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1

KR-62980: a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist with weak adipogenic effects.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the target for the anti-diabetic drugs including thiazolidinediones. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel PPARgamma agonist KR-62980. KR-62980 acted as a selective PPARgamma agonist in transactivation assay with an EC50 of 15 nM. In fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, KR-62980 induced [3H]-deoxyglucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of insulin. KR-62980 was weakly adipogenic with little induction of aP2 mRNA, and was able to antagonize the adipogenic effects of rosiglitazone in C3H10T1/2 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of KR-62980 revealed that the compound exhibited good oral bioavailability of 65% with a terminal elimination half-life of 2.5 h in the rat. Treatment of high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice with KR-62980 for 14 days reduced plasma glucose levels with little side effects with regard to weight gain, cardiac hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity. These results suggest that KR-62980 acts as a selective PPARgamma modulator with anti-hyperglycemic activity, and that the mechanism of actions of KR-62980 appears to be different from that of rosiglitazone with improved side effect profiles. PMID:16797489

Kim, Kwang Rok; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Seung Jun; Rhee, Sang Dal; Jung, Won Hoon; Yang, Sung-Don; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

2006-08-14

2

Novel PPAR? partial agonists with weak activity and no cytotoxicity; identified by a simple PPAR? ligand screening system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the transcriptional factor that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis\\u000a and widely well-known as molecular targets for improvement of metabolic disorder. Because major transcriptional activity of\\u000a PPARs depends on their proper ligands, the studies for PPAR ligands have been continuously developed. We previously reported\\u000a the simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems to screen PPAR ligands and

Min-Chul ChoDong-Hun; Dong-Hun Lee; Eun Jin Kim; Jee-young Lee; Jeong-Woo Kang; Jong Hwan Song; Youhoon Chong; Yangmi Kim; Jin-Tae Hong; Do-Young Yoon

3

?-Galactosylceramide Analogs with Weak Agonist Activity for Human iNKT Cells Define New Candidate Anti-Inflammatory Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells with invariant T cell receptor ? chains (iNKT cells) are a unique lymphocyte subset that responds to recognition of specific lipid and glycolipid antigens. They are conserved between mice and humans and exert various immunoregulatory functions through their rapid secretion of a variety of cytokines and secondary activation of dendritic cells, B cells and NK

Gabriel Bricard; Manjunatha M. Venkataswamy; Karl O. A. Yu; Jin S. Im; Rachel M. Ndonye; Amy R. Howell; Natacha Veerapen; Petr A. Illarionov; Gurdyal S. Besra; Qian Li; Young-Tae Chang; Steven A. Porcelli

2010-01-01

4

Agonist and antimineralocorticoid activities of spirolactones.  

PubMed

To investigate the mechanism of action of antimineralocorticoids, a series of spirolactone analogues was evaluated for both mineralocorticoid antagonist and agonist activity. Antagonist activity was assessed by inhibition of aldosterone stimulated sodium transport employing toad bladder short-circuit current (SCC) measurements. Agonist activity was assessed in the same system by the direct effect of spirolactones on SCC. Opening of the gamma-lactone ring of a spirolactone dramatically decreased antagonist activity in the compound studied. Several C-7 chi-substitutions resulted in either enhanced or diminished activity, whereas deletion of the C-10 methyl group (i.e., 19-nor compound) had only minimal effects on antagonist potency. Agonist activity was demonstrable for three of the analogues studied: the 19-nor compound, and those containing a C-7 chi-substitution with a carboxyl isopropyl ester or a C-6-7 cyclopropyl linkage. The functional activity in toad bladder was compared to previous measurements of the relative binding affinity of the same spirolactones for mineralocorticoid receptors in rat kidney. Although there was some correlation between binding to rat kidney receptors and antagonist activity in the toad bladder, the results did not coincide in the case of the three spirolactones that possessed partial agonist activity. Some of the discrepancy may have resulted from differences between mammalian and amphibian receptors; however, intrinsic agonist activity limits antagonist potency and thus may cause a divergence between binding and functional studies limited to antagonist activity alone. Binding affinity, although indicative of total activity, fails to distinguish agonist from antagonist potency. PMID:183514

Sakauye, C; Feldman, D

1976-07-01

5

Activation of single heteromeric GABAA receptor ion channels by full and partial agonists  

PubMed Central

The linkage between agonist binding and the activation of a GABAA receptor ion channel is yet to be resolved. This aspect was examined on human recombinant ?1?2?2S GABAA receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells using the following series of receptor agonists: GABA, isoguvacine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), isonipecotic acid, piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S), imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA), 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isothiazolol (thio-4-PIOL) and 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL). Whole-cell concentration–response curves enabled the agonists to be categorized into four classes based upon their maximum responses. Single channel analyses revealed that the channel conductance of 25–27 pS was unaffected by the agonists. However, two open states were resolved from the open period distributions with mean open times reduced 5-fold by the weakest partial agonists. Using saturating agonist concentrations, estimates of the channel shutting rate, ?, ranged from 200 to 600 s?1. The shut period distributions were described by three or four components and for the weakest partial agonists, the interburst shut periods increased whilst the mean burst durations and longest burst lengths were reduced relative to the full agonists. From the burst analyses, the opening rates for channel activation, ?, and the total dissociation rates, k?1, for the agonists leaving the receptor were estimated. The agonist efficacies were larger for the full agonists (E ?7?9) compared to the weak partial agonists (?0.4–0.6). Overall, changes in agonist efficacy largely determined the different agonist profiles with contributions from the agonist affinities and the degree of receptor desensitization. From this we conclude that GABAA receptor activation does not occur in a switch-like manner since the agonist recognition sites are flexible, accommodating diverse agonist structures which differentially influence the opening and shutting rates of the ion channel.

Mortensen, Martin; Kristiansen, Uffe; Ebert, Bjarke; Fr?lund, Bente; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Smart, Trevor G

2004-01-01

6

PPAR ? agonist GW0742 interacts weakly with multiple nuclear receptors including the vitamin D receptor  

PubMed Central

A high throughput screening campaign was conducted to identify small molecules with the ability to inhibit the interaction between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and steroid receptor coactivator 2. These inhibitors represent novel molecular probes to modulate gene regulation mediated by VDR. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist GW0742 was among the identified VDR-coactivator inhibitors and has been characterized herein as a pan nuclear receptor antagonist at concentrations higher than 12.1 µM. The highest antagonist activity for GW0742 was found for VDR and the androgen receptor (AR). Surprisingly, GW0742 behaved as PPAR agonist/antagonist activating transcription at lower concentration and inhibiting this effect at higher concentrations. A unique spectroscopic property of GW0742 was identified as well. In the presence of rhodamine-derived molecules, GW0742+ increased fluorescence intensity and fluorescence polarization at an excitation wavelength of 595 nm and emission wavelength of 615 nm in a dose dependent manner. The GW0742-inhibited NR-coactivator binding resulted in a reduced expression of five different NR target genes in LNCaP cells in the presence of agonist. Especially VDR target genes CYP24A1, IGFBP-3 and TRPV6 were negatively regulated by GW0742. GW0742 is the first VDR ligand inhibitor lacking the secosteroid structure of VDR ligand antagonists. Nevertheless, the VDR-meditated downstream process of cell differentiation was antagonized by GW0742 in HL-60 cells that were pretreated with the endogenous VDR agonist 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Yasgar, Adam; Baranowski, Athena M.; Sidhu, Preetpal S.; McCallum, Megan M.; Pawlak, Alan J.; Teske, Kelly; Feleke, Belaynesh; Yuan, Nina Y.; Kevin, Chinedum; Bikle, Daniel D.; Ayers, Steven D.; Webb, Paul; Rai, Ganesha; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Maloney, David; Arnold, Leggy A.

2013-01-01

7

Galectins: new agonists of platelet activation.  

PubMed

Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury leads to the formation of a hemostatic plug and is crucial for hemostasis. However, uncontrolled platelet activation may lead to the formation of occlusive thrombi. Several soluble or matricellular proteins can activate platelets. In this article, we review recent advances in knowledge of the role of galectins in platelet physiology. In soluble or immobilized form, these endogenous glycan-binding proteins trigger platelet activation through the modulation of discrete signaling pathways. We discuss the role of platelet-galectin interactions not only in hemostasis, but also in chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:23509216

Schattner, Mirta; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

2013-07-01

8

Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

2009-05-28

9

Retinoic acid receptor agonist activity of naturally occurring diterpenes.  

PubMed

Recent accumulating evidence indicates that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may be useful for preventing or treating inflammation, allergy, and autoimmune diseases, despite its severe side effects. In this study, screening of 99 crude drugs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligands by luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the methanol extract of Aralia cordata Rhizoma most effectively activates the transcriptional activity of RAR?. Pimaradienoic acid (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) was subsequently isolated as the constituent capable of activating RAR. Pimaric acid and abietic acid, which have similar structures to pimaradienoic acid, were also found to be novel RAR agonists, although abietic acid only slightly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These three natural RAR agonists with diterpene structures, while structurally different from ATRA, were able to increase the mRNA levels of the constitutive androstane receptor in HepG2 cells, induce F9 cell differentiation followed by Cyp26a1 mRNA expression, and differentiate HL-60 cells via RAR activation in a different manner from ATRA. These results demonstrate that some diterpenes exist as naturally occurring RAR agonists and that the differences in chemical structure between ATRA and these diterpenes may induce distinct gene activation and a specific cellular response. PMID:24799257

Tanabe, Hiroki; Yasui, Tomohiro; Kotani, Hitoshi; Nagatsu, Akito; Makishima, Makoto; Amagaya, Sakae; Inoue, Makoto

2014-06-15

10

Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? modulators (SPPARM?): The next generation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-agonists  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease – the primary cause of death, worldwide. Although reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol can significantly reduce CV risk, a high level of residual risk persists, especially in people with obesity-related conditions, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha- (PPAR?-) agonists (e.g. fibrates), play a central role in the reduction of macro- and microvascular risk in these patients. However, the currently available fibrates are weak (PPAR?-agonists) with limited efficacy due to dose-related adverse effects. To address this problem, a new generation of highly potent and selective PPAR?-modulators (SPPARM?) is being developed that separate the benefits of the PPAR?-agonists from their unwanted side effects. Among these, aleglitazar (a dual PPAR?/? agonist) and GFT505 (a dual PPAR ?/? agonist) have recently entered late-phase development. Although both compounds are more potent PPAR?-activators than fenofibrate in vitro, only aleglitezar is more effective in lowering triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans. However, it is also associated with a potential risk of adverse effects. More recently, a highly potent, specific PPAR?-agonist (K-877) has emerged with SPPARM? characteristics. Compared to fenofibrate, K-877 has more potent PPAR?-activating efficacy in vitro, greater effects on triglycerides- and HDL-C levels in humans, and a reduced risk of adverse effects. If successful, K-877 has the potential to supersede the fibrates as the treatment of choice for patients with residual CV risk associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

2013-01-01

11

Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? modulators (SPPARM?): the next generation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-agonists.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease - the primary cause of death, worldwide. Although reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol can significantly reduce CV risk, a high level of residual risk persists, especially in people with obesity-related conditions, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha- (PPAR?-) agonists (e.g. fibrates), play a central role in the reduction of macro- and microvascular risk in these patients. However, the currently available fibrates are weak (PPAR?-agonists) with limited efficacy due to dose-related adverse effects. To address this problem, a new generation of highly potent and selective PPAR?-modulators (SPPARM?) is being developed that separate the benefits of the PPAR?-agonists from their unwanted side effects. Among these, aleglitazar (a dual PPAR?/? agonist) and GFT505 (a dual PPAR ?/? agonist) have recently entered late-phase development. Although both compounds are more potent PPAR?-activators than fenofibrate in vitro, only aleglitezar is more effective in lowering triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans. However, it is also associated with a potential risk of adverse effects. More recently, a highly potent, specific PPAR?-agonist (K-877) has emerged with SPPARM? characteristics. Compared to fenofibrate, K-877 has more potent PPAR?-activating efficacy in vitro, greater effects on triglycerides- and HDL-C levels in humans, and a reduced risk of adverse effects. If successful, K-877 has the potential to supersede the fibrates as the treatment of choice for patients with residual CV risk associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23721199

Fruchart, Jean-Charles

2013-01-01

12

FXR agonist activity of conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064  

SciTech Connect

Two series of conformationally constrained analogs of the FXR agonist GW 4064 1 were prepared. Replacement of the metabolically labile stilbene with either benzothiophene or naphthalene rings led to the identification of potent full agonists 2a and 2g.

Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caldwell, Richard D.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Navas, III, Frank; Parks, Derek J.; Spearing, Paul K.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce; (GSKNC)

2010-09-27

13

Partial agonist and antagonist activities of a mutant scorpion beta-toxin on sodium channels.  

PubMed

Scorpion ?-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu(15) in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4(E15R) is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4(E15R) revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4(E15R) is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4(E15R) are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4(E15R) can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward potential toxin-based therapeutics to prevent lethality from scorpion envenomation. PMID:20682774

Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

2010-10-01

14

Partial Agonist and Antagonist Activities of a Mutant Scorpion ?-Toxin on Sodium Channels*  

PubMed Central

Scorpion ?-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu15 in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4E15R is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4E15R revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4E15R is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4E15R are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4E15R can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward potential toxin-based therapeutics to prevent lethality from scorpion envenomation.

Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z.; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

2010-01-01

15

The ecdysteroid agonist/antagonist and brassinosteroid-like activities of synthetic brassinosteroid/ecdysteroid hybrid molecules.  

PubMed

A series of synthetic hybrid brassinosteroid/ecdysteroid structures has been assessed for their ecdysteroid agonist/antagonist activities in the Drosophila melanogaster B(II) cell bioassay and for brassinosteroid-like activity in the rice lamina inclination test. Most of the compounds proved inactive for ecdysteroid agonist activity, demonstrating the specificity of the ecdysteroid receptor for compounds closely structurally related to 20-hydroxyecdysone. However, compound 18, with 14alpha-hydroxy-7-en-6-one and 22S-hydroxy functionalities (as in most active ecdysteroids), possessed distinct agonist activity (median effective concentration = 1.4 x 10(-5) M), although this is still almost 2000-fold less active than 20-hydroxyecdysone (25). Compounds 13 and 15 possessed weak agonist activity. Compounds 5, 11 and 14 weakly antagonised the action of 20-hydroxyecdysone (at 5 x 10(-8) M) on B(II) cells. In the brassinosteroid bioassay, most of the tested compounds showed activity. This may reflect the metabolic capability of plant tissue to convert test compounds to more active analogues. However, it is clear that biological activity declines as the structure of the test compound deviates further from that of castasterone (16). Three ecdysteroids (25, 26 and 27) are completely inactive in the rice lamina inclination test. These studies demonstrate the high specificities of the insect ecdysteroid receptor and the plant brassinosteroid receptor and indicate that phytoecdysteroids, even in high concentrations, would not interfere with brassinosteroid signalling pathways in plants where the two classes of compounds co-occur. Equally, brassinosteroids would not interfere with ecdysteroid signalling in insects, especially if one takes into account the low concentrations of brassinosteroids in the diet of phytophagous insects. PMID:11529505

Voigt, B; Whiting, P; Dinan, L

2001-07-01

16

Neuromodulation of the agonistic behavior in two species of weakly electric fish that display different types of aggression.  

PubMed

Agonistic behavior has shaped sociality across evolution. Though extremely diverse in types of displays and timing, agonistic encounters always follow the same conserved phases (evaluation, contest and post-resolution) and depend on homologous neural circuits modulated by the same neuroendocrine mediators across vertebrates. Among neuromodulators, serotonin (5-HT) is the main inhibitor of aggression, and arginine vasotocin (AVT) underlies sexual, individual and social context differences in behavior across vertebrate taxa. We aim to demonstrate that a distinct spatio-temporal pattern of activation of the social behavior network characterizes each type of aggression by exploring its modulation by both the 5-HT and AVT systems. We analyze the neuromodulation of aggression between the intermale reproduction-related aggression displayed by the gregarious Brachyhypopomus gauderio and the non-breeding intrasexual and intersexual territorial aggression displayed by the solitary Gymnotus omarorum. Differences in the telencephalic activity of 5-HT between species were paralleled by a differential serotonergic modulation through 1A receptors that inhibited aggression in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum but not in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio. AVT injection increased the motivation towards aggression in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum but not in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio, whereas the electric submission and dominance observed in G. omarorum and B. gauderio, respectively, were both AVT-dependent in a distinctive way. The advantages of our model species allowed us to identify precise target areas and mechanisms of the neuromodulation of two types of aggression that may represent more general and conserved strategies of the control of social behavior among vertebrates. PMID:23761466

Silva, Ana C; Perrone, Rossana; Zubizarreta, Lucía; Batista, Gervasio; Stoddard, Philip K

2013-07-01

17

Cooperative Activation of Gene Expression by Agonists and Antagonists Mediated by Estrogen Receptor Heteroligand Dimer Complexes  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists are generally thought to inhibit estrogen action through competitive inhibition, resulting in receptor binding to antagonist rather than agonist. However, microarray analyses reveal a group of genes for which ER agonist and antagonist cooperatively regulate expression, suggesting additional models of combined agonist/antagonist action must exist. In conjunction with a chimeric reporter gene and two modified ERs, one [ER?(GSCKV)] with a mutation in the DNA-binding domain and the other (ER?-G521R) with a ligand-binding specificity mutation, we herein demonstrate that ER agonist and antagonist cooperatively activate gene expression through an ER heteroligand dimer complex (ER-HLD) consisting of one subunit of the receptor dimer bound to agonist and another occupied by antagonist. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed interaction between the agonist-bound and antagonist-bound receptors. This cooperative activation of gene expression was enhanced by steroid receptor coactivator 3 coactivator, and required each ligand-bound subunit of the dimer to bind to DNA, as well as both activation function 1 domains for maximal transcriptional activity. Ligand combinations able to induce ER-HLD transcriptional activity include the agonists 17?-estradiol or conjugated estrogens with the antagonists tamoxifen, raloxifene, bazedoxifene, or fulvestrant. Moreover, ER-HLD can activate transcription in the context of a natural promoter. Taken together, these findings broaden our understanding of the complex relationship between ER agonist and antagonist, and suggest a novel model by which cell and tissue selective effects of antiestrogens may be achieved.

Liu, Shuang; Han, Sang Jun

2013-01-01

18

Involvement of glucocorticoid receptor activation on anti-inflammatory effect induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist in mice.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory agents widely used for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent in vitro studies have proposed that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation is involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist-induced effects. In this study, to examine the involvement of the GR in PPAR? agonist- and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, we tested the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone (a GR agonist) with pioglitazone (a PPAR? agonist) or 6-[N-ethyl-N-(3-isopropoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)-amino] nicotinic acid (NEt-3IP; an RXR agonist) by using an experimental model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. We also evaluated the effects of a GR antagonist on PPAR? agonist- or RXR agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effects. Results showed that the GR antagonist RU486 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of GR or PPAR? agonists but not those of the RXR agonist. In addition, combinations of GR and PPAR? agonists or GR and RXR agonists had no effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema. Moreover, the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 and RXR antagonist 6-[N-4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-N-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)-amino] nicotinic acid (NS-4TF) had no effect on the anti-inflammatory effect of the GR agonist dexamethasone. Therefore, it is suggested that GR activation in vivo does not play a direct role in PPAR?/RXR heterodimer signaling. In contrast, pioglitazone showed a partial anti-inflammatory effect via GR activation. These data provide evidence for the pro-inflammatory activity of pioglitazone. PMID:24975659

Yamamoto, Atsuki; Kakuta, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Yukio

2014-09-01

19

Modification at the Lipophilic Domain of RXR Agonists Differentially Influences Activation of RXR Heterodimers  

PubMed Central

RXR permissive heterodimers are reported to be activated differently depending upon the chemical structure of RXR agonists, but the relationship of agonist structure to differential heterodimer activation has not been explored in detail. In this study, we performed systematic conversion of the alkoxy side chain of 5a (6-[ethyl-(3-isopropoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)amino]nicotinic acid, NEt-3IP) and evaluated the RXR-, PPAR/RXR-, and LXR/RXR-agonist activities of the products. The cyclopropylmethoxy analogue (5c) showed similar RXR- and LXR/RXR-agonistic activities to the benzyloxy analogue (5i) and n-propoxy analogue (5k) but exhibited more potent PPAR/RXR-agonistic activity than 5i or 5k. Differential modulation of RXR heterodimer-activating ability by conversion of the alkoxy group located in the lipophilic domain of the RXR-agonist common structure is expected be a useful approach in the design of new RXR agonists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia or type 2 diabetes.

