report, we purified one protein fraction from the intracellular extract of X. budapestensis D43, which was designated HIP57. By injection, HIP57 caused Galleria mellonella larval bodies to blacken and die with an LD(50) of 206.81 ng/larva. Analyzes of HIP57 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this protein was a single spot on the gel with a molecular weight of 57 kDa and a pI of ?5. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis suggested that the HIP57 toxin was homologous to GroEL. GroEL has been accepted as molecule chaperon; however, our research revealed that HIP57 (GroEL) possesses another novel function as an insecticide. A GroEL phylogenetic tree defined the relationship among the related species of mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus) from the entomopathogenic nematodes and the evolution within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Thus, GroEL could be a complement to 16S rDNA for studying the molecular phylogenies of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity analysis of G. mellonella larvae injected with HIP57 suggested that the toxin activates the PO cascade, which provides an extensive defense reaction that potentially responsible for G. mellonella larval death. PMID:22387345

Yang, Jun; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Lin, Hua-Feng; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Li-Hua; Yuan, Jing-Jing; Qiu, De-Wen

2012-05-01

68

Protein kinase A activity and protein phosphorylation in the haemocytes of immune-challenged Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase A (PKA) activity was detected in the haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella larvae using a specific peptide substrate — kemptide. The enzyme was activated in vitro by 1 ?M concentration of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP, 8-Chl-cAMP and BzcMP, whereas in the case of cGMP 10 ?M concentration was necessary. Immune challenge of G. mellonella larvae with bacteria led to changes

Ma?gorzata Cytry?ska; Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas; Teresa Jakubowicz

2007-01-01

69

Chemical composition of North American bee propolis and biological activity towards larvae of greater wax moth ( Lepidoptera: Pyralidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee propolis is a sticky amalgamation of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and used in the hive for filling cracks and repairing combs. Propolis contains a diversity of compounds of plant origin, and is reported to have medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic properties. We examined the physical and chemical composition of North American samples of bee propolis

K. S. Johnson; F. A. Eischen; D. E. Giannasi

1994-01-01

70

Canadian Steinernematid (Nematoda) Isolates and Their Infectivity, under Cold Conditions, to Greater Wax Moth ( Galleria mellonella) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode species, strains, or isolates of the entomopathogenic family Steinernematidae differ in their ability to infect insects at low temperatures. Some steinernematid isolates from British Columbia, probably a new species, killedGalleria mellonellalarvae at 7°C. In laboratory experiments, these nematode isolates (isolates 69, 76, 99, 102, or D) were applied to petri dishes at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, or

Zden?k Mrá?ek; Stanislav Be?vá?; Pavel ?ezá?; Pavel Kindlmann; John M. Webster

1997-01-01

71

Canadian Steinernematid (Nematoda) Isolates and Their Infectivity, under Cold Conditions, to Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode species, strains, or isolates of the entomo- pathogenic family Steinernematidae differ in their ability to infect insects at low temperatures. Some steinernematid isolates from British Columbia, prob- ably a new species, killedGalleria mellonellalarvae at 7°C. In laboratory experiments, these nematode iso- lates (isolates 69, 76, 99, 102, or D) were applied to petri dishes at concentrations of 50, 100,

ZDENEK MRACEK; STANISLAV BECVAR; PAVEL REZAC; PAVEL KINDLMANN; JOHN M. WEBSTER

72

Protein engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin: mutations at domain II of CryIAb enhance receptor affinity and toxicity toward gypsy moth larvae.  

PubMed

Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to gypsy moth midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) approximately 4-fold. Deletion of N372 (D3), however, substantially reduced toxicity (> 21 times) as well as binding affinity, suggesting that residue N372 is involved in receptor binding. Interestingly, a triple mutant, DF-1 (N372A, A282G and L283S), has a 36-fold increase in toxicity to gypsy moth neonates compared with wild-type toxin. The enhanced activity of DF-1 was correlated with higher binding affinity (18-fold) and binding site concentrations. Dissociation binding assays suggested that the off-rate of the BBMV-bound mutant toxins was similar to that of the wild type. However, DF-1 toxin bound 4 times more than the wild-type and N372A toxins, and it was directly correlated with binding affinity and potency. Protein blots of gypsy moth BBMV probed with labeled N372A, DF-1, and CryIAb toxins recognized a common 210-kDa protein, indicating that the increased activity of the mutants was not caused by binding to additional receptor(s). The improved binding affinity of N372A and DF-1 suggest that a shorter side chain at these loops may fit the toxin more efficiently to the binding pockets. These results offer an excellent model system for engineering delta-endotoxins with higher potency and wider spectra of target pests by improving receptor binding interactions. PMID:8962052

Rajamohan, F; Alzate, O; Cotrill, J A; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

1996-12-10

73

Protein engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin: Mutations at domain II of CryIAb enhance receptor affinity and toxicity toward gypsy moth larvae  

PubMed Central

Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to gypsy moth midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) ?4-fold. Deletion of N372 (D3), however, substantially reduced toxicity (>21 times) as well as binding affinity, suggesting that residue N372 is involved in receptor binding. Interestingly, a triple mutant, DF-1 (N372A, A282G and L283S), has a 36-fold increase in toxicity to gypsy moth neonates compared with wild-type toxin. The enhanced activity of DF-1 was correlated with higher binding affinity (18-fold) and binding site concentrations. Dissociation binding assays suggested that the off-rate of the BBMV-bound mutant toxins was similar to that of the wild type. However, DF-1 toxin bound 4 times more than the wild-type and N372A toxins, and it was directly correlated with binding affinity and potency. Protein blots of gypsy moth BBMV probed with labeled N372A, DF-1, and CryIAb toxins recognized a common 210-kDa protein, indicating that the increased activity of the mutants was not caused by binding to additional receptor(s). The improved binding affinity of N372A and DF-1 suggest that a shorter side chain at these loops may fit the toxin more efficiently to the binding pockets. These results offer an excellent model system for engineering ?-endotoxins with higher potency and wider spectra of target pests by improving receptor binding interactions.

Rajamohan, Francis; Alzate, Oscar; Cotrill, Jeffrey A.; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H.

1996-01-01

74

Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae  

PubMed Central

Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e?5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were classified. The results of this study will provide useful data for future investigations on pest-resistance phytochemistry and plant breeding.

Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

2013-01-01

75

Mating of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths and their host plant origins as larvae within Australian cotton farming systems.  

PubMed

Transgenic (Bt) cotton dominates Australian cotton production systems. It is grown to control feeding damage by lepidopteran pests such as Helicoverpa armigera. The possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, refuge crops (with no Bt) must be grown with Bt cotton to produce large numbers of Bt-susceptible moths to reduce the risk of resistance developing. A key assumption of the refuge strategy, that moths from different host plant origins mate at random, remains untested. During the period of the study reported here, refuge crops included pigeon pea, conventional cotton (C3 plants), sorghum or maize (C4 plants). To identify the relative contributions made by these (and perhaps other) C3 and C4 plants to populations of H. armigera in cotton landscapes, we measured stable carbon isotopes (?(13)C) within individual moths captured in the field. Overall, 53% of the moths were of C4 origin. In addition, we demonstrated, by comparing the stable isotope signatures of mating pairs of moths, that mating is indeed random amongst moths of different plant origins (i.e. C3 and C4). Stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?(15)N) were recorded to further discriminate amongst host plant origins (e.g. legumes from non-legumes), but such measurements proved generally unsuitable. Since 2010, maize and sorghum are no longer used as dedicated refuges in Australia. However, these plants remain very common crops in cotton production regions, so their roles as 'unstructured' refuges seem likely to be significant. PMID:22999440

Baker, G H; Tann, C R

2013-04-01

76

Development and Evaluation of Methods To Detect Nucleopolyhedroviruses in Larvae of the Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)?  

PubMed Central

Various molecular methods are used to detect pathogenic microorganisms and viruses within their hosts, but these methods are rarely validated by direct comparison. Southern hybridization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a novel DNA extraction/PCR assay were used to detect Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) in Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae. PCR was more sensitive than Southern hybridization and ELISA at detecting semipurified virus. ELISA, however, was the most accurate method for detecting virus within larvae, given that Southern hybridization and PCR produced false-negative results (31% and 2.5%, respectively). ELISA may be preferable in some applications because virus infections can be quantified (r2 = 0.995). These results may be applicable to both applied and academic research that seeks to accurately identify the incidence of viruses and microorganisms that regulate insect populations.

Thorne, Christine M.; Otvos, Imre S.; Conder, Nicholas; Levin, David B.

2007-01-01

77

In vitro and in vivo binding of snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis; Con A) lectins within tomato moth ( Lacanobia oleracea) larvae; mechanisms of insecticidal action  

Microsoft Academic Search

When fed in semi-artificial diet the lectins from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis: GNA: mannose-specific) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis: Con A: specific for glucose and mannose) were shown to accumulate in vivo in the guts, malpighian tubules and haemolymph of Lacanobia oleracea (tomato moth) larvae. Con A, but not GNA, also accumulated in the fat bodies of lectin-fed larvae. The presence of

Elaine Fitches; Stephen D Woodhouse; John P Edwards; John A Gatehouse

2001-01-01

78

Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.  

PubMed

Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards. PMID:19192482

Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

2009-04-01

79

Food Utilization Values of Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Larvae Infected with the Microsporidium Vairimorpha sp. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, with the microsporidium Vairimorpha sp. strongly influences the development of the host in ways typical of many species of terrestrial entomopathogenic Microsporidia; growth is reduced while development time is extended in infected insects. The appearance of the different stages of the parasite in the host relative to the elapsed time after oral infection,

Michael W Henn; Leellen F Solter

2000-01-01

80

Deposition and germination of conidia of the entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga infecting larvae of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga, an important fungal pathogen of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was investigated on water agar and larval cuticle at varying densities. Percent germination was positively associated with conidial density on water agar but not on larval cuticle. When conidia were showered onto water agar, the rate of germination was much slower than on the cuticle

Ann E. Hajek; Cristian I. Davis; Callie C. Eastburn; Francoise M. Vermeylen

2002-01-01

81

Production of marker-free transgenic Jatropha curcas expressing hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin Cry1Ab/1Ac for resistance to larvae of tortrix moth (Archips micaceanus)  

PubMed Central

Background The potential biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. is affected by larvae of Archips micaceanus (Walker), a moth of the family Tortricidae. The hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ?-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac confers resistance to lepidopteran insects in transgenic rice. Results Here, we report the production of a marker-free transgenic line of J. curcas (L10) expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a chemically regulated, Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination system. L10 carries a single copy of marker-free T-DNA that contains the Cry1Ab/1Ac gene under the control of a maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos ). The P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos gene was highly expressed in leaves of L10 plants. Insecticidal bioassays using leaf explants of L10 resulted in 80-100% mortality of larvae of A. micaceanus at 4 days after infestation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the hybrid Bt ?-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac expressed in Jatropha curcas displays strong insecticidal activity to A. micaceanus. The marker-free transgenic J. curcas line L10 can be used for breeding of insect resistance to A. micaceanus.

2014-01-01

82

Changes of the Antioxidant Status and System of Generation of Free Radicals in Hemolymph of Galleria mellonella Larvae at Microsporidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities as well as of the content of SH-containing compounds were revealed in hemolymph of the native and the Vairimorpha ephestiae microsporidian-infected greater wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae. The SOD and GST activities in hemolymph of infected insects decreased at the stage of merogony, whereas during massive sporulation the enzymatic antioxidant activity

Ya. L. Lozinskaya; I. A. Slepneva; V. V. Khramtsov; V. V. Glupov

2004-01-01

83

Changes in superoxide dismutase activity in various larval organs of greater wax moth ( Galleria mellonella L., Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) induced by infection with Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. galleriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the changes in superoxide dismutase activity in organs of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. A considerable increase in superoxide dismutase activity was observed at the initial stages of infection, later the enzyme activity decreased and this decrease was timed to cessation of feeding and development of sepsis in the infected larvae. Changes in

M. F. Khvoshchevskaya; I. M. Dubovskii; V. V. Glupov

2005-01-01

84

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.  

PubMed

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

85

Behavior of newly hatched potato tuber moth larvae, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of neonate larvae of Phthorimaea operculella.Host finding from soil-laid eggs and dispersal from hosts and nonhosts were first examined. Of first-instar larvae hatching from soil-laid eggs, 80% found the potato plant while roughly 50% found each of the other three plants (datura, tobacco, and tomato). Dispersal from potato, datura, and tobacco was very low, while on

L. G. Varela; E. A. Bernays

1988-01-01

86

Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae.  

PubMed

The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose > 400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities. PMID:23356060

Follettt, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

2012-12-01

87

Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

Popovi?, Zorica; Kosti?, Miroslav; Stankovi?, Sladjan; Milanovi?, Slobodan; Siv?ev, Ivan; Kosti?, Igor; Kljaji?, Petar

2013-01-01

88

Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar  

PubMed Central

Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

Popovic, Zorica; Kostic, Miroslav; Stankovic, Sladjan; Milanovic, Slobodan; Sivcev, Ivan; Kostic, Igor; Kljajic, Petar

2013-01-01

89

Efficiency of the Galleria (wax moth) baiting technique for recovering infective stages of entomopathogenic rhabditids (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from Sand and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eficiency of using Galleria larvae to quantify the numbers of entomopathogenic nematodes in naturally infested soil or in sand was assessed. Most tests were with an undescribed Steinernema sp. isolated from British soil and designated the Nashes isolate. Bioassays consisted of replacing al1 insects, whether dead or alive, with fresh living ones until infections ceased and counting the numbers

Xuejuan FAN; William M. HOMINICK

90

The discovery and analysis of a diverged family of novel antifungal moricin-like peptides in the wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for components with antifungal activity in the hemolymph of immune-stimulated Galleria mellonella larvae led to the identification of four novel moricin-like peptides (A, B, C3 and D). Subsequently, eight moricin-like peptide genes (A, B, C1–5 and D) were isolated and shown to code for seven unique peptides (mature C4 and C5 are identical). These genes contained single introns which

Susan E. Brown; Antoinette Howard; Annette B. Kasprzak; Karl H. Gordon; Peter D. East

2008-01-01

91

Hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion and nodulation reactions of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit.  

PubMed

Nodulation, the lepidopteran insect immune response to large numbers of microbes in the blood (hemolymph) consists of the coordination of the blood cell (hemocyte) types the granular cells and plasmatocytes in terms of granular cell-bacteria adhesion and hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion (microaggregation). Hemocyte-microbe adhesion is influenced by the secondary messenger, cAMP, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. In the present study, cholera toxin, an AB5 protein known to indirectly stimulate adenylate cyclase, is used to examine the hemocyte responses to glass, bacteria and hemocyte-hemocyte microaggregates. In vitro, this toxin induces a bimodal hemocyte adhesion response that varies with the holotoxin concentration in terms of the individual and aggregated hemocyte adhesion responses: the lower CTX concentration (1.2 nM) increases microaggregate adhesion and decreases individual hemocyte binding to glass, as does higher concentrations (6-120 nM), however microaggregates induced by lower concentrations do not adhere to glass. Cholera toxin-induced microaggregation is inhibited by RGDS, suggestive of integrin involvement. In vivo, cholera toxin (1.2-120 nM) injected into larvae induces also a bimodal hemocytic response: low levels (1.2-6 nM) cause reduced hemocyte adhesion, while high levels (12-120 nM) increase hemocyte release or mobilization of adhesive hemocyte counts in the hemolymph. Increasing levels of cholera toxin concomitantly injected with the non-pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis produces a bimodal pattern in bacterial removal from the hemolymph which correlates with nodule frequency in larvae injected with cholera toxin only. The effects of higher concentrations of cholera toxin in vitro (6-120 nM) and in vivo (12-120 nM) are mediated by the B-subunit, whereas the isolated A-subunit has no effect on hemocyte activity. Cholera toxin and its individual subunits did not detectably alter levels of intracellular cAMP in the hemocytes, suggesting a cAMP-independent mechanism stimulating the nodulation response. PMID:24371567

Lapointe, Jason F; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A

2012-01-01

92

Hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion and nodulation reactions of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit  

PubMed Central

Nodulation, the lepidopteran insect immune response to large numbers of microbes in the blood (hemolymph) consists of the coordination of the blood cell (hemocyte) types the granular cells and plasmatocytes in terms of granular cell–bacteria adhesion and hemocyte–hemocyte adhesion (microaggregation). Hemocyte–microbe adhesion is influenced by the secondary messenger, cAMP, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. In the present study, cholera toxin, an AB5 protein known to indirectly stimulate adenylate cyclase, is used to examine the hemocyte responses to glass, bacteria and hemocyte–hemocyte microaggregates. In vitro, this toxin induces a bimodal hemocyte adhesion response that varies with the holotoxin concentration in terms of the individual and aggregated hemocyte adhesion responses: the lower CTX concentration (1.2 nM) increases microaggregate adhesion and decreases individual hemocyte binding to glass, as does higher concentrations (6–120 nM), however microaggregates induced by lower concentrations do not adhere to glass. Cholera toxin-induced microaggregation is inhibited by RGDS, suggestive of integrin involvement. In vivo, cholera toxin (1.2–120 nM) injected into larvae induces also a bimodal hemocytic response: low levels (1.2–6 nM) cause reduced hemocyte adhesion, while high levels (12–120 nM) increase hemocyte release or mobilization of adhesive hemocyte counts in the hemolymph. Increasing levels of cholera toxin concomitantly injected with the non-pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis produces a bimodal pattern in bacterial removal from the hemolymph which correlates with nodule frequency in larvae injected with cholera toxin only. The effects of higher concentrations of cholera toxin in vitro (6–120 nM) and in vivo (12–120 nM) are mediated by the B-subunit, whereas the isolated A-subunit has no effect on hemocyte activity. Cholera toxin and its individual subunits did not detectably alter levels of intracellular cAMP in the hemocytes, suggesting a cAMP-independent mechanism stimulating the nodulation response.

Lapointe, Jason F.; Dunphy, Gary B.; Mandato, Craig A.

2012-01-01

93

Expression of autophagy 8 (Atg8) and its role in the midgut and other organs of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, during metamorphic remodelling and under starvation.  

PubMed

A 345 base pair cDNA encoding autophagy 8 (Atg8) of Galleria mellonella (GmAtg8) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced protein was estimated to be 118 amino acids long. Structural comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that GmAtg8 belong to the Atg8 family of ubiquitin-like proteins. It is predicted to contain four ?-sheets and four ?-helices. It also contains a highly conserved glycine residue at the C-terminal, as well as highly conserved Phe77 and Ph79 at a recognition cleavage site of Atg4 and Tyr49, and Leu50 at a site for activation of the lipidated form of Atg8 by Atg7 and Atg3. The developmental expression profile demonstrated that GmAtg8 transcript and its protein products are expressed in such organs as the midgut, ovary, Malpighian tubules, fat body and silk gland. In the midgut and silk gland, GmAtg8 transcript and its protein products increased during metamorphosis and under starvation, but decreased after re-feeding. Expression of autophagy seems to precede apoptosis in the midgut transformation from larva to pupa and pupa to adult during metamorphosis. Some waves overlap with apoptotic waves, particularly at early stages, but others are unique in terms of site and timing. PMID:22830988

Khoa, D B; Takeda, M

2012-10-01

94

Characterization of New Entomopathogenic Nematodes from Thailand: Foraging Behavior and Virulence to the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their associated bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp., respectively) are lethal parasites of soil dwelling insects. We collected 168 soil samples from five provinces, all located in southern Thailand. Eight strains of EPNs were isolated and identified to species using restriction profiles and sequence analysis. Five of the isolates were identified as Heterorhabditis indica, and one as Heterorhabditis baujardi. Two undescribed Steinernema spp. were also discovered which matched no published sequences and grouped separately from the other DNA restriction profiles. Behavioral tests showed that all Heterorhabditis spp. were cruise foragers, based on their attraction to volatile cues and lack of body-waving and standing behaviors, while the Steinernema isolates were more intermediate in foraging behavior. The infectivity of Thai EPN strains against Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated using sand column bioassays and the LC(50) was calculated based on exposures to nematodes in 24-well plates. The LC(50) results ranged from 1.99-6.95 IJs/insect. Nine centimeter columns of either sandy loam or sandy clay loam were used to determine the nematodes' ability to locate and infect subterranean insects in different soil types. The undescribed Steinernema sp. had the greatest infection rate in both soil types compared to the other Thai isolates and three commercial EPNs (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri and Steinernema riobrave). PMID:22736860

Noosidum, Atirach; Hodson, Amanda K; Lewis, Edwin E; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

2010-12-01

95

Characterization of New Entomopathogenic Nematodes from Thailand: Foraging Behavior and Virulence to the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their associated bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp., respectively) are lethal parasites of soil dwelling insects. We collected 168 soil samples from five provinces, all located in southern Thailand. Eight strains of EPNs were isolated and identified to species using restriction profiles and sequence analysis. Five of the isolates were identified as Heterorhabditis indica, and one as Heterorhabditis baujardi. Two undescribed Steinernema spp. were also discovered which matched no published sequences and grouped separately from the other DNA restriction profiles. Behavioral tests showed that all Heterorhabditis spp. were cruise foragers, based on their attraction to volatile cues and lack of body-waving and standing behaviors, while the Steinernema isolates were more intermediate in foraging behavior. The infectivity of Thai EPN strains against Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated using sand column bioassays and the LC50 was calculated based on exposures to nematodes in 24-well plates. The LC50 results ranged from 1.99-6.95 IJs/insect. Nine centimeter columns of either sandy loam or sandy clay loam were used to determine the nematodes’ ability to locate and infect subterranean insects in different soil types. The undescribed Steinernema sp. had the greatest infection rate in both soil types compared to the other Thai isolates and three commercial EPNs (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri and Steinernema riobrave).

Noosidum, Atirach; Hodson, Amanda K.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

2010-01-01

96

Ear wax  

MedlinePLUS

... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

97

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

98

Luna moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

Shawn Hanrahan (None;)

2004-01-01

99

Ear wax  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing).

2008-01-01

100

Sequential transformation to pyramid two Bt genes in vegetable Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) and its potential for control of diamondback moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. “Green Wave”) plants that control Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) (DBM) were produced by introduction of one or two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes. A cry1Ac Bt gene associated with the nptII gene for kanamycin selection or a cry1C Bt gene with the hpt gene for hygromycin selection was introduced individually through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of seedling

Jun Cao; Anthony M. Shelton; Elizabeth D. Earle

2008-01-01

101

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

102

Fungal contamination of paraffin wax blocks in a pathology archive.  

PubMed

While searching for paraffin wax blocks for research purposes in our archive we detected numerous larval and some dead adult moths. Some wax blocks were riddled with a white-brown crumbling substance. The entire archive was checked and profoundly-infested blocks were separated from unaffected blocks. Mycological and parasitological investigations were performed. Fungi were identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction, which revealed high sequence homology to six different fungal species. The moths were determined to be Nemapogon personellus. A total of 8,484 wax blocks had to be removed from the archive and destroyed. Pathologists should be alerted to the importance of checking the humidity of the air where archival material is stored. PMID:21333307

Müller, K; Ellenberger, C; Aupperle, H; Schmäschke, R; Scheller, R; Wittenbrink, M M; Schoon, H-A

2011-01-01

103

Contributions of cellular and humoral immunity of Galleria mellonella larvae in defence against oral infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

In this study the cellular and humoral immune reactions of the Greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been investigated during bacterial infection caused by oral administration of Bacillus thuringiensis. Two different dose strengths were investigated to assess the contribution of immune parameters to induced Bt resistance. Low-dose (sublethal LC15) infection resulted in significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, enhanced phagocytic activity of haemocytes, and increased encapsulation responses in infected larvae at 48 and 72 h post infection. Higher doses of Bt (half-lethal LC50) also triggered significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, but decreased the coagulation index and activity of phenoloxidase in haemocytes of infected larvae. In both types of infection, the pool of circulating haemocytes became depleted. The importance of cellular and humoral immune reactions in induced insect resistance to intestinal bacterial infection Bt is herein discussed. PMID:24735783

Grizanova, E V; Dubovskiy, I M; Whitten, M M A; Glupov, V V

2014-06-01

104

Evidence of oxidative and antioxidative responses by Galleria mellonella larvae to malathion.  

PubMed

Antioxidant defense components protect insects by scavenging reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. I therefore investigated the effects of an organophosphorous insecticide, malathion, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as oxidative stress biomarkers in whole body of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), larvae. Subcellular fractionation also was assayed for SOD and AChE enzymes to assess subcellular toxicity of malathion in this wax moth. The newly hatched larvae were reared on diets containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 ppm malathion. The diet with lowest concentration of malathion did not significantly influence MDA content and AChE activity. Malathion at 1.0 ppm significantly resulted in increased MDA content and decreased AChE activity. I observed a significant increase in SOD activity, whereas total GSH content and AChE activity were significantly lower for 1.0 ppm malathion than the control groups. Highest concentration of dietary malathion significantly decreased SOD and AChE activities, and GSH content in whole body of the insect. Subcellular fractionations showed that activities of microsomal and soluble AChE, and microsomal SOD for high concentrations of malathion (1.0 and 10 ppm) were significantly lower than control. Soluble SOD activities were significantly increased by low malathion concentrations, whereas only the highest malathion concentration resulted in significantly decreased SOD activity. I infer that induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms in response to increased oxidative stress may be a result of AChE inhibition by malathion in G. mellonella larvae. PMID:19253631

Büyükgüzel, Ender

2009-02-01

105

Cold hardiness adaptations of codling moth, cydia pomonella  

PubMed

The cold hardiness adaptations of natural and laboratory reared populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, were examined. Hemolymph, gut, and whole body supercooling points (SCPs), 24-h LT50s, polyhydroxy alcohol concentrations, hemolymph freezing points, and hemolymph melting points were determined. Nondiapausing codling moth larvae do not have appreciable levels of ice nucleators in the hemolymph or gut. Whole body supercooling points were higher than hemolymph supercooling points. For nondiapausing larvae, LT50s were significantly higher than both the whole body and the hemolymph supercooling points, indicating the presence of chill sensitivity. As the larvae left the food source and spun a cocoon, both hemolymph and whole body SCPs decreased. Diapause destined larvae had significantly lower hemolymph SCPs than nondiapausing larvae, but whole body SCPs were not significantly different from nondiapausing larvae of the same age. The LT50s of diapause destined and diapausing larvae were significantly lower than that of nondiapausing larvae. Codling moths are freezing intolerant, with LT50s close to the average whole body supercooling point in diapause destined and diapausing larvae. The overwintering, diapausing larvae effectively supercool to avoid lethal freezing by removal of ice nucleators from the gut and body without appreciable increase of antifreeze agents such as polyols or antifreeze proteins. PMID:10079128

Neven

1999-02-01

106

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

107

Wax structures of Scymnus louisianae attenuate aggression from aphid-tending ants.  

PubMed

The cuticular wax structures of Scymnus louisianae J. Chapin larvae were investigated as a defense against ant aggression by Lasius neoniger Emery. The presence of wax structures provided significant defense against ant aggression compared with denuded larvae in that these structures attenuated the aggressive behavior of foraging ants. Furthermore, reapplication of wax dissolved in hexane partially restored defenses associated with intact structures, showing an attenuation of aggression based in part on cuticular wax components rather than solely on physical obstruction to ant mouthparts. PMID:22127182

Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Johnson, Douglas W; Brown, Grayson C

2010-08-01

108

20-hydroxyecdysone deters oviposition and larval feeding in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

European grapevine moth females (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera Tortricidae) select an oviposition site by tasting the host plant surface and then gluing a single egg on berries from grapes or from several other host plant species. In doing so, females should avoid ovipositing on plants that are detrimental to their progeny. Do they sense the same deterrent compounds as larvae, despite the fact that they do not have access to the same compartments of the plants? We tested this hypothesis with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), purified from Leuzea carthamoides. Phytoecdysteroids are usually found inside plant tissues and accessible to larvae in an aqueous phase, while adults would access them only through the epicuticular wax. We first confirmed that larvae avoid feeding on 20E and that they taste 20E with their lateral sensilla styloconica, at a threshold of 10(-6) M. Then, we tested whether adult females avoid ovipositing on glass spheres sprayed with 20E. When given a choice, females avoided laying eggs on a treated surface, at a threshold of 8 ng/cm(2). In addition, they deposited significantly fewer eggs in the presence of 20E. Presuming that legs play an important role in assessing the oviposition substrate, we assessed the sensitivity of their taste receptors. In females, 14 taste sensilla are located on the ventral side of the last tarsus of the prothoracic leg. One group of these sensilla house one neuron that is sensitive to 20E, with a detection threshold of about 10(-7) M. The same molecule is thus sensed both in larvae and adults of L. botrana where it respectively inhibits feeding and oviposition. PMID:17082989

Calas, Delphine; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

2006-11-01

109

Factors Affecting Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae) for Control of Overwintering Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Fruit Bins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bins infested with diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.), are a potential source of reinfestation of orchards and may jeopardize the success of mating disruption programs and other control strategies. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested as a potential means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks. Diapausing cocooned codling moth

Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven; Heather L. Headrick; Robert Fritts

2005-01-01

110

Aerial Application of Mexacarbate and Stabilized Pyrethrins on Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of mexacarbate and stabilized pyrethrins formulations was tested in 1972 on field populations of Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae (Orgyia pseudotsugata), in eastern Washington and Oregon forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and...

C. B. Williams P. J. Shea B. Maksymiuk J. A. Neisess D. McComb

1978-01-01

111

Development of Mass Production, gamma Sterilization and Release of the Codling Moth, Laspeyresia Pomonella L. Part of a Coordinated Programme on the Use of the Sterile Male Technique for Control of Lepidopterous Insects Attacking Fruit and Forest Trees. Final Report for the Period 1 November 1972 - 31 August 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on codling moths was conducted from Spring 1973 to Autumn 1978 and included rearing of larvae on thinning apples and artificial diet ecology, radiation sterilization and the effect of field releases of sterile moths in suppressing the wild popula...

Z. W. Suski

1979-01-01

112

[Generation of reactive oxygen species and activity of antioxidants in larva hemolymph of galleria mellonella (L.) (lepidoptera: piralidae) at development of process of encapsulation].  

PubMed

Activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase) have been determined in hemocytes and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been studied in lymph of larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella at development of the process of encapsulation of nylon implants. It has been established that as soon as 15 min after piercing of cuticle with implant the capsule is formed on its surface. The active melanization of the capsule has been shown to last for 4 h. There have been shown a statistically significant increase of the ROS generation in lymph and a decrease of activities of enzymatic antioxidants in hemocytes of the insects after the implant incorporation. The authors suggest that the key role in maintenance of the oxidation-reduction balance in hemolymph at development of the incapsulation process is played by the lymph non-enzymatic antioxidants. PMID:20297667

Dubovski?, I M; Grizanova, E V; Chertkova, E A; Slepneva, I A; Komarov, D A; Vorontsova, Ia L; Glupov, V V

2010-01-01

113

The De Havilland "Moth"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

1926-01-01

114

Effects of Bt plants on the development and survival of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in susceptible and Bt-resistant larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of crops have been transformed with ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to produce transgenic plants with high levels of resistance to lepidopteran pests. Parasitoids are important natural enemies of lepidopteran larvae and the effects of Bt plants on these non-target insects have to be investigated to avoid unnecessary disruption of biological control. This study investigated the effects

Tanja H. Schuler; Ian Denholm; Suzanne J. Clark; C. Neal Stewart; Guy M. Poppy

2004-01-01

115

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

116

Keeping Wax Liquid For Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

Meyer, Russell V.

1989-01-01

117

Gypsy Moth in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

118

Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)  

SciTech Connect

Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Entomology

1998-10-01

119

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

120

Chemistry of Moth Repellents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

121

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-08-01

122

Note: Field evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea in controlling the diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella ) in Chinese kale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve entomopathogenic fungi were screened for controlling diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) eggs and larvae in the laboratory. None had any significant ovicidal effect.Isaria fumosorosea CKPF-095 showed the best efficacy in controlling the 2\\u000a nd\\u000a instar larvae. It was formulated into a wettable powder at a concentration of 1 × 109 conidia g?1 and used in two field tests. Both

Monchan Maketon; Patricia Orosz-Coghlan; Jantima Jaengarun

2008-01-01

123

Wax Crystallization and Additive-Wax Interactions in Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wax crystallization is a major problem in a petrochemical industry. Low temperature leads to crystallization causing problems for transportation, storage and use. For example, the wax crystals in lubricants involve mixtures of normal and iso paraffins (C15-C34), and are large, thin, convoluted, interlocking platelets, which entrap oil and form a network. Polymeric additives change nucleation and growth habits of wax and lead to better performance. It is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of wax crystallization and the wax-additive interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to study thermodynamics and crystallization kinetics of additized and unadditized solutions. Several comb shaped fummarate vinyl acetate copolymers are evaluated. The response of the additive is very specific to the average C number in the crystallizable ester side chains of the copolymer. These changes are concentration dependent and change with complexity of the formulation. The dominant interaction appears to be cocrystallization of the side chains of the copolymer with the crystallizable paraffins of wax. These additives also increase the metastability region. Thus, inhibition of wax crystallization is critical to the mechanism of interaction.

Varma-Nair, M.; Pacansky, T. J.; Martella, D. J.

1997-03-01

124

Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple and pear orchards: Effect of nematode species and seasonal temperatures, adjuvants, application equipment, and post-application irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codling moth (CM), a serious pest of apple and pear in most countries where these fruits are grown, overwinters in cryptic habitats as cocooned diapausing larvae. Control of diapausing CM larvae would reduce or eliminate damage to fruit early in the following growing season. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have shown promise as biological control agents of cocooned CM larvae in the

Lawrence A. Lacey; Steven P. Arthurs; Thomas R. Unruh; Heather Headrick; Robert Fritts

2006-01-01

125

Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

1995-01-01

126

Dietary glycerol and adult access to water: effects on fecundity and longevity in the almond moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of food eaten by larval insects will affect traits such as gamete production, fat reserves, muscle bulk and body size in the adult. Moreover, larvae also depend on high moisture content in the diet for survival. The almond moth (Ephestia cautella) (W.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) does not feed as an adult although it continues to drink water. We tested

Camilla Ryne; P. Anders Nilsson; Michael T. Siva-Jothy

2004-01-01

127

Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk

Laura Rodríguez-Loechesa; Alejandro Barro

2008-01-01

128

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

129

Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Outbreak Gypsy Moth Populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): The Role of Weather.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

2014-06-01

130

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

131

Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.  

PubMed

Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces. PMID:24421221

Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

2014-06-01

132

Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.  

PubMed

We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

2011-01-01

133

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

134

Monitoring and temperature-based prediction of the whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in blueberry.  

PubMed

Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology of this pest over two growing seasons. Large delta traps captured the greatest number of male moths, and similar moth captures were found with or without monthly lure changing. Traps placed at field perimeters adjacent to woods trapped significantly more moths than those inside fields, whereas position in the canopy (high versus low) did not affect captures. Under laboratory conditions, the lower developmental threshold for larvae was 12.3 degrees C, in close agreement with field studies indicating a 12.8 degrees C threshold. Using the 12.8 degrees C threshold, monitoring of O. leucostigma cohorts on caged blueberry plants revealed a spring generation with egg hatch starting at 206 +/- 3 growing degree-days (GDD) and a late-summer generation with egg hatch starting at 1,157 +/- 52 GDD. Combined use of optimized monitoring methods and the phenology model for O. leucostigma is expected to improve integrated management of this pest in blueberry. PMID:19449644

Isaacs, Rufus; Van Timmeren, Steven

2009-04-01

135

DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

136

The wax glands and wax secretion of Matsucoccus matsumurae at different development stages.  

PubMed

In this paper, the wax secretions and wax glands of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) at different instars were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The first and second instar nymphs were found to secrete wax filaments via the wax glands located in the atrium of the abdominal spiracles, which have a center open and a series of outer ring pores. The wax gland of the abdominal spiracle possesses a large central wax reservoir and several wax-secreting cells. Third-instar male nymphs secreted long and translucent wax filaments from monolocular, biolocular, trilocular and quadrilocular pores to form twine into cocoons. The adult male secreted long and straight wax filaments in bundles from a group of 18-19 wax-secreting tubular ducts on the abdominal segment VII. Each tube duct contained five or six wax pores. The adult female has dorsal cicatrices distributed in rows, many biolocular tubular ducts and multilocular disc pores with 8-12 loculi secreting wax filaments that form the egg sac, and a rare type wax pores with 10 loculi secreting 10 straight, hollow wax filaments. The ultrastructure and cytological characteristics of the wax glands include wax-secreting cells with a large nucleus, multiple mitochondria and several rough endoplasmic reticulum. The functions of the wax glands and wax secretions are discussed. PMID:24468960

Xie, Yingping; Tian, Fen; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xue, Jiaoliang; Zhao, Youyou; Wu, Jun

2014-05-01

137

Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.  

PubMed

Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

2014-05-01

138

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-01

139

Identification of avian wax synthases  

PubMed Central

Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

2012-01-01

140

Bone wax in dermatologic surgery.  

PubMed

Bone wax is an inert, malleable material used as a hemostatic agent in treating surgical defects. Healing by secondary intention is an appropriate approach for certain situations in dermatologic surgery. When surgical wounds are deep enough for such tissues as bone or cartilage to be exposed, dressings may adhere to granulation tissue, making removal and subsequent wound care difficult and painful. In such cases bone wax can be molded around deep tissues to create an ideal occlusive, hemostatic microenvironment that facilitates second-intention wound healing. PMID:23582299

Alegre, M; Garcés, J R; Puig, L

2013-05-01

141

Moth Repellent Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

142

Evaluation of Synthetic Waxes for Desensitizing Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A shortage of Grade A wax, MIL-W-20553B, for Navy HBX explosives resulted in several waxes being proposed as replacements. Thirteen samples, received for preliminary evaluation, were screened on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry results, exud...

W. C. Hogge E. R. Cousins

1975-01-01

143

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla...

2013-04-01

144

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla...

2009-04-01

145

21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla...

2010-01-01

146

Factors affecting entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in fruit bins.  