2010-01-01

20

PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation while inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.  

PubMed

Drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, have been reported to affect bone cell function and fracture risk. In this study, we assessed the direct effects of PPAR-? agonists (rosiglitazone and troglitazone), used in the treatment of diabetes, and a PPAR-? agonist (fenofibrate), used to treat hyperlipidaemia, on the function of primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Formation of 'trabecular' bone structures by rat calvarial osteoblasts was reduced by up to 85% in cultures treated with rosiglitazone and by 45% in troglitazone-treated or fenofibrate-treated cultures; at the same time, lipid droplet formation was increased by 40-70%. The expression of key osteogenic markers was similarly downregulated in cultures treated with PPAR agonists, whereas adipogenesis markers were upregulated. Formation of osteoclasts in cultures derived from mouse marrow diminished with fenofibrate treatment, whereas both glitazones reduced resorptive activity without affecting osteoclast number. Metformin, although not a PPAR agonist, is also commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, metformin was found to have no effect on bone cell function. Taken together, these data suggest that PPAR-? agonists may enhance bone loss via increased adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation. In contrast, PPAR-? agonists may prevent bone loss. Given that the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise significantly, greater attention may need to be paid to the effects of PPAR agonists on bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24615887

Patel, Jessal J; Butters, Oliver R; Arnett, Timothy R

2014-06-01

21

Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha agonists for organ preservation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods and compositions for reducing, preventing or reversing organ damage and/or enhancing organ preservation by administration of a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR.alpha.) agonist to the organ.

2011-03-01

22

Agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux from human neutrophils. A common phenomenon during neutrophil activation.  

PubMed

When human peripheral blood neutrophils were stimulated with various agonists which activate and/or prime neutrophils, we found that Cl- efflux was enhanced with a dramatic (50%) loss of intracellular Cl-. Interestingly, the Cl- efflux was enhanced by both agonists which induce a rapid transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) [class I, e.g. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), interleukin-8 (IL8), platelet-activating factor, leukotriene B4 and C5a] and those which do not induce such an [Ca2+]i elevation [class II, e.g. tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)]. The time course of agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux differed depending on the agonist. Class I agonists such as IL8 and fMLP exhibited a 1 min lag phase before the onset of Cl- efflux; class II agonists such as GM-CSF and TNF displayed a 2 and 5 min lag phase, respectively. Both IL8 (class I)- and TNF (class II)-stimulated Cl- efflux exhibited similar sensitivity to inhibition by different types of ion transport inhibitors [ethacrynic acid (EA), amiloride, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4-4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid]. On the other hand, natural Cl- efflux, which is thought to be mainly mediated by Cl-/Cl- self exchange, was not inhibited by EA (0.5 mM) or amiloride (0.3 mM). These results imply that both class I and class II agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux occurs via a common Cl- transporter which is different from that reported previously in resting human neutrophils. Although all agonists which induced a Cl- efflux also induced shape change of neutrophils, there did not appear to be a causal relationship between shape change and agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux. However, a temporal correlation was found to exist between agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux and intracellular alkalinization following agonist stimulation. Agonist-stimulated Cl- efflux therefore seems to be a common phenomenon activated by several agonists which act through different signal transduction pathways. PMID:8494532

Shimizu, Y; Daniels, R H; Elmore, M A; Finnen, M J; Hill, M E; Lackie, J M

1993-05-01

23

Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 days after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.

Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hollenberg, Morley D. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.ed [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2010-07-15

24

Inhibitory Effects of Sigma-2 Receptor Agonists on T Lymphocyte Activation  

PubMed Central

Sigma (?) receptor ligands are essentially known for their effects on the nervous system although recent studies have shown their potential effects modulating some other pathophysiological processes as cell proliferation, cancer, and the immune response. Here, we have analyzed the actions of ?-1 and ?-2 receptors ligands on T cell activation. Our results show that treatment of Jurkat T cells with ?-2 agonists decreased the induction of the expression of Interleukin (IL)-2, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 by activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects take place at the transcriptional level since ?-2 agonists BD-737 and CB-184 diminished the activity of the promoters of those genes. Those immunosuppressive effects could be attributable to interference with transcription factor activation. Induced transcription mediated by Nuclear factor (NF)-?B or Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) was inhibited by ?-2 agonists. These effects seem to be specific for ?-2 agonists as no significant effects on T cell activation by ?-1 ligands PRE-084 and BD-1063 were found. Our results provide new insights into the immunomodulatory actions of ? ligands and describe a new property of ?-2 agonists, through inhibition of activation of transcription factors as NFAT by which these compounds are regulating gene expression. This may have important consequences on the possible therapeutic use of those compounds.

Iniguez, Miguel A.; Punzon, Carmen; Nieto, Raquel; Burgueno, Javier; Vela, Jose M.; Fresno, Manuel

2013-01-01

25

Enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity of chick muscle cells in culture by beta-adrenergic agonists.  

PubMed

The ability of beta-adrenergic agonists to stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC) in chick muscle cell culture prepared from 11-day old embryos was evaluated. After 72 h of preincubation (myotube formation) the medium was supplemented for 4 h with noradrenaline, ritodrine, isoproterenol or clenbuterol, at concentrations of 10(-12), 10(-9) and 10(-6) mol/l. No significant response of ODC activity to noradrenaline was observed. The highest concentration (10(-6) mol/l) of the beta-adrenergic agonists ritodrine and isoproterenol elevated the activity of ODC. Clenbuterol was the most active beta-adrenergic agonist. The lowest concentration (10(-12) mol/l) had an apparent effect on ODC activity in muscle cell culture, and the substitution of media at levels of 10(-9) and 10(-6) mol/l had a similar effect in comparison to controls. The potency of beta-adrenergic agonists in increasing ODC activity was on the following order: noradrenaline, ritodrine, isoproterenol, clenbuterol. Results indicate that beta-adrenergic agonists may directly stimulate ODC activity followed by physiological processes in the muscle cells in the early stage of chick embryonic development. PMID:8721251

Juráni, M; Vaneková, M; Vyboh, P; Lamosová, D

1996-01-01

26

Weak ELF Magnetic Field Effects on Hippocampal Rhythmic Slow Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigations have revealed that electrical activity within the central nervous system (CNS) can be affected by exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields. Many of these studies have implicated CNS structures exhibiting endogenous oscillation and synchrony as optimal sites for field coupling. A particularly well characterized structure in this regard is the rat hippocampus. Under urethane anesthesia, synchronous bursting

K. A. Jenrow; X. Zhang; W. E. Renehan; A. R. Liboff

1998-01-01

27

Activation of the Drosophila MLK by Ceramide Reveals TNF-? and Ceramide as Agonists of Mammalian MLK3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed lineage kinases (MLKs) are MAPKKK members that activate JNK and reportedly lead to cell death. However, the agonist(s) that regulate MLK activity remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate ceramide as the activator of Drosophila MLK (dMLK) and identify ceramide and TNF-? as agonists of mammalian MLK3. dMLK and MLK3 are activated by a ceramide analog and bacterial sphingomyelinase in vivo,

Pradeep Sathyanarayana; Manoj K. Barthwal; Chanakya N. Kundu; Andreas Bergmann; Guri Tzivion; Ajay Rana

2002-01-01

28

PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) AGONISTS AS PROMISING NEW MEDICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTION: PRECLINICAL EVIDENCE  

PubMed Central

This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-? and PPAR-?. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together this preclinical data indicates that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment.

Foll, Bernard Le; Ciano, Patricia Di; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2013-01-01

29

Structure-activity relationships of melanocortin agonists containing the benzimidazole scaffold.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system has been implicated in regulating various physiological processes including pigmentation, energy homeostasis, obesity, steroidogenesis cardiovascular, and exocrine gland function. The five melanocortin receptors that belong to the super family of G protein-coupled receptors are stimulated by naturally occurring agonists. The aim of this research was focused on the design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin ligands that contain the 1,2,5-trisubstituted benzimidazole scaffold. A series of benzimidazole analogues, with three points of diversity at positions 1, 2, and 5, were designed, synthesized, pharmacologically assayed at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R and resulted in ligands possessing a range of agonist activity from nm to no stimulation at up to 100 microM concentrations. This study demonstrates that the benzimidazole structure template can be appended with key melanocortin agonist amino acids for the design melanocortin receptor agonist ligands. PMID:17539826

Todorovic, Aleksandar; Joseph, Christine G; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Wood, Michael S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2007-05-01

30

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists as promising new medications for drug addiction: preclinical evidence.  

PubMed

This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-? and PPAR-?. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together these preclinical data indicate that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment. PMID:23614675

Le Foll, Bernard; Di Ciano, Patricia; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2013-06-01

31

Fibroblast Growth Factor Inducible (Fn14)-specific Antibodies Concomitantly Display Signaling Pathway-specific Agonistic and Antagonistic Activity*  

PubMed Central

The Fn14-specific monoclonal antibodies PDL192 and P4A8, which are under consideration in clinical trials, showed no agonistic activity with respect to IL8 production and cell death induction. However, oligomerization with protein G or binding to Fc? receptors converted both anti-Fn14 antibodies into potent agonists. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), the ligand of Fn14, occurs naturally in two forms with partly different signaling capabilities, as a membrane-bound ligand and as a soluble trimeric molecule. Although membrane TWEAK strongly triggers all Fn14-associated pathways, soluble TWEAK predominately triggers the alternative nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) pathway and enhances TNF-induced cell death but has only a poor effect on the classical NF?B pathway and chemokine production. Thus, the oligomerized and Fc?R-bound anti-Fn14 mAbs mimicked the activity of membrane TWEAK. Notably, both anti-Fn14 antibodies significantly triggered p100 processing, the hallmark of the alternative NF?B pathway, and therefore resembled soluble TWEAK. In contrast to the latter, however, the anti-Fn14s showed no effect on TNF receptor 1-induced cell death and P4A8 even blocked the corresponding TWEAK response. Thus, we showed that Fn14 antibodies display an alternative NF?B pathway-specific agonistic activity but fail to phenocopy other activities of soluble TWEAK, whereas oligomerized or Fc?R-bound Fn14 antibodies fully mimic the activity of membrane TWEAK. In view of the trivalent nature of the TWEAK-Fn14 interaction, this suggests that the alternative NF?B pathway is uniquely responsive already to Fn14 dimerization enabling antibodies to elicit an unnatural response pattern distinct from that of the naturally occurring Fn14 ligands.

Salzmann, Steffen; Seher, Axel; Trebing, Johannes; Weisenberger, Daniela; Rosenthal, Alevtina; Siegmund, Daniela; Wajant, Harald

2013-01-01

32

Diverging Mechanisms of Activation of Chemokine Receptors Revealed by Novel Chemokine Agonists  

PubMed Central

CXCL8/interleukin-8 is a pro-inflammatory chemokine that triggers pleiotropic responses, including inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing and tumorigenesis. We engineered the first selective CXCR1 agonists on the basis of residue substitutions in the conserved ELR triad and CXC motif of CXCL8. Our data reveal that the molecular mechanisms of activation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 are distinct: the N-loop of CXCL8 is the major determinant for CXCR1 activation, whereas the N-terminus of CXCL8 (ELR and CXC) is essential for CXCR2 activation. We also found that activation of CXCR1 cross-desensitized CXCR2 responses in human neutrophils co-expressing both receptors, indicating that these novel CXCR1 agonists represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents. Further, these selective CXCR1 agonists will aid at elucidating the functional significance of CXCR1 in vivo under pathophysiological conditions.

Sarmiento, Jose; Shumate, Christie; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Ravindran, Aishwarya; Villegas, Leon; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Navarro, Javier

2011-01-01

33

Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity via the generation of platelet activating factor agonists  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have established that pro-oxidative stressors suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipids with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) agonist activity. Although exposure to the pro-oxidative stressor cigarette smoke (CS) is known to exert immunomodulatory effects, little is known regarding the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in these events. The current studies sought to determine the role of PAF-R signaling in CS-mediated immunomodulatory effects. We demonstrate that CS exposure induces the generation of a transient PAF-R agonistic activity in the blood of mice. CS exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity in a PAF-R-dependent manner as PAF-R-deficient mice were resistant to these effects. Blocking PAF-R agonist production either by systemic antioxidants or treatment with serum PAF-acetyl hydrolase enzyme blocked both the CS-mediated generation of PAF-R-agonists and PAF-R dependent inhibition of CHS reactions, indicating a role for oxidized glycerophosphocholines with PAF-R agonistic activity in this process. In addition, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition did not block PAF-R agonist production but prevented CS-induced inhibition of CHS. This suggests that COX-2 acts downstream of the PAF-R in mediating CS-induced systemic immunosuppression. Moreover, CS-exposure induced a significant increase in the expression of the regulatory T cell reporter gene in FoxP3EGFP mice but not in FoxP3EGFP mice on a PAF-R-deficient background. Finally, Treg depletion via anti-CD25 antibodies blocked CS-mediated inhibition of CHS, indicating the potential involvement of Tregs in CS-mediated systemic immunosuppression. These studies provide the first evidence that the pro-oxidative stressor CS can modulate cutaneous immunity via the generation of PAF-R agonists produced through lipid oxidation.

Sahu, Ravi P.; Petrache, Irina; Van Demark, Mary J; Rashid, Badri M.; Ocana, Jesus A.; Tang, Yuxuan; Yi, Qiaofang; Turner, Matthew J.; Konger, Raymond L.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

2013-01-01

34

Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.  

PubMed Central

1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT.

Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

1992-01-01

35

TRPA1 agonist activity of probenecid desensitizes channel responses: consequences for screening.  

PubMed

The transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel widely viewed as having therapeutic potential, particularly for pain-related indications. Realization of this potential will require potent, selective modulators; however, currently the pharmacology of TRPA1 is poorly defined. As TRPA1 is calcium permeable, calcium indicators offer a simple assay format for high-throughput screening. In this report, we show that probenecid, a uricosuric agent used experimentally in screening to increase loading of calcium-sensitive dyes, activates TRPA1. Prolonged probenecid incubation during the dye-loading process reduces agonist potency upon subsequent challenge. When Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-hTRPA1 or STC-1 cells, which endogenously express TRPA1, were dye loaded in the presence of 2?mM probenecid TRPA1, agonists appeared less potent; EC(50) for allyl isothiocyante agonists in CHO-hTRPA1 was increased from 1.5±0.19 to 7.32±1.20??M (P<0.01). No significant effect on antagonist potency was observed when using the agonist EC(80) concentration determined under the appropriate dye-loading conditions. We suggest an alternative protocol for calcium imaging using another blocker of anion transport, sulfinpyrazone. This blocker significantly augments indicator dye loading and the screening window, but is not a TRPA1 agonist and has no effect on agonist potency. PMID:22681402

McClenaghan, Conor; Zeng, Fanning; Verkuyl, Jan Martin

2012-12-01

36

Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on interleukin-5-induced eosinophil differentiation.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists have been suggested as novel therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory lung disease, such as allergic asthma. Treatment with PPAR agonists has been shown to inhibit airway eosinophilia in murine models of allergic asthma, which can occur through several mechanisms including attenuated generation of chemoattractants (e.g. eotaxin) and decreased eosinophil migrational responses. In addition, studies report that PPAR agonists can inhibit the differentiation of several cell types. To date, no studies have examined the effects of PPAR agonists on interleukin-5 (IL-5) -induced eosinophil differentiation from haemopoietic progenitor cells. Non-adherent mononuclear cells or CD34(+) cells isolated from the peripheral blood of allergic subjects were grown for 2 weeks in Methocult(®) cultures with IL-5 (10 ng/ml) and IL-3 (25 ng/ml) in the presence of 1-1000 nm PPAR? agonist (GW9578), PPAR?/? agonist (GW501516), PPAR? agonist (rosiglitazone) or diluent. The number of eosinophil/basophil colony-forming units (Eo/B CFU) was quantified by light microscopy. The signalling mechanism involved was assessed by phosphoflow. Blood-extracted CD34(+) cells cultured with IL-5 or IL-5 + IL-3 formed Eo/B CFU, which were significantly inhibited by rosiglitazone (100 nm, P < 0·01) but not GW9578 or GW501516. In addition, rosglitazone significantly inhibited IL-5-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We observed an inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on eosinophil differentiation in vitro, mediated by attenuation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signalling pathway. These findings indicate that the PPAR? agonist can attenuate tissue eosinophilia by interfering with local differentiative responses. PMID:24628018

Smith, Steven G; Hill, Mike; Oliveria, John-Paul; Watson, Brittany M; Baatjes, Adrian J; Dua, Benny; Howie, Karen; Campbell, Heather; Watson, Rick M; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

2014-07-01

37

Novel agonist monoclonal antibodies activate TrkB receptors and demonstrate potent neurotrophic activities.  

PubMed

Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) mediates neurotrophic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to increase neuronal survival, differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. The therapeutic potential of TrkB activation using BDNF has been demonstrated well in several preclinical models of CNS diseases, validating TrkB as a promising drug target. Therefore, we aimed to develop TrkB-specific receptor agonists by using a monoclonal antibody approach. After generation of hybridoma clones and assessment of their binding and functional activity, we identified five mouse monoclonal antibodies that show highly selective binding to TrkB and that induce robust activation of TrkB signaling. Epitope mapping studies using competition analysis showed that each of the monoclonal antibodies recognizes a unique binding site on TrkB, some of which are distinct from BDNF docking sites. These antibodies behave as true agonists based on their ability to both activate proximal and secondary signaling molecules downstream of TrkB receptors and promote neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. The binding affinities and the functional efficacy of these antibodies are comparable to those of BDNF, whereas they do not bind to the p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor at all. Therefore, they could represent novel reagents to explore the pathophysiological roles of TrkB and its potential therapeutic utility in treating CNS disorders. PMID:16971523

Qian, Ming D; Zhang, Jie; Tan, Xiang-Yang; Wood, Andrew; Gill, Davinder; Cho, Seongeun

2006-09-13

38

Orthogonal activation of the reengineered A3 adenosine receptor (neoceptor) using tailored nucleoside agonists  

PubMed Central

An alternative approach to overcome the inherent lack of specificity of conventional agonist therapy can be the reengineering of the GPCRs and their agonists. A reengineered receptor (neoceptor) could be selectively activated by a modified agonist, but not by the endogenous agonist. Assisted by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling, we pinpointed mutations of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) for selective affinity enhancement following complementary modifications of adenosine. Ribose modifications examined included, at 3?: amino, aminomethyl, azido, guanidino, ureido; and at 5?: uronamido, azidodeoxy. N6-variations included: 3-iodobenzyl, 5-chloro-2-methyloxybenzyl, and methyl. An N6-3-iodobenzyl-3?-ureido adenosine derivative 10 activated phospholipase C in COS-7 cells (EC50=0.18 ?M) or phospholipase D in chick primary cardiomyocytes mediated by a mutant (H272E), but not the wild-type, A3AR. The affinity enhancements for 10 and the corresponding 3?-acetamidomethyl analogue 6 were >100-fold and >20-fold, respectively. 10 concentration-dependently protected cardiomyocytes transfected with the neoceptor against hypoxia. Unlike 10, adenosine activated the wild-type A3AR (EC50 of 1.0 ?M), but had no effect on the H272E mutant A3AR (100 ?M). Compound 10 was inactive at human A1, A2A, and A2BARs. The orthogonal pair comprising an engineered receptor and a modified agonist should be useful for elucidating signaling pathways and could be therapeutically applied to diseases following organ-targeted delivery of the neoceptor gene.

Gao, Zhan-Guo; Duong, Heng T.; Sonin, Tatiana; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Van Rompaey, Philippe; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Mamedova, Liaman; Kim, Hea Ok; Kim, Myong Jung; Kim, Ae Yil; Liang, Bruce T.; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

39

PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) ? AGONISTS ENHANCE LUNG MATURATION IN A NEONATAL RAT MODEL  

PubMed Central

The nuclear transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? plays a central role in normal lung development. However, the effects of modulating PPAR? expression by exogenously administered PPAR? agonists on lung development and basic blood biochemical and metabolic profiles in a developing animal are not known. To determine these effects, newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were administered either diluent or rosiglitazone (RGZ), a potent PPAR? agonist, for either 1 or 7 days. Then the pups were sacrificed and the lungs were examined for specific markers of alveolar epithelial, mesenchymal, and vascular maturation, and lung morphometry. The effect of RGZ on a limited number of blood biochemical and metabolic parameters was also determined. Overall, systemically administered RGZ significantly enhanced lung maturation without affecting serum electrolytes, blood glucose, blood gases, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum cardiac troponin levels. The lung maturation effect of PPAR? agonists was also confirmed by another PPAR? agonist, the naturally occurring PPAR? ligand prostaglandin J2. We conclude that systemically administered RGZ significantly enhances lung maturation without significantly affecting the acute blood biochemical and metabolic profiles, providing rationale for further studying PPAR? agonists for enhancing lung maturation, and for promoting lung injury/repair in neonates.

Wang, Ying; Santos, Jamie; Sakurai, Reiko; Shin, Eugene; Cerny, Laura; Torday, John S.; Rehan, Virender K.

2010-01-01

40

Changes in agonist EMG activation level during MVC cannot explain early strength improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial gain in strength is often observed in the early phase of resistance training. The aim of this study was to address whether improved strength in the early phase of resistance training, can be attributed to increased activation, or to intra-muscular changes of the agonist muscle during maximal isometric torque production. Fourteen male subjects trained maximal isometric dorsiflexion during

Andreas Holtermann; Karin Roeleveld; Beatrix Vereijken; Gertjan Ettema

2005-01-01

41

NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.  

EPA Science Inventory

Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

42

Partial Agonist Activity of Bucindolol Is Dependent on the Activation State of the Human 1Adrenergic Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In contrast to other -blockers, bucindolol has failed to reduce mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. It is currently debated whether this is due to partial agonist activity of this agent. We investigated whether conflicting results previously reported concerning the intrinsic activity of bucindolol can be explained by species differences or by different activation states of -adrenergic receptors (-ARs)

Christoph Maack; Michael Böhm; Lydia Vlaskin; Ewtim Dabew; Kristina Lorenz; Hans-Joachim Schäfers; Martin J. Lohse; Stefan Engelhardt

43

Diffusion-limited reactions in G-protein activation: Unexpected Consequences of Antagonist and Agonist Competition  

PubMed Central

In this work, we ask whether the simultaneous movement of agonist and antagonist among surface receptors (i.e. continually associating and dissociating from individual receptors according to specified kinetics) has any unexpected consequences for G-protein activation and receptor desensitization. A Monte Carlo model framework is used to track the diffusion and reaction of individual receptors, allowing the requirement for receptors and G-proteins or receptors and kinases to find each other by diffusion (collision coupling) to be implemented explicitly. We find that at constant agonist occupancy the effect of an antagonist on both G-protein activation and the ratio of G-protein activation to receptor desensitization can be modulated by varying the antagonist dissociation kinetics. The explanation for this effect is that antagonist dissociation kinetics influence the ability of agonists to access particular receptors and thus reach G-proteins and kinases near those receptors. Relevant parameter ranges for observation of these effects are identified. These results are useful for understanding experimental and therapeutic situations when both agonist and antagonist are present, and in addition may offer new insights into insurmountable antagonism.

Brinkerhoff, Christopher J.; Choi, Ji Sun

2008-01-01

44

Weak estrogenic transcriptional activities of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S.  

PubMed

In 2011, the European Commission has restricted the use of Bisphenol A in plastic infant feeding bottles. In a response to this restriction, Bisphenol S is now often used as a component of plastic substitutes for the production of babybottles. One of the major concerns leading to the restriction of Bisphenol A was its weak estrogenic activity. By using two highly standardised transactivation assays, we could demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S is of a comparable potency. Furthermore, some insights about the structure-activity relationships of these two chemicals and their metabolites could be gained from in silico predictions of their relative estrogen receptor-binding affinities and their liver phase-I biotransformation. PMID:22507746

Grignard, Elise; Lapenna, Silvia; Bremer, Susanne

2012-08-01

45

Recovery of brain biomarkers following peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist neuroprotective treatment before ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Lipid lowering agent such as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are suggested as neuroprotective agents and may protect from the sequelae of brain ischemic stroke. Although the demonstration is not clearly established in human, the underlying molecular mechanism may be of interest for future therapeutic purposes. To this end, we have used our well established rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion pre-treated or not with fenofibrate or atorvastatin and performed a differential proteomics analyses of the brain and analysed the protein markers which levels returned to “normal” following pre-treatments with PPAR? agonists. Results In order to identify potential therapeutic targets positively modulated by pre-treatment with the PPAR? agonists, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome profiles between control, ischemia-reperfusion and pre-treated or not, were compared. The polypeptide which expression was altered following ischemia – reperfusion but whose levels remain unchanged after pre-treatment were characterized by mass spectrometry and further investigated by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry. A series of 28 polypeptides were characterized among which the protein disulfide isomerase reduction – a protein instrumental to the unfolded protein response system - was shown to be reduced following PPAR? agonists treatment while it was strongly increased in ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusions Pre-treatment with PPAR? agonist or atorvastatin show potential neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the PDI overexpression in conjunction with the preservation of other neuronal markers, several of which are associated with the regulation of protein homeostasis, signal transduction and maintenance of synaptic plasticity. This proteomic study therefore suggests that neuroprotective effect of PPAR? agonists supposes the preservation of the expression of several proteins essential for the maintenance of protein homeostasis not necessarily directly linked to PPAR? known-regulated targets.

2014-01-01

46

Differential anti-proliferative actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) activation has been a new approach to cancer therapy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of two structurally different PPARgamma agonists, rosiglitazone and KR-62980 on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both agonists inhibited the cell proliferation and colony formation via apoptosis. PTEN expression was increased with decreased Akt phosphorylation by the agonists, whereas agonists actions were abolished in PTEN knockdown cells, indicating the critical role of PTEN in the anti-proliferative effects of PPARgamma activation. Rosiglitazone induced the MCF-7 cell differentiation but KR-62980 did not alter the differentiation pattern with little effects on the lipid accumulation and the expression of lipogenesis markers. These results suggest that PPARgamma activation may result in the inhibition of cell proliferation and/or induction of cell differentiation depending on the type of PPARgamma agonists, and that KR-62980 may be useful in breast cancer therapy by inducing apoptosis. PMID:16806087

Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Soo; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

2006-08-28

47

Did Weak-line Quasars Just Begin an Active Phase?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are often defined by their prominent emission lines, and rare instances of AGN lacking strong emission features are often explained by the presence of a relativistically boosted radio jet (i.e., as for BL Lac objects). However, the SDSS has discovered a population of 80 high-redshift (z>2.2) radio-quiet quasars with weak emission lines (WLQs) not predicted by the standard orientation based model. Inclusive AGN selection approaches are now also revealing lower-redshift radio-quiet AGN lacking strong emission lines (around 100 objects to date), which are potential analogs to WLQs. Here, we describe our sample of low-redshift WLQ candidates, and we present follow-up multiwavelength observations for 26 objects. Our conclusion is WLQs likely have intrinsically weak broad emission line regions. Finally, we compare WLQs to accreting stellar mass black holes to explore the possibility that WLQs are in a short-lived evolutionary stage where quasar activity has only recently begun. Studying extreme examples of AGN like WLQs may lead to new insight into the formation of broad emission line regions in AGN. Support for this work was provided by a Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Vidi Fellowship.

Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; MacLeod, C. L.; Markoff, S.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.

2011-01-01

48

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone ameliorates murine lupus by induction of adiponectin.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease for which current therapy is suboptimal. SLE is characterized by autoantibody production, with renal disease and premature atherosclerosis being common and severe manifestations causing appreciable morbidity and mortality. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus for their insulin-sensitizing properties, but also have immunomodulatory effects. In this report, we show that the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone reduces autoantibody production, renal disease, and atherosclerosis in mouse models of SLE. The beneficial effect of rosiglitazone on SLE manifestations depends on the induction of adiponectin, because rosiglitazone has no effect on autoantibody production or renal disease in lupus mice that lack adiponectin. In addition, lupus mice that lack adiponectin develop more severe disease than adiponectin-sufficient lupus mice, indicating that endogenous adiponectin is involved in regulating disease activity. Furthermore, administration of exogenous adiponectin ameliorates disease. These experiments suggest that PPARgamma agonists may be useful agents for the treatment of SLE. They also demonstrate that induction of adiponectin is a major mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effects of PPARgamma agonists. PMID:19109165

Aprahamian, Tamar; Bonegio, Ramon G; Richez, Christophe; Yasuda, Kei; Chiang, Lo-Ku; Sato, Kaori; Walsh, Kenneth; Rifkin, Ian R

2009-01-01

49

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist Rosiglitazone Ameliorates Murine Lupus by Induction of Adiponectin1  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease for which current therapy is suboptimal. SLE is characterized by autoantibody production, with renal disease and premature atherosclerosis being common and severe manifestations causing appreciable morbidity and mortality. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonists are widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus for their insulin-sensitizing properties, but also have immunomodulatory effects. In this report, we show that the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone reduces autoantibody production, renal disease, and atherosclerosis in mouse models of SLE. The beneficial effect of rosiglitazone on SLE manifestations depends on the induction of adiponectin, because rosiglitazone has no effect on autoantibody production or renal disease in lupus mice that lack adiponectin. In addition, lupus mice that lack adiponectin develop more severe disease than adiponectin-sufficient lupus mice, indicating that endogenous adiponectin is involved in regulating disease activity. Furthermore, administration of exogenous adiponectin ameliorates disease. These experiments suggest that PPAR? agonists may be useful agents for the treatment of SLE. They also demonstrate that induction of adiponectin is a major mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effects of PPAR? agonists.

Aprahamian, Tamar; Bonegio, Ramon G.; Richez, Christophe; Yasuda, Kei; Chiang, Lo-Ku; Sato, Kaori; Walsh, Kenneth; Rifkin, Ian R.

2010-01-01

50

The naturally occurring aliphatic isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin are weak agonists but potent non-competitive antagonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed

As the Ah receptor target gene products play a critical role in chemical carcinogenesis, antagonists are considered as potential chemopreventive agents. It is demonstrated in this paper that the isothiocyanates R,S-sulforaphane and erucin are non-competitive antagonists of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Both isothiocyanates were poor agonists for the receptor and elevated CYP1A1 mRNA levels only modestly when incubated with precision-cut rat liver slices. In contrast, the classical Ah receptor agonist benzo[a]pyrene was a potent inducer of CYP1A1 mRNA levels, with this effect being effectively antagonized by the two isothiocyanates. In further studies, it was demonstrated that R,S-sulforaphane could both prevent the interaction of and displace already bound benzo[a]pyrene from the Ah receptor, but no concentration dependency was observed with respect to the isothiocyanate. Both erucin and R,S-sulforaphane antagonized the benzo[a]pyrene-mediated increase in the CYP1A-mediated O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin in rat precision-cut liver slices. Of the two isomers of R,S-sulforaphane, the naturally occurring R-isomer was more effective than the S-isomer in antagonizing the activation of the Ah receptor by benzo[a]pyrene. Antagonism of the Ah receptor may be a major contributor to the established chemoprevention of aliphatic isothiocyanates. PMID:22643862

Abdull Razis, Ahmad F; Hanlon, Natalya; Soltys, Ewa; Krizova, Veronika; Iori, Renato; Plant, Kathryn E; Plant, Nick; Ioannides, Costas

2012-10-01

51

Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Agonists Inhibit Expression and Procoagulant Activity of Tissue Factor  

PubMed Central

Objective Tissue factor (TF), a major initiator of blood coagulation, contributes to inflammation, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling. Pharmacological agonists of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) attenuate systemic and pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling, and platelet aggregation. However, the influence of these novel pharmacophores on TF is unknown. Methods and Results We evaluated effects of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 on expression and activity of TF in human monocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Both compounds reduced expression of active TF protein in monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and a TF procoagulant activity assay. In-cell Western assay revealed that this effect was associated with a marked reduction of total and surface TF presentation. Furthermore, BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 decreased TF protein expression and the TF-dependent procoagulant activity in HUVECs stimulated with TNF-?. The sGC agonists also suppressed transcriptional activity of NF-?B. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of the ?1-subunit of sGC in monocytes and HUVECs confirmed that the inhibitory effect of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 on TF expression is mediated through the sGC-dependent mechanisms. Conclusions Inhibition of TF expression and activity by sGC agonists might provide therapeutic benefits in cardiovascular diseases associated with enhanced procoagulant and inflammatory response.

Sovershaev, Mikhail A.; Egorina, Elena M.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; ?sterud, Bjarne; Pacher, Pal; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Evgenov, Oleg V.

2010-01-01

52

Cutaneous sensory feedback plays a critical role in agonist-antagonist co-activation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cutaneous feedback in the agonist-antagonist co-activation mechanism during maximum voluntary force (MVF) production by the fingers. Seventeen healthy male subjects (age: 23.8 ± 1.0 years) were asked to press with maximal effort at their fingertips. Finger forces at the fingertips and muscle activities of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS, agonist) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC, antagonist) were recorded using force sensors and electromyography, respectively. There were two experimental conditions: with and without administration of a ring block to the fingers (i.e., anesthesia and normal conditions, or AC and NC, respectively). The ring block was used to deprive cutaneous feedback. Consistent with previous studies, finger MVF decreased significantly in AC compared with NC. Moreover, the force production of non-task fingers significantly increased in AC. Muscle activity of the EDC was significantly lower in AC than in NC; no significant changes in the FDS muscle were observed. The findings of this study show that cutaneous feedback not only increases MVF and force accuracy, but facilitates agonist-antagonist co-activation by increasing antagonist muscle activation. The results of this study imply that cutaneous feedback is linked to both primary and adjacent motor neurons. PMID:23836110

Kim, Yushin; Shim, Jae Kun; Hong, Young-Ki; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Bum Chul

2013-08-01

53

Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy.  

PubMed

Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) - surprisingly - autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

2014-01-01

54

Agonist-independent GPCR activity regulates anterior-posterior targeting of olfactory sensory neurons.  

PubMed

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to possess two different conformations, active and inactive, and they spontaneously alternate between the two in the absence of ligands. Here, we analyzed the agonist-independent GPCR activity for its possible role in receptor-instructed axonal projection. We generated transgenic mice expressing activity mutants of the ?2-adrenergic receptor, a well-characterized GPCR with the highest homology to odorant receptors (ORs). We found that mutants with altered agonist-independent activity changed the transcription levels of axon-targeting molecules--e.g., Neuropilin-1 and Plexin-A1--but not of glomerular segregation molecules--e.g., Kirrel2 and Kirrel3--thus causing shifts in glomerular locations along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Knockout and in vitro experiments demonstrated that Gs, but not Golf, is responsible for mediating the agonist-independent GPCR activity. We conclude that the equilibrium of conformational transitions set by each OR is the major determinant of expression levels of A-P-targeting molecules. PMID:24034253

Nakashima, Ai; Takeuchi, Haruki; Imai, Takeshi; Saito, Harumi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; Yu, C Ron; Storm, Daniel R; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

2013-09-12

55

Structure-activity relationships of vanilloid receptor agonists for arteriolar TRPV1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays a role in the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli and is a therapeutic target. However, functional TRPV1 that affect microvascular diameter are also expressed in peripheral arteries and we attempted to characterize this receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Sensory TRPV1 activation was measured in rats by use of an eye wiping assay. Arteriolar TRPV1-mediated smooth muscle specific responses (arteriolar diameter, changes in intracellular Ca2+) were determined in isolated, pressurized skeletal muscle arterioles obtained from the rat and wild-type or TRPV1?/? mice and in canine isolated smooth muscle cells. The vascular pharmacology of the TRPV1 agonists (potency, efficacy, kinetics of action and receptor desensitization) was determined in rat isolated skeletal muscle arteries. KEY RESULTS Capsaicin evoked a constrictor response in isolated arteries similar to that mediated by noradrenaline, this was absent in arteries from TRPV1 knockout mice and competitively inhibited by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. Capsaicin increased intracellular Ca2+ in the arteriolar wall and in isolated smooth muscle cells. The TRPV1 agonists evoked similar vascular constrictions (MSK-195 and JYL-79) or were without effect (resiniferatoxin and JYL-273), although all increased the number of responses (sensory activation) in the eye wiping assay. Maximal doses of all agonists induced complete desensitization (tachyphylaxis) of arteriolar TRPV1 (with the exception of capsaicin). Responses to the partial agonist JYL-1511 suggested 10% TRPV1 activation is sufficient to evoke vascular tachyphylaxis without sensory activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Arteriolar TRPV1 have different pharmacological properties from those located on sensory neurons in the rat.

Czikora, A; Lizanecz, E; Bako, P; Rutkai, I; Ruzsnavszky, F; Magyar, J; Porszasz, R; Kark, T; Facsko, A; Papp, Z; Edes, I; Toth, A

2012-01-01

56

Isoflavone Agonists of IRF-3 Dependent Signaling Have Antiviral Activity against RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

There is a growing need for novel antiviral therapies that are broad spectrum, effective, and not subject to resistance due to viral mutations. Using high-throughput screening methods, including computational docking studies and an interferon-stimulated gene 54 (ISG54)-luciferase reporter assay, we identified a class of isoflavone compounds that act as specific agonists of innate immune signaling pathways and cause activation of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3) transcription factor. The isoflavone compounds activated the ISG54 promoter, mediated nuclear translocation of IRF-3, and displayed highly potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and influenza virus. Additionally, these agonists efficiently activated IRF-3 in the presence of the HCV protease NS3-4A, which is known to blunt the host immune response. Furthermore, genomic studies showed that discrete innate immune pathways centered on IRF signaling were regulated following agonist treatment without causing global changes in host gene expression. Following treatment, the expression of only 64 cellular genes was significantly induced. This report provides the first evidence that innate immune pathways dependent on IRF-3 can be successfully targeted by small-molecule drugs for the development of novel broad-spectrum antiviral compounds.

Wang, Myra L.; Proll, Sean C.; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Katze, Michael G.; Gale, Michael; Iadonato, Shawn P.

2012-01-01

57

Orally Active Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists with Antinociceptive Effects in Mice  

PubMed Central

Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) agonists have antinociceptive effects in multiple preclinical models of acute and chronic pain. Although numerous A1AR agonists have been developed, clinical applications of these agents have been hampered by their cardiovascular side effects. Herein we report a series of novel A1AR agonists, some of which are structurally related to adenosine 5?-monophosphate (5?-AMP), a naturally occurring nucleotide that itself activates A1AR. These novel compounds potently activate A1AR in several orthogonal in vitro assays and are subtype selective for A1AR over A2AAR, A2BAR, and A3AR. Among them, UNC32A (3a) is orally active and has dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in wild-type mice. The antinociceptive effects of 3a were completely abolished in A1AR knockout mice, revealing a strict dependence on A1AR for activity. The apparent lack of cardiovascular side effects when administered orally and high affinity (Ki of 36 nM for the human A1AR) make this compound potentially suitable as a therapeutic.

Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Rittiner, Joseph E.; Randhawa, Amarjit S.; Coleman, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J.; Setola, Vincent; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.; Jin, Jian

2012-01-01

58

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 agonists attenuate nociception in response to noxious stimuli  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is activated by thrombin and can be selectively activated by synthetic peptides (PAR-1-activating peptide: PAR-1-AP) corresponding to the receptor's tethered ligand. PAR-1 being expressed by afferent neurons, we investigated the effects of PAR-1 agonists on nociceptive responses to mechanical and thermal noxious stimuli. Intraplantar injection of selective PAR-1-AP increased nociceptive threshold and withdrawal latency, leading to mechanical and thermal analgesia, while control peptide had no effect. Intraplantar injection of thrombin also showed analgesic properties in response to mechanical, but not to thermal stimulus. Co-injection of PAR-1-AP with carrageenan significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, while thrombin reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical but not thermal hyperalgesia. The fact that thrombin is not a selective agonist for PAR-1 may explain the different effects of thrombin and PAR-1-AP. These results identified analgesic properties for selective PAR-1 agonists that can modulate nociceptive response to noxious stimuli in normal and inflammatory conditions.