PubMed

Fruit bins infested with diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.), are a potential source of reinfestation of orchards and may jeopardize the success of mating disruption programs and other control strategies. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested as a potential means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks. Diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae in miniature fruit bins were highly susceptible to infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) in a series of experiments. Cocooned larvae are significantly more susceptible to infection than are pupae. Experimental treatment of bins in suspensions of laboratory produced S. feltiae ranging from 10 to 100 IJs/ml of water with wetting agent (Silwet L77) resulted in 51-92% mortality. The use of adjuvants to increase penetration of hibernacula and retard desiccation of S. feltiae in fruit bins resulted in improved efficacy. The combination of a wetting agent (Silwet L77) and humectant (Stockosorb) with 10 S. feltiae IJs/ml in low and high humidity resulted in 92-95% mortality of cocooned codling moth larvae versus 46-57% mortality at the same IJ concentration without adjuvants. Immersion of infested bins in suspensions of commercially produced nematodes ranging from 10 to 50 IJs/ml water with wetting agent in an experimental packing line resulted in mortality in cocooned codling moth larvae of 45-87 and 56 - 85% for S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae, respectively. Our results indicate that EPNs provide an alternative nonchemical means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks at the packing house for flotation of fruit. PMID:16539105

Lacey, Lawrence A; Neven, Lisa G; Headrick, Heather L; Fritts, Robert

2005-12-01

147

Growth and regeneration of waxes on the leaves of Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of wax morphology to wax chemistry and the effects of light intensity on wax development were investigated using rubbing techniques to produce nearly wax free cuticular surfaces. Wax regeneration took place rapidly on leaves which were in their exponential stage of expansion, but only slowly on those that had fully expanded. The pattern of wax development suggested that

N. D. Hallam

1970-01-01

148

Developmental Temperature Effects on Five Geographic Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of five geographic isolates of Steinernema feltiae at 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 28°C in wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae was examined. The isolates were from Mediterranean (Sinop from Turkey, SN from France, and Monterey from California), subtropical (Rafaela from Argentina), and tropical (MG-14 from Hawaii) regions. All isolates caused 100% mortality of wax moth larvae

Selçuk Hazir; S. Patricia Stock; Harry K Kaya; Albrecht M Koppenhöfer; Nevin Keskin

2001-01-01

149

21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of...

2013-04-01

150

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

151

ConcepTest: Wax Reshaping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine that you find a wax candle on a table in a warm room. The candle bends when you push down on both ends and push up in the middle. When you put the candle back on the table it maintains the bent shape. This ...

152

Tryptophane Metabolism in Rice Moth Larva (Corcyra cephalonica St.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

EARLIER workers1, who observed the excretion of the tryptophane metabolites, kynurenine and xanthurenic acid, by the rat and the rabbit under conditions suggestive of vitamin B deficiency, failed, however, to realize its physiological significance. It was not until Lepkovsky et al.2 isolated and identified the pigment metabolite, xanthurenic acid, from the urine of pyridoxine-deficient rats receiving extra-dietary tryptophane, that the

T. K. Sundaram; P. S. Sarma

1953-01-01

153

Season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by one machine application of pheromone in wax drops (SPLAT-OFM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel emulsified wax dispenser (SPLAT-OFM) of pheromone was evaluated in concert with a custom-built, tractor-mounted applicator,\\u000a designed for fast application of dispensers for mating disruption of Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in apple. The formulation consisted of microcrystalline wax emulsified in water. It was loaded with G. molesta pheromone (93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol) at 10% by weight. The

L. L. Stelinski; J. R. Miller; R. Ledebuhr; P. Siegert; L. J. Gut

2007-01-01

154

Size and dispersion of urticating setae in three species of processionary moths.  

PubMed

Larvae of the processionary moths of the Palaearctic region bear urticating setae that are released against vertebrate predators, especially insectivorous birds. A few species are pests of forest and urban trees and, consequently, may threaten human and animal health during outbreaks, causing dermatitis, conjunctivitis and respiratory distress. Although some studies provide detailed information about the setae, particularly those of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, there is little knowledge on the morphological traits of the setae and their release by the larvae. In the present study we identify major traits of the setae of 3 species of processionary moth, T. pityocampa, T. pinivora and T. processionea, which are potentially helpful in the understanding of setae dynamics in the environment: (i) diameter and length of setae and (ii) analysis of dynamical properties of the setae in the airborne state. Setae are highly variable in size, with bimodal distribution in T. pityocampa and T. pinivora; in these 2 species, short and long setae are interspersed within the integument fields where they occur. The difference in the seta size has important consequences in dispersion, as smaller setae can spread 5 times further than their bigger counterparts. This information is relevant for a full understanding of the defensive importance of larval setae against natural enemies of the processionary moths, as well for elucidating the importance of the processionary setae as air pollutants, both close to the infested trees and at longer distances. PMID:24952969

Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Perin, Chiara; Paolucci, Paolo; Roques, Alain; Battisti, Andrea; Horvath, Helmuth

2014-06-01

155

Susceptibility of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to postharvest gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting were tested against potato tuber moth larval and pupal stages. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae of different ages were exposed to doses > or = 100 Gy, only 13-35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained. The exposure of 1-1.5- or 3-3.5-d-old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity, whereas the reduction was less noticeable for 5-5.5-d-old pupae. Postharvest gamma irradiation of potatoes could be considered as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth larval and pupal infestations. PMID:15154502

Saour, George; Makee, Hayat

2004-04-01

156

Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

2013-07-01

157

A wax ester promotes collective host finding in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus.  

PubMed

Survival of nematode species depends on how successfully they disperse in the habitat and find a new host. As a new strategy for collective host finding in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, dauer larvae synthesize an extremely long-chain polyunsaturated wax ester (nematoil) that covers the surface of the animal. The oily coat promotes congregation of up to one thousand individuals into stable 'dauer towers' that can reach a beetle host more easily. PMID:24584102

Penkov, Sider; Ogawa, Akira; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tate, Dhananjay; Zagoriy, Vyacheslav; Boland, Sebastian; Gruner, Margit; Vorkel, Daniela; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Sommer, Ralf J; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V

2014-04-01

158

Component composition of deresined brown coal wax  

SciTech Connect

The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

L.P. Noskova [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russia). Institute of Geology and Nature Management

2008-10-15

159

Dewaxing process using agitated heat exchanger to chill solvent-oil and wax slurry to wax filtration temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an improved process for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils, wherein said waxy oil is cooled in an indirect chilling zone to a temperature greater than the wax separation temperature whereby wax is precipitated to form a wax-oil-solvent slurry, cooling the slurry to the wax separation temperature in an indirect chilling zone thereby precipitating a further portion of wax from said

Broadhurst; Th. E

1984-01-01

160

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on...

2009-04-01

161

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on...

2010-01-01

162

75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely...Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China:...

2010-12-23

163

75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

2010-10-14

164

21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications...

2013-04-01

165

75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be...

2010-07-01

166

Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

2001-01-01

167

Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

1998-01-01

168

Determination of tensile strength of paraffin waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of paraffin wax is considered to be one of the important property indices that are used to characterize the service properties of this material. Methods used to determine the tensile strength of waxes are based on the use of Perkins and Tinius-Olsen testers [1]. Essentially, these methods consist of determinations of the force required to break a

O. G. Asadchii; B. Z. Votlokhin; N. F. Bogdanov; V. P. Gladyshev

1979-01-01

169

Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven

170

Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere

Michel Guillon; Julio Kalazich; Fernando Graña; Claudia Vásquez

2009-01-01

171

Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

2014-04-01

172

Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).  

PubMed

The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T

1999-05-11

173

Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)  

PubMed Central

The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals.

Gonzalez, Andres; Rossini, Carmen; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

1999-01-01

174

Carbaryl resistance in populations of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in New York and Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

We collected grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (from cultivated and wild Vitis along Lake Erie in Pennsylvania and New York), and measured carbaryl susceptibility in first instars. A model of susceptibility was based on the concentration-mortality curve of laboratory-maintained colonies originating from wild Vitis with no prior history of carbaryl exposure, and a noncommercial vineyard with modest previous exposure to carbaryl. We estimated LC50 and LC90 for susceptible grape berry moth larvae at 45.4 and 2319 microg/ml, respectively. Bioassays on field-collected larvae from commercial vineyards in both states, where grape growers were abiding by current pest management guidelines for carbaryl use, revealed carbaryl resistance ratios from 7 to 71 at the LC50 level. With the loss or restriction of alternative chemical control tactics in the Food Quality Protection Act era, resistance management programs for grape berry moth should be immediately developed and implemented to regain the efficacy of this once effective insecticide and other related chemical compounds. PMID:12403430

Nagarkatti, Sudha; Tobin, Patrick C; Muza, Andrew J; Saunders, Michael C

2002-10-01

175

Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

2010-01-01

176

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2004-01-01

177

Process for producing a petroleum wax composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

Jones, R.L.

1991-04-23

178

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal  

PubMed Central

Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-?-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen.

Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

2011-01-01

179

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

180

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

181

Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

1971-01-01

182

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

183

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

2005-10-01

184

Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth\\u000a (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th

Hyung Uk Jeong; Hye Yeon Mun; Hyung Keun Oh; Seung Bum Kim; Kwang Yeol Yang; Iksoo Kim; Hyang Burm Lee

2010-01-01

185

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spect...

D. T. Bostick R. T. Jubin T. W. Schmidt W. R. Parrish

1998-01-01

186

21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and subject to any limitations provided therein: List of substances Limitations Copolymer of isobutylene modified with isoprene Petroleum wax, Type I and Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided in § 178.3870...

2013-04-01

187

Taxonomy and biology of two seed-parasitic gracillariid moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), with description of a new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species and new record of gracillariid moths from China are reported: Conopomorpha flueggella Li, sp. n. and Epicephala relictella Kuznetzov, 1979. Specimens were collected on flowers or leaves of Flueggea suffruticosa (Pall.) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) at night, and reared from fruits in captivity. Larvae of both species feed on the seeds of Flueggea suffruticosa, but they can be differentiated externally by the position of the red pattern on the thorax and abdomen. Morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae and the life history of the two species are described and compared. Images of the life history and figures of the genital structures are provided.

Hu, Bingbing; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Jing; Li, Houhun

2011-01-01

188

Growth and Partial Metamorphosis of Imaginal Disks of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella, in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE most important of the problems of insect metamorphosis is the nature of the action of ecdysone. There is a particular lack of knowledge of the stages between the initiation of metamorphosis by ecdysone and the final differentiation into the adult. Experiments on the action of pure ecdysone in vitro have been conducted with systems which respond in a limited

H. Oberlander; L. Fulco

1967-01-01

189

Identification of immunorelevant genes from greater wax moth ( Galleria mellonella) by a subtractive hybridization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have analyzed bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced genes in hemocytes of the Lepidopteran species Galleria mellonella using subtractive hybridization, followed by suppressive PCR. We have found genes that show homologies to molecules, such as gloverin, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and transferrin known to be involved in immunomodulation after bacterial infection in other species. In addition, a few molecules

V Seitz; A Clermont; M Wedde; M Hummel; A Vilcinskas; K Schlatterer; L Podsiadlowski

2003-01-01

190

Photorhabdus Virulence Cassettes Confer Injectable Insecticidal Activity against the Wax Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recently sequenced genomes of the insect-pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus and a large Serratia entomophila plasmid, pADAP, have phage-related loci containing putative toxin effector genes, designated the \\

G. Yang; A. J. Dowling; U. Gerike; R. H. ffrench-Constant; N. R. Waterfield

2006-01-01

191

Chill sensitivity and cryopreservation of eggs of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for methods of cryopreservation of arthropods. In particular, Lepidoptera are extremely important in entomological applications for the protection of agricultural crops and forest ecosystems and also in many aspects of biodiversity conservation. Yet, few studies have dealt with cryopreservation techniques in species of this insect order.The aim of this study was to examine the chill

Pio Federico Roversi; Elena Cosi; Tiziana Irdani

2008-01-01

192

Decline of the invasive submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) associated with herbivory by larvae of Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Myriophyllum spicatum, an exotic submersed macrophyte causing serious lake management problems throughout much of North America, decreased markedly in biomass in Cayuga Lake, NY, USA, since the beginning of the 1990s. Over the same period, however, the total biomass of all species of submersed macrophytes did not decline, and native macrophytes gained in abundance. The aquatic moth larva, Acentria

Robert L. Johnson; Elisabeth M. Gross; Nelson G. Hairston

1998-01-01

193

Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

2006-11-01

194

Plant odor analysis of potato: response of guatemalan moth to above- and belowground potato volatiles.  

PubMed

The Guatemalan moth Tecia solanivora is an invasive pest of potato in Central and South America. The larvae infest potato tubers in the field as well as in storage facilities. The headspace of potato foliage and potato tubers was studied with regard to volatiles that mediate host-finding and oviposition in the Guatemalan moth. Foliage of three phenological stages, from sprouting to tuberization and flowering, released more than 30 sesquiterpenes. The main compounds were beta-caryophyllene, germacrene-D-4-ol, germacrene-D, kunzeaol, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Sesquiterpenes accounted for >90% of the headspace of green plants, whereas fresh potato tubers emitted only trace amounts of a few sesquiterpenes. Screening of headspace collections with antennae of Guatemalan moth females showed a strong response to several sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes that were emitted from foliage only. In addition, antennae responded to methyl phenylacetate, a floral fragrance that was released in large amounts from flowering plants and that was also present in tuber headspace. Female and male moths were attracted to methyl phenylacetate; this compound may accordingly contribute to female attraction to tuber-bearing potato plants in the field as well as to potato tubers in storage. Oviposition tests showed that females lay eggs near mature flowering plants. Eggs were laid in soil close to the plant and not on potato stems and foliage, which may be due to avoidance of terpenoid compounds released from green plant parts at close range. The results support the concept that potato volatiles mediate host-finding and oviposition behavior and that these compounds may become useful tools for management of the Guatemalan moth. PMID:19496533

Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Cotes Prado, Alba Marina; Bosa, Felipe; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter

2009-07-01

195

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

196

Mitigation of Wax Deposition by Wax-Crystal Modifier for Kermanshah Crude Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques have been used to minimize the wax deposition in crude oil pipelines, among them the continuous addition of wax crystal modifier inhibitors is considered as an attractive technological alternative. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of the ethylene-covinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer and its combination with chloroform (C), acetone (A), P-xylene (PX), and petroleum

M. Lashkarbolooki; F. Esmaeilzadeh; D. Mowla

2011-01-01

197

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

198

Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.  

PubMed

To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2013-01-01

199

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed.

Jubin, R.T.

2002-04-08

200

Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax  

PubMed Central

The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

2010-01-01

201

Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

2001-06-01

202

Preparation of polysaccharides from wax gourd.  

PubMed

Preparation of polysaccharides from the wax gourd was studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol precipitation, and deproteinized by the hydrochloric acid method. The deproteinized polysaccharides were separated by column chromatography to obtain the pure polysaccharides. The pure polysaccharides have a ?-D-pyranosidic bond, and their molecular weight distribution is about 22,500. It was indicated that the final product had much more purity by IR spectrum analysis, UV absorption spectrum analysis, and phenol-sulfuric acid method, respectively. It was proved that wax gourd polysaccharides were composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose by thin layer chromatography. PMID:21355748

Huang, Gangliang; Tan, Jiantao; Tan, Xianchun; Peng, Daquan

2011-08-01

203

North Kaibab Pandora Moth Outbreak, 1978-1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pandora moth outbreak in Arizona was studied from 1979 to 1985 to determine that moth's life cycle, densities and distribution of life stages, larval and adult behavior, effects of the defoliation, sampling procedures, importance of biotic mortality fac...

J. M. Schmid D. D. Bennett

1988-01-01

204

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

205

Composition of waxes from crude rice bran oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard and soft waxes were separated from the tank settling of crude rice bran oil by solvent extraction and analyzed for their\\u000a composition by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The results showed that the melting points of the hard wax and the soft wax\\u000a were 79.5 C and 74 C, respectively, and that the hard wax was mainly composed of saturated

S. H. Yoon; J. S. Rhee

1982-01-01

206

Simulation model of wax diffusion and cleaning in printer belts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A belt that transports toner is one of the vital components of a printer. Since toner is fused to the paper at a high temperature,\\u000a wax releases from the paper and penetrates into the rubber top layer of the belt. When the rubber becomes saturated with wax,\\u000a the wax remains on top of the belt. The formed layer of wax

S. J. L. van Eijndhoven; D. P. Siregar; T. Siebers

2012-01-01

207

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

208

Effect of bitumen wax on asphalt mixture performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly deals with waxes which are naturally present in bitumens, and does not include synthetic waxes that sometimes are proposed as bitumen additives. The main objectives were to study the rheological effect of bitumen waxes and the impact of waxy bitumens on asphalt mixture performance, such as rutting, low temperature cracking, and water sensitivity. In the rheological characterisation

Xiaohu Lu; Per Redelius

2007-01-01

209

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance...

2010-01-01

210

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance...

2009-04-01

211

Movement and regeneration of epicuticular waxes through plant cuticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of plant epicuticular waxes was studied in 24 plant species by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. According to their regeneration behaviour, four groups could be distinguished: (i) regeneration occurs at all stages of development; (ii) regeneration occurs only during leaf expansion; (iii) regeneration occurs only in fully developed leaves; (iv) plants were not able to regenerate wax. Wax was removed

C. Neinhuis; K. Koch; W. Barthlott

2001-01-01

212

21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in...

2013-04-01

213

The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column chromatography. The chemical composition of the fractions was studied by

P. Folstar

1976-01-01

214

Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.  

PubMed

The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ?40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2?11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2?11%. The data from scans with O2?2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by the OCLTT. However, CO2 anesthesia appears to protect larvae from oxygen limitation at high temperature. These results show that treatment of walnuts in air at temperatures >45°C will rapidly kill diapausing 5th instar codling moths. PMID:24802143

Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

2014-05-01

215

The Asphaltene and Wax Deposition Envelopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphaltene and wax phase behavior is quite different than the conventional “PVT” phase behavior. Asphaltenes exhibit a behavior at some thermodynamic states called flocculation. That is, asphaltene particles or micelles aggregate or flocculate into larger aggregates or flocs. The locus of all thermodynamic points in a P-T-x phase diagram at which flocculation occurs is called the Asphaltene Deposition Envelope (ADE).

1996-01-01

216

Wax scraper for floating roof tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wax scraper is described for removing waxy deposits from the inside surface of floating roof storage tanks during the operation of such tanks, without requiring the removal of all obstructions from the inside surface of the tanks. The floating roof structure has affixed to it a number of support means. Each support means carries a scraper blade having scraper

H. A. Maeder; A. H. Nelson; F. R. Neely

1971-01-01

217

Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes. PMID:15791428

Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2005-05-01

218

Does Athetis lepigone moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) take a long-distance migration?  

PubMed

Athetis lepigone (Möschler), a new lepidopteran pest in China, has spread quickly to seven provinces since it was first reported causing damage on summer maize in Hebei province in 2005, Whether this species is a migrant or not remains unknown. The past 3 yr searchlight trapping on an island in the center of Bohai Gulf provided direct evidence that both male and female A. lepigone moths migrate across the Bohai Gulf waters in northern China because no host crops or A. lepigone larvae were found on this island. The four migration waves observed in this study represent high-altitude movements of the overwintering, first, second, and third generations of A. lepigone moths, respectively. Carbon isotope analysis showed that 1.76-5.44% of the tested A. lepigone moths originated from C4 plants, which provides additional evidence that this species is a migrant because there are no C4 plants on this small island. The 89.24-96.89% of tested A. lepigone moths originated from C3 plants were significantly higher than that from C4 plants in all generations, suggesting that maize fields are not the main host sites for A. lepigone. Few females were trapped in spring and early summer with relatively high mating frequency and more advanced ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings reveal a new route for A. lepigone migrating to and from the northeastern agricultural region of China, and improve our knowledge of the migration ecology of A. lepigone. Further studies are needed to clarify the migration trajectories that will help in developing sound forecasting systems for this pest species. PMID:25026658

Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhe; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

2014-06-01

219

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group.