Asfaha, Samuel; Brussee, Valentine; Chapman, Kevin; Zochodne, Douglas W; Vergnolle, Nathalie

2002-01-01

59

FRET-Based Detection of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation by Orthosteric and Allosteric Agonists  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Methods Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M1-cam5) was expressed stably in HEK293 cells. Results The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with G?q/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M1 FRET (FEYFP/FECFP) that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine. Conclusion The M1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a valuable molecular reagent for pharmacological and structural investigations of M1 mAChR activation.

Markovic, Danijela; Holdich, Jonathan; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Mistry, Rajendra; Krasel, Cornelius; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Challiss, R. A. John

2012-01-01

60

A selective TrkB agonist with potent neurotrophic activities by 7,8-dihydroxyflavone.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a cognate ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor, mediates neuronal survival, differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. However, BDNF has a poor pharmacokinetic profile that limits its therapeutic potential. Here we report the identification of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone as a bioactive high-affinity TrkB agonist that provokes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone protected wild-type, but not TrkB-deficient, neurons from apoptosis. Administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone to mice activated TrkB in the brain, inhibited kainic acid-induced toxicity, decreased infarct volumes in stroke in a TrkB-dependent manner, and was neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson disease. Thus, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone imitates BDNF and acts as a robust TrkB agonist, providing a powerful therapeutic tool for the treatment of various neurological diseases. PMID:20133810

Jang, Sung-Wuk; Liu, Xia; Yepes, Manuel; Shepherd, Kennie R; Miller, Gary W; Liu, Yang; Wilson, W David; Xiao, Ge; Blanchi, Bruno; Sun, Yi E; Ye, Keqiang

2010-02-01

61

Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5HT 3AB receptors by agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT 3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5° was performed between -10° and 15° to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised

Gábor Maksay; Miklós Simonyi; Zsolt Bikádi

2004-01-01

62

Distinct indirect pathways govern human NK-cell activation by TLR-7 and TLR-8 agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

NK cells limit the emergence of cancers and viral infections by surveillance of 'missing-self' and 'induced-self' ligands, and by direct recognition of pathogen-associated molecules. We examined individual roles for Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-7 and -8 in human NK-cell activation using synthetic, small molecule agonists of either TLR-7 (imiquimod and 3M-001), TLR-8 (3M-002) or both TLR-7\\/8 (3M-003 and R-848) for comparison with

Kevin S. Gorski; Emily L. Waller; Jacqueline Bjornton-Severson; John A. Hanten; Christie L. Riter; William C. Kieper; Keith B. Gorden; Jeffrey S. Miller; John P. Vasilakos; Mark A. Tomai; Sefik S. Alkan

2006-01-01

63

Partial Agonist Activity of Bucindolol Is Dependent on the Activation State of the Human  1Adrenergic Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In contrast to other b-blockers, bucindolol has failed to reduce mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. It is currently debated whether this is due to partial agonist activity of this agent. We investigated whether conflicting results previously reported concerning the intrinsic activity of bucindolol can be explained by species differences or by different activation states of b-adrenergic receptors (b-ARs)

Christoph Maack; Michael Böhm; Lydia Vlaskin; Ewtim Dabew; Kristina Lorenz; Hans-Joachim Schäfers; Martin J. Lohse; Stefan Engelhardt

2003-01-01

64

Sulfonylurea agents exhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonistic activity.  

PubMed

Sulfonylurea (SU) agents, including glimepiride and glibenclamide, are the most widely used oral hypoglycemic drugs, which stimulate insulin secretion primarily by binding to the SU receptor on the plasma membrane of pancreatic beta-cells. Thiazolidinediones, such as pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, are other hypoglycemic agents that effectively improve peripheral insulin resistance through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). In the present study, we found that glimepiride specifically induced the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in luciferase reporter assays. Glimepiride enhanced the recruitment of coactivator DRIP205 and dissociation of corepressors such as nuclear receptor corepressor and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In addition, glimepride directly bound to PPARgamma in a manner competitive to rosiglitazone, which is a proven ligand for PPARgamma. Furthermore, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, glimepiride stimulated the transcriptional activity of the gene promoter containing PPAR-responsive element and altered mRNA levels of PPARgamma target genes including aP2, leptin, and adiponectin. Finally, glimepiride induced adipose differentiation in 3T3-F442A cells, which was known to differentiate into adipocytes in a PPARgamma-dependent manner. Most effects observed with glimepiride were also seen with glibenclamide. These data strongly suggest that glimepiride and glibenclamide, both of which belong to SU agents, should have PPARgamma agonist activity, whose potencies were 16-25% of the maximum level achieved by pioglitazone. Our observation that glimepiride and glibenclamide could act not only on SU receptor but also on PPARgamma may give an important clue to the development of novel antidiabetic drugs, which can enhance both insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells and peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:15764598

Fukuen, Shuichi; Iwaki, Masanori; Yasui, Atsutaka; Makishima, Makoto; Matsuda, Morihiro; Shimomura, Iichiro

2005-06-24

65

Design, Synthesis, and Functional Activity of Labeled CD1d Glycolipid Agonists  

PubMed Central

Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are restricted by CD1d molecules and activated upon CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipids to T cell receptors (TCRs) located on the surface of the cell. Because the cytokine response profile is governed by the structure of the glycolipid, we sought a method for labeling various glycolipids to study their in vivo behavior. The prototypical CD1d agonist, ?-galactosyl ceramide (?-GalCer) 1, instigates a powerful immune response and the generation of a wide range of cytokines when it is presented to iNKT cell TCRs by CD1d molecules. Analysis of crystal structures of the TCR??-GalCer–CD1d ternary complex identified the ?-methylene unit in the fatty acid side chain, and more specifically the pro-S hydrogen at this position, as a site for incorporating a label. We postulated that modifying the glycolipid in this way would exert a minimal impact on the TCR–glycolipid–CD1d ternary complex, allowing the labeled molecule to function as a good mimic for the CD1d agonist under investigation. To test this hypothesis, the synthesis of a biotinylated version of the CD1d agonist threitol ceramide (ThrCer) was targeted. Both diastereoisomers, epimeric at the label tethering site, were prepared, and functional experiments confirmed the importance of substituting the pro-S, and not the pro-R, hydrogen with the label for optimal activity. Significantly, functional experiments revealed that biotinylated ThrCer (S)-10 displayed behavior comparable to that of ThrCer 5 itself and also confirmed that the biotin residue is available for streptavidin and antibiotin antibody recognition. A second CD1d agonist, namely ?-GalCer C20:2 4, was modified in a similar way, this time with a fluorescent label. The labeled ?-GalCer C20:2 analogue (11) again displayed functional behavior comparable to that of its unlabeled substrate, supporting the notion that the ?-methylene unit in the fatty acid amide chain should be a suitable site for attaching a label to a range of CD1d agonists. The flexibility of the synthetic strategy, and late-stage incorporation of the label, opens up the possibility of using this labeling approach to study the in vivo behavior of a wide range of CD1d agonists.

2013-01-01

66

Molecular Recognition of Agonist and Antagonist for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this work is to find residues which selectively recognize PPAR-? agonists and antagonists. To achieve this aim, PPAR-?/13M and PPAR-?/471 complexes were subjected to perform molecular dynamics simulations. This research suggests that several key residues only participate in agonist recognition, while some other key residues only contribute to antagonist recognition. It is hoped that such work is useful for medicinal chemists to design novel PPAR-? agonists and antagonists.

Liu, Mengyuan; Wang, Lushan; Zhao, Xian; Sun, Xun

2014-01-01

67

Molecular recognition of agonist and antagonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this work is to find residues which selectively recognize PPAR-? agonists and antagonists. To achieve this aim, PPAR-?/13M and PPAR-?/471 complexes were subjected to perform molecular dynamics simulations. This research suggests that several key residues only participate in agonist recognition, while some other key residues only contribute to antagonist recognition. It is hoped that such work is useful for medicinal chemists to design novel PPAR-? agonists and antagonists. PMID:24837836

Liu, Mengyuan; Wang, Lushan; Zhao, Xian; Sun, Xun

2014-01-01

68

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone suppresses experimental autoimmune uveitis.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists are clinically used as anti-diabetes agents. Recent research has discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone, on murine model of endogenous uveitis. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) was induced by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein-derived peptide (1-20). Pioglitazone or vehicle was injected intravenously from day -1 (whole phase treatment) or day 8 (effector phase study) until day 20. Severity of EAU was assessed clinically and pathologically on day 21. Immunological status was assessed by measuring intraocular inflammatory factors, and activation and regulatory markers of CD4(+) T cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs). Treatment with pioglitazone suppressed both whole-phase and effector-phase of EAU. In effector-phase treatment, intraocular concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 were significantly suppressed, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and CD4(+)CD62L(high) naïve T cells increased in draining LNs, although there were no differences in CD4(+)CD44(high) effector T cells and IL-17 producing CD4(+) T cells between pioglitazone- and vehicle-treated mice. Administration of pioglitazone before and after the onset of EAU significantly reduced disease severity. The present results suggest that pioglitazone may be a novel therapeutic agent for endogenous uveitis. PMID:24107513

Okunuki, Yoko; Usui, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hayate; Tajima, Kazuki; Matsuda, Ryusaku; Ueda, Shunichiro; Hattori, Takaaki; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi

2013-11-01

69

Inactivation of androgen receptor coregulator ARA55 inhibits androgen receptor activity and agonist effect of antiandrogens in prostate cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiandrogens given to antagonize androgen receptor (AR) activity gradually lose their efficacy as antagonists and eventually function as agonists to promote (instead of block) AR-mediated growth of prostate cancer cells. The mechanisms of how antiandrogens acquire this agonist activity during hormonal therapy are largely unknown. Here, we report that expression of a dominant-negative AR-associated protein 55 (dARA55) coregulator, inhibits AR

Mujib M. Rahman; Hiroshi Miyamoto; Henry Lardy; Chawnshang Chang

2003-01-01

70

Agonist activity of LSD and lisuride at cloned 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from studies with phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens indicates that the 5HT2A receptor is the likely target for the initiation of events leading to hallucinogenic activity associated with LSD?and related\\u000a drugs. Recently, lisuride (a purported non-hallucinogenic congener of LSD) was reported to be a potent antagonist at the 5HT2C receptor and an agonist at the 5HT2A receptor. LSD exhibited agonist activity at

Christina T. Egan; Katharine Herrick-Davis; Keith Miller; Richard A. Glennon; M. Teitler

1998-01-01

71

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Agonists Suppress Tissue Factor Overexpression in Rat Balloon Injury Model with Paclitaxel Infusion  

PubMed Central

The role and underlying mechanisms of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?) agonist, on myocardial infarction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of this PPAR-? agonist on the expression of tissue factor (TF), a primary molecule for thrombosis, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. The PPAR-? agonist inhibited TF expression in response to TNF-? in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocytic leukemia cell line, and human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. The overexpression of TF was mediated by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was blocked by the PPAR-? agonist. The effective MAPK differed depending on each cell type. Luciferase and ChIP assays showed that transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), was a pivotal target of the PPAR-? agonist to lower TF transcription. Intriguingly, two main drugs for drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel or rapamycin, significantly exaggerated thrombin-induced TF expression, which was also effectively blocked by the PPAR-? agonist in all cell types. This PPAR-? agonist did not impair TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in three cell types. In rat balloon injury model (Sprague-Dawley rats, n?=?10/group) with continuous paclitaxel infusion, the PPAR-? agonist attenuated TF expression by 70±5% (n?=?4; P<0.0001) in injured vasculature. Taken together, rosiglitazone reduced TF expression in three critical cell types involved in vascular thrombus formation via MAPK and AP-1 inhibitions. Also, this PPAR-? agonist reversed the paclitaxel-induced aggravation of TF expression, which suggests a possibility that the benefits might outweigh its risks in a group of patients with paclitaxel-eluting stent implanted.

Muller, Dominik N.; Lee, Hyun-Chae; Youn, Seock-Won; Choi, Young-Eun; Lee, Sae-Won; Yang, Han-Mo; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Hyo-Soo

2011-01-01

72

Airway Peroxidases Catalyze Nitration of the ?2-Agonist Salbutamol and Decrease Its Pharmacological Activity  

PubMed Central

?2-Agonists are the most effective bronchodilators for the rapid relief of asthma symptoms, but for unclear reasons, their effectiveness may be decreased during severe exacerbations. Because peroxidase activity and nitrogen oxides are increased in the asthmatic airway, we examined whether salbutamol, a clinically important ?2-agonist, is subject to potentially inactivating nitration. When salbutamol was exposed to myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase or lactoperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrite (NO2?), both absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicated formation of a new metabolite with features expected for the nitrated drug. The new metabolites showed an absorption maximum at 410 nm and pKa of 6.6 of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In addition to nitrosalbutamol (m/z 285.14), a salbutamol-derived nitrophenol, formed by elimination of the formaldehyde group, was detected (m/z 255.13) by mass spectrometry. It is noteworthy that the latter metabolite was detected in exhaled breath condensates of asthma patients receiving salbutamol but not in unexposed control subjects, indicating the potential for ?2-agonist nitration to occur in the inflamed airway in vivo. Salbutamol nitration was inhibited in vitro by ascorbate, thiocyanate, and the pharmacological agents methimazole and dapsone. The efficacy of inhibition depended on the nitrating system, with the lactoperoxidase/H2O2/NO2? being the most affected. Functionally, nitrated salbutamol showed decreased affinity for ?2-adrenergic receptors and impaired cAMP synthesis in airway smooth muscle cells compared with the native drug. These results suggest that under inflammatory conditions associated with asthma, phenolic ?2-agonists may be subject to peroxidase-catalyzed nitration that could potentially diminish their therapeutic efficacy.

Sallans, Larry; Macha, Stephen; Brown, Kari; McGraw, Dennis W.; Kovacic, Melinda Butsch; Britigan, Bradley E.

2011-01-01

73

Positive Allosteric Modulators Differentially Affect Full versus Partial Agonist Activation of the Glycine Receptor  

PubMed Central

Taurine acts as a partial agonist at the glycine receptor (GlyR) in some brain regions such as the hippocampus, striatum, and nucleus accumbens. Ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhaled drugs of abuse are all known positive allosteric modulators of GlyRs, but their effects on taurine-activated GlyRs remain poorly understood, especially their effects on the high concentrations of taurine likely to be found after synaptic release. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes was used to compare the enhancing effects of ethanol, anesthetics, and inhalants on human homomeric ?1-GlyR activated by saturating concentrations of glycine versus taurine. Allosteric modulators had negligible effects on glycine-activated GlyR while potentiating taurine-activated currents. In addition, inhaled anesthetics markedly enhanced desensitization rates of taurine- but not glycine-activated receptors. Our findings suggest that ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhalants differentially affect the time courses of synaptic events at GlyR, depending on whether the receptor is activated by a full or partial agonist.

Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena

2012-01-01

74

Positive allosteric modulators differentially affect full versus partial agonist activation of the glycine receptor.  

PubMed

Taurine acts as a partial agonist at the glycine receptor (GlyR) in some brain regions such as the hippocampus, striatum, and nucleus accumbens. Ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhaled drugs of abuse are all known positive allosteric modulators of GlyRs, but their effects on taurine-activated GlyRs remain poorly understood, especially their effects on the high concentrations of taurine likely to be found after synaptic release. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes was used to compare the enhancing effects of ethanol, anesthetics, and inhalants on human homomeric ?1-GlyR activated by saturating concentrations of glycine versus taurine. Allosteric modulators had negligible effects on glycine-activated GlyR while potentiating taurine-activated currents. In addition, inhaled anesthetics markedly enhanced desensitization rates of taurine- but not glycine-activated receptors. Our findings suggest that ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhalants differentially affect the time courses of synaptic events at GlyR, depending on whether the receptor is activated by a full or partial agonist. PMID:22473615

Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

2012-07-01

75

Standard Opioid Agonists Activate Heteromeric Opioid Receptors: Evidence for Morphine and [d-Ala2-MePhe4-Glyol5]Enkephalin as Selective ?-? Agonists  

PubMed Central

Research in the opioid field has relied heavily on the use of standard agonist ligands such as morphine, [d-Ala2-MePhe4-Glyol5]enkephalin (DAMGO), U69593, bremazocine, [d-Pen2d-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE), and deltorphin-II as tools for investigating the three major types of opioid receptors, MOP (?), KOP (?), and DOP (?), that mediate antinociception. The functional selectivity of these ligands has been based on the assumption that opioid receptors exist as homomers. As numerous studies in cultured cells have suggested that opioid receptors can associate both as homomers and heteromers, we have investigated the selectivity of these standard ligands using intracellular calcium release and [35S]GTP?S assays in HEK-293 cells that contain singly and coexpressed opioid receptors. The present study reveals that morphine and DAMGO, traditionally classified as ? selective agonists, selectively activate ??? heteromeric opioid receptors with greater efficacy than homomeric opioid receptors. Moreover, standard ligands that have been widely employed as ?- and ?-selective agonists display little or no differences in the activation of homomeric and heteromeric opioid receptors. The far-reaching implications of these results are discussed.

2009-01-01

76

Small molecules with similar structures exhibit agonist, neutral antagonist or inverse agonist activity toward angiotensin II type 1 receptor.  

PubMed

Small differences in the chemical structures of ligands can be responsible for agonism, neutral antagonism or inverse agonism toward a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Although each ligand may stabilize the receptor conformation in a different way, little is known about the precise conformational differences. We synthesized the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan, R239470 and R794847, which induced inverse agonism, antagonism and agonism, respectively, and then investigated the ligand-specific changes in the receptor conformation with respect to stabilization around transmembrane (TM)3. The results of substituted cysteine accessibility mapping studies support the novel concept that ligand-induced changes in the conformation of TM3 play a role in stabilizing GPCR. Although the agonist-, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist-binding sites in the AT(1) receptor are similar, each ligand induced specific conformational changes in TM3. In addition, all of the experimental data were obtained with functional receptors in a native membrane environment (in situ). PMID:22719858

Miura, Shin-ichiro; Kiya, Yoshihiro; Hanzawa, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Naoki; Fujino, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Matsuo, Yoshino; Yanagisawa, Hiroaki; Koike, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Saku, Keijiro

2012-01-01

77

Small Molecules with Similar Structures Exhibit Agonist, Neutral Antagonist or Inverse Agonist Activity toward Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Small differences in the chemical structures of ligands can be responsible for agonism, neutral antagonism or inverse agonism toward a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Although each ligand may stabilize the receptor conformation in a different way, little is known about the precise conformational differences. We synthesized the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan, R239470 and R794847, which induced inverse agonism, antagonism and agonism, respectively, and then investigated the ligand-specific changes in the receptor conformation with respect to stabilization around transmembrane (TM)3. The results of substituted cysteine accessibility mapping studies support the novel concept that ligand-induced changes in the conformation of TM3 play a role in stabilizing GPCR. Although the agonist-, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist-binding sites in the AT1 receptor are similar, each ligand induced specific conformational changes in TM3. In addition, all of the experimental data were obtained with functional receptors in a native membrane environment (in situ).

Hanzawa, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Naoki; Fujino, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Matsuo, Yoshino; Yanagisawa, Hiroaki; Koike, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Saku, Keijiro

2012-01-01

78

Orally active carbamate prodrugs of the selective dopamine agonist N-0437: in-vivo activities in the 6-OHDA turning model and in-vitro activities.  

PubMed

The in-vivo activities of eight carbamate prodrugs of the D2-agonist N-0437 were determined by examining the effects of the prodrugs, after their oral administration in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the striatum. The resulting contralateral turning was used as an index of the activity of the compounds. A comparison of the area under the curve of the time-effect curves of the prodrugs, revealed a significantly improved duration of action compared with N-0437 during the period 11-15 h after administration, for the propylcarbamate and the dimethoxyphenylcarbamate derivatives. The 2,4-dimethylphenylcarbamate showed a significantly enhanced turning behaviour over the whole 15 h time interval in comparison with N-0437. Three of the nine carbamates were virtually unhydrolysed in rat serum at 37 degrees C, while the other test compounds were hydrolysed relatively slowly, with t1/2 values ranging from 1.5-6 h. The test compounds differed greatly in partition coefficients, which were estimated by RP-HPLC (1-12 times more lipophilic than N-0437). The potential cholinesterase inhibiting properties of the carbamate prodrugs were assessed by a simple in-vitro incubation assay, which showed that only two carbamates were very weak cholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:1676052

den Daas, I; de Boer, P; Tepper, P G; Rollema, H; Horn, A S

1991-01-01

79

In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors.  

PubMed

Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA>BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA>TBBPA>BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. PMID:23714657

Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

2013-10-01

80

Structure-Activity Relationships for Side Chain Oxysterol Agonists of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Oxysterols (OHCs) are byproducts of cholesterol oxidation that are known to activate the Hedeghog (Hh) signaling pathway. While OHCs that incorporate hydroxyl groups throughout the scaffold are known, those that act as agonists of Hh signaling primarily contain a single hydroxyl on the alkyl side chain. We sought to further explore how side chain hydroxylation patterns affect oxysterol-mediated Hh activation, by performing a structure–activity relationship study on a series of synthetic OHCs. The most active analogue, 23(R)-OHC (35), demonstrated potent activation of Hh signaling in two Hh-dependent cell lines (EC50 values 0.54–0.65 ?M). In addition, OHC 35 was approximately 3-fold selective for the Hh pathway as compared to the liver X receptor, a nuclear receptor that is also activated by endogenous OHCs. Finally, 35 induced osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast formation in cultured cells, indicating functional agonism of the Hh pathway.

2012-01-01

81

Inhibition of EMG activity in isometrically loaded agonist muscle preceding a rapid contraction.  

PubMed

It was recently suggested that a premotion silent period in isometrically loaded agonist muscle reflects transition process in switching motor program from an isometric to an isotonic condition. To test this hypothesis we investigated changes in EMG activity of a biceps muscle during motor preparatory phase in an entirely isometric paradigm. Five healthy volunteers produced rapid isometric elbow flexions superimposed on a slightly sustained contraction during self-paced and reaction time conditions. In addition to surface EMG, single motor units were recorded in agonist muscle prior to a rapid contraction. Silent period was found in responses of three out of five subjects, whereas inhibition of some but not all tonically active motor units was observed in all studied subjects prior to the phasic EMG burst. Inhibition of motor unit activity occurred more often in self-paced than reaction time contractions. Our results indicate that inhibition is not always powerful enough to produce a complete electrical silence, and weaker inhibitory effects were observed as a declining number of firing motor units. We conclude that the silent period or depression of the EMG activity is associated with changes in motor program from tonic to phasic muscle activation and is not merely a consequence of changes from an isometric to an isotonic condition. PMID:8404562

Wierzbicka, M M; Wolf, W; Staude, G; Konstanzer, A; Dengler, R

1993-01-01

82

Structure-activity relationships in nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) agonistic ?-glutamyldiaminopimelic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

N-acyl-?-glutamyldiaminopimelic acid is a prototype ligand for Nod1. We report a detailed SAR of C(12)-?-D-Glu-DAP. Analogues with glutaric or ?-aminobutyric acid replacing the glutamic acid show greatly attenuated Nod1-agonistic activity. Substitution of the meso-diaminopimelic (DAP) acid component with monoaminopimelic acid, L- or D-lysine, or cadaverine also results in reduced activity. The free amine on DAP is crucial. However, the N-acyl group on the D-glutamyl residue can be substituted with N-alkyl groups with full preservation of activity. The free carboxylates on the DAP and Glu components can also be esterified, resulting in more lipophilic but active analogues. Transcriptomal profiling showed a dominant up-regulation of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, which may explain the pronounced Th2-polarizing activity of these compounds and also implicate cell signaling mediated by TREM-1. These results may explain the hitherto unknown mechanism of synergy between Nod1 and TLR agonists and are likely to be useful in designing vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21299227

Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Ukani, Rehman; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S; Warshakoon, Hemamali J; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Wang, Xinkun; David, Sunil A

2011-03-10

83

Activation of MAPK by inverse agonists in six naturally occurring constitutively active mutant human melanocortin-4 receptors.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis. Defects in MC4R are the most common monogenic form of obesity, with about 170 distinct mutations identified in human. In addition to the conventional Gs-stimulated adenylyl cyclase pathway, it has been recently demonstrated that MC4R also activates mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Herein, we investigated the potential of four MC4R ligands that are inverse agonists at the Gs-cAMP signaling pathway, including agouti-related peptide (AgRP), MCL0020, Ipsen 5i and ML00253764, to regulate ERK1/2 activation (pERK1/2) in wild type and six naturally occurring constitutively active mutant (CAM) MC4Rs. We showed that these four inverse agonists acted as agonists for the ERK1/2 signaling cascade in wild type and CAM MC4Rs. Three mutants (P230L, L250Q and F280L) had significantly increased pERK1/2 level upon stimulation with all four inverse agonists, with maximal induction ranging from 1.6 to 4.2-fold. D146N had significantly increased pERK1/2 level upon stimulation with AgRP, MCL0020 or ML00253764, but not Ipsen 5i. The pERK1/2 levels of H76R and S127L were significantly increased only upon stimulation with AgRP or MCL0020. In summary, our studies demonstrated for the first time that MC4R inverse agonists at the Gs-cAMP pathway could serve as agonists in the MAPK pathway. These results suggested that there were multiple activation states of MC4R with ligand-specific and/or mutant-specific conformations capable of differentially coupling the MC4R to distinct signaling pathways. PMID:23791567

Mo, Xiu-Lei; Tao, Ya-Xiong

2013-12-01

84

Identity of Endogenous NMDAR Glycine Site Agonist in Amygdala Is Determined by Synaptic Activity Level  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity contribute to the acquisition and retention of conditioned fear memory. However, synaptic rules which may determine the extent of NMDA receptor activation in the amygdala, a key structure implicated in fear learning, remain unknown. Here we show that the identity of the NMDAR glycine site agonist at synapses in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala may depend on the level of synaptic activation. Tonic activation of NMDARs at synapses in the amygdala under low-activity conditions is supported by ambient D-serine, whereas glycine may be released from astrocytes in response to afferent impulses. The release of glycine may decode the increases in afferent activity levels into enhanced NMDAR-mediated synaptic events, serving an essential function in the induction of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways.

Li, Yan; Sacchi, Silvia; Pollegioni, Loredano; Basu, Alo C.; Coyle, Joseph T.; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.

2013-01-01

85

NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity  

PubMed Central

A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain.

2012-01-01

86

Relative efficacies of benzodiazepine receptor agonists in affecting red nucleus electrical activity in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of benzodiazepine receptor agonists on the electrical activity of red nucleus (RN) and neocortex were studied in rabbits. Under basal conditions, 30–40 µV, 40–50 Hz waves were recorded in RN. An increase of the amplitude (Emax, 75–90 µV) was found after IV injection of flunitrazepam (ED50, 0.14 mg\\/kg), diazepam (ED50, 0.28 mg\\/kg), alpidem (ED50, 1.57 mg\\/kg) and zolpidem

Marino Massotti; Dario De Medici; Carlo De Luca

1990-01-01

87

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives as novel human GPR119 agonists.  

PubMed

Through appropriate medicinal chemistry design tactics and computer-assisted conformational modeling, the initial lead A was evolved into a series of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives 3 as potent GPR119 agonists. This Letter describes the optimization of general structure 3, including the substituent(s) on dihydrobenzofuran, the R(1) attachment on right-hand piperidine nitrogen, and the left-hand piperidine/piperazine and its attachment R(2). The efforts led to the identification of compounds 13c and 24 as potent human GPR119 modulators with favorable metabolic stability, ion channel activity, and PXR profiles. PMID:24755425

Ye, Xiang-Yang; Morales, Christian L; Wang, Ying; Rossi, Karen A; Malmstrom, Sarah E; Abousleiman, Mojgan; Sereda, Larisa; Apedo, Atsu; Robl, Jeffrey A; Miller, Keith J; Krupinski, John; Wacker, Dean A

2014-06-01

88

Optimization of a Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Agonist Containing a Quinolinone Core  

PubMed Central

The optimization of a series of S1P1 agonists with limited activity against S1P3 is reported. A polar headgroup was used to improve the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lead quinolinone 6. When dosed orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg, the azahydroxymethyl analogue 22 achieved statistically significant lowering of circulating blood lymphocytes 24 h postdose. In rats, a dose-proportional increase in exposure was measured when 22 was dosed orally at 2 and 100 mg/kg.

2011-01-01

89

Biphasic dose-dependent modulation of cardiac parasympathetic activity by moxonidine, an imidazoline I1-receptor agonist.  

PubMed

Peripheral beta-adrenergic blockade and activation of central alpha2-adrenergic receptors have parasympathomimetic effects. The impact of activation of central imidazoline I1-receptors on vagal activity is not yet clear, but there is some evidence that imidazoline I1-receptors agonists may inhibit the parasympathetic system. Parasympatholytic effects may represent a risk for patient with reduced parasympathetic activity. To clarify the effect of imidazoline I1-receptors stimulation on vagal activity, increasing doses of moxonidine were applied subcutaneously to rats with implanted telemetric transmitters. Heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity were analyzed. Both, low (0.04, 0.12, and 0.36 mg/kg) and high (1.08 and 3.24 mg/kg), doses of moxonidine reduced the low-frequency power of systolic pressure variability, an index of sympathetic vascular modulation. Despite this reduction, low moxonidine doses neither reduced heart rate nor increased baroreflex gain. A decline of very low frequency power of heart rate variability, a sign of parasympatholysis, was observed with low doses of moxonidine, which can explain the absence of change in heart rate. High doses of moxonidine profoundly augmented very low and high-frequency power of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity. These data suggest that the stimulation of imidazoline I1-receptors is not only sympatholytic but also seems to have as well a weak parasympatholytic effect. However, high doses of moxonidine are strongly parasympathomimetic through the activation of central alpha2-adrenoceptors. Recruitment of alpha2-adrenoceptors also results in manifestation of several side effects. PMID:19034032

Turcani, Marian

2008-12-01

90

Chloride conductance activated by external agonists and internal messengers in rat peritoneal mast cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Stimulation of mast cells by externally applied secretagogues activated a slowly developing membrane current. With high external and low internal chloride (Cl-) concentrations, the current reversed at about -40 mV, but when external Cl- was made equal to internal Cl-, the reversal potential shifted to about 0 mV, demonstrating that the current carrier was Cl-. 2. In addition to external agonists, internally applied cyclic AMP and high concentrations of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i could also activate the Cl- current. However, elevated [Ca2+]i produced only slow and incomplete activation. This suggests that the Cl- current is not directly Ca2+ activated. Also, activation of Cl- current by external agonists and by cyclic AMP was unimpaired when [Ca2+]i was clamped to low levels with internal ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), indicating that elevated [Ca2+]i is not necessary for activation of the Cl- current. Although activation by cyclic AMP was faster than that produced by elevated [Ca2+]i, it still required tens of seconds; thus the effect of cyclic AMP was also likely to be indirect. 3. Internal guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S) could also activate the Cl- current, suggesting the involvement of a G protein in the control of the current. 4. The variance associated with the Cl- current was small, and noise analysis gave a lower limit of about 1-2 pS for the single-channel conductance. The Cl- current was reduced by 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulphonate (DIDS), and during DIDS blockade, the variance of the current increased. This suggests that DIDS enters and blocks the open channel. 5. Activation of the Cl- current would make the membrane potential negative following stimulation of a mast cell, thus providing a driving force for entry of external calcium via the stimulation-induced influx pathways described in the preceding paper (Matthews, Neher & Penner, 1989).

Matthews, G; Neher, E; Penner, R

1989-01-01

91

trans-Caryophyllene is a natural agonistic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?.  

PubMed

Intake of dietary aroma compounds may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that trans-caryophyllene, a flavor compound in plant foods and teas, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? through direct interaction with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR-?. The agonistic activity of trans-caryophyllene was investigated by the luciferase reporter assay, surface plasmon resonance, and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Following the stimulation of cells with trans-caryophyllene, intracellular triglyceride concentrations were significantly reduced by 17%, and hepatic fatty acid uptake was significantly increased by 31%. The rate of fatty acid oxidation was also significantly increased. The expressions of PPAR-? and its target genes and proteins in fatty acid uptake and oxidation were significantly up-regulated as well. In HepG2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA of PPAR-?, the effects of trans-caryophyllene on PPAR-? responsive gene expressions, intracellular triglyceride, fatty acid uptake and oxidation were disappeared. These results indicate that the aroma compound, trans-caryophyllene, is PPAR-? agonist thus regulates cellular lipid metabolism in PPAR-? dependent manners. PMID:24856059

Wu, Chunyan; Jia, Yaoyao; Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hae-Seung; Hwang, Kwang-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

2014-07-15

92

Unrestricted agonist activity on murine and human cells of a lipopeptide derived from IFN-gamma.  

PubMed

We describe the isolation of a synthetic agonist of IFN-gamma (L-mIFN-gamma-CT) active on mouse and human cells. Its biological activity is the result of the ability of the C-terminal extremity of murine IFN-gamma to interact with the intracellular part of IFNgamma-R and the observation that the modification of peptides by a palmitic acid enables their cytoplasmic delivery. L-mIFN-gamma-CT stimulated murine cells exhibited an increase in MHC class II molecules and FcgammaRII/III expression and conferred protection against viral lysis. Unresponsiveness to L-mIFN-gamma-CT of cells recovered from IFNgamma-R alpha-chain knockout mice indicated the involvement of IFNgamma-R in the biological activities observed. Induction of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and HLA-DR expression on human cells stimulated with L-mIFN-gamma-CT demonstrated an abrogation of species specificity. These results describe the development of a new synthetic agonist of IFN-gamma, which substitutes for the native cytokine in any IFN-gamma responsive cells, by acting intracellularly on IFN-gammaR. PMID:9918780

Thiam, K; Loing, E; Delanoye, A; Diesis, E; Gras-Masse, H; Auriault, C; Verwaerde, C

1998-12-30

93

M1 receptor agonist activity is not a requirement for muscarinic antinociception.  

PubMed

The analgesic effects of a series of muscarinic agonists were investigated by use of the mouse acetic acid writhing, grid-shock, hot-plate and tail-flick tests. The compounds tested were oxotremorine, pilocarpine, arecoline, aceclidine, RS86 and four 3-3(substituted-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahy-dro-1 -methyl pyridines (substituted TZTP), these being propoxy-TZTP, 3-Cl-propylthio-TZTP, xanomeline (hexyloxy-TZTP) and hexylthio-TZTP. These agonists were also assayed for their ability to displace [3H]oxotremorine-M and [3H]pirenz-epine binding and for their functional selectivity at pharmaco-logic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. These compounds all produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in all of the mouse analgesia tests. The effects of oxotremorine in the writhing test were fully antagonized by the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), but only partially antagonized by methsco-polamine (10 mg/kg) and unaffected by the opioid antagonist naltrexone. 3-Cl-propylthio-TZTP and propoxy-TZTP had virtually no effect at the M1 receptor subtype as measured by the human m1 clone expressed in baby hamster kidney cells or the rabbit vas deferens assay. These compounds, however, were more potent in the analgesia tests than the selective M1 agonists xanomeline and hexylthio-TZTP. These data suggest that muscarinic analgesia is mediated by central muscarinic receptors. However, activity at the M1 receptor subtype is not a requirement for antinociceptive activity. PMID:9152396

Sheardown, M J; Shannon, H E; Swedberg, M D; Suzdak, P D; Bymaster, F P; Olesen, P H; Mitch, C H; Ward, J S; Sauerberg, P

1997-05-01

94

Gating of TRPM8 channels activated by cold and chemical agonists in planar lipid bilayers  

PubMed Central

The TRPM8 ion channel is a major sensor of environmental cold temperatures. It is activated by cold and chemical agonists, such as menthol and icilin. The activation of these channels both by cold and cooling agents requires the presence of the membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The mechanism of TRPM8 activation by physical and chemical factors is unknown and the involvement of cellular signaling pathways has been considered. Here we have characterized the gating mechanism of the rat TRPM8 reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers and its activation by different stimuli. In this system the influence of cellular signaling pathways can be excluded. We found that TRPM8 activated by cold exhibits steep temperature dependence (Q10?40), and the channel openings are accompanied by large changes in entropy and enthalpy, suggesting a substantial conformation change. TRPM8 channel behavior upon menthol and icilin activation was distinguishable and the effect of icilin depended on the presence of calcium on the intracellular side of the protein. Here we also demonstrate that PIP2 is the prime factor that impacts the gating of TRPM8 and other phosphoinositides are less efficient in supporting channel activity. Menthol increases the potency of PIP2 to activate the channels, and increases binding of phosphoinositides to the full-length channel protein. Our data demonstrate conclusively that TRPM8 is gated by cold and its chemical agonists directly, and that dependence of its gating on PIP2 is a result of direct specific interactions with the lipid.

Zakharian, Eleonora; Cao, Chike; Rohacs, Tibor

2010-01-01

95

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel indazolyl glucocorticoid receptor partial agonists.  

PubMed

SAR was used to further develop an indazole class of non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor agonists aided by a GR LBD (ligand-binding domain)-agonist co-crystal structure described in the accompanying paper. Progress towards discovering a dissociated GR agonist guided by human in vitro assays biased the optimization of this compound series towards partial agonists that possessed excellent selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:23916594

Gilmore, John L; Sheppeck, James E; Wang, Jim; Dhar, T G Murali; Cavallaro, Cullen; Doweyko, Arthur M; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Nadler, Steven G; Dodd, John H; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

2013-10-01

96

Design Novel Dual Agonists for Treating Type-2 Diabetes by Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors with Core Hopping Approach  

PubMed Central

Owing to their unique functions in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) have drawn special attention for developing drugs to treat type-2 diabetes. By combining the lipid benefit of PPAR-alpha agonists (such as fibrates) with the glycemic advantages of the PPAR-gamma agonists (such as thiazolidinediones), the dual PPAR agonists approach can both improve the metabolic effects and minimize the side effects caused by either agent alone, and hence has become a promising strategy for designing effective drugs against type-2 diabetes. In this study, by means of the powerful “core hopping” and “glide docking” techniques, a novel class of PPAR dual agonists was discovered based on the compound GW409544, a well-known dual agonist for both PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma modified from the farglitazar structure. It was observed by molecular dynamics simulations that these novel agonists not only possessed the same function as GW409544 did in activating PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, but also had more favorable conformation for binding to the two receptors. It was further validated by the outcomes of their ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) predictions that the new agonists hold high potential to become drug candidates. Or at the very least, the findings reported here may stimulate new strategy or provide useful insights for discovering more effective dual agonists for treating type-2 diabetes. Since the “core hopping” technique allows for rapidly screening novel cores to help overcome unwanted properties by generating new lead compounds with improved core properties, it has not escaped our notice that the current strategy along with the corresponding computational procedures can also be utilized to find novel and more effective drugs for treating other illnesses.

Xu, Wei-Ren; Wang, Run-Ling; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-01-01

97

Attenuated Vasodilator Effectiveness of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Agonist in Heterozygous par2 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Studies of homozygous PAR2 gene knockout mice have described a mix of phenotypic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, there have been few studies of PAR2 heterozygous (wild-type/knockout; PAR2-HET) mice. The phenotypes of many hemi and heterozygous transgenic mice have been described as intermediates between those of wild-type and knockout animals. In our study we aimed to determine the effects of intermediary par2 gene zygosity on vascular tissue responses to PAR2 activation. Specifically, we compared the vasodilator effectiveness of the PAR2 activating peptide 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide in aortas of wild-type PAR2 homozygous (PAR2-WT) and PAR2-HET mice. In myographs under isometric tension conditions, isolated aortic rings were contracted by alpha 1-adrenoeceptor agonist (phenylephrine), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) and then relaxation responses by the additions of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside were recorded. A Schild regression analysis of the inhibition by a PAR2 antagonist (GB-83) of PAR2 agonist-induced aortic ring relaxations was used to compare receptor expression in PAR2-WT to PAR2-HET. PAR2 mRNA in aortas was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In aortas contracted by either phenylephrine or U46619, the maximum relaxations induced by 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide were less in PAR2-HET than in the gender-matched PAR2-WT. GB-83 was 3- to 4-fold more potent for inhibition of 2fly in PAR2-HET than in PAR2-WT. PAR2 mRNA content of aortas from PAR2-HET was not significantly different than in PAR2-WT. Acetylcholine- and nitroprusside-induced relaxations of aortas from PAR2-HET were not significantly different than in PAR2-WT and PAR2 knockout. An interesting secondary finding was that relaxations induced by agonists of PAR2 and muscarinic receptors were larger in females than in males. We conclude that the lower PAR2-mediated responses in PAR2-HET aortas are consistent with evidence of a lower quantity of functional receptor expression, despite the apparently normal PAR2 mRNA content in PAR2-HET aortas.