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhue, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

220

Patient preference for waxed or unwaxed dental floss.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to discover patient preference for waxed or unwaxed dental floss, and to learn more about individual flossing habits. One hundred patients randomly presenting for routine dental examinations volunteered to sample a brand of similar-appearing waxed and unwaxed dental floss. After flossing an anterior and a posterior contact area with both types, the patients indicated whether they preferred the waxed or unwaxed floss. The patients also answered questions concerning their flossing habits. Waxed floss was found to be preferred after sampling by 79% and unwaxed by 21%. An additional 50 patients sampled a different brand of waxed and unwaxed floss in a similar manner. In this group 78% preferred the waxed and 22% the unwaxed type. A final group of 50 patients compared mint flavored waxed floss with plain waxed floss of the same brand. In this group 56% preferred the mint flavored waxed floss, 24% the plain waxed floss, and 20% had no preference. A combined total of only 29.5% of the patients claimed to floss daily, 53.5% floss irregularly but at least once a week, while 17% do not floss even once a week. Waxed floss was purchased for home use by a combined patient total of 57.5%, unwaxed by 32%, and neither type by 10.5%. An unsubstantiated belief in the superiority of unwaxed floss has persisted to the present time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2313529

Beaumont, R H

1990-02-01

221

Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

2011-01-01

222

An insect model for assessing mercury toxicity: Effect of mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities of the housefly ( Musca domestica ) and the cabbage looper moth ( Trichoplusia ni )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mercury as Hg2Cl2 and HgCl2 on the antioxidant enzyme levels and its toxicity was investigated in an insect model comprised of adult females of the common housefly, Musca domestica, and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. HgCl2 was found to be more toxic than Hg2Cl2 to both M. domestica and T. ni. The LC50s

K. Zaman; R. S. MacGill; J. E. Johnson; S. Ahmad; R. S. Pardini

1994-01-01

223

Diamondback moth compensatory consumption of protease inhibitor-transformed plants.  

PubMed

Prior study of the effect of protease inhibitors (PIs) on diamondback moths suggests that moths are resistant to them, so PIs represent an ineffective defence against moths. However, our data suggest that diamondback moths do suffer lower growth rates when they consume plants transformed with potato protease inhibitor (PI2), but that effect is hidden by compensatory consumption. Plants, instead of gaining an advantage by lowering the insect growth rate, suffer a disadvantage as moths consume more tissue to mitigate the effect. Furthermore, PI2, when used in conjunction with another transgenic pesticidal protein, Bt (from Bacillus thuringiensis) counteracts the effectiveness of Bt at protecting plant tissue. Thus, transgenic PIs are not only less effective than previously thought in protecting Brassica plants from diamondback moths, they may actually lead to increased plant damage by the moths. PMID:11348512

Winterer, J; Bergelson, J

2001-04-01

224

Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.  

PubMed

Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture. PMID:22903747

Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-09-01

225

Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation  

PubMed Central

Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else.

Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

2010-01-01

226

Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated. PMID:17599301

Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

2007-08-01

227

Pheromone-Regulated Anemotaxis in Flying Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals.

J. S. Kennedy; D. Marsh

1974-01-01

228

Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.  

PubMed

The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases. PMID:22591561

Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

2012-01-01

229

[Larva migrans cutanea].  

PubMed

A case of rare skin disease in Czech Republic caused by nematode larva is presented. The disease is most frequently caused by Ankylostoma brasiliensis and was imported from Brazil. It was successfully treated by peroral therapy with albendazol. PMID:16639935

Nevoralová, Z

2006-01-01

230

An isometric virus of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has a tri-segmented RNA genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the Guatemala potato tuber moth, Tecia solanivora (Povolny), collected in Ecuador. It was designated the Anchilibi virus (AnchV). The non-enveloped viral particles have an estimated diameter of 32±2nm. Three major proteins were found in virions, with estimated sizes of 102.0±2.1, 95.8±2.0 and 92.4±1.5kDa for AnchV as determined by polyacrylamide gel

Jean-Louis Zeddam; Katerine Orbe; Xavier Léry; Olivier Dangles; Stéphane Dupas; Jean-François Silvain

2008-01-01

231

Baylisascaris larva migrans.  

PubMed

Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). PMID:23829916

Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

2013-01-01

232

Caripito itch: dermatitis from contact with Hylesia moths.  

PubMed

Caripito itch, a pruritic dermatosis rarely seen in the United States, is caused by contact with moths of the genus Hylesia--specifically, with urticating abdominal hairs of the adult female moth. The purpose of this study was to investigate an outbreak of Caripito itch that occurred in thirty-four of thirty-five crew members of a British oil tanker who were exposed to Hylesia moths at the port of Caripito, Venezuela. Methods of investigation included general history and physical examination of all crew members, complete inspection of the ship, transparent-tape slide preparations from involved skin, cutaneous histopathologic studies, and entomologic examination of the moths. The patients had a typical papulourticarial eruption, primarily on exposed surfaces. Although Hylesia moths do not occur in the United States, primary care physicians and dermatologists, especially those located in port cities, should be aware of cutaneous lepidopterism caused by Hylesia moths. PMID:4078069

Dinehart, S M; Archer, M E; Wolf, J E; McGavran, M H; Reitz, C; Smith, E B

1985-11-01

233

Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis and export.  

PubMed

The plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid structure deposited over the aerial surfaces of land plants, which seals the shoot and protects it from biotic and abiotic stresses. It is composed of cutin polymer matrix and waxes, produced and secreted by epidermal cells. The use of forward and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis has led to the identification of enzymes involved in fatty acid elongation and biosynthesis of wax components, as well as transporters required for lipid delivery to the cuticle. However, major questions concerning alkane formation, intracellular and extracellular wax transport, regulation of wax deposition, and assembly of cuticular components into a functional cuticle remain to be resolved. PMID:19864175

Kunst, Ljerka; Samuels, Lacey

2009-12-01

234

Galleria mellonella larvae as an infection model for group A streptococcus.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcus is a strict human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases, such as tonsillitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and acute rheumatic fever. Modeling human diseases in animals is complicated, and rapid, simple, and cost-effective in vivo models of GAS infection are clearly lacking. Recently, the use of non-mammalian models to model human disease is starting to re-attract attention. Galleria mellonella larvae, also known as wax worms, have been investigated for modeling a number of bacterial pathogens, and have been shown to be a useful model to study pathogenesis of the M3 serotype of GAS. In this study we provide further evidence of the validity of the wax worm model by testing different GAS M-types, as well as investigating the effect of bacterial growth phase and incubation temperature on GAS virulence in this model. In contrast to previous studies, we show that the M-protein, among others, is an important virulence factor that can be effectively modeled in the wax worm. We also highlight the need for a more in-depth investigation of the effects of experimental design and wax worm supply before we can properly vindicate the wax worm model for studying GAS pathogenesis. PMID:23652836

Loh, Jacelyn M S; Adenwalla, Nazneen; Wiles, Siouxsie; Proft, Thomas

2013-07-01

235

Decline of the invasive submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) associated with herbivory by larvae of Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriophyllum spicatum, an exotic submersed macrophyte causing serious lake management problems throughout much of North America,\\u000a decreased markedly in biomass in Cayuga Lake, NY, USA, since the beginning of the 1990s. Over the same period, however, the\\u000a total biomass of all species of submersed macrophytes did not decline, and native macrophytes gained in abundance. The aquatic\\u000a moth larva, Acentria ephemerella,

Robert L. Johnson; Elisabeth M. Gross; Nelson G. Hairston

1997-01-01

236

Methoxyfenozide, a reliable IPM compatible compound against Lepidoptera in pome fruit and vegetables with sterilising, ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy on codling moth.  

PubMed

Methoxyfenozide (Runner 240 SC), a Moulting Accelerating Compound (MAC) currently submitted for registration in Belgium, is an IPM (Integrated Pest Management) compatible compound with strong, broad spectrum activity against lepidopterous pests in pome frunit and vegetables. Field trials have confirmed reliable efficacy against larvae of winter moth O. brumata , both the overwintering and summer generation of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana and also the tomato looper, Chrysodeixes chalcites. Methoxyfenozide can be applied in pome fruit from green cluster onwards, and due to its bee safety it can be used also during flowering. The high consistency obtained with methoxyfenozide on the overwintering caterpillars of fruit tortrix moth relates in part to its minimal temperature dependence, to its high rain fastness and to the high intrinsic activity (low EC50) and to the ability to control all larval feeding stages. The effects of a treatment of the hibernating generation of A. orana on the subsequent summer generations is discussed. By special caged trials (semi-field) the pest- stage specificity against codling moth Cydia pomonella was investigated. Applications of methoxyfenozide were made just prior to egg deposition, at peak of egg laying and at the black head capsule stage of the embryo of codling moth. Results revealed evidence of reduced fecundity of female moths and confirmed the outstanding larvicidal and ovicidal properties of the compound (Charmillot, 2001). Application from just before egg deposition to the black head stage in the eggs is recommended and the additional sterilising effect completes the activity profile of methoxyfenozide. Treated females show reduced egg deposition whereas treated males increase the percentage of sterile eggs. Reduced field performance of methoxyfenozide in orchards showing resistance to diflubenzuron (chitin synthesis inhibitor), supports the findings of other authors on the cross-resistance of MACs and diflubenzuron. It is recommended that such orchards are not treated with methoxyfenozide. PMID:15149109

Bylemans, D; De Maeyer, L; Auwerkerken, A; De Craen, H; Wijsmuller, J W; Peeters, D

2003-01-01

237

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): field studies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of microsporidia, Nosema lymantriae and Vairimorpha disparis, isolated from European populations of L. dispar and applied in field plots in Slovakia. Application of ultra low volume sprays of the microsporidia maximized coverage of infective spores in a complex natural environment and, thus, exposure of non-target species to the pathogens. Of 653 non-target larvae collected from plots treated with V. disparis in 2002, 18 individual larvae representing nine species in four families were infected. These plots were monitored for two subsequent seasons and V. disparis was not recovered from non-target species. Of 2571 non-target larvae collected in N. lymantriae-treated sites, one larva was found to be infected. Both species of microsporidia, particularly N. lymantriae, appear to have a very narrow host range in the field, even when an inundative technique is used for their introduction. V. disparis infections in L. dispar exceeded 40% of recovered larvae in the treated study sites; infection rates were lower in sites sprayed with N. lymantriae. Several naturally-occurring pathogens were recorded from the non-target species. The most common pathogen, isolated from 21 species in eight families, was a microsporidium in the genus Cystosporogenes. PMID:20435042

Solter, Leellen F; Pilarska, Daniela K; McManus, Michael L; Zúbrik, Milan; Patocka, Jan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Novotný, Julius

2010-09-01

238

Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

1991-01-01

239

Coexistence of mutualists and antagonists: exploring the impact of cheaters on the yucca - yucca moth mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualists and non-mutualistic cheaters commonly coexist, but the effect of mutualist-cheater interactions on the evolution and stability of mutualisms or persistence of cheater populations is not well understood. Yuccas and yucca moths are an example of an obligate mutualism in which cheaters are frequently present. Larvae of both pollinators and cheaters eat developing yucca seeds, but cheaters no longer pollinate and rely on the mutualist species for seed availability. In this study we focus on interactions between the cheater Tegeticula intermedia and the pollinator T. yuccasella in fruits of the host Yucca filamentosa. We examined the effect of pollinator and cheater density on larval mass and larval mortality, the effect of fruit mass on larval interactions, and the degree of variability in pollinator-cheater interactions across 3 years. This study was done in a natural population to determine whether these two larval species affect each other under natural conditions. Genetic markers (both protein electrophoresis and DNA sequencing) were used to identify the larvae to species. We found no correlation between larval number and mortality for either pollinators or cheaters. Furthermore, pollinator mass was not correlated with number of cheater larvae per fruit in any year. Mass of cheater larvae was not correlated with number of pollinator larvae per fruit in two of three years; in one year, there was a negative correlation between number of pollinator larvae on mass of cheater larvae only in small fruits. Our results suggest that larval competition between species is weak and asymmetric; when it occurs, cheater larvae incur the cost. The number of cheaters and pollinators per fruit was negatively correlated in two of three years. The lack of a positive correlation in number of cheater and pollinator larvae per fruit may contribute to lowering the potential for seed competition among larvae. In addition, larval density per fruit differed across years by as much as 30%. However, this degree of difference was apparently not enough to cause seed limitation because no effect of pollinator larvae on either mass or mortality of cheater larvae was detected in years with the highest larval densities per fruit. In contrast to the weak effects of pollinator-cheater interactions, fruit mass accounted for much of the variation in number and mass of both pollinator and cheater larvae within and across years. Larger fruits generally had heavier and higher numbers of larvae compared to smaller fruits. Overall, in this population at least within the time period studied, pollinators and cheaters coexisted with little conflict in fruit. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the recent rapid radiation of species in the T. yuccasella complex may be explained in part by the ability of multiple pollinator species (some of whom have become cheaters) to use fruits without severe competition. PMID:24549915

Marr, D L; Brock, M T; Pellmyr, O

2001-08-01

240

Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

PubMed Central

Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12?12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (?50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.

Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

2013-01-01

241

Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a polyphagous defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869. It has spread to over 860,000 km2 in North America, but this still only represents ¼ of its susceptible host range in the United States. To delay defoliation\\u000a in the remaining susceptible host range, the government maintains a barrier zone and a quarantine, reflecting a

Kevin M. Bigsby; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

242

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions.

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcon, Ruben

2013-01-01

243

Identification of the sex pheromone secreted by a nettle moth, Monema flavescens, using gas chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The nettle moth Monema flavescens (Limacodidae) is a defoliator of fruit trees, such as Chinese plum and persimmon. The larvae of this species have spines containing a poison that causes serious irritation and inflammation in humans. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of a crude pheromone extract, combined with derivatization, indicated that female moths produced 8-decen-1-ol and 7,9-decadien-1-ol at a ratio of approximately 9:1. The E configuration of the double bonds was assigned for both components from infrared spectra, recorded on a gas chromatograph/Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a zinc selenide disk cooled to -30 °C. The monoenyl and dienyl alcohols had absorptions characteristic of E geometry at 966 and 951 cm(-1), respectively. A band chromatogram at 951 cm(-1) was useful for distinguishing geometric isomers, because terminal conjugated diene are difficult to resolve, even on high polarity columns. Furthermore, we identified the Z configuration of the same 7,9-dienyl alcohol secreted by another nettle moth, Parasa lepida lepida, through the absence of this absorption. In field trials, lures baited with a 9:1 mixture of (E)-8-decen-1-ol and (E)-7,9-decadien-1-ol attracted M. flavescens males. Furthermore, the field trials indicated that contamination with the (Z)-diene reduced catches to the pheromone mixture more than did contamination with the (Z)-monoene. PMID:23400496

Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yan, Qi; Naka, Hideshi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ando, Tetsu

2013-03-01

244

Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

2013-01-01

245

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-05-01

246

Sealing plant surfaces: cuticular wax formation by epidermal cells.  

PubMed

The vital importance of plant surface wax in protecting tissue from environmental stresses is reflected in the huge commitment of epidermal cells to cuticle formation. During cuticle deposition, a massive flux of lipids occurs from the sites of lipid synthesis in the plastid and the endoplasmic reticulum to the plant surface. Recent genetic studies in Arabidopsis have improved our understanding of fatty acid elongation and of the subsequent modification of the elongated products into primary alcohols, wax esters, secondary alcohols, and ketones, shedding light on the enzymes involved in these pathways. In contrast, the biosynthesis of alkanes is still poorly understood, as are the mechanisms of wax transport from the site of biosynthesis to the cuticle. Currently, nothing is known about wax trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, or about translocation through the cell wall to the cuticle. However, a first breakthrough toward an understanding of wax export recently came with the discovery of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are involved in releasing wax from the plasma membrane into the apoplast. An overview of our present knowledge of wax biosynthesis and transport and the regulation of these processes during cuticle assembly is presented, including the evidence for coordination of cutin polyester and wax production. PMID:18251711

Samuels, Lacey; Kunst, Ljerka; Jetter, Reinhard

2008-01-01

247

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOEpatents

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

1987-08-04

248

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOEpatents

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

1987-01-01

249

Hydroxy-beta-Diketones from Wheat Leaf Wax.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mixture of hydroxy-beta-diketones, 8- and 9-hydroxyhentriacontane-14, 16-dione was isolated from the leaf-surface wax of the wheat Triticum compactum Host. var. Little Club. Long-chain-beta-diketones have been found in the leaf-surface waxes of a number...

A. P. Tulloch R. O. Weenink

1966-01-01

250

Oxygen supply and limiting oxygen pressures in an insect larva.  

PubMed

Larvae of the moth, Carpocapsa saltitans, demonstrate a diurnal activity pattern of rhythmic twitching which, under conditions of controlled light and temperature, is characterized by a predictable frequency and regularity. The twitching activity is shown to be sensitive to the partial pressure of environmental oxygen, and it ceases altogether at a particular PO2 called 'critical'. Use is made of the 'critical' PO2 in normobaric and hypobaric conditions to deduce the roles of diffusion and convection in the larval oxygen transport mechanisms; and also as a value for the total decrement of PO2 from ambient air to mitochondria, in order to evaluate predicted values based on calculations of resistance to oxygen flow. For this latter study 'porosity' of the larva and the seed pod in which it is normally housed was inferred from measured rates of water vapor loss, and oxygen uptake rates of the larvae were measured by the manometric technique of Warburg. Applying these data to a model system the conclusion was reached that almost the total resistance to oxygen flow is at the spiracle. PMID:4039837

Tenney, S M

1985-04-01

251

Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

2004-12-01

252

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths.

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

253

Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.  

PubMed

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

254

Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C  

PubMed Central

Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers.

Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jurgen

2010-01-01

255

The relationship between a leaf-rolling moth (Dactylioglypha tonica) and fungi covering the cocoon.  

PubMed

To discover the relationship between a leaf-rolling moth and the fungi densely covering its cocoons, the rolled nest leaves were collected in two districts in Japan and antibacterial properties of the fungi were examined. Cocoons and fungi isolated from the nest were classified into 5 categories by the growth stages of the insects, and 7 categories based on taxonomic properties and pigment productivity, respectively. The dominant genus was Penicillium in each location. However, the composition of the fungal categories was different and seemed to depend on their circumstances. From all cocoons with larvae, the strains that belonged to the same fungal category and produced the same antibiotic (deoxyherqueinone) were isolated. From these results, the species-specific relationship between the insect and fungi or fungal products was considered to be not extremely tight, and it was suggested the period of the larval spinning of the cocoon is a key stage of this unique relationship. PMID:11676006

Imamura, N; Ishikawa, T; Takeda, K; Fukami, H; Konno, A; Nishida, R

2001-09-01

256

Cutaneous Larva Migrans.  

PubMed

International travel and increasingly exotic diets have resulted in an increase in cases of cutaneous larva migrans in industrialized countries. A broader spectrum of clinical presentation and complications of cutaneous larva migrans is recognized by clinicians. A new syndrome, eosinophilic enteritis, has been described in Australia and may be more widespread as new diagnostic tests are used more widely. Other causes of cutaneous migration, such as gnathostomiasis and sparganosis, should be considered, and a recent outbreak of gnathostomiasis in Mexico suggests that clinicians must be alert to these unusual infections arising in patients outside their traditional distribution. PMID:14733849

Gillespie, Stephen H.

2004-02-01

257

Hepatic visceral larva migrans.  

PubMed

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

2013-01-01

258

Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.  

PubMed

Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity. PMID:23730681

Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawi?ski, Adam; Bana?, Antoni

2013-01-01

259

Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

2014-02-01

260

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

261

User's Guide for GMPHEN: Gypsy Moth Phenology Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GMPHEN is a flexible, menu-driven computer model that uses daily temperatures and previously published data to predict the timing of gypsy moth and host development. The model simulates gypsy moth egg hatch, larval and pupal development, and budbreak and ...

K. A. Sheehan

1992-01-01

262

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system. PMID:18066706

Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D

2008-04-01

263

An isometric virus of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has a tri-segmented RNA genome.  

PubMed

A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the Guatemala potato tuber moth, Tecia solanivora (Povolny), collected in Ecuador. It was designated the Anchilibi virus (AnchV). The non-enveloped viral particles have an estimated diameter of 32+/-2 nm. Three major proteins were found in virions, with estimated sizes of 102.0+/-2.1, 95.8+/-2.0 and 92.4+/-1.5 kDa for AnchV as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, the genome of AnchV appeared to be a tri-segmented single-stranded RNA with fragment sizes of 4.1+/-0.2, 2.8+/-0.2 and 1.65+/-0.2 kb. In addition to a high virulence towards its original host, AnchV also caused high mortality in larvae of two other potato tuber moth species, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema (tangolias) plaesiosema (Turner). Electron microscopy confirmed that AnchV replication occurs in the cell cytoplasm, mainly in vesicles. Several important characteristics exhibited by this virus differ from those reported for known families of insect viruses. Thus, AnchV might be member of a new taxonomic group. PMID:18611402

Zeddam, Jean-Louis; Orbe, Katerine; Léry, Xavier; Dangles, Olivier; Dupas, Stéphane; Silvain, Jean-François

2008-10-01

264

Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.  

PubMed

The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:24846572

Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

2014-08-01

265

Nocturnal activity positively correlated with auditory sensitivity in noctuoid moths.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutionary history, nocturnal flight time and auditory sensitivity were positively correlated in moths, a relationship that most likely reflects selection pressure from aerial-hawking bats. We suggest that species-specific differences in the detection of predator cues are important but often overlooked factors in the evolution and maintenance of antipredator behaviour. PMID:18319206

ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

2008-06-23

266

Cuticular wax biosynthesis in petunia petals: cloning and characterization of an alcohol-acyltransferase that synthesizes wax-esters.  

PubMed

The surface of plants is covered by cuticular wax, which contains a mixture of very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. This wax surface provides a hydrophobic barrier which reduces non-stomatal water loss. One component of the cuticular wax is the alkyl esters, which typically contain a VLCFA esterified to an alcohol of a similar length. As part of an EST project, we recently identified an acyltransferase with 19% sequence identity (amino acid) to a bacterial 'bifunctional' wax-ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT). Northern analysis revealed that this petunia homologue was expressed predominantly within the petals. The cDNA encoding the WS/DGAT homologue was introduced into a yeast strain deficient in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. The expressed protein failed to restore triacylglycerol biosynthesis, indicating that it lacked DGAT activity. However, isoamyl esters of fatty acids were detected, which suggested that the petunia cDNA encoded a wax-synthase. Waxes were extracted from petunia petals and leaves. The petal wax extract was rich in VLCFA esters of methyl, isoamyl, and short-to-medium straight chain alcohols (C4-C12). These low molecular weight wax-esters were not present in leaf wax. In-vitro enzymes assays were performed using the heterologously expressed protein and 14C-labelled substrates. The expressed protein was membrane bound, and displayed a preference for medium chain alcohols and saturated very long-chain acyl-CoAs. In fact, the activity would be sufficient to produce most of the low molecular wax-esters present in petals, with methyl-esters being the exception. This work is the first characterization of a eukaryotic protein from the WS/DGAT family. PMID:17323080

King, Andrew; Nam, Jeong-Won; Han, Jixiang; Hilliard, Josh; Jaworski, Jan G

2007-07-01

267

WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.  

SciTech Connect

Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F. (Biosciences Division); ( MCS); (Northeastern Univ.); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (Carnegie Mellon Univ.)

2011-01-01

268

Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling  

SciTech Connect

The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

1983-09-01

269

WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.  

PubMed

WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes. PMID:10662094

Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

1999-11-01

270

Hydrocarbon and multibranched ester waxes from the uropygial gland secretion of grebes (Pod ici ped iformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland secretion of some grebes (Podicipediformes) has been shown to contain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and monoester waxes. While ester waxes are common constituents of preen gland secretions, nonisoprenoid hydrocarbons have not been detected hitherto. The wax constituents are very complex, belonging to several multibranched homologous series, including unusual acids with ethyl branches. The waxes were identified

Jurgen Jacob

271

Effect of oil temperature on paraffin waxing of oil field equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of paraffin-waxing of oil field equipment at West Siberian oil fields has shown that the number of wells troubled by wax deposits has been going up every year. Wax deposition causes fall in oil recovery and entails additional cost for deposit removing. Many researchers have studied the distinctive features of the process of wax deposit formation from model solutions

V. D. Makarenko; O. V. Antselovich; M. S. Bakharev; K. A. Murav’ev; A. I. Kalyanov

2005-01-01

272

A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype.

2013-01-01

273

Description of the larva of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899 (Acari: Ixodidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The larval stage of Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann is described using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Unfed larvae were obtained from a colony of A. calcaratum originating from engorged females collected on Tamandua tetradactyla in the Jaraguá Mountain (23°40'S, 45°44'W), São Paulo County, Brazil. Eleven larvae were prepared and mounted on slides and observed under a light microscope equipped with a drawing tube. Three specimens were prepared for SEM. Several morphological characters are described, including the chaetotaxy of the idiosoma, palpi, and Haller's organ, as well as morphological features of the idiosoma, gnathosoma, and legs of A. calcaratum larvae. In addition, topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures on the larval idiosoma are described using a recently proposed nomenclature. On the idiosoma, setaes, lyrifissures, small glands, and large wax glands were found. These structures were observed isolated or associated over the entire idiosoma, except on the scutum, which lacks large wax glands. The topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures of the A. calcaratum larva showed only minor differences when compared with patterns of other Amblyomma larvae; however, a few key features can be used to differentiate A. calcaratum from other members of this genus. PMID:24169118

Barbieri, Fábio S; Brito, Luciana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Famadas, Kátia M

2013-12-01

274

Wax moth, Galleria mellonella, high density lipophorin receptor: alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression, and developmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipophorin (Lp) receptor cDNA from the fat body of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) was cloned and sequenced. This is the first result in this order, Lepidoptera. It showed the pattern of the VLDL receptor belonging to the LDL receptor family. Sequence homology with other Lp receptors in insects, Locusta migratoria and Aedes aegypti, was 70 and 61%, respectively and each

C. S Lee; J. H Han; B. S Kim; S. M Lee; J. S Hwang; S. W Kang; B. H Lee; H. R Kim

2003-01-01

275

If you've got it, flaunt it: Ingested alkaloids affect corematal display behavior in the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids play an important role in the biology of the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). They are phagostimulants for larvae and they stimulate the growth and development of adult male androconial organs called coremata. In this study, we have shown that the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline N-oxide (MNO) fed to larvae also affects the courtship behavior of adult males. Males fed a diet containing MNO display their coremata while males fed on the same diet without alkaloid rarely display. This explains why it has been difficult to replicate field observations of the “lekking” behavior of this species in the laboratory where animals are frequently raised on commercially available diets devoid of alkaloids. Corematal inflation was observed in isolated males and in laboratory leks. The effect of larvae feeding on pyrrolizidine alkaloid on the reproductive behavior of adults suggests that this substance may modify the development of the moth's nervous system and contribute to their unusual dual mating strategies. MNO was also shown to be an adequate precursor for the production of the courtship pheromone hydroxydanaidal.

Jordan, Alex T.; Jones, Tappey H.; Conner, William E.

2005-01-01

276

If you've got it, flaunt it: ingested alkaloids affect corematal display behavior in the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea.  

PubMed

Plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids play an important role in the biology of the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). They are phagostimulants for larvae and they stimulate the growth and development of adult male androconial organs called coremata. In this study, we have shown that the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline N-oxide (MNO) fed to larvae also affects the courtship behavior of adult males. Males fed a diet containing MNO display their coremata while males fed on the same diet without alkaloid rarely display. This explains why it has been difficult to replicate field observations of the "lekking" behavior of this species in the laboratory where animals are frequently raised on commercially available diets devoid of alkaloids. Corematal inflation was observed in isolated males and in laboratory leks. The effect of larvae feeding on pyrrolizidine alkaloid on the reproductive behavior of adults suggests that this substance may modify the development of the moth's nervous system and contribute to their unusual dual mating strategies. MNO was also shown to be an adequate precursor for the production of the courtship pheromone hydroxydanaidal. PMID:16299591

Jordan, Alex T; Jones, Tappey H; Conner, William E

2005-01-01

277

21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice...

2013-04-01

278

Diozonide of jojoba wax as intermediate for synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jojoba wax reacts with ozone yielding diozonide, which is a viable synthetic intermediate. The diozonide of jojoba wax is\\u000a a white solid of low titre which decomposes violently around 110–120 C. We have studied several synthetic methods based on\\u000a the diozonide, such as the preparation of dialdehyde; the corresponding dicarboxylic acid, and derivatives of the latter,\\u000a such as metal soaps,

Jacob Zabicky; Moshe Mhasalkar

1986-01-01

279

Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods  

PubMed Central

Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the ?-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the ?-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community.

Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

2004-01-01

280

Evaluation of two formulated chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron against the raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella.  

PubMed

The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC(50) = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC(50)= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

281

Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella  

PubMed Central

Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects.

Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; LaFont, Rene

2010-01-01

282

Autoradiographic identification of ecdysteroid-binding cells in the nervous system of the moth Manduca sexta.  

PubMed

The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulates many aspects of nervous system development in the moth Manduca sexta, including stage-specific neuronal morphology and stage-specific neuronal death. We have used steroid hormone autoradiography to study the distribution of cells that concentrate ecdysteroids in the ventral nervous system of this insect. The ligand was [3H]-ponasterone A, a bioactive phytoecdysone. Tissue was examined from three stages of development: the end of larval life (first day of wandering), the end of metamorphosis (pharate adult), and 4-day-old adults. In the abdominal ganglia of wandering larvae and pharate adults, a subset of neurons including both motoneurons and interneurons exhibited a nuclear concentration of radiolabeled hormone. The pattern of binding was reproducible but stage-specific, with a greater proportion of neurons showing binding in the larvae than in pharate adults. No labeled neurons were found in abdominal ganglia from mature (4-day-old) adults. In the case of the pharate adult ganglia, the ecdysteroid receptor content of specific, identified motoneurons was determined. These results are discussed in light of the responses of these neurons to physiological changes in levels of circulating ecdysteroids. PMID:2584960

Fahrbach, S E; Truman, J W

1989-12-01

283

Similarity and specialization of the larval versus adult diet of European butterflies and moths.  

PubMed

Many herbivorous insects feed on plant tissues as larvae but use other resources as adults. Adult nectar feeding is an important component of the diet of many adult herbivores, but few studies have compared adult and larval feeding for broad groups of insects. We compiled a data set of larval host use and adult nectar sources for 995 butterfly and moth species (Lepidoptera) in central Europe. Using a phylogenetic generalized least squares approach, we found that those Lepidoptera that fed on a wide range of plant species as larvae were also nectar feeding on a wide range of plant species as adults. Lepidoptera that lack functional mouthparts as adults used more plant species as larval hosts, on average, than did Lepidoptera with adult mouthparts. We found that 54% of Lepidoptera include their larval host as a nectar source. By creating null models that described the similarity between larval and adult nectar sources, we furthermore showed that Lepidoptera nectar feed on their larval host more than would be expected if they fed at random on available nectar sources. Despite nutritional differences between plant tissue and nectar, we show that there are similarities between adult and larval feeding in Lepidoptera. This suggests that either behavioral or digestive constraints are retained throughout the life cycle of holometabolous herbivores, which affects host breadth and identity. PMID:21828993

Altermatt, Florian; Pearse, Ian S

2011-09-01

284

Bacterial, but not baculoviral infections stimulate Hemolin expression in noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Lepidopteran larvae are regularly infected by baculoviruses during feeding on infected plants. The differences in sensitivity to these infections can be substantial, even among closely related species. For example, the noctuids Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and Tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), have a 1000-fold difference in sensitivity to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection. Recent data were interpreted to indicate that the lepidopteran immunoglobulin protein, Hemolin, is synthesized upon viral injection and therefore to participate in anti-viral responses. To investigate whether Hemolin synthesis is affected by a natural viral infection, specific transcription in fat bodies and hemocytes of H. zea and H. virescens larvae was monitored following per os infection with the baculovirus HzSNPV (H. zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus). Both moths showed the same expression pattern as seen in uninfected animals and coincided with ecdysone responses, previously known to induce Hemolin expression. In contrast, injection of lyophilized Micrococcus luteus resulted in increased Hemolin expression supporting a role for Hemolin as an immuno-responsive protein in these species. The combined data are consistent with the suggestion that while Hemolin seems to participate in the response to virus infection in the superfamily Bombycoidea, this is not true in the Noctuoidea. PMID:19540262

Terenius, Olle; Popham, Holly J R; Shelby, Kent S

2009-11-01

285

Attachment to plant surface waxes by an insect predator.  

PubMed

Insects foraging on plant surfaces must attach to the layer of lipophilic materials known as epicuticular waxes (EW) that cover these surfaces. In this paper, we briefly review the evidence that variation in EW morphology can influence the ecology of herbivorous insects directly, by affecting their attachment to plant surfaces, and indirectly by affecting attachment by actively foraging predatory insects to plant surfaces. We then present new data examining how EW micromorphology and chemical composition of Brassica oleracea influence attachment by the predatory beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coccinellidae). Bioassays with genotypes of B. oleracea differing in wax characteristics, and with EW extracts from these plants applied to glass, show that wax crystals disrupt attachment. In addition, bioassays show that attachment by H. convergens differs among EW extracts prepared to have smooth surfaces without crystals. The differences in attachment under these conditions are evidently due to the chemical composition of the waxes. Bioassays with two pure wax constituents show that wax composition can significantly affect attachment by H. convergens. The study opens the way for using a similar approach to understand attachment by insects to waxy plant surfaces. PMID:21680392

Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Jetter, Reinhard

2002-12-01

286

Malagasy birds as hosts for eye-frequenting moths.  

PubMed

While tear-feeding in moths on mammals is widespread, there have been no reports of this behaviour in Madagascar and none on birds. We report that a moth, Hemiceratoides hieroglyphica belonging to the Calpini, a generally fruit-feeding or blood-feeding lineage of noctuids, attacks sleeping birds in Madagascar. This moth is able to intrude its sharply tipped proboscis into a closed bird's eye. The proboscis is characterized by a specific armoury of hooks, barbs and spines similar to that in piercing calpines but dissimilar to that in other tear-feeding moths. This is the first report of exploitation of tears by Lepidoptera from the closed eyes of sleeping birds. PMID:17251126

Hilgartner, Roland; Raoilison, Mamisolo; Büttiker, Willhelm; Lees, David C; Krenn, Harald W

2007-04-22

287

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls.

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

288

Southwestern Pine Tip Moth Damage to Ponderosa Pine Reproduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southwestern pine tip moth deforms young pines by mining growth tips. Deformities, recognizable several years after initial attack, are categorized as prune, crook, fork, posthorn, bush, and spiketop. Combinations of deformities--crook/prune, bush/cro...

G. Lessard D. T. Jennings

1976-01-01

289

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

290

An unusual lepidopteran sex pheromone system in the bagworm moth.  

PubMed

The female sex pheromone of the bagworm moth is (R)-1-methylbutyl decanoate. The antipode is biologically inactive and it neither enhances nor detracts from the potency of the R enantiomer. Unlike other moths for which female pheromones have been identified, the female secretes the pheromone from glands on her thorax and it is disseminated from hair that is shed from her body. PMID:17798283

Leonhardt, B A; Neal, J W; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Plimmer, J R

1983-01-21

291

The neuroethology of sound production in tiger moths (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Certain species of tiger moths emit clicks when stimulated by bat-like sounds. These clicks are generated by modified thoracic episterna (tymbals) (Fig. 1) and constitute a rhythmic behaviour activated by simple sensory input.2.Tymbal periods are indirectly related to stimulus intensity and periods (Fig. 3). Moths initiate sounds with the tymbal opposite to the stimulated ear and once a sequence commences

James H. Fullard

1992-01-01

292

Cutaneous larva migrans.  

PubMed

The case of cutaneous larva migrans presented here is typical for its mechanism and geographic location of infection, evolution of lesions, and prompt response to treatment. Except for pinworms, helminth infections are rarely thought of in emergency departments away from the areas where the parasites are especially prevalent. The several-day incubation period and modern-day ease of travel should place this illness on one's list of the differential diagnoses of pruritic lesions regardless of the location of practice. This case serves as a reminder that in a mobile society, diseases, as well as patients, can travel. PMID:8235796

Jones, W B

1993-11-01

293

Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild. PMID:24788023

Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

2014-08-01

294

Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation. PMID:24361507

Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

2014-02-01

295

Evidence for histamine in the urticating hairs of Hylesia moths.  

PubMed

An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts made from whole moths and from urticating hairs. Extracts made from other moth parts contained no histamine. Cutaneous wheals occurred after intradermal injections of histamine and various concentrations of Hylesia extract (HE) into the backs of cynomolgus monkeys. This whealing response was suppressed by pretreatment of the animals with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but not by pretreatment with indomethacin. Histologic examinations showed a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate around dilated capillaries without evidence of mast cell degranulation in HE-injected sites but not in controls. These findings provide evidence that histamine may be the mediator responsible for the urticarial lesions seen after contact with Hylesia moths. PMID:3585053

Dinehart, S M; Jorizzo, J L; Soter, N A; Noppakun, N; Voss, W R; Hokanson, J A; Smith, E B

1987-06-01

296

Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

2014-01-01

297

Resource selection by female moths in a heterogeneous environment: what is a poor girl to do?  

PubMed

1. According to the preference-performance hypothesis, female insects select resources that maximize offspring performance. To achieve high fitness, leaf miner females should then adjust their oviposition behaviour in response to leaf attributes signalling high host quality. 2. Here we investigate resource selection in Tischeria ekebladella, a leaf-mining moth of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), in relation to two alternative hypotheses: (1) females select their resources with respect to their future quality for developing larvae; or (2) temporal changes in resource quality prevent females from selecting the best larval resources. 3. Specifically, we test whether females show the strongest selection at the levels at which quality varies the most (shoots and leaves); whether they respond to specific leaf attributes (leaf size, phenolic content and conspecific eggs); and whether female preference is reflected in offspring performance. 4. Female choice of leaves was found to be non-random. Within trees, the females preferred certain shoots, but when the shoots were on different trees the degree of discrimination was about four times larger than when they were on the same trees. 5. While females typically lay more eggs on large leaves, this is not a result of active selection of large leaves, but rather a result of females moving at random and ovipositing at regular intervals. 6. The females in our study did not adjust their oviposition behaviour in response to leaf phenolic contents (as measured by the time of larval feeding). Neither did they avoid leaves with conspecific eggs. 7. Female choice of oviposition sites did not match patterns of offspring performance: there was no positive association between offspring survival and counts of eggs. 8. We propose that temporal variation in resource quality may prevent female moths from evaluating resource quality reliably. To compensate for this, females may adopt a risk-spreading strategy when selecting their resources. PMID:17714263

Gripenberg, Sofia; Morriën, Elly; Cudmore, Aileen; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Roslin, Tomas

2007-09-01

298

76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...the scope of antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic...1\\ See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's...

2011-08-02

299

Olfactory Receptors in Small Ermine Moths (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) Electrophysiology and Morphology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Distribution of sense organs on male antennae of small ermine moths, Yponomeuta spp. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae); Single cell responses from olfactory receptors of small ermine moths to sex attractants; Comparison of single cell responses of an...