Hennessey, John C.; McGuire, John J.

2013-01-01

98

5-HT2C Receptor Agonist Anorectic Efficacy Potentiated by 5-HT1B Receptor Agonist Coapplication: An Effect Mediated via Increased Proportion of Pro-Opiomelanocortin Neurons Activated  

PubMed Central

An essential component of the neural network regulating ingestive behavior is the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor (5-HT2CR), agonists of which suppress food intake and were recently approved for obesity treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration. 5-HT2CR-regulated appetite is mediated primarily through activation of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, which are also disinhibited through a 5-HT1BR-mediated suppression of local inhibitory inputs. Here we investigated whether 5-HT2CR agonist anorectic potency could be significantly enhanced by coadministration of a 5-HT1BR agonist and whether this was associated with augmented POMC neuron activation on the population and/or single-cell level. The combined administration of subanorectic concentrations of 5-HT2CR and 5-HT1BR agonists produced a 45% reduction in food intake and significantly greater in vivo ARC neuron activation in mice. The chemical phenotype of activated ARC neurons was assessed by monitoring agonist-induced cellular activity via calcium imaging in mouse POMC-EGFP brain slices, which revealed that combined agonists activated significantly more POMC neurons (46%) compared with either drug alone (~25% each). Single-cell electrophysiological analysis demonstrated that 5-HT2CR/5-HT1BR agonist coadministration did not significantly potentiate the firing frequency of individual ARC POMC-EGFP cells compared with agonists alone. These data indicate a functional heterogeneity of ARC POMC neurons by revealing distinct subpopulations of POMC cells activated by 5-HT2CRs and disinhibited by 5-HT1BRs. Therefore, coadministration of a 5-HT1BR agonist potentiates the anorectic efficacy of 5-HT2CR compounds by increasing the number, but not the magnitude, of activated ARC POMC neurons and is of therapeutic relevance to obesity treatment.

Doslikova, Barbora; Garfield, Alastair S.; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L.; Burdakov, Denis; Billups, Brian; Heisler, Lora K.

2013-01-01

99

Anti-analgesia of a selective NPFF2 agonist depends on opioid activity.  

PubMed

NPFF agonists designed to be selective NPFF(2) receptor probes were synthesized. D.Asn-Pro-(N-Me)Ala-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH(2) (dNPA) displays a very high affinity (0.027nM) for NPFF(2) receptors transfected in CHO cells, and a very high selectivity with a discrimination ratio greater than 100 versus NPFF(1) receptors. dNPA acts as a potent and selective agonist in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding experiments and inhibits intracellular cAMP production with the same efficacy as NPA-NPFF. In SH-SY5Y cells expressing NPFF(2) receptors dNPA, in the presence of carbachol, stimulates Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores. In vivo, after intracerebroventricular injection dNPA increases body temperature in mice and reverses the morphine-induced analgesia. Also, dNPA displays anti-opioid activity after systemic administration. So far, dNPA exhibits the highest affinity and selectivity for NPFF(2) receptors and reveals that its behavioral anti-opioid activity depends on the degree of opioid-induced analgesia. PMID:16129413

Roussin, Anne; Serre, Fuschia; Gouardères, Christine; Mazarguil, Honoré; Roumy, Michel; Mollereau, Catherine; Zajac, Jean-Marie

2005-10-14

100

[Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues with enhanced ? opioid agonist potency and with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile.  

PubMed

Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent ? opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe(3) with various 2',6'-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2',4',6'-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2'-ethyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3'-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3'-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased ? agonist potency, retained ? receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp(3)-, Imp(3)-, Emp(3)- and 1-Nal(3)-containing analogues showed much increased ? receptor binding affinity and had mixed ?/? properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C(?)C(?) bond of the Xxx(3) residue, in correlation with the observed ? receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:24602401

Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

2014-04-01

101

Agonist-activated Ca2+ influx occurs at stable plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum junctions  

PubMed Central

Junctate is a 33 kDa integral protein of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum membranes that forms a macromolecular complex with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and TRPC3 channels. TIRF microscopy shows that junctate enhances the number of fluorescent puncta on the plasma membrane. The size and distribution of these puncta are not affected by the addition of agonists that mobilize Ca2+ from Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores. Puncta are associated with a significantly larger number of peripheral junctions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, which are further enhanced upon stable co-expression of junctate and TRPC3. The gap between the membranes of peripheral junctions is bridged by regularly spaced electron-dense structures of 10 nm. Ins(1,4,5)P3 inhibits the interaction of the cytoplasmic N-terminus of junctate with the ligand-binding domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ influx evoked by activation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors is increased where puncta are located. We conclude that stable peripheral junctions between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum are the anatomical sites of agonist-activated Ca2+ entry.

Treves, Susan; Vukcevic, Mirko; Griesser, Johanna; Armstrong, Clara-Franzini; Zhu, Michael X.; Zorzato, Fancesco

2010-01-01

102

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists Attenuate Septic Acute Kidney Injury in Mice by Suppressing Inflammation and Proteasome Activity  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Septic patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk of death. To date there is no effective treatment for AKI or septic AKI. Based on their anti-inflammatory properties, we examined the effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on renal damage using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI where localized LPS promotes inflammation-mediated kidney damage. Administration of nicotine (1 mg/kg) or GTS-21 (4 mg/kg) significantly abrogated renal leukocyte infiltration (by 40%) and attenuated kidney injury. These renoprotective effects were accompanied by reduced systemic and localized kidney inflammation during LPS-induced AKI. Consistent with these observations, nicotinic agonist treatment significantly decreased renal I?B? degradation and NF?B activation during LPS-induced AKI. Treatment of human kidney cells with nicotinic agonists, an NF?B inhibitor (Bay11), or a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) effectively inhibited their inflammatory responses following stimulation with LPS or TNF?. Renal proteasome activity, a major regulator of NF?B-mediated inflammation, was enhanced by approximately 50% during LPS-induced AKI and elevated proteasome activity was significantly blunted by nicotinic agonist administration in vivo. Taken together, our results identify enhanced renal proteasome activity during LPS-induced AKI and the suppression of both proteasome activity and inflammation by nicotinic agonists to attenuate LPS-induced kidney injury.

Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Yeboah, Michael M.; Dowling, Oonagh; Xue, Xiangying; Powell, Saul R.; Al-Abed, Yousef; Metz, Christine N.

2012-01-01

103

Are fish oil omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists?  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?, PPAR?, and PPAR?) are physiological sensors for glucose and lipid homeostasis. They are also the targets of synthetic drugs; such as fibrates as PPAR? agonists which lower lipid level, and glitazones as PPAR? agonists which lower glucose level. As diabetes and metabolic diseases are often associated with high blood glucose and lipid levels, drugs that activate both PPAR?/? would be a logical approach. But synthetically developed PPAR?/? dual agonists and glitazones are showing side effects such as weight gain and edema. Therefore, natural compounds and their close derivatives are focused as future drugs against metabolic diseases. Presentation of hypothesis Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are the fatty acids abundant in fish oil, are traditionally used against metabolic diseases. These fatty acids act as PPAR agonists that transcript the genes involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Present hypothesis suggests that the derivatives of these fatty acids are stronger PPAR agonists than the parent compounds. X-ray structures of PPARs indicate that ? or ? derivatives of fatty acids would fit into PPAR?/? binding cavity. Therefore, the derivatives will exhibit stronger affinities and activities than the parent compounds. Testing of the hypothesis Ligand binding assays and gene transactivation assays should be performed to test the hypothesis. Fluorescence-based methods are advantageous in binding assays, because they were found more suitable for fatty acid binding assays. In transactivation assays, care should be taken to remove contaminants from recombinant proteins. Implications of the hypothesis Present hypothesis is framed on the basis of molecular structure of natural PPAR agonists. Small structural changes in the molecular structure of fatty acids have a great influence on activating different PPARs. Therefore, this hypothesis bridges the concept of natural PPAR agonists and the use of structural information in designing new drugs against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The derivatives may also be used as anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents.

Gani, Osman ABSM

2008-01-01

104

Agonist stimulation, talin-1, and kindlin-3 are crucial for ?(IIb)?(3) activation in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK.  

PubMed

Platelet integrin ?(IIb)?(3) activation is regulated by inside-out signaling via agonist stimulation. However, when ?(IIb)?(3) was exogenously expressed in cell lines such as Chinese hamster ovarian cells, physiological agonists hardly induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. To overcome this disadvantage, we characterized the functional regulation of endogenously expressed ?(IIb)?(3) in a megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK, employing an initial velocity assay for PAC-1 binding. We firstly demonstrated that protease-activated receptor 1-activating peptide induced robust, but transient ?(IIb)?(3) activation in CMK cells with high glycoprotein-Ib expression. Stable talin-1 or kindlin-3 knockdown cells confirmed that the protease-activated receptor 1-activating peptide-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation was dependent on talin-1 and kindlin-3 expression. In sharp contrast to exogenously expressed ?(IIb)?(3) in Chinese hamster ovarian cells, transient overexpression of full-length talin (FL-talin) or talin-head domain (THD) alone did not activate ?(IIb)?(3) in CMK cells, but required agonist stimulation. Similarly, kindlin-3 overexpression alone did not induce ?(IIb)?(3) activation, but it significantly augmented agonist-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. Several mutants of FL-talin and THD suggested that the head-rod interaction was critical for autoinhibition of talin-1, and the interaction between the THD and the membrane-proximal region of the ?(3) cytoplasmic tail was essential for talin-mediated ?(IIb)?(3) activation. In addition, THD and kindlin-3 cooperatively augmented protease-activated receptor 1-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. We proposed that the CMK cell line is an attractive platform for investigating agonist-, talin-1-, and kindlin-3- dependent ?(IIb)?(3) activation. PMID:23022222

Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Tadokoro, Seiji; Kamae, Tsuyoshi; Kiyomizu, Kazunobu; Kashiwagi, Hirokazu; Honda, Shigenori; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki

2013-01-01

105

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists in the prevention and treatment of murine systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists are known to have many immunomodulatory effects. We have previously shown that the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone is beneficial when used early in prevention of disease in murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SLE-related atherosclerosis. In this report, we demonstrate that another PPAR? agonist, pioglitazone is also beneficial as a treatment for early murine lupus, indicating that this is a class effect and not agent-specific. We further attempt to define the ability of PPAR? agonists to ameliorate established or severe autoimmune disease using two mouse models: the MRL.lpr SLE model and the gld.apoE(-/-) model of accelerated atherosclerosis and SLE. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the marked amelioration of disease seen when PPAR? agonist treatment was started before disease onset, treatment with rosiglitazone after disease onset in MRL.lpr or gld.apoE(-/-) mice had minimal beneficial effect on the development of the autoimmune phenotype; however, rosiglitazone treatment remained highly effective at reducing lupus-associated atherosclerosis in gld.apoE(-/-) mice after disease onset or when mice were maintained on a high cholesterol Western diet. These results suggest that beneficial effects of PPAR? agonists on the development of autoimmunity might be limited to the early stages of disease, but that atherosclerosis, a major cause of death in SLE patients, may be ameliorated even in established or severe disease. PMID:24456224

Aprahamian, Tamar R; Bonegio, Ramon G; Weitzner, Zachary; Gharakhanian, Raffi; Rifkin, Ian R

2014-07-01

106

The Implication of the First Agonist Bound Activated GPCR X-ray Structure on GPCR in Silico Modeling  

PubMed Central

The very recently published first X-ray structure of the ?2 adrenergic receptor in its active state hosting a small molecule (PDB ID: 3P0G) reveals a lot of information about the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation process from a structural point of view. When compared to the inactive state crystal structure of ?2, large differences are seen in the GPCR helical structure at the cytoplasmatic side, whereas very subtle changes occur at the ligand binding site. The observation that there are hardly any differences in the binding site of agonists and inverse agonists implies that in silico predictions of the efficacy of ligands will be very hard. This is illustrated by the example of an already published binding mode of a ?2 agonist, which has been modeled into the inactive state X-ray structure of the ?2 receptor. When comparing the modeled structure to the new activated X-ray structure, quantitative agreement of the binding mode is found, implying that the subtle changes between agonist binding to the activated state and inverse agonist binding to the inactive state can currently not be captured by standard in silico modeling methods.

2011-01-01

107

Synthesis and P2Y2 Receptor Agonist Activities of Uridine 5'-Phosphonate Analogues  

PubMed Central

We explored the influence of modifications of uridine 5’-methylenephosphonate on biological activity at the human P2Y2 receptor. Key steps in the synthesis of a series of 5-substituted uridine 5’-methylenephosphonates were the reaction of a suitably protected uridine 5’-aldehyde with [(diethoxyphosphinyl)methylidene]triphenylphosphorane, C-5 bromination and a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling. These analogues behaved as selective agonists at the P2Y2 receptor, with three analogues exhibiting potencies in the submicromolar range. Although maximal activities observed with the phosphonate analogues were much less than observed with UTP, high concentrations of the phosphonates had no effect on the stimulatory effect of UTP. These results suggest that these phosphonates bind to an allosteric site of the P2Y2 receptor.

Van Poecke, Sara; Barrett, Matthew O.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Sinnaeve, Davy; Martins, Jose C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Harden, T. Kendall; Van Calenbergh, Serge

2012-01-01

108

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor labeled with a tritiated, photoactivatable agonist: a new tool for investigating the functional, activated state.  

PubMed

Upon agonist activation, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor undergoes allosteric transitions leading to channel opening and sodium ion influx. The molecular structure of the agonist binding site has been mapped previously by photoaffinity labeling, but most photosensitive probes used for this purpose interact only with closed receptor states (resting or desensitized). We have synthesized two novel photoactivatable 4-diazocyclohexa-2,5-dienone derivatives as cholinergic agonist candidates, with the objective of identifying structural changes at the acetylcholine binding site associated with receptor activation. One of these ligands, 9b, is a functional agonist at muscle acetylcholine receptors in human TE 671 cells. In photolabeling experiments with 9b, up to 35% inactivation of agonist binding sites was observed at Torpedo acetylcholine receptors. Tritiated 9b was synthesized, and photolabeling was found to occur mainly on the alpha-subunit in a partially protectable manner. This novel radiolabeled photoprobe appears to be suitable for future investigation of the molecular dynamics of allosteric transitions occurring at the active acetylcholine receptor binding site. PMID:9258443

Kotzyba-Hibert, F; Kessler, P; Zerbib, V; Grutter, T; Bogen, C; Takeda, K; Hammadi, A; Knerr, L; Goeldner, M

1997-01-01

109

The Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Imiquimod Is Active against Prions  

PubMed Central

Using a yeast-based assay, a previously unsuspected antiprion activity was found for imiquimod (IQ), a potent Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist already used for clinical applications. The antiprion activity of IQ was first detected against yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3], and then against mammalian prion both ex vivo in a cell-based assay and in vivo in a transgenic mouse model for prion diseases. In order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies, we conducted a new synthetic pathway which provides a more efficient means of producing new IQ chemical derivatives, the activity of which was tested against both yeast and mammalian prions. The comparable antiprion activity of IQ and its chemical derivatives in the above life forms further emphasizes the conservation of prion controlling mechanisms throughout evolution. Interestingly, this study also demonstrated that the antiprion activity of IQ and IQ-derived compounds is independent from their ability to stimulate TLRs. Furthermore, we found that IQ and its active chemical derivatives inhibit the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR) in vitro.

Beringue, Vincent; Soubigou, Flavie; Pang, Yanhong; Desban, Nathalie; Massacrier, Catherine; Morel, Yannis; Paturel, Carine; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Bouaziz, Serge; Sanyal, Suparna; Galons, Herve; Blondel, Marc; Voisset, Cecile

2013-01-01

110

Cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit sensory nerve activation in guinea pig airways.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on various respiratory reactions induced by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent sensory nerves (C-fibers). (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-merpholino)methyl]pyrrolo-[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl](1-naphthyl)methanone (WIN 55212-2) dose-dependently inhibited electrical field stimulation- and capsaicin-induced guinea pig bronchial smooth muscle contraction, but not the neurokinin A-induced contraction. A cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, [N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide] (SR 144528), reduced the inhibitory effect of WIN 55212-2, but not a cannabinoid CB1 antagonist, [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamidehydrochloride] (SR 141716A). A cannabinoid CB2 agonist, JWH 133, also inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced guinea pig bronchial smooth muscle contraction and its inhibitory effect was blocked by SR 144528. The inhibitory effect of WIN 55212-2 on electrical field stimulation-induced bronchial contraction was reduced by the pretreatment of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel (Maxi-K+ channel) blockers, iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin, but not other K+ channel blockers, dendrotoxin or glibenclamide. A Maxi-K+ channel opener, 1-(2'-hydroxy-5'-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-2(3H)benzimidazolone (NS1619), inhibited bronchial contraction induced by electrical field stimulation. WIN 55212-2 and JWH 133 blocked the capsaicin-induced release of substance P-like immunoreactivity from guinea pig airway tissues. These findings suggest that WIN 55212-2 inhibit the activation of C-fibers via cannabinoid CB2 receptors and Maxi-K+ channels in guinea pig airways. PMID:15306537

Yoshihara, Shigemi; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yumi; Abe, Toshio; Arisaka, Osamu

2004-11-01

111

Insights into ligand-elicited activation of human constitutive androstane receptor based on novel agonists and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

The human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is an important regulator of xenobiotic metabolism and other physiological processes. So far, only few CAR agonists are known and no explicit mechanism has been proposed for their action. Thus, we aimed to generate a 3D QSAR model that could explain the molecular determinants of CAR agonist action. To obtain a sufficient number of agonists that cover a wide range of activity, we applied a virtual screening approach using both structure- and ligand-based methods. We identified 27 novel human CAR agonists on which a 3D QSAR model was generated. The model, complemented by coregulator recruitment and mutagenesis results, suggests a potential activation mechanism for human CAR and may serve to predict potential activation of CAR for compounds emerging from drug development projects or for chemicals undergoing toxicological risk assessment. PMID:18983136

Jyrkkärinne, Johanna; Windshügel, Björn; Rönkkö, Toni; Tervo, Anu J; Küblbeck, Jenni; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija; Sippl, Wolfgang; Poso, Antti; Honkakoski, Paavo

2008-11-27

112

Vasoconstrictor agonists activate G-protein-dependent receptor-operated calcium channels in pig aortic microsomes.  

PubMed Central

Receptor-operated Ca2+ channels were characterized by their ability to decrease steady-state ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation into pig aortic microsomes. The vasoconstrictor agents noradrenaline, angiotensin II and adenosine 5'-[alpha beta-methylene]triphosphate (pp[CH2]pA) all decreased Ca2+ accumulation only when sonicated into vesicles (to allow access to receptor sites) and in the presence of guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate to activate transducing G-proteins. The effect of noradrenaline was inhibited by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine, but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. The effect of none of the agonists was reversed by diltiazem. SK&F 96365 (an inhibitor of receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx into intact cells) reversed the effect of noradrenaline, but not that of pp[CH2]pA, which suggests that at least two receptor-operated channels may be present in this preparation.

Blayney, L M; Gapper, P W; Newby, A C

1992-01-01

113

Vasoconstrictor agonists activate G-protein-dependent receptor-operated calcium channels in pig aortic microsomes.  