J. N. C. van der Pers

1980-01-01

300

Ovipositional response of tobacco budworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to cuticular labdanes and sucrose esters from the green leaves ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Field plots of three accessions ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Nicotiana species accessions 24, 24A, and 24B) at Oxford, North Carolina and Tifton, Georgia were heavily damaged by natural populations of tobacco budworms,Heliothis virescens (F.), during 1985-1989. Experiments in outdoor screen cages demonstrated that all accessions ofN. glutinosa were as prone to oviposition byH. virescens moths as was NC 2326, a commercial cultivar of flue-cured tobacco,N. tabacum L. However, in greenhouse experiments, tobacco budworm larvae did not survive or grow as well when placed on plants ofN. glutinosa as they did when placed on plants of NC 2326. Four labdane diterpenes (manool, 2-hydroxymanool, a mixture of sclareols, and labda-13-ene-8?,15-diol [labdenediol]) and two sucrose ester fractions (2,3,4-tri-O-acyl-3'-O-acetyl-sucrose [G-SE-I] and 2,3,4,-tri-O-acyl-sucrose [G-SE-II]) were isolated from green leaves of the three accessions ofN. glutinosa. These components were bioassayed for their effects on the ovipositional behavior of tobacco budworm moths using small screen cages in a greenhouse at Oxford, North Carolina. Labdenediol, manool, and both sucrose ester fractions stimulated tobacco budworm moths to oviposit on a tobacco budworm-resistant Tobacco Introduction, TI 1112 (PI 124166), when these materials were sprayed onto a leaf. PMID:24258642

Jackson, D M; Severson, R F; Sisson, V A; Stephenson, M G

1991-12-01

301

Micro encapsulation in situ with super permeating molten wax  

SciTech Connect

A new class of grout material based on molten wax offers a dramatic improvement in permeation grouting performance. This new material makes a perfect in situ containment of buried radioactive waste both feasible and cost effective. This paper describes various ways the material can be used to isolate buried waste in situ. Potential applications described in the paper include buried radioactive waste in deep trenches, deep shafts, Infiltration trenches, and large buried objects. Use of molten wax for retrieval of waste is also discussed. Wax can also be used for retrieval of air sensitive materials or drummed waste. This paper provides an analysis of the methods of application and the expected performance and cost of several potential projects. (authors)

Carter, E. [Carter Technologies Co, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

302

Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

2001-01-01

303

Appetitive flight patterns of male Agrotis segetum moths over landscape scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of the first harmonic radar studies of pheromone-plume locating flights of male Agrotis segetum moths over distances of up to 500m. Upon release most moths flew in a direction having a downwind component. The first significant changes in flight orientations occur in the immediate vicinity of a pheromone source. Moths that were initially flying downwind change

A. M. Reynolds; D. R. Reynolds; A. D. Smith; G. P. Svensson; C. Löfstedt

2007-01-01

304

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

305

Polyester wax embedding and sectioning technique for immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

We have developed a method useful for immunohistochemical studies by combining tissue fixation with buffered neutral formalin and polyester wax embedding. Buffered neutral formalin fixation preserves cell and tissue fine structure, and also the antigenicity of unstable enzymes. Polyester wax embedding makes possible thin serial sections of various tissues and preserves antigenicities for at least 6 months. We have demonstrated using this technique the localization of alpha-amylase in mouse salivary gland, parietal-cell specific antigen in mouse glandular stomach, and DNA polymerase alpha and beta in chick tissue. PMID:6207637

Kusakabe, M; Sakakura, T; Nishizuka, Y; Sano, M; Matsukage, A

1984-05-01

306

Fatty Alcohols for Wax Esters in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: Two Optional Routes in the Wax Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of wax esters in bacteria is accomplished by a unique pathway that combines a fatty alcohol and a fatty acyl coenzyme A substrate. Previous in vitro enzymatic studies indicated that two different enzymes could be involved in the synthesis of the required fatty alcohol in Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. In this study, we demonstrate through a series of gene deletions and transcriptional analysis that either enzyme is capable of fulfilling the role of providing the fatty alcohol required for wax ester biosynthesis in vivo, but evolution has clearly selected one of these, a previously characterized fatty aldehyde reductase, as the preferred enzyme to perform this reaction under typical wax ester-accumulating conditions. These results complement previous in vitro studies and provide the first glimpse into the role of each enzyme in vivo in the native organism.

Lenneman, Eric M.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Palani, Nagendra P.

2013-01-01

307

MODELLING OF THE SOLVENT-DEOILING PROCESS OF WAXES BY CONTINUOUS THERMODYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waxes as petroleum slack waxes are multicomponent mixtures of mainly paraffinic species. Usually, for application the oily components of the waxes are undesired. Therefore, separation processes are needed which, in some cases, base on a solvent-deoiling process. Modelling such a process is the aim of this paper. For this purpose the solid–liquid equilibrium of a wax–solvent system is considered.

D. Browarzik; M. Matthäi

2002-01-01

308

The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.  

PubMed

Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

Xu, Pengjun; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Kongming

2013-01-01

309

CRYSTALLINITY AND AVERAGE CARBON NUMBER OF PETROLEUM WAXES BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallinity and average carbon number of different petroleum waxes have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The effect of oil and polymers, viz, polyethylene (PE) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) co-polymer on the crystallinity and average carbon number of petroleum waxes have also been studied. Crystallinity data has been correlated with composition and properties of the waxes.

A. K. Gupta; K. M. Agrawal

2000-01-01

310

21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120...Canned Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity â(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the...

2009-04-01

311

21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120...Canned Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity â(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the...

2010-04-01

312

Experience in Manufacture of Hard Waxes. Combined Dewaxing and Deoiling Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the country's oil units are primarily oriented toward production of lube oils. The by–products formed are used as components of furnace residual fuel oil. Even the slack wax obtained in dewaxing of selectively refined raffinates goes into furnace residual fuel oil. The slack wax contains from 80 to 90% hard waxes which, like dewaxed oil, are a valuable

I. N. Kachlishvili; T. F. Filippova

2003-01-01

313

RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

314

An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.  

PubMed Central

In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

1984-01-01

315

Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

2013-09-01

316

Sealing Plant Surfaces: Cuticular Wax Formation by Epidermal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vital importance of plant surface wax in protecting tissue from environmental stresses is reflected in the huge commitment of epidermal cells to cuticle formation. During cuticle deposition, a massive flux of lipids occurs from the sites of lipid synthesis in the plastid and the endoplasmic reticulum to the plant surface. Recent genetic studies in Arabidopsis have improved our understanding

Lacey Samuels; Ljerka Kunst; Reinhard Jetter

2008-01-01

317

Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

Cowens, John

2006-01-01

318

Isolation and analysis of wax esters from activated sludge.  

PubMed

Neutral lipid from activated sludge (AS) as a potential source for biodiesel production has recently received considerable attentions. The utilization of useful compounds in AS may help reducing the cost of biodiesel production from AS. One of these compounds is the valuable wax esters (WEs) found in AS from a food processing company in Taiwan. About 4.13% (based on dry sludge weight) bleached wax was obtained after pretreatment and bleaching of crude sludge wax obtained from the dewaxing of crude sludge oil. The major WEs detected in the bleached wax were C46-C60 with small amounts of C37-C43 and C62 WEs. The fatty acids (FAs) and fatty alcohols (FALs) profiles of WEs were also investigated. Activated sludge WEs are mainly mixture of C14-C28 FAs and C24-C37 FALs, in which the predominant FAs are C16 and C18 while the predominant FALs are C32 and C34. PMID:21873048

Huynh, Lien-Huong; Do, Quy-Diem; Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2011-10-01

319

Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves  

PubMed Central

The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria.

Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

2013-01-01

320

Identification of a sex pheromone component of the geometrid moth Milionia basalis pryeri.  

PubMed

A single component in extracts of virgin female Milionia basalis pryeri moths elicited responses from male moth antennae. This compound (ca. 7 ng/female) was identified as (Z,Z)-(3S,4R)-3,4-epoxynonadeca-6,9-diene by GC-MS and NMR analyses, microchemical reactions, and comparative chiral HPLC. In a field test, synthetic (Z,Z)-(3S,4R)-3,4-epoxynonadeca-6,9-diene attracted male moths. The opposite enantiomer, the racemic mixture, and virgin female moths held in small cages attracted no more moths than the solvent controls. PMID:15898506

Yasui, Hiroe; Wakamura, Sadao; Arakaki, Norio; Irei, Hideki; Kiyuna, Chouji; Ono, Hiroshi; Yamazawa, Hiroyuki; Ando, Tetsu

2005-03-01

321

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

322

Imprinted moth-eye antireflection patterns on glass substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-micron sized, conical shaped moth-eye structure was transferred to thermoplastic polymer film, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using hot embossing process. Since master template was made of polycarbonate, embossing temperature and pressure were carefully maintained to 100°C and 10 atm. Conical shaped moth-eye pattern was reversed to tapered hole pattern on PVC film. Hot embossed PVC film was then used as transparent template for subsequent UV nanoimprint process, in order to form the conical shaped sub-micron moth-eye structure on glass substrate. After thin layer of Si oxide and monolayer of self-assembled, silane based molecules was coated on hot embossed PVC film. UV nanoimprint process was done on the glass substrate using hot embossed PVC film. As a result, the transmittance of glass substrate was increased from 91 to 94% for single side patterned and 96% for both side patterned glass substrate for the spectral range of 350 to 800 nm.

Hong, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Byeong-Ju; Han, Kang-Soo; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyung-Woo

2009-03-01

323

Microbial Control of Lepidopterous Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioassay technique was developed for testing the effectiveness of five commercial formulations of the microbial control agent Bacillus thuringiensis against larvae of the red-humped caterpillar, Schizura concinna. The results, together with the results ...

D. E. Pinnock

1971-01-01

324

Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

Strathmann, Richard R

2014-01-01

325

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

326

Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

1984-01-01

327

Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester.

2013-01-01

328

Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

2000-03-22

329

Physiological mismatching between neurons innervating olfactory glomeruli in a moth  

PubMed Central

The primary olfactory centres of most vertebrates and most neopteran insects are characterized by the presence of spherical neuropils, glomeruli, where synaptic interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and second-order neurons take place. In the neopteran insect taxa investigated so far, receptor neurons of a specific physiological identity target one glomerulus and thus bestow a functional identity on the glomerulus. In moths, input from pheromone-specific receptor neurons is received in a male-specific structure of the antennal lobe, called the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which consists of a number of specialized glomeruli. Each glomerulus of the complex receives a set of peripheral sensory afferents that encode one of several compounds involved in sexual communication. The complex is also innervated by dendritic branches of antennal lobe output neurons called projection neurons, which transfer information from the antennal lobe to higher centres of the brain. A hypothesis stemming from earlier work on moths claims that the receptor neuron innervation pattern of the MGC should be reflected in the pattern of dendrites of projection neurons invading the different MGC glomeruli. In this study we show that in the noctuid moth Trichoplusia ni, as in several other noctuid moth species, this hypothesis does not hold. The degree of matching between axon terminals of receptor neurons and the dendritic branches of identified projection neurons that express similar physiological specificity is very low.

Anton, S.; Hansson, B. S.

1999-01-01

330

Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

Penn, Linda

331

Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.  

PubMed

The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

2007-10-01

332

MVP, a Novel Bioinsecticide for the Control of Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

MVP bioinsecticide is the first in a new class of biopesticide products based on Mycogen Corporation's novel CellCap bioencapsulation technology. MVP contains a selected endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki that is highly active against diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). Using the CellCap system, this toxin is encapsulated and stabilized within dead bacterial cells that are killed and fixed

George G. Soares; Thomas C. Quick

333

Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta  

PubMed Central

The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2–15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed.

Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E.; Luna, Maria G.

2012-01-01

334

Grape variety affects larval performance and also female reproductive performance of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

For insect herbivores, the quality of the larval host plant is a key determinant of fitness. Therefore, insect populations are supposed to be positively correlated with the nutritional quality of their host plant. This study aimed to determine if and how different varieties of grapes (including the wild grape Lambrusque) affect both larval and adult performance of the polyphagous European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Significant differences were found in larval development time, but not in pupal mass, adult emergence rate, or sex ratio. Although the fecundity of females is not different among varieties, females fed on some varieties produced eggs of different sizes which are correlated to their fertility. Thus, females adapt resource allocation to eggs depending on their diet as larvae. Using a fitness index, the average reproductive output was found to be highest for females reared on cv. Chardonnay. Females reared on wild grape produced a fitness index identical to the cultivated grapes. However, Lambrusque and Gewurztraminer separate themselves from the cultivated varieties according to our discriminant analyses. It is emphasized, through this study, that cultivars fed on by larvae should be considered in the population dynamics of L. botrana and that egg number is insufficient to determine host plant quality. PMID:16556342

Moreau, J; Benrey, B; Thiéry, D

2006-04-01

335

Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.  

PubMed

The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

2012-01-01

336

Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone\\/toluene or MEK\\/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity

V. I. Larikov; Yu. N. Roshchin; S. P. Sokolova; A. N. Pereverzev

1983-01-01

337

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

2014-04-01

338

Submersed culture production of extracellular wax esters by the marine bacterium Fundibacter jadensis.  

PubMed

Fundibacter jadensis strain T9, a marine gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from the intertidal sediment of the German North Sea coast by our group. The cells were able to produce considerable amounts of extracellular wax esters when cultivated with n-alkanes (hexadecane or tetradecane) as a carbon source. The dependence of wax ester production and the composition of the purified wax on different culture conditions (C:N:P ratio and dissolved oxygen tension) were tested. Our results show that wax ester production was not directly growth-linked. The C:N:P ratio had no significant influence on the yield of alkane-free purified wax. The dissolved oxygen tension affected the produced amount of the alkane-free purified wax and the composition of the purified wax; when lower than 2% it decreased the yield of purified wax and led to an altered wax ester composition. Tetradecane as a carbon source enhanced the spectrum of the wax ester composition. PMID:14564536

Bredemeier, R; Hulsch, R; Metzger, J O; Berthe-Corti, L

2003-01-01

339

Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers.  

PubMed

The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate. PMID:24889352

Gorb, Elena V; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N

2014-01-01

340

Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers  

PubMed Central

The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate.

Gorb, Elena V.; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-01-01

341

A hydrodynamically-induced morphology transition in wax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of lath-shaped single crystals of wax from bulk solution is well studied and exhibits prototypic step growth. The axes of the linear wax molecules are perpendicular to the growth faces, leading to large, flat plates of wax conformal with the substrate surface. Such coatings are often a problem in pipes that transport petroleum. However, a second, unusual tree-like morphology, composed of twisted crystalline ribbons with a well-defined average distance between branches, can also be induced to grow on a cold substrate. We have studied these growth forms in a system consisting of a cooled silicon surface, with a surface energy controlled by monolayer coatings, immersed in an n-alkane solution. We find that parameters such as the surface energy and supersaturation have little effect on selecting the mode of growth. However, increasing the flow velocity of solution across the surface selects the tree morphology and strongly affects its form. Here, we suggest that the selection mechanism is by preferential delamination of plates, thus selecting the thermodynamically less stable tree form, and discuss the growth mechanism of the tree morphology itself.

King, , Jr.; Hutter, Jeffrey

2001-03-01

342

Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water  

SciTech Connect

It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed.

Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

1984-01-01

343

Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

2008-01-01

344

Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis  

PubMed Central

The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control.

Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

2011-01-01

345

[Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].  

PubMed

The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates. PMID:1966831

Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

1990-10-01

346

Transcriptional immune responses by honey bee larvae during invasion by the bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee larvae are highly susceptible to the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae only during the first instar of larval development. Transcript levels were measured for genes encoding two antimicrobial peptides, abaecin and defensin, as well as for two candidates in the immune response cascade (PGRP-LD and masquerade) in control larvae and larvae exposed to the pathogen. Transcripts for all four

Jay D. Evans

2004-01-01

347

Brain factor control of sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth.  

PubMed

Sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth Heliothis zea is controlled by a hormonal substance produced in the female's brain. It is present in the brain in scotophase as well as photophase, but it is released into the hemolymph to stimulate pheromone production only in the scotophase. The stimulatory activity was also detected in the brains of male corn earworm moths and of other moths. PMID:17750856

Raina, A K; Klun, J A

1984-08-01

348

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

349

Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating.

Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

2013-01-01

350

Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts.

Bauer, Tilman Martin; Peyerl-Hoffmann, Gabriele; Held, Jurgen; Ritter, Wolfgang; Wagner, Dirk; Kern, Winfried Vinzenz; Serr, Annerose

2010-01-01

351

Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

2013-01-01

352

Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy.

Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

2013-01-01

353

Characterization of Glossy1 -homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outermost surfaces of plants are covered with an epicuticular wax layer that provides a primary waterproof barrier and\\u000a protection against different environmental stresses. Glossy 1 (GL1) is one of the reported genes controlling wax synthesis. This study analyzed GL1-homologous genes in Oryza sativa and characterized the key members of this family involved in wax synthesis and stress resistance. Sequence

Mohammad Asadul Islam; Hao Du; Jing Ning; Haiyan Ye; Lizhong Xiong

2009-01-01

354

Submersed Culture Production of Extracellular Wax Esters by the Marine Bacterium Fundibacter jadensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundibacter jadensis strain T9, a marine gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from the intertidal sediment of the German North Sea coast by our group. The cells were able to produce considerable amounts of extracellular wax esters when cultivated with n-alkanes (hexadecane or tetradecane) as a carbon source. The dependence of wax ester production and the composition of the purified wax on

R. Bredemeier; R. Hulsch; J. O. Metzger; L. Berthe-Corti

2003-01-01

355

Combined process for production of base oils and exhaustively deoiled waxes. Use of oscillating crystallizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the results obtained suggests the following conclusions: a process for fabricating lube oils and exhaustively\\u000a deoiled waxes using recrystallization of dewaxing stage-two slack wax in an oscillating crystallizer was developed. The possibility\\u000a of stable manufacture of wax with an oil content at more than 1 wt. % in processing raffinate from the 420–490C cut was demonstrated.

S. P. Yakovlev; V. A. Zakharov; V. A. Boldinov; E. A. Esipko; A. I. Frolov; V. V. Voidashevich

2006-01-01

356

Silicone waxes—synthesis via hydrosilylation in homo- and heterogeneous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicone waxes, i.e. polysiloxanes with a long alkyl chain (>C8) as a pendant group make one of the most important classes of modified polysiloxanes widely applied to many branches of industry. Main methods of synthesis of silicone waxes are based on catalytic processes of hydrosilylation of alkenes with poly(hydro, methyl)siloxanes. Results of studies on syntheses of silicone waxes in homo-

Hieronim Maciejewski; Agata Wawrzy?czak; Micha? Dutkiewicz; Ryszard Fiedorow

2006-01-01

357

Characterization of proteins with wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray solution scattering in both the small-angle (SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS) regimes is making an increasing impact on our\\u000a understanding of biomolecular complexes. The accurate calculation of WAXS patterns from atomic coordinates has positioned\\u000a the approach for rapid growth and integration with existing Structural Genomics efforts. WAXS data are sensitive to small\\u000a structural changes in proteins; useful for calculation of

Lee Makowski

2010-01-01

358

How the pilidium larva feeds  

PubMed Central

Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms.

2013-01-01

359

Biology and reproductive parameters of the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis--a new biological control agent of Old World climbing fern in Florida.  

PubMed

Neomusotima conspurcatalis Warren was first released in Florida as a weed biological control agent against Old World climbing fern in 2008, and readily established large field populations. A related biocontrol agent, Austromusotima camptozonale, had previously failed to establish despite several years of releases. Life history studies were conducted to determine whether aspects of the reproductive biology of N. conspurcatalis might account for these different outcomes. At 26.5°C, development from egg to adult averaged 22.2 ± 0.1 d, with 75% of larvae emerging as adults. The sex ratio averaged 1:0.8 (?:?), with both sexes emerging at the same time. Female moths typically mated once, on the first night after emergence, and began oviposition the next night. Females laid half their eggs on the first night and lived an average of 10.7 ± 0.8 d. Individual females maintained in cages with a male-biased sex ratio (3?:1?) produced significantly more larvae over their lifetime (140 ± 6.6 larvae) than individual females maintained at a ratio of 1?:1? (111 ± 9.1 larvae). Sexual selection, either through 'male-male competition' or 'female choice' was likely responsible for this result, because there were no significant differences in mating frequency, duration of ovipositional period or female longevity to otherwise explain the difference. Two-fold greater lifetime reproductive output (average 127 ± 6.3 larvae) and deposition of half this output on the first night of oviposition, likely contributed to rapid field establishment of N. conspurcatalis compared with A. camptozonale. PMID:22507003

Boughton, Anthony J; Pemberton, Robert W

2012-04-01

360

The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

Pastirik, E.

1980-01-01

361

Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana Altered in Epicuticular Wax and Leaf Morphology.  

PubMed Central

We report eight new mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana possessing altered leaf morphology and epicuticular wax. These were isolated from a T-DNA-mutagenized population using a visual screen for altered leaf reflectance, i.e. increased glaucousness or glossiness. The mutants were placed into three distinct classes based on alterations in overall plant morphology: knobhead (knb), bicentifolia (bcf), and wax. The four knb mutants formed callus-like growths in the axillary region of the rosette leaves and apical meristem, the two bcf mutants produced hundreds of narrow leaves, and the two wax mutants had leaves and stems that were more glossy than wild type and organs that fused during early development. Leaves of knb and bcf were more glaucous and abnormally shaped than wild type. Epicuticular wax crystals over knb and bcf leaf surfaces (where none were present on wild type) likely contributed to their more glaucous appearance. In contrast, the glossy appearance of the wax mutants was associated with a reduced epicuticular wax load on both leaves and stems. One representative from each phenotypic class was selected for detailed analyses of epicuticular wax chemistry. All three lines, knb1, bcf1, and wax1, had dramatic alterations in the total amounts and relative proportions of their leaf epicuticular wax constituents.

Jenks, M. A.; Rashotte, A. M.; Tuttle, H. A.; Feldmann, K. A.

1996-01-01

362

Cydia pomonella granulovirus Genotypes Overcome Virus Resistance in the Codling Moth and Improve Virus Efficiency by Selection against Resistant Hosts?  

PubMed Central

Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has been used for 15 years as a bioinsecticide in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) control. In 2004, some insect populations with low susceptibility to the virus were detected for the first time in southeast France. RGV, a laboratory colony of codling moths resistant to the CpGV-M isolate used in the field, was established with collection of resistant insects in the field followed by an introgression of the resistant trait into a susceptible colony (Sv). The resistance level (based on the 50% lethal concentrations [LC50s]) of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M isolate, the active ingredient in all commercial virus formulations in Europe, appeared to be over 60,000-fold compared to the Sv colony. The efficiency of CpGV isolates from various other regions was tested on RGV. Among them, two isolates (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased pathogenicity on RGV. I12 had already been identified as effective against a resistant C. pomonella colony in Germany and was observed to partially overcome the resistance in the RGV colony. The recently identified isolate NPP-R1 showed an even higher pathogenicity on RGV than other isolates, with an LC50 of 166 occlusion bodies (OBs)/?l, compared to 1.36 × 106 OBs/?l for CpGV-M. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two genotypes, one of which is similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r4 isolate obtained from four successive passages of NPP-R1 in RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion of the CpGV-M-like genotype and an increased pathogenicity against insects from the RGV colony.

Berling, Marie; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Soubabere, Olivier; Lery, Xavier; Bonhomme, Antoine; Sauphanor, Benoit; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

2009-01-01

363

Cydia pomonella granulovirus genotypes overcome virus resistance in the codling moth and improve virus efficiency by selection against resistant hosts.  

PubMed

Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has been used for 15 years as a bioinsecticide in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) control. In 2004, some insect populations with low susceptibility to the virus were detected for the first time in southeast France. RGV, a laboratory colony of codling moths resistant to the CpGV-M isolate used in the field, was established with collection of resistant insects in the field followed by an introgression of the resistant trait into a susceptible colony (Sv). The resistance level (based on the 50% lethal concentrations [LC(50)s]) of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M isolate, the active ingredient in all commercial virus formulations in Europe, appeared to be over 60,000-fold compared to the Sv colony. The efficiency of CpGV isolates from various other regions was tested on RGV. Among them, two isolates (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased pathogenicity on RGV. I12 had already been identified as effective against a resistant C. pomonella colony in Germany and was observed to partially overcome the resistance in the RGV colony. The recently identified isolate NPP-R1 showed an even higher pathogenicity on RGV than other isolates, with an LC(50) of 166 occlusion bodies (OBs)/microl, compared to 1.36 x 10(6) OBs/microl for CpGV-M. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two genotypes, one of which is similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r4 isolate obtained from four successive passages of NPP-R1 in RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion of the CpGV-M-like genotype and an increased pathogenicity against insects from the RGV colony. PMID:19114533

Berling, Marie; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Soubabere, Olivier; Lery, Xavier; Bonhomme, Antoine; Sauphanor, Benoît; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

2009-02-01

364

An ethylene response factor OsWR1 responsive to drought stress transcriptionally activates wax synthesis related genes and increases wax production in rice.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has revealed the major enzymes-involved in Arabidopsis and maize wax/cutin synthesis; however, there is limited information about the genes-associated with wax/cutin synthesis in rice. Here we report the characterization of an ethylene response factor gene in rice. This rice wax synthesis regulatory gene 1 (OsWR1) is a homolog of Arabidopsis wax/cutin synthesis regulatory gene WIN1/SHN1. Transcript analysis showed that OsWR1 is induced by drought, abscisic acid and salt, and is predominantly expressed in leaves. Functional analyses indicated that overexpressing OsWR1 (Ox-WR1) improved while RNA interference OsWR1 rice (RI-WR1) decreased drought tolerance, consistent with water loss and cuticular permeability, suggesting that OsWR1-triggered drought response might be associated with cuticular characteristics. In addition, OsWR1 activated the expression of the genes-related to oxidative stress response and membrane stability. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis further showed that OsWR1 modulated the wax synthesis through alteration of long chain fatty acids and alkanes, evidencing the regulation of OsWR1 in wax synthesis. Detection with real-time PCR amplification indicated that Ox-WR1 enhanced while RI-WR1 decreased the expression of wax/cutin synthesis related genes. Furthermore, OsWR1 physically interacted with the DRE and GCC box in the promoters of wax related genes OsLACS2 and OsFAE1'-L, indicating that OsWR1 at least directly modulates the expression of these genes. Thus our results indicate that OsWR1 is a positive regulator of wax synthesis related genes in rice, and this regulation, distinct from its homology regulator of WIN1/SHN1 in cutin synthesis, subsequently contributes to reduced water loss and enhanced drought tolerance. PMID:22130861

Wang, Youhua; Wan, Liyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Zhijin; Zhang, Haiwen; Quan, Ruidang; Zhou, Shirong; Huang, Rongfeng

2012-02-01

365

New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

2005-12-01

366

Cannibalistic feeding of larval Trichogramma carverae parasitoids in moth eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wasps of the genus Trichogramma parasitise the eggs of Lepidoptera. They may deposit one or many eggs in each host. Survival is high at low density but reaches a plateau as density increases. To reveal the mechanism by which excess larvae die we chose a lepidopteran host that has flattened, transparent eggs and used video microscopy to record novel feeding behaviours and interactions of larval Trichogramma carverae (Oatman and Pinto) at different densities. Single larvae show a rapid food ingestion phase, followed by a period of extensive saliva release. Ultimately the host egg is completely consumed. The larva then extracts excess moisture from the egg, providing a dry environment for pupation. When multiple larvae are present, the initial scramble for food results in the larvae consuming all of the egg contents early in development. All larvae survive if there is sufficient food for all to reach a threshold developmental stage. If not, physical proximity results in attack and consumption of others, continuing until the surviving larvae reach the threshold stage beyond which attacks seem to be no longer effective. The number of larvae remaining at the end of rapid ingestion dictates how many will survive to emerge as adults.

Heslin, Leeane M.; Merritt, David J.

2005-09-01

367

Occurrence of Lepidopterism caused by the moth Hylesia nigricans (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lepidopterism by Hylesia nigricans (Berg) moth is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil. Preventive strategies of control are proposed based on information on the biology and ecology of this moth. PMID:17934630

Iserhard, Cristiano A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Marchiori, Maria O; Teixeira, Eduardo C; Romanowski, Helena P

2007-01-01

368

Disease status and population origin effects on floral scent:: potential consequences for oviposition and fruit predation in a complex interaction between a plant, fungus, and noctuid moth.  

PubMed

In the Silene latifolia-Hadena bicruris nursery pollination system, the Hadena moth is both pollinator and seed predator of its host plant. Floral scent, which differs among S. latifolia individuals and populations, is important for adult Hadena to locate its host. However, the success of moth larvae is strongly reduced if hosts are infected by the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum, a pathogen that is transmitted by flower visitors. There were no qualitative differences between the scent of flowers from healthy and diseased plants. In addition, electroantennographic measurements showed that Hadena responded to the same subset of 19 compounds in samples collected from healthy and diseased plants. However, there were significant quantitative differences in scent profiles. Flowers from diseased plants emitted both a lower absolute amount of floral scent and had a different scent pattern, mainly due to their lower absolute amount of lilac aldehyde, whereas their amount of (E)-beta-ocimene was similar to that in healthy flowers. Dual choice behavioral wind tunnel tests using differently scented flowers confirmed that moths respond to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of floral scent, suggesting that they could use differences in floral scent between healthy and infected plants to discriminate against diseased plants. Population mean fruit predation rates significantly increased with population mean levels of the emission rates of lilac aldehyde per flower, indicating that selection on floral scent compounds may not only be driven by effects on pollinator attraction but also by effects on fruit predation. However, variation in mean emission rates of scent compounds per flower generally could not explain the higher fruit predation in populations originating from the introduced North American range compared to populations native to Europe. PMID:19241105

Dötterl, S; Jürgens, A; Wolfe, L; Biere, A

2009-03-01

369

What causes outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth has been present in North America for more than 100 years, and in many of the areas where it has become established\\u000a outbreaks occur with varying degrees of periodicity. There also exists extensive spatial synchrony in the onset of outbreaks\\u000a over large geographic regions. Density-dependent mortality clearly limits high-density populations, but there is little evidence\\u000a for strong

Andrew Liebhold; Joseph Elkinton; David Williams; Rose-Marie Muzika

2000-01-01

370

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

371

Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.  

PubMed

Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

2014-08-22

372

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies.

Karpati, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Carde, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

373

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth.  

PubMed

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant-insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones. PMID:16450082

Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

2006-03-01

374

The neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in flying moths.  

PubMed

In diverse insects, the forward positioning of the antenna is often among the first behavioral indicators of the onset of flight. This behavior may be important for the proper acquisition of the mechanosensory and olfactory inputs by the antennae during flight. Here, we describe the neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in hawk moths from behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological perspectives. The behavioral experiments indicated that a set of sensory bristles called Böhm's bristles (or hair plates) mediate antennal positioning during flight. When these sensory structures were ablated from the basal segments of their antennae, moths were unable to bring their antennae into flight position, causing frequent collisions with the flapping wing. Fluorescent dye-fills of the underlying sensory and motor neurons revealed that the axonal arbors of the mechanosensory bristle neurons spatially overlapped with the dendritic arbors of the antennal motor neurons. Moreover, the latency between the activation of antennal muscles following stimulation of sensory bristles was also very short (<10 ms), indicating that the sensorimotor connections may be direct. Together, these data show that Böhm's bristles control antennal positioning in moths via a reflex mechanism. Because the sensory structures and motor organization are conserved across most Neoptera, the mechanisms underlying antennal positioning, as described here, are likely to be conserved in these diverse insects. PMID:22660776

Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sudarsan, Subashini; Sane, Sanjay P

2012-09-01

375

[The brown-tail moth of Bombyx Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Lepidoptera) responsible for lepidopterism in France: biological interpretation].  

PubMed

A scanning electron microscope study has enabled an explanation as to why the brown-tail moth provokes Lepidopterism. The brown-tail moth only provokes Lepidopterism via a transmission of the urticating hairs of its caterpillar. Urticating moths (genus Hylesia and Anaphae) protect their eggs and young caterpillars with urticating hairs, thus it is very ambiguous to label erucism as the contact dermatitis produced by caterpillar production or Lepidopterism as the contact dermatitis caused by moth urticating hairs. PMID:2510913

Lamy, M; Werno, J

1989-01-01

376

The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.  

PubMed

Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-11-01

377

Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.  

PubMed

Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

Caumes, E

2000-05-01

378

Microsatellites reveal genetic differentiation among populations in an insect species with high genetic variability in dispersal, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Little is known about genetic differentiation and gene flow in populations of insect species that have a high genetic variability in dispersal but lack morphologically visible morphs that disperse. These characteristics apply to the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a major pest of fruits and nuts. Larvae were collected from three orchards each of pome fruits, stone fruits and nut trees in a major fruit growing area of Switzerland (Valais) and from six further (mainly apple) orchards throughout this country. Nine microsatellite loci were used to investigate genetic differentiation and the amount of gene flow among the sampled populations. All the loci were shown to be polymorphic in all populations. The number of alleles ranged from five to 15 over nine loci for the 15 populations. Significant genetic differentiation was noted among the populations from apple, apricot and walnut in the Valais region. Furthermore, among the eight populations sampled from apple in different geographic regions throughout Switzerland, AMOVA and pairwise FST analysis revealed significant population genetic differentiation even between populations collected from orchards 10 km apart. These results indicate that a distinct prevailing characteristic, in the present case the sedentary behaviour of the moth, can shape population architecture. PMID:19366473

Chen, M H; Dorn, S

2010-02-01

379

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites of Sigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat were Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A, Geotrichum sp., Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organisms Prototheca zopfii and Acremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species of Pichia, Sporopachydermia and Candida were isolated. Mating types of Clavispora opuntiae were at a ratio 70 h- to 3 h- and reduced levels of sporulation suggested low pressure for sexual reproduction in this habitat. Sigelgaita sp. probably was not an important vector for Clavispora opuntiae because it was not isolated from an adult or eggs of this moth. PMID:1285643

Rosa, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; de Morais, P B; Gomes, C M; Monteiro, R F

1992-11-01

380

Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.  

PubMed

We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb. PMID:12877831

Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

2003-07-01

381

Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern  

PubMed Central

Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

2013-01-01

382

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

383

How the pilidium larva grows  

PubMed Central

Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history.

2014-01-01

384

Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.  

PubMed

Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

2014-04-01

385

Cross-resistance of the diamondback moth indicates altered interactions with domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.  

PubMed Central

We compared responses to six insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis by a Cry1A-resistant strain (NO-QA) and a susceptible strain (LAB-P) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The resistant strain showed > 100-fold cross-resistance to Cry1J and to H04, a hybrid with domains I and II of Cry1Ab and domain III or Cry1C. Cross-resistance was sixfold to Cry1Bb and threefold to Cry1D. The potency of Cry1I did not differ significantly between the resistant and susceptible strains. Cry2B did not kill resistant or susceptible larvae. By combining these new data with previously published results, we classified responses to 14 insecticidal crystal proteins by strains NO-QA and LAB-P. NO-QA showed high levels of resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac and high levels of cross-resistance to Cry1F, Cry1J, and H04. Cross-resistance was low or nil to Cry1Ba, Cry1Bb, Cry1C, Cry1D, Cry1I, and Cry2A. Cry1E and Cry2B showed little or no toxicity to susceptible or resistant larvae. In dendrograms based on levels of amino acid sequence similarity among proteins, Cry1F and Cry1J clustered together with Cry1A proteins for domain II, but not for domain I or III. High levels of cross-resistance to Cry1Ab-Cry1C hybrid H04 show that although Cry1C is toxic to NO-QA, domain III or Cry1C is not sufficient to restore toxicity when it is combined with domains I and II of Cry1Ab. Thus, diamondback moth strain NO-QA cross-resistance extends beyond the Cry1A family of proteins to at least two other families that exhibit high levels of amino sequence similarity with Cry1A in domain II (Cry1F and Cry1J) and to a protein that is identical to Cry1Ab in domain II (H04). The results of this study imply that resistance to Cry1A alters interactions between the insect and domain II.

Tabashnik, B E; Malvar, T; Liu, Y B; Finson, N; Borthakur, D; Shin, B S; Park, S H; Masson, L; de Maagd, R A; Bosch, D

1996-01-01

386

A mycological investigation of phane, an edible caterpillar of an emperor moth, Imbrasia belina.  

PubMed

Phane worm (an edible larval stage of the emperor moth Imbrasia belina Westwood) is an important food source, and its harvesting is an economic activity in rural Botswana. When the larva is feeding on leaves and later during processing, phane gets contaminated with fungi from the leaves and soil. We examined 73 jars, each containing approximately 608 g (+/-0.25 g) of processed phane stored under laboratory conditions (temperature range 20 to 24 degrees C and 50 to 80% relative humidity) and combined intestinal contents of five phane squeezed into each of 74 Duran bottles for fungi. Ninety seven percent of 74 samples of intestinal contents and 57.5% of 73 laboratory-stored phane were positive for either molds and/or yeasts. Yeast population in intestinal contents ranged from 2 x 10(1) CFU/g to 5 x 10(3) CFU/g, whereas molds ranged from 1 x 10(1) CFU/g to 2 x 10(2) CFU/g. Laboratory-stored phane had a mold population of 1 x 10(2) CFU/g to 6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Species of Chaetomium 13.8%, Aspergillus 12.4%, Fusarium 5.5%, and Mucor racemosus 4.1% were the most prevalent in intestinal contents of phane, whereas Aspergillus 42.1%, Penicillium 33.9%, and Mucorales 5.7% were predominant in laboratory-stored phane. The important mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, P. aurantiogriseum, P. citrinum, and P. verrucosum were isolated mainly from the laboratory-stored phane. The genera isolated from both intestinal phane contents and laboratory-stored phane were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Drechslera, Fusarium, Mucor, Phoma, and Penicillium, suggesting recontamination of phane during drying and storage. PMID:10643785

Simpanya, M F; Allotey, J; Mpuchane, S F

2000-01-01

387

Genomic sequence analysis of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

The CL3 plaque isolate of Plutella xylostella multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (PlxyMNPV-CL3) exhibits a high degree of genetic similarity with the Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) but is significantly more virulent against the diamondback moth, P. xylostella, than AcMNPV. To identify genetic differences between PlxyMNPV-CL3 and AcMNPV that may account for the difference in virulence against P. xylostella, the genome sequence of the CL3 plaque isolate of PlxyMNPV was determined and compared to the genome sequence of AcMNPV isolate C6. The PlxyMNPV genome is 134,417 bp, 523 bp larger than the AcMNPV-C6 genome, and the nucleotide sequence is almost completely co-linear with that of AcMNPV-C6. Of the 153 open reading frames (ORFs) identified in PlxyMNPV, 151 had homologues in AcMNPV-C6, with a mean amino acid sequence identity of 98.5%. The PlxyMNPV genome possessed two features previously reported for other variants of AcMNPV: (1) an extra baculovirus repeated orf (bro) sequence located between the plxy29/ac30 and sod ORFs, and (2) the deletion of the AcMNPV pnk/pnl polynucleotide kinase/ligase gene. In addition, an 817 bp insert of unknown origin located between the fp25K and lef-9 genes was discovered. This insert contained two small ORFs and was detected in both tissue culture- and larvae-derived PlxyMNPV DNA by PCR. Finally, the PlxyMNPV-CL3 ie-2 gene encodes a product with a low level (37.3%) of amino acid sequence identity with the AcMNPV-C6 ie-2 product. PlxyMNPV-CL3 apparently acquired this variant ie2 gene by recombination with an undescribed nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:17671835

Harrison, Robert L; Lynn, Dwight E

2007-12-01

388

Effect of Temperature on Demographic Parameters of the Hawthorn Red Midget Moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella, on Apple  

PubMed Central

The hawthorn red midget moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most serious pests of apple and pear orchards in Iran, however little is known about its biology and relationship with environmental factors. The reproduction and population growth parameters of P. corylifoliella were examined at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 33 and 35° C) on apple var. golden delicious. At 35° C, P. corylifoliella failed to develop beyond the first instar. The lowest (13%) and highest (64%) mortality rates of immature stages occurred at 25 and 33° C, respectively. The life expectancies (ex) decreased with increasing of age and the life expectancies of one-day-old larvae were estimated to be 38.68, 33.34, 35.11, 26.28 and 16.11 days at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 33° C, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rate (Ro) and finite rate of increase (?) at 25° C were 0.100 ± 0.003, 47.66 ± 5.47 and 1.11 ± 0.00, respectively. The mean generation time (T) decreased with increasing temperatures from 86.86 ± 0.53 days at 15° C to 33.48 ± 0.16 days at 30° C. Doubling time (DT) varied significantly with temperature and the shortest doubling time was obtained at 25° C. The results of this study provide direction for future research on evaluating the performance of P. corylifoliella and the efficiency of its natural enemies in apple orchards under variable environmental conditions.

Amiri, Abbas; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Zamani, Abbas Ali; Kamali, Karim

2010-01-01

389

Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop. PMID:16022312

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

2005-06-01

390

Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation.  

PubMed

Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

2014-01-01

391

Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation  

PubMed Central

Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (?55.8 to ?45.12 mV), pH (6.79–6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.

Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

2014-01-01

392

Effect of curing conditions on the morphology of wax modified coil coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy and optical light microscopy were applied to analyze the morphology within the bulk and on the surface of wax modified topcoats. To vary the processing conditions resin formulations were coated on primed steel sheets and cured at peak metal temperatures of 230, 240 and 250°C. By Raman spectroscopy dispersed, spherical wax domains within the bulk and on the

J. Fischer; G. M. Wallner; B. Strauß; L. Jandel

2009-01-01

393

After-Waxing of Sized Cotton and Polyester-Cotton Blend Yarns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After-waxing of filament yarns is a common practice in the synthetic weaving industry. However, very little information is available on after-waxing of spun cotton and polyester/cotton blend warps. Analysis of different softeners has been carried out to f...

1973-01-01

394

The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism.

Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

2011-01-01

395

External Leaf Waxes and their Modification by Root-Treatment of Plants with Trichloroacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of the wax 'bloom' of peas and brassicas by trichloroacetate which is used for selective grass killing in agriculture made examination of waxes with reference to their position on the leaf desirable. The application of sequential extraction by hydrocarbon solvents has been developed to maintain morphological separation of lipoidal substances. Physical separation of extracted substances by solvent partition

O. R. Dewey; G. S. Hartley; J. W. G. MacLauchlan

1962-01-01

396

Edible film based on candelilla wax to improve the shelf life and quality of avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect of addition of ellagic acid (at three different concentrations) into candelilla wax matrix on shelf life and quality of whole avocados was studied. Control treatments were avocados coated with candelilla wax without ellagic acid and avocados without coating. The fruits were chosen for their maturity, size, free from infection and physical defects. All those samples

Saul Saucedo-Pompa; Romeo Rojas-Molina; Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó; Aide Saenz-Galindo; Heliodoro de La Garza; Diana Jasso-Cantú; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2009-01-01

397

What Do Microbes Encounter at the Plant Surface? Chemical Composition of Pea Leaf Cuticular Waxes1  

PubMed Central

In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed.

Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L.W.; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

2005-01-01

398

What do microbes encounter at the plant surface? Chemical composition of pea leaf cuticular waxes.  

PubMed

In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed. PMID:16113231

Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L W; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

2005-09-01

399

Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Methodology Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Principal results Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C20–C36 (in esters C36–C56). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes—surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata—showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. Conclusions The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses.

Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

2011-01-01

400

Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW

Ramy R. Habashy; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim; Amani E. Khalifa; Mohammed M. Al-Azizi

2005-01-01

401

Delay of avocado ( Persea americana) fruit ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene and wax treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, has been shown to extend the postharvest storage period of avocado fruit. Waxing is also known to extend the storage life of avocado by reducing water loss and modifying the fruit internal atmosphere. In this study, 1-MCP and waxing were used to investigate their combined effects on ripening characteristics of avocado fruit. Preclimacteric

Jiwon Jeong; Donald J. Huber; Steven A. Sargent

2003-01-01

402

Rheological Properties of Model and Crude Oil Systems when Wax Precipitate under Quiescent and Flowing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wax precipitation and deposition is a recurring challenge in transportation of crude oil, and increased knowledge about the behavior of such systems is necessary. Microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to follow the crystallisation of wax for two model systems. The amount of solid was also determined by the latter method as well. The flow and viscoelastic behavior were

Shukun Chen; Gisle Øye; Johan Sjöblom

2007-01-01

403

Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the ? oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images

Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

1977-01-01

404

Effect of waxing and cellophane lining on chemical quality indices of citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of waxing of the fruit and of the use of cellophane for lining storage boxes on chemical quality indices (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) and flavour scores of Feutrell's Early mandarin during storage at room conditions were determined. Maximum changes during storage of waxed mandarins in film-lined boxes occurred in ethanol contents which were followed by acetaldehyde, total soluble solids

Maqbool Ahmad; Ismail Khan

1987-01-01

405

What affects the rate of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) spread: winter temperature or forest susceptibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of winter temperature and forest susceptibility on the rate of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) range expansion in the lower peninsula of Michigan was analysed using historical data on moth counts in a grid of pheromone-baited traps collected from 1985 to 1994 by the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The rate of spread was measured by the distance between

Alexei A. Sharov; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Andrew M. Liebhold; Stuart H. Gage

1999-01-01

406

Forty million years of mutualism: evidence for eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 +/- 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0-6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 +/- 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 +/- 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, O; Leebens-Mack, J

1999-08-01

407

Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths  

PubMed Central

In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

1999-01-01

408

An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.  

PubMed

Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

2010-09-14

409

Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls  

PubMed Central

Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%.

Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

410

Effects of alternative prey on predation by small mammals on gypsy moth pupae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work shows that predation by small mammals is a dominant cause of mortality of low-density gypsy moths in North America and that declines in small mammal density result in increases in gypsy moth density. Here we examined whether predation by small mammals is density dependent by way of a type III functional response, and how predation is influenced by

Joseph S. Elkinton; Andrew M. Liebhold; Rose-Marie Muzika

2004-01-01

411

Towards a Global Barcode Library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) Tussock Moths of Biosecurity Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDetecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic

Jeremy R. Dewaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble; Simon Joly

2010-01-01

412

Trypsin inhibitor in moth bean: thermal stability and changes during germination and cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin inhibitor from moth bean was studied for thermal stability and changes during germination and cooking. The application of dry heat did not inactivate the inhibitor. However, autoclaving at 120°C at 15lbs pressure destroyed inhibitor activity completely. The extracted inhibitor lost 70% activity in 60 min when incubated at 100°C. Soaking of moth bean seeds for 8 h decreased trypsin

S. S. Kadam; V. M. Ghorpade; R. N. Adsule; D. K. Salunkhe

1986-01-01

413

Her odours make him deaf: crossmodal modulation of olfaction and hearing in a male moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

All animals have to cope with sensory conflicts arising from simultaneous input of incongruent data to different sensory modalities. Nocturnal activity in moths includes mate-finding behaviour by odour detection and bat predator avoidance by acoustic detection. We studied male moths that were simultaneously exposed to female sex pheromones indicating the presence of a potential mate, and artificial bat cries simulating

Niels Skals; Peter Anderson; Morten Kanneworff; Christer Löfstedt; Annemarie Surlykke

2005-01-01

414

Predation risk and mating behavior: the responses of moths to bat-like ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of predators, animal* may reduce or alter their mating activities. There has been little experimental study of whether mating behavior varies with the level of predation risk. Two species of moths, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Pyralidae), significantly reduced their mate-seeking behavior under high levels of simulated predation risk. Male moths aborted upwind flight in a

LaUta Acharya; Jeremy N. McNeil

1998-01-01

415

Moth outbreaks in relation to oak masting and population levels of small mammals: an alternative explanation to the mammal-predation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between population outbreaks of the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar) and oak masting in North America has been interpreted as an effect of reduced predation on moth pupae from small mammals after years of acorn failure. However, moth defoliation could be a consequence of high acorn production rather than of acorn failure, as all moth outbreaks in two

Vidar Selås

2003-01-01

416

Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes within host cadavers in dry soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine whether entomopathogenic nematode emergence from host cadavers is influenced by soil moisture, whether the nematodes can survive adverse desiccating conditions in the soil by remaining within the host cadaver, and whether differences in such an adaptation occur among species. In the first experiment, wax moth larvae killed by Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobravis, or

Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer; Matthew E. Baur; S. Patricia Stock; Ho Yul Choo; Buncha Chinnasri; Harry K. Kaya

1997-01-01

417

Cotranslational Disassembly of Flock House Virus in a Cell-Free System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-studied member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, nonenveloped, icosahedral ri- boviruses with bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes (3, 15). FHV was originally isolated from the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica (28), but the virus replicates well in wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae and in Drosophila melano- gaster cells in culture (11). In

JULIAN A. HISCOX; L. ANDREW BALL

1997-01-01

418

Characterization of Proteins with Wide-angle X-ray Solution Scattering (WAXS)  

PubMed Central

X-ray solution scattering in both the small-angle (SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS) regimes is making an increasing impact on our understanding of biomolecular complexes. The accurate calculation of WAXS patterns from atomic coordinates has positioned the approach for rapid growth and integration with existing Structural Genomics efforts. WAXS data are sensitive to small structural changes in proteins; useful for calculation of the pair-distribution function at relatively high resolution; provides a means to characterize the breadth of the structural ensemble in solution; and can be used to identify proteins with similar folds. WAXS data are often used to test structural models, identify structural similarities and characterize structural changes. WAXS is highly complementary to crystallography and NMR. It holds great potential for the testing of structural models of proteins; identification of proteins that may exhibit novel folds; characterization of unfolded or natively disordered proteins; and detection of structural changes associated with protein function.

Makowski, Lee

2011-01-01

419

System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves  

DOEpatents

A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

Towler, Brian F. (Laramie, WY)

2007-09-04

420

Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

2014-05-01

421

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern.  

PubMed

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V

2012-05-01

422

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern  

PubMed Central

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

2012-01-01

423

Diester waxes containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids from the uropygial gland secretion of the white stork ( Ciconia ciconia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of the white stork secrets mono- and diester waxes as well as triglycerides, all of which contain unbranched\\u000a medium chain fatty acids. n-Decanol and n-dodecanol have been the only alcohols detected in both types of waxes. The diester\\u000a waxes contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids.

Jürgen Jacob

1976-01-01

424

75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...Request for Comments on the Scope of the Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...determinations requested by outside parties. See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's...

2010-08-13

425

75 FR 70713 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant...

2010-11-18

426

76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant...

2011-01-06

427

The larvae of European ascalaphidae (neuroptera).  

PubMed

The larvae of all the European genera of Ascalaphidae are compared for the first time, highlighting the differential characters for identification purposes. The larva of the genus Ascalaphus is described for the first time while those of Puer, Bubopsis and Deleproctophylla are deeply revised. Actually, the larvae of Ascalaphus festivus (Rambur), Puer maculatus (Olivier), Bubopsis agrionoides (Rambur), Deleproctophylla australis (Rambur), Libelloides latinus (Lefebvre), Libelloides corsicus (Rambur) and Libelloides siculus (Angelini) are described or accurately depicted for the first time. The known larvae of the genus Libelloides are reviewed. PMID:24870677

Badano, Davide; Pantaleoni, Roberto Antonio

2014-01-01

428

Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae.  

PubMed

Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

O'Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

2014-02-01

429

Isolation of Multiple Subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis from a Population of the European Sunflower Moth, Homoeosoma nebulella  

PubMed Central

Five subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from dead and diseased larvae obtained from a laboratory colony of the European sunflower moth, Homoeosoma nebulella. The subspecies isolated were B. thuringiensis subspp. thuringiensis (H 1a), kurstaki (H 3a3b3c), aizawai (H 7), morrisoni (H 8a8b), and thompsoni (H 12). Most isolates produced typical bipyramidal crystals, but the B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis isolate produced spherical crystals and the B. thuringiensis subsp. thompsoni isolate produced a pyramidal crystal. Analysis of the parasporal crystals by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the crystals from the B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and aizawai isolates contained a protein of 138 kDa whereas those from B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni contained a protein of 145 kDa. The crystals from B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis contained proteins of 125, 128, and 138 kDa, whereas those from B. thuringiensis subsp. thompsoni were the most unusual, containing proteins of 37 and 42 kDa. Bioassays of purified crystals conducted against second-instar larvae of H. nebulella showed that the isolates of B. thuringiensis subspp. aizawai, kurstaki, and thuringiensis were the most toxic, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC(inf50)s) of 0.15, 0.17, and 0.26 (mu)g/ml, respectively. The isolates of B. thuringiensis subspp. morrisoni and thompsoni had LC(inf50)s of 2.62 and 37.5 (mu)g/ml, respectively. These results show that a single insect species can simultaneously host and be affected by a variety of subspecies of B. thuringiensis producing different insecticidal proteins.

Itoua-Apoyolo, C.; Drif, L.; Vassal, J. M.; DeBarjac, H.; Bossy, J. P.; Leclant, F.; Frutos, R.

1995-01-01

430

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains.

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

431

Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for understanding interactions between biological as well as technical surfaces and waxes. PMID:16133211

Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

2006-01-01

432

Molecular characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense larvae in a patient with hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans.  

PubMed

We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense. PMID:22556085

Le Joncour, Alexandre; Lacour, Sandrine A; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

2012-05-01

433

Dispersal strategies in sponge larvae: integrating the life history of larvae and the hydrologic component  

Microsoft Academic Search

While known to be uniformly non-feeding, short-lived, and potentially short dispersing, sponge larvae display different behaviours (swimming ability and taxis). Our aim was to show whether sponge larvae with different behaviours exhibit different dispersal strategies under variable intensity of water movements. We first assessed the distribution of larvae of six taxa: Dictyoceratida spp., Dysidea avara, Crambe crambe, Phorbas tenacior, Scopalina

Simone Mariani; María-J. Uriz; Xavier Turon; Teresa Alcoverro

2006-01-01

434

Structure-activity relationship observations for the bagworm moth pheromone.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for the bagworm moth pheromone, (R)-2-pentyl decanoate, and a series of analogs with modifications in the alcohol portion of the molecule. Observed attractiveness of these analogs was related to molecular structure and their physical attributes using computational chemistry. Electrostatic potential and Van der Waals (VdW) electrostatic coded surface three-dimensional (3D) maps of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation of the pheromone show that size, shape, charge distribution, and chirality of the molecule are related to attractiveness. PMID:24226087

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Devilbiss, E D

1996-07-01

435

Veterinary pediatrics of butterflies, moths, and other invertebrates.  

PubMed

In the life cycle of invertebrate animals, the typical life history includes the egg and larval stage, which may be called the pediatric phases, representing development up to the point where the animal reaches adulthood with fully functional reproductive organs and full adult characteristics of morphology, coloration, physiology, and behavior. These typical immature or pediatric stages are found in both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This article reviews the factors that impact the health and survival of juvenile stages of butterflies and moths in particular, and what can be done to extend veterinarian care and advice to clients to invertebrate problems. PMID:22640542

Emmel, Thomas C

2012-05-01

436

Detection of Paenibacillus larvae subspecies larvae spores in naturally infected bee larvae and artificially contaminated honey by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary American foulbrood (AFB), a severe bacterial disease of honeybee brood, has recently been found in Uruguayan apiaries. Detection of the causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae subspecies larvae, is a very important concern in order to prevent disease dissemination and decrease of honey production. Since spores are the infective forms of this pathogen, in the present work we report the use

Claudia Piccini; Bruno D'Alessandro; Karina Antunez; Pablo Zunino

2002-01-01

437

Lotus-like biomimetic hierarchical structures developed by the self-assembly of tubular plant waxes.  

PubMed

Hierarchical roughness is beneficial for superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces. Biomimetic hierarchical surfaces were fabricated by replication of a micropatterned master surface and self-assembly of two kinds of tubular wax crystals, which naturally occur on the superhydrophobic leaves of Tropaeolum majus (L.) and Leymus arenarius (L.). These tubule forming waxes are multicomponent waxes, composed of a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons. Thermal evaporation of wax was used to cover artificial surfaces with a homogeneous wax layer and tubule formation was initiated by temperature and a solvent vapor phase. Based on this technique, various nanostructures produced by three-dimensional tubular waxes have been fabricated by changing the wax mass. Fabricated structures and surface chemistry mimic the hierarchical surfaces of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning plant surfaces. The influence of structures on superhydrophobicity at different length scales is demonstrated by investigation of contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, droplet evaporation and propensity of air pocket formation as well as adhesive forces. The optimal structural parameters for superhydrophobicity and low static contact angle hysteresis, superior to natural plant leaves including Lotus, have been identified and provide a useful guide for development of biomimtetic superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:19132938

Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Niemietz, Adrian; Koch, Kerstin

2009-02-01

438

Self-healing of voids in the wax coating on plant surfaces.  

PubMed

The cuticles of plants provide a multifunctional interface between the plants and their environments. The cuticle, with its associated waxes, is a protective layer that minimizes water loss by transpiration and provides several functions, such as hydrophobicity, light reflection and absorption of harmful radiation. The self-healing of voids in the epicuticular wax layer has been studied in 17 living plants by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the process of wax film formation is described. Two modes of wax film formation, a concentric layer formation and striped layer formation, were found, and the process of multilayer wax film formation is discussed. A new method for the preparation of small pieces of fresh, water-containing plant specimens for AFM investigations is introduced. The technique allows AFM investigations of several hours duration without significant shrinkage or lateral drift of the specimen. This research shows how plants refill voids in their surface wax layers by wax self-assembly and should be useful for the design of self-healing materials. PMID:19376765

Koch, Kerstin; Bhushan, Bharat; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2009-05-13

439

Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?  

PubMed Central

The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

Ballestriero, R

2010-01-01

440

Acute and Reproductive Effects of Align(R), an Insecticide Containing Azadirachtin, on the Grape Berry Moth, Lobesia botrana  

PubMed Central

Azadirachtin, derived from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae), seems promising for use in integrated pest management programs to control a variety of pest species. A commercial formulation of azadirachtin, Align®, has been evaluated against different developmental stages of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). When administered orally, Align reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5, and 10 mg litre-1. At the highest doses, fecundity and fertility were zero, but longevity was not affected. An LC50 of 231.5 mg litre-1 was obtained when Align was sprayed on eggs less than 1 day old. Hatching of all egg classes was significantly reduced, and this reduction was more pronounced for eggs less than 24 h old. LC50 values of 2.1 mg litre-1 for first instars and 18.7 mg litre-1 for third instars were obtained when Align was present in the diet. Larvae reared on a diet containing different concentrations of Align did not molt into adults at the highest concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 1.2), and 50% molted at the lowest concentration (0.15). Phenotypic effects included inability to molt properly and deformities. The combination of acute toxicity and low, effective concentrations of Align observed in this study could lead to the inclusion of insecticides containing azadirachtin in integrated management programs against this pest.

Irigaray, F. Javier Saenz-De-Cabezon; Moreno-Grijalba, Fernando; Marco, Vicente; Perez-Moreno, Ignacio

2010-01-01

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