PubMed

Receptor-operated Ca2+ channels were characterized by their ability to decrease steady-state ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation into pig aortic microsomes. The vasoconstrictor agents noradrenaline, angiotensin II and adenosine 5'-[alpha beta-methylene]triphosphate (pp[CH2]pA) all decreased Ca2+ accumulation only when sonicated into vesicles (to allow access to receptor sites) and in the presence of guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate to activate transducing G-proteins. The effect of noradrenaline was inhibited by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine, but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. The effect of none of the agonists was reversed by diltiazem. SK&F 96365 (an inhibitor of receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx into intact cells) reversed the effect of noradrenaline, but not that of pp[CH2]pA, which suggests that at least two receptor-operated channels may be present in this preparation. PMID:1347211

Blayney, L M; Gapper, P W; Newby, A C

1992-02-15

114

Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 1 induce plasma extravasation by a neurogenic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Thrombin, generated in the circulation during injury, cleaves proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) to stimulate plasma extravasation and granulocyte infiltration. However, the mechanism of thrombin-induced inflammation in intact tissues is unknown. We hypothesized that thrombin cleaves PAR1 on sensory nerves to release substance P (SP), which interacts with the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) on endothelial cells to cause plasma extravasation.PAR1 was detected in small diameter neurons known to contain SP in rat dorsal root ganglia by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.Thrombin and the PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2 (TF-NH2) increased [Ca2+]i >50% of cultured neurons (EC50s 24?mu?ml?1 and 1.9??M, respectively), assessed using Fura-2 AM. The PAR1 agonist completely desensitized responses to thrombin, indicating that thrombin stimulates neurons through PAR1.Injection of TF-NH2 into the rat paw stimulated a marked and sustained oedema. An NK1R antagonist and ablation of sensory nerves with capsaicin inhibited oedema by 44% at 1?h and completely by 5?h.In wild-type but not PAR1?/? mice, TF-NH2 stimulated Evans blue extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and pancreas by 2–8 fold. Extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus and stomach was abolished by an NK1R antagonist.Thus, thrombin cleaves PAR1 on primary spinal afferent neurons to release SP, which activates the NK1R on endothelial cells to stimulate gap formation, extravasation of plasma proteins, and oedema. In intact tissues, neurogenic mechanisms are predominantly responsible for PAR1-induced oedema.

Garavilla, Lawrence de; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Young, Steven H; Ennes, Helena; Steinhoff, Martin; Ossovskaya, Valeria S; D'Andrea, Michael R; Mayer, Emeran A; Wallace, John L; Hollenberg, Morley D; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Bunnett, Nigel W

2001-01-01

115

Identification of a potent synthetic FXR agonist with an unexpected mode of binding and activation  

SciTech Connect

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. There is intense interest in understanding the mechanisms of FXR regulation and in developing pharmaceutically suitable synthetic FXR ligands that might be used to treat metabolic syndrome. We report here the identification of a potent FXR agonist (MFA-1) and the elucidation of the structure of this ligand in ternary complex with the human receptor and a coactivator peptide fragment using x-ray crystallography at 1.9-{angstrom} resolution. The steroid ring system of MFA-1 binds with its D ring-facing helix 12 (AF-2) in a manner reminiscent of hormone binding to classical steroid hormone receptors and the reverse of the pose adopted by naturally occurring bile acids when bound to FXR. This binding mode appears to be driven by the presence of a carboxylate on MFA-1 that is situated to make a salt-bridge interaction with an arginine residue in the FXR-binding pocket that is normally used to neutralize bound bile acids. Receptor activation by MFA-1 differs from that by bile acids in that it relies on direct interactions between the ligand and residues in helices 11 and 12 and only indirectly involves a protonated histidine that is part of the activation trigger. The structure of the FXR:MFA-1 complex differs significantly from that of the complex with a structurally distinct agonist, fexaramine, highlighting the inherent plasticity of the receptor.

Soisson, Stephen M.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Adams, Alan D.; Sahoo, Soumya; Sitlani, Ayesha; Sparrow, Carl; Cui, Jisong; Becker, Joseph W. (Merck)

2008-07-08

116

The in vivo gastrointestinal activity of TD-5108, a selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist with high intrinsic activity.  

PubMed

The in vivo preclinical pharmacodynamic profile of TD-5108, a selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist with high intrinsic activity, was compared to that of the clinically studied gastrointestinal pro-kinetic agents, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride. The activity of TD-5108 was evaluated in guinea pig colonic transit, rat oesophageal relaxation and dog gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility models. Subcutaneous administration of TD-5108, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride increased guinea pig colonic transit (rank order of potencies: TD-5108 > tegaserod > cisapride > mosapride). Following intravenous and intraduodenal dosing, TD-5108, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride produced dose-dependent relaxation of the rat oesophagus. On a molar basis, TD-5108 was approximately twofold less potent than tegaserod following intravenous dosing but 6- or 86-fold more potent than cisapride or mosapride, respectively, and 9- or 18-fold more potent than tegaserod or cisapride, respectively, after intraduodenal administration. Orally dosed TD-5108 increased the contractility of the canine antrum, duodenum and jejunum with higher potency than tegaserod. The selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, TD-5108, demonstrates robust in vivo activity in the guinea pig, rat and dog gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:18408918

Beattie, D T; Armstrong, S R; Shaw, J P; Marquess, D; Sandlund, C; Smith, J A M; Taylor, J A; Humphrey, P P A

2008-07-01

117

Zinc gluconate is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in the epidermis.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-? (PPARs-?) are nuclear receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Zinc gluconate is efficient in the treatment of several inflammatory dermatoses. The aim of our work was to determine whether the modulation of PPAR-? expression and activity could be one of the mechanisms of action of zinc gluconate anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory dermatoses. Thus, we used ex vivo skin explants incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory molecule, with or without zinc gluconate. We evaluated PPAR-? protein expression using immunohistochemistry, PPAR-? DNA-binding activity using an ELISA-like technique, and PPAR-? mRNA levels using quantitative PCR. On the one hand, we found that PPAR-? epidermal protein expression was stimulated by LPS and that LPS suppressed PPAR-? mRNA expression, without modifying its function. On the other hand, in inflammatory LPS-stimulated explants, zinc gluconate significantly upregulated PPAR-? function and mRNA expression level, without changing its epidermal protein expression. These results suggest that zinc gluconate may be a PPAR-? agonist, which might play a role in the anti-inflammatory activity of this molecule. PMID:22509831

Poiraud, Carole; Quereux, Gaëlle; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Allix, Rémy; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte

2012-05-01

118

Distinct roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor dimerization in agonist activation and G-protein coupling  

PubMed Central

The eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key modulators of synaptic transmission and are considered promising targets for the treatment of various brain disorders. Whereas glutamate acts at a large extracellular domain, allosteric modulators have been identified that bind to the seven transmembrane domain (7TM) of these dimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We show here that the dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for the modulation of active and inactive states of the 7TM by agonists, but is not necessary for G-protein activation. Monomeric mGlu2, either as an isolated 7TM or in full-length, purified and reconstituted into nanodiscs, couples to G proteins upon direct activation by a positive allosteric modulator. However, only a reconstituted full-length dimeric mGlu2 activates G protein upon glutamate binding, suggesting that dimerization is required for glutamate induced activation. These data show that, even for such well characterized GPCR dimers like mGluR2, a single 7TM is sufficient for G-protein coupling. Despite this observation, the necessity of dimeric architecture for signaling induced by the endogenous ligand glutamate confirms that the central core of signaling complex is dimeric.

El Moustaine, Driss; Granier, Sebastien; Doumazane, Etienne; Scholler, Pauline; Rahmeh, Rita; Bron, Patrick; Mouillac, Bernard; Baneres, Jean-Louis; Rondard, Philippe; Pin, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

119

Comparison of the water diuretic activity of kappa receptor agonists and a vasopressin receptor antagonist in dogs.  

PubMed

Strategies for developing selective water diuretic agents have involved development of kappa opioid receptor agonists and vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists; however, these two classes of compounds have not been compared directly. We have investigated the activity of three kappa receptor agonists and one nonpeptide vasopressin receptor antagonist in conscious dogs. SB 215520, SB 215519 and niravoline are selective kappa agonists with variable abilities to cause a water diuresis and ataxia in rats. When administered to conscious hydropenic dogs, the kappa agonists resulted in an increase in free water clearance; however, these effects were associated with an antinatriuresis, an increase in heart rate and, at the higher doses, central nervous system side effects. Conversely, the vasopressin receptor antagonist, OPC 31260, resulted in a significant water diuresis without any accompanying changes in sodium excretion and heart rate, and with no apparent central nervous system effects. These studies suggest that, at least in dogs, a vasopressin receptor antagonist is a more selective water diuretic than a kappa receptor agonist. PMID:9067301

Brooks, D P; Valente, M; Petrone, G; Depalma, P D; Sbacchi, M; Clarke, G D

1997-03-01

120

Synthesis and serotonergic activity of arylpiperazide derivatives of serotonin: potent agonists for 5-HT1D receptors.  

PubMed

A series of new arylpiperazide derivatives of serotonin has been prepared and evaluated as 5-HT1D receptor agonists. Binding experiments at cloned human 5-HT1D alpha, 5-HT1D beta, and 5-HT1A receptors show that all the compounds are very potent and selective ligands for 5-HT1D receptor subtypes. Functional activity studies (contraction of the New Zealand white rabbit saphenous vein) demonstrate that most of the derivatives behave as full agonists. Among them, the aryl sulfonamide derivative 5q (pD2 = 8.33 compare to 5.75 for sumatriptan) was also identified as a very potent agonist in inhibiting the forskolin-mediated cyclase coupled to 5-HT1D beta receptors (EC50 = 0.52nM). PMID:7658447

Perez, M; Fourrier, C; Sigogneau, I; Pauwels, P J; Palmier, C; John, G W; Valentin, J P; Halazy, S

1995-09-01

121

Enhanced spontaneous activity of the mu opioid receptor by cysteine mutations: characterization of a tool for inverse agonist screening.  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of spontaneous- or constitutive-activity has become widely accepted and verified for numerous G protein-coupled receptors and this ligand-independent activity is also acknowledged to play a role in some pathologies. Constitutive activity has been reported for the mu opioid receptor. In some cases the increase in receptor basal activity was induced by chronic morphine administration suggesting that constitutive activity may contribute to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. Constitutively active mutants represent excellent tools for gathering information about the mechanisms of receptor activation and the possible physiological relevance of spontaneous receptor activity. The high basal level of activity of these mutants also allows for easier identification of inverse agonists, defined as ligands able to suppress spontaneous receptor activity, and leads to a better comprehension of their modulatory effects as well as possible in vivo use. Results Cysteines 348 and 353 of the human mu opioid receptor (hMOR) were mutated into alanines and Ala348,353 hMOR was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. [35S] GTP?S binding experiments revealed that Ala348,353 hMOR basal activity was significantly higher when compared to hMOR, suggesting that the mutant receptor is constitutively active. [35S] GTP?S binding was decreased by cyprodime or CTOP indicating that both ligands have inverse agonist properties. All tested agonists exhibited binding affinities higher for Ala348,353 hMOR than for hMOR, with the exception of endogenous opioid peptides. Antagonist affinity remained virtually unchanged except for CTOP and cyprodime that bound the double mutant with higher affinities. The agonists DAMGO and morphine showed enhanced potency for the Ala348,353 hMOR receptor in [35S] GTP?S experiments. Finally, pretreatment with the antagonists naloxone, cyprodime or CTOP significantly increased Ala348,353 hMOR expression. Conclusion Taken together our data indicate that the double C348/353A mutation results in a constitutively active conformation of hMOR that is still activated by agonists. This is the first report of a stable CAM of hMOR with the potential to screen for inverse agonists.

Brillet, Karl; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

2003-01-01

122

Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists.  

PubMed

The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5 degrees was performed between -10 degrees and 15 degrees to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10 degrees rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-pi interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via pi-cation-pi interactions of its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule. PMID:15849995

Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

2004-10-01

123

Agonist Activated PKC?II Translocation and Modulation of Cardiac Myocyte Contractile Function  

PubMed Central

Elevated protein kinase C ?II (PKC?II) expression develops during heart failure and yet the role of this isoform in modulating contractile function remains controversial. The present study examines the impact of agonist-induced PKC?II activation on contractile function in adult cardiac myocytes. Diminished contractile function develops in response to low dose phenylephrine (PHE, 100?nM) in controls, while function is preserved in response to PHE in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. PHE also caused PKC?II translocation and a punctate distribution pattern in myocytes expressing this isoform. The preserved contractile function and translocation responses to PHE are blocked by the inhibitor, LY379196 (30?nM) in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. Further analysis showed downstream protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation and phosphatase activation are associated with the LY379196-sensitive contractile response. PHE also triggered a complex pattern of end-target phosphorylation in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. These patterns are consistent with bifurcated activation of downstream signaling activity by PKC?II.

Hwang, Hyosook; Robinson, Dustin; Rogers, Julie B.; Stevenson, Tamara K.; Lang, Sarah E.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Day, Sharlene M.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Westfall, Margaret V.

2013-01-01

124

Weakly Supervised Recognition of Daily Life Activities with Wearable Sensors.  

PubMed

This paper considers scalable and unobtrusive activity recognition using on-body sensing for context-awareness in wearable computing. Common methods for activity recognition rely on supervised learning requiring substantial amounts of labeled training data. Obtaining accurate and detailed annotations of activities is challenging preventing the applicability of these approaches in real-world settings. This paper proposes new annotation strategies that substantially reduce the required amount of annotation. We explore two learning schemes for activity recognition that effectively leverage such sparsely labeled data together with more easily obtainable unlabeled data. Experimental results on two public datasets indicate that both approaches obtain results close to fully supervised techniques. The proposed methods are robust to the presence of erroneous labels occurring in real world annotation data. PMID:21339526

Stikic, Maja; Larlus, Diane; Ebert, Sandra; Schiele, Bernt

2011-02-17

125

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase agonists protect against lethal influenza virus challenge in mice  

PubMed Central

Background A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus was isolated from humans in North America and has developed into the first pandemic of the 21st century. Reports of a global shortage of antiviral drugs, the evolution of drug-resistant influenza virus variants, and a six-month delay in vaccine availability underline the need to develop new therapeutics that may be widely distributed during future pandemics. Methods In an effort to discover alternatives to the conventional therapeutic strategies available, we screened several classes of immunomodulatory agents possessing the potential to mitigate the effects of influenza virus-induced immunopathology. Results Here, we provide preliminary evidence that two classes of drugs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists, provide protection in mice infected with highly-pathogenic and pandemic strains of influenza virus. Conclusions The extensive production in the developed world, combined with the significant degree of protection described here, establish these drugs as a potential therapeutic option that may be broadly implemented to combat serious disease caused by future influenza epidemics or pandemics.

Moseley, Carson E.; Webster, Robert G.; Aldridge, Jerry R.

2013-01-01

126

Antitumor activity of a novel series of ?-aryloxy-?-methylhydrocinnamic acid derivatives as PPAR gamma agonists against a panel of human cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists have shown benefit in treating diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis\\u000a and cancer. However, widespread use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the clinically used synthetic PPAR? agonists, has been limited\\u000a by adverse cardiovascular effects. Consequently, numerous novel non-TZD compounds were synthesized and antidiabetic efficacy\\u000a was evaluated to identify PPAR? agonists for potential clinical use. On the other hand, many

Xishan Xiong; Yangliang Ye; Lili Fu; Bing Dai; Jieqiong Liu; Jieshuang Jia; Jing Tang; Lin Li; Li Wang; Jianhua Shen; Changlin Mei

2009-01-01

127

Reversibility to a beta2-agonist in COPD: relationship to atopy and neutrophil activation.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by limited bronchial reversibility and chronic neutrophilic inflammation. However, in some cases of COPD, eosinophilic inflammation is present. We investigated the relationship between reversibility to beta2-agonist with atopy and neutrophil activation in patients with stable COPD. For this purpose, 38 outpatients with COPD (mean age: 64 years) 12 with asthma (mean age: 51 years) and 13 healthy controls (mean age: 49 years) were tested using increasing doses of inhaled salbutamol (up to 3100 microg). According to their reversibility, COPD patients were divided into two groups: reversible COPD (deltaFEV1 > or = 12% pred, n = 16) and non-reversible COPD (deltaFEV1 < 12% pred, n = 22). Atopy, assessed by skin prick, was found at similar frequencies in both COPD groups. Total serum IgE was higher in COPD patients vs. controls, but did not differ significantly between the COPD groups. The blood eosinophil count was significantly higher in the reversible COPD group than in the non-reversible COPD, and correlated with deltaFEV % pred (Rs = 0.54, P < 0.05), as well as in asthmatics. The non-reversible COPD group had a higher level of spontaneous neutrophil activation (by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium) versus controls. We conclude that airway reversibility in COPD patients is associated with the degree of blood eosinophilia, but not with the degree of blood neutrophil activation. PMID:12814141

Sitkauskiene, B; Sakalauskas, R; Malakauskas, K; Lötvall, J

2003-06-01

128

Active components of ginger potentiate ?-agonist-induced relaxation of airway smooth muscle by modulating cytoskeletal regulatory proteins.  

PubMed

?-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate ?-agonist-induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with ?-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 ?M). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C ? enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C ? activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate ?-agonist-induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with ?-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms through complementary intracellular pathways. PMID:23962082

Townsend, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Wakita, Ryo; Emala, Charles W

2014-01-01

129

Effects of an Alpha 7-Nicotinic Agonist on Default Network Activity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background 3-(2,4-Dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (DMXB-A) is a partial agonist at ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that has been evaluated clinically for treatment of schizophrenia. The current study examined the effects of DMXB-A on default network activity as a biomarker for drug effects on pathological brain function associated with schizophrenia. Methods Placebo and two doses of DMXB-A were administered in a random, double-blind crossover design during a one-month Phase-2 study of DMXB-A. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 16 non-smoking patients with schizophrenia while they performed a simple eye movement task. Independent component analysis was used to identify the default network component. Default network changes were evaluated in the context of a polymorphism in CHRNA7, the ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene, which was previously found to be associated with schizophrenia. Results Compared to placebo, both 150 mg and 75 mg b.i.d. DMXB-A altered default network activity, including a reduction in posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex and medial frontal gyrus activity, and an increase in precuneus activity. The most robust difference, posterior cingulate activity reduction, was affected by CHRNA7 genotype. Conclusion The observed DMXB-A-related changes are consistent with improved default network function in schizophrenia. Pharmacogenetic analysis indicates mediation of the effect through the ?7-nicotinic receptor. These results further implicate nicotinic cholinergic dysfunction in the disease and suggest that default network activity may be a useful indicator of biologic effects of novel therapeutic agents.

Tregellas, Jason R.; Tanabe, Jody; Rojas, Donald C.; Shatti, Shireen; Olincy, Ann; Johnson, Lynn; Martin, Laura F.; Soti, Ferenc; Kem, William R.; Leonard, Sherry; Freedman, Robert

2010-01-01

130

Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist  

SciTech Connect

PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca/sup + +/ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of /sup 3/H-inositol (/sup 3/H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the /sup 3/H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 ..mu..M), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of /sup 3/H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion.

Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

1986-03-05

131

Differential DAergic Control of D1 and D2 Receptor Agonist Over Locomotor Activity and GABA Level in the Striatum.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia, a group of nuclei, are associated with a variety of functions, including motor control. The striatum, which is the major input station of the basal ganglia in the brain, is regulated in part by dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra. The striatum is made up 96% of medium spiny neurons which are GABAergic cells. GABAergic cells are known to contain DA receptors which divide into two main branches- the D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing direct pathway and the D2 receptor (D2R)-expressing indirect pathway. The role of these two efferent pathways has not been clear in control of motor behaviors. To establish the influence of the different DA subtypes on GABAergic systems in the striatum, D1 selective receptor agonist (SKF 38393) and D2 selective receptor agonist (Quinpirole) were administered to mice. SKF 38393 and quinpirole were administered intraperitoneally in a volume of 0, 1, 5, 10 (mg/kg) and motor activity was assessed for 60 min immediately after the injection of DA agonists. Mice were sacrificed after behavioral test and the striatum in the brain were dissected for analysis of GABA level with HPLC. Both SKF 38393 and quinpirole dose-dependently increased locomotor activity but, GABA level in the striatum was clearly different in two agonists. These findings provide insight into the selective contributions of the direct and indirect pathways to striatal GABAergic motor behaviors. PMID:22110374

Jung, Eun-Yee; Shim, Insop

2011-09-01

132

Arterial Spin Labeling Demonstrates that Focal Amygdalar Glutamatergic Agonist Infuasion Leads to Rapid Diffuse Cerebral Activation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate acute effects of intra-amygdalar excitatory amino acid administration on blood flow, relaxation time and apparent diffusion coefficient in rat brain. Materials and Methods Several days after MR-compatible cannula placement in right basolateral amygdala, anesthetized rats were imaged at 7T. Relative CBF was measured before and 60 minutes after infusion of 10 nanomoles KA, cAMPA, ATPA, or normal saline using arterial spin labeling. Quantitative T2 and diffusion weighted images were acquired. rCBF, T2 and ADC values were evaluated in bilateral basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, frontal and parietal regions. Results KA led to the highest, and ATPA lowest bilateral rCBF increases. Time courses varied among drugs. T2 for KA and AMPA was higher while ADC was lower for KA. Conclusions Intraamygdalar injection of GluR agonists evoked bilateral seizure activity and increased rCBF, greater for KA and AMPA than selective ATPA GluR5 activation.

Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Banerjee, Madhumita; Acosta, Maria T; Banks, Melissa; Heffer, Alison; Silva, Alfonso C.; Koretsky, Alan; Theodore, William H

2009-01-01

133

A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia.  

PubMed

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to d-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:23954466

Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Chang, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2013-11-01

134

Different inverse agonist activities of ?-adrenergic receptor antagonists—pharmacological characterization and therapeutical implications in the treatment of chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of chronic heart failure with most ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) antagonists leads to an improvement of symptoms and left ventricular function. However, only metoprolol, bisoprolol and carvedilol have been shown to reduce mortality in these patients. Bucindolol did not reduce mortality and xamoterol even increased it. These differences may be related to different inverse agonist or partial agonist activity

Christoph Maack; Michael Böhm

2003-01-01

135

An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures  

SciTech Connect

A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

Naghshineh, K. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

1994-01-01

136

The PPAR? agonist, fenofibrate, preserves hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibits microglial activation following whole-brain irradiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? agonist, fenofibrate, would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials 129S1/SvImJ wild-type (WT) and PPAR? knock-out (KO) mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% w/w fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10 Gy single dose of 137Cs ? rays). Mice were injected i.p. with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label the surviving cells at 1 month post-WBI and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months post-WBI using BrdU/NeuN double-immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months post-WBI using Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results WBI led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months post-WBI. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the DG following WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the KO mice, indicating a PPAR?-dependent mechanism(s). Conclusion These data highlight a novel role for PPAR? ligands in improving neurogenesis following WBI, and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

Ramanan, Sriram; Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao, Weiling; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E

2009-01-01

137

The PPARalpha Agonist Fenofibrate Preserves Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Whole-Brain Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials: For this study, 129S1/SvImJ wild-type and PPARalpha knockout mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% wt/wt fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10-Gy single dose of {sup 137}Cs gamma-rays). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine to label the surviving cells at 1 month after WBI, and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months after WBI by use of bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei double immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the subgranular zone and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months after WBI by use of Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Whole-brain irradiation led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months after it was performed. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the dentate gyrus after WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the knockout mice, indicating a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism or mechanisms. Conclusions: These data highlight a novel role for PPARalpha ligands in improving neurogenesis after WBI and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

Ramanan, Sriram [Department of Cancer Biology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao Weiling [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Hsu, F.-C. [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Riddle, David R. [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Mike E., E-mail: mrobbins@wfubmc.ed [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2009-11-01

138

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist, HPP593, Prevents Renal Necrosis under Chronic Ischemia  

PubMed Central

The Goldblatt’s 2 kidney 1 clip (2K1C) rat animal model of renovascular hypertension is characterized by ischemic nephropathy of the clipped kidney. 2K1C rats were treated with a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, HPP593. Clipped kidneys from untreated rats developed tubular and glomerular necrosis and massive interstitial, periglomerular and perivascular fibrosis. HPP593 kidneys did not exhibit any histochemical features of necrosis; fibrotic lesions were present only in perivascular areas. Necrosis in the untreated clipped kidneys was associated with an increased oxidative stress, up regulation and mitochondrial translocation of the pro-death protein BNIP3 specifically in tubules. In the kidneys of HPP593-treated rats oxidative stress was attenuated and BNIP3 protein decreased notably in the mitochondrial fraction when compared to untreated animals. In untreated clipped kidneys, mitochondria were dysfunctional as revealed by perturbations in the levels of MCAD, COXIV, TFAM, and Parkin proteins and AMPK activation, while in HPP593-treated rats these proteins remained at the physiological levels. Nuclear amounts of oxidative stress-responsive proteins, NRF1 and NRF2 were below physiological levels in treated kidneys. Mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy were inhibited similarly in both treated and untreated 2K1C kidneys as indicated by a decrease in PGC1-? and deficiency of the autophagy-essential proteins LC3-II and ATG5. However, HPP593 treatment resulted in increased accumulation of p62 protein, an autophagic substrate and an enhancer of NRF2 activity. Therefore, inhibition of BNIP3 activation by the preservation of mitochondrial function and control of oxidative stress by PPAR? is the most likely mechanism to account for the prevention of necrotic death in the kidney under conditions of persistent ischemia.

Fedorova, Larisa V.; Sodhi, Komal; Gatto-Weis, Cara; Puri, Nitin; Hinds, Terry D.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Malhotra, Deepak

2013-01-01

139

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of cyanoguanidine-type and structurally related histamine H4 receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Recently, we identified high-affinity human histamine H3 (hH3R) and H4 receptor (hH4R) ligands among a series of NG-acylated imidazolylpropylguanidines, which were originally designed as histamine H2 receptor (H2R) agonists. Aiming at selectivity for hH4R, the acylguanidine group was replaced with related moieties. Within a series of cyanoguanidines, 2-cyano-1-[4-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)butyl]-3-[(2-phenylthio)ethyl]guanidine (UR-PI376, 67) was identified as the most potent hH4R agonist (pEC50 = 7.47, alpha = 0.93) showing negligible hH1R and hH2R activities and significant selectivity over the hH3R (pKB = 6.00, alpha = -0.28), as determined in steady-state GTPase assays using membrane preparations of hH(x)R-expressing Sf9 cells. In contrast to previously described selective H4R agonists, this compound and other 3-substituted derivatives are devoid of agonistic activity at the other HR subtypes. Modeling of the binding mode of 67 suggests that the cyanoguanidine moiety forms charge-assisted hydrogen bonds not only with the conserved Asp-94 but also with the hH4R-specific Arg-341 residue. 2-Carbamoyl-1-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]-3-(3-phenylpropyl)guanidine (UR-PI97, 88) was unexpectedly identified as a highly potent and selective hH3R inverse agonist (pKB = 8.42, >300-fold selectivity over the other HR subtypes). PMID:19791743

Igel, Patrick; Geyer, Roland; Strasser, Andrea; Dove, Stefan; Seifert, Roland; Buschauer, Armin

2009-10-22

140

Pertussis toxin-sensitive activation of p21ras by G protein-coupled receptor agonists in fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Some agonists of G protein-coupled receptors, such as thrombin and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), can promote cell proliferation via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive signaling pathway. While these agonists stimulate phospholipase C and inhibit adenylate cyclase, it appears that other, as-yet-unidentified, effector pathways are required for mitogenesis. Here we report that LPA and a thrombin receptor agonist peptide rapidly activate the protooncogene product p21ras in quiescent fibroblasts. This activation is inhibited by PTX and yet not attributable to known PTX-sensitive G protein pathways, including stimulation of phospholipases, inhibition of adenylate cyclase, or modulation of ion channels. LPA- and peptide-induced p21ras activation is inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, at doses that do not affect epidermal growth factor-induced p21ras activation. Thus, a heterotrimeric G protein of the Gi subfamily regulates activation of p21ras by LPA and thrombin, possibly through an intermediary tyrosine kinase. This pathway may critically participate in mitogenic signaling downstream from certain G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:7679495

van Corven, E J; Hordijk, P L; Medema, R H; Bos, J L; Moolenaar, W H

1993-02-15

141

Preferential activation of the vagal nodose nociceptive subtype by TRPA1 agonists in the guinea pig esophagus  

PubMed Central

Background The TRPA1 receptor is directly activated by a wide range of chemicals including many endogenous molecules relevant for esophageal pathophysiology. We addressed the hypothesis that the TRPA1 agonists differentially activate esophageal nociceptive subtypes depending on their embryological source (neural crest or epibranchial placodes). Methods Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on the vagal neurons retrogradely labeled from the guinea pig esophagus. Extracellular recordings were made in the isolated innervated esophagus preparation ex vivo. Key results Single cell RT-PCR revealed that the majority of the nodose (placodes-derived) and jugular (neural crest-derived) TRPV1-positive esophageal nociceptors express TRPA1. Single fiber recording showed that the TRPA1 agonists allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde were effective in inducing robust action potential discharge in the nerve terminals of nodose nociceptors, but had far less effect in jugular nociceptors (approximately fivefold less). Higher efficacy of the TRPA1 agonists to activate nodose nociceptors was confirmed in the isolated esophagus-labeled vagal neurons in the whole cell patch clamp studies. Similarly to neural crest-derived vagal jugular nociceptors, the spinal DRG nociceptors that are also neural crest-derived were only modestly activated by allyl-isothiocyanate. Conclusions & Inferences We conclude that the TRPA1 agonists are substantially more effective activators of the placodes-derived than the neural crest-derived esophageal nociceptors. Our data predict that in esophageal diseases the presence of endogenous TRPA1 activators will be preferentially signaled by the vagal nodose nociceptors.

Brozmanova, M; Ru, F; Surdenikova, L; Mazurova, L; Taylor-Clark, T; Kollarik, M.

2011-01-01

142

Proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonist activates anti-influenza mechanisms and modulates IFN?-induced antiviral pathways in human neutrophils.  

PubMed

Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is expressed by human leukocytes and participates in the development of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrated an ability of PAR2 agonist to enhance IFN?-induced antiviral responses of human leukocytes. However, the precise cellular antiviral defense mechanisms triggered in leukocytes after stimulation with IFN? and/or PAR2 agonist remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to identify neutrophil defense mechanisms involved in antiviral resistance. Here we demonstrated that PAR2 agonist enhanced IFN?-related reduction of influenza A virus (IAV) replication in human neutrophils. PAR2-mediated decrease in IAV replication was associated with reduced NS-1 transcription. Moreover, PAR2-dependent neutrophil activation resulted in enhanced myeloperoxidase degranulation and extracellular myeloperoxidase disrupted IAV. The production of ROS was elevated in response to PAR2 activation. Interestingly, IFN? did not influence both effects: PAR2 agonist-triggered myeloperoxidase (MPO) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are known to limit IAV infections. In contrast, orthomyxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) protein expression was synergistically elevated through PAR2 agonist and IFN? in neutrophils. Altogether, these findings emphasize two PAR2-controlled antiviral mechanisms that are independent of or modulated by IFN?. PMID:24171176

Feld, Micha; Shpacovitch, Victoria; Ehrhardt, Christina; Fastrich, Michaela; Goerge, Tobias; Ludwig, Stephan; Steinhoff, Martin

2013-01-01

143

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists repress epithelial sodium channel expression in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, are used to treat type 2 diabetes. However, ?5% of patients experience the treatment-limiting side effect of edema. Studies have implicated activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a cause of TZD-induced fluid retention, although there have been conflicting reports. The goal of this study was to resolve the role of PPAR? in control of ENaC isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we demonstrate in mice that rosiglitazone (RGZ), a PPAR? ligand, increases body weight and abdominal fat pad fluid content and reduces hematocrit. Seven days of RGZ decreases ENaC? and ENaC? mRNA and ENaC? protein expression in the kidney cortex, and acute treatment for 5 h with pioglitazone, another potent TZD, does not increase renal ENaC isoform mRNA or protein expression. Pioglitazone also decreases ENaC? and ENaC? mRNA expression in a cortical collecting duct cell line. As no direct transcriptional studies had been conducted, we examined the PPAR?-dependent regulation of ENaC. Pioglitazone represses ENaC? promoter activity, and this repression is partially relieved by inhibition of protein synthesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that repression is associated with a decrease in histone H4K5 acetylation at the proximal ENaC? promoter. In summary, TZDs do not increase ENaC mRNA expression in the kidney, and in fact repress the ENaC? promoter via an indirect transcriptional mechanism.

Borsting, Emily; Cheng, Vicki Pei-Chun; Glass, Chris K.; Vallon, Volker

2012-01-01

144

Tricyclic alkylamides as melatonin receptor ligands with antagonist or inverse agonist activity.  

PubMed

This work reports the design and synthesis of novel alkylamides, characterized by a dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene nucleus, as melatonin (MLT) receptor ligands. The tricyclic scaffold was chosen on the basis of previous quantitative structure-activity studies on MT1 and MT2 antagonists, relating selective MT2 antagonism to the presence of an aromatic substituent out of the plane of the MLT indole ring. Some dibenzo seven-membered structures were thus selected because of the noncoplanar arrangement of their benzene rings, and an alkylamide chain was introduced to fit the requirements for MLT receptor binding, namely, dibenzocycloheptenes with an acylaminoalkyl side chain at position 10 and dibenzoazepines with this side chain originating from the nitrogen atom bridging the two phenyl rings. Binding affinity at human cloned MT1 and MT2 receptors was measured by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin displacement assay and intrinsic activity by the GTPgammaS test. The majority of the compounds were characterized by higher affinity at the MT2 than at the MT1 receptor and by very low intrinsic activity values, thus confirming the importance of the noncoplanar arrangement of the two aromatic rings for selective MT2 antagonism. Dibenzocycloheptenes generally displayed higher MT1 and MT 2affinity than dibenzoazepines. N-(8-Methoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-10-ylmethyl)propionamide (4c) and -butyramide (4d) were the most selective MT2 receptor antagonists of the series, with MT2 receptor affinity comparable to that of melatonin and as such among the highest reported in the literature for MLT receptor antagonists. The acetamide derivative 4b produced a noticeable reduction of GTPgammaS binding at MT2 receptor, thus being among the few inverse agonists described. PMID:15293992

Lucini, Valeria; Pannacci, Marilou; Scaglione, Francesco; Fraschini, Franco; Rivara, Sivia; Mor, Marco; Bordi, Fabrizio; Plazzi, Pier Vincenzo; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Piersanti, Giovanni; Diamantini, Giuseppe; Tarzia, Giorgio

2004-08-12

145

Antagonizing effect of protein kinase C activation on the ?-opioid agonist-induced inhibition of high voltage-activated calcium current in rat periaqueductal gray neuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioids have been thought to induce analgesia by activating the descending pain control system, especially at the level of periaqueductal gray, and regulate the neurotransmitter release through the inhibition of calcium channel. In the present study, the modulatory effects of protein kinase C and protein kinase A on the ?-opioid agonist-induced inhibition of the high-voltage activated calcium current were examined

Young-Wuk Cho; Seung-Ho Han; Byung-Il Min; Jeong-Seop Rhee; Norio Akaike

2001-01-01

146

Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum-New Selective Partial Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPAR? agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPAR? activation using a PPAR?-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPAR? agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPAR? activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPAR? receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPAR? expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPAR? agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements.

Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M.; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P.; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela

2013-01-01

147

Development of a Peptide-derived orally-active kappa-opioid receptor agonist targeting peripheral pain.  

PubMed

Kappa-opioid agonists are particularly efficacious in the treatment of peripheral pain but suffer from central nervous system (CNS)-mediated effects that limit their development. One promising kappa-agonist is the peptidic compound CR665. Although not orally available, CR665 given i.v. exhibits high peripheral to CNS selectivity and benefits patients with visceral and neuropathic pain. In this study we have generated a series of derivatives of CR665 and screened them for oral activity in the acetic acid-induced rat writhing assay for peripheral pain. Five compounds were further screened for specificity of activation of kappa receptors as well as agonism and antagonism at mu and delta receptors, which can lead to off-target effects. All active derivatives engaged the kappa receptor with EC50s in the low nM range while agonist selectivity for kappa over mu or delta was >11,000-200,000-fold. No antagonist activity was detected. One compound was chosen for further analysis (Compound 9). An oral dose response of 9 in rats yielded an EC50 of 4.7 mg/kg, approaching a druggable level for an oral analgesic. To assess the peripheral selectivity of this compound an i.v. dose response in rats was assessed in the writhing assay and hotplate assay (an assay of CNS-mediated pain). The EC50 in the writhing assay was 0.032 mg/kg while no activity was detectable in the hotplate assay at doses as high as 30 mg/kg, indicating a peripheral selectivity of >900-fold. We propose that compound 9 is a candidate for development as an orally-available peripherally-restricted kappa agonist. PMID:24222801

Hughes, Francis M; Shaner, Brooke E; Brower, Justin O; Woods, R Jeremy; Dix, Thomas A

2013-01-01

148

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? agonists differentially regulate inhibitor of DNA binding expression in rodents and human cells.  

PubMed

Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor that participates in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic agents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, have been reported to diminish Id2 expression in human cells. We hypothesized that PPAR? activators may also alter Id2 expression. Fenofibrate diminished hepatic Id2 expression in both late pregnant and unmated rats. In 24 hour fasted rats, Id2 expression was decreased under conditions known to activate PPAR?. In order to determine whether the fibrate effects were mediated by PPAR?, wild-type mice and PPAR?-null mice were treated with Wy-14,643 (WY). WY reduced Id2 expression in wild-type mice without an effect in PPAR?-null mice. In contrast, fenofibrate induced Id2 expression after 24 hours of treatment in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). MK-886, a PPAR? antagonist, did not block fenofibrate-induced activation of Id2 expression, suggesting a PPAR?-independent effect was involved. These findings confirm that Id2 is a gene responsive to PPAR? agonists. Like other genes (apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-V), the opposite directional transcriptional effect in rodents and a human cell line further emphasizes that PPAR? agonists have different effects in rodents and humans. PMID:22701468

González, María Del Carmen; Corton, J Christopher; Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Quirós, Yolanda; Alvarez-Millán, Juan José; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

2012-01-01

149

Effects of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-? Agonist GW501516 on Bone and Muscle in Ovariectomized Rats.  

PubMed

Estrogen deficiency promotes bone loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have 3 subtypes (?, ?, and ?). PPAR? agonists induce bone loss, whereas PPAR? agonists increase bone mass. Although PPAR? agonists are known to influence skeletal muscle metabolism, the skeletal effects are unsettled. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of the PPAR? agonist GW501516 in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats, 12 weeks of age, were allocated to a sham-operated group and 3 OVX groups; high-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW5), low-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW1), and a control group (OVX-CTR), respectively (n = 12 per group). Animals received GW501516 or vehicle (methylcellulose) daily for 4 months by gavage. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the femur, spine, and whole body. Bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia was assessed by microcomputed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry was performed. Quadriceps muscle morphology and the relative expression of mitochondrial proteins were analyzed. Bone metabolism markers and metabolic markers were measured in plasma. After 4 months, the OVX-GW5 group displayed lower femoral BMD than OVX-CTR. Trabecular separation was higher in the GW-treated groups, compared with OVX-CTR. The OVX-GW5 group also exhibited lower cortical area fraction and a higher structure model index than OVX-CTR. These effects coincided with impaired bone formation in both GW groups. The OVX-GW5 group displayed elevated triglyceride levels and reduced adiponectin levels, whereas no effects on muscle morphology or mitochondrial gene expression appeared. In summary, the PPAR? agonist GW501516 negatively affected bone properties in OVX rats, whereas no effects were detected in skeletal muscle. PMID:24708238

Mosti, M P; Stunes, A K; Ericsson, M; Pullisaar, H; Reseland, J E; Shabestari, M; Eriksen, E F; Syversen, U

2014-06-01

150

Protective Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Agonist, Wy14643, on Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Primary Rat Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effects and possible mechanism of an agonist of PPAR?, Wy14643, on primary hepatocytes subjected to H/R injury in rats. H/R induced a significant increase ALT, AST, MDA in the culture medium and ROS in the hepatocytes. These effects were reversed by pretreatment with Wy14643 in the dose-dependent manner. The activity of SOD and the level of GSH in the hepatocytes were decreased after H/R, which were increased by Wy14643 pretreatment. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of PPAR? significantly increased in H/R+Wy14643 groups when compared with that in H/R group. A PPAR? agonist, Wy14643, exerts significant protective effect against H/R injury in primary hepatocytes via PPAR? activation and attenuating oxidative stress.

Chen, Ke; Li, Yuan-Hai; Xu, Si-Qi; Hu, Sheng-Hong; Zhang, Lei

2012-01-01

151

Multi-conformation dynamic pharmacophore modeling of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? for the discovery of novel agonists.  

PubMed

Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is important for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity through the regulation of glucose metabolism and fatty acid accumulation. Hence, the discovery of novel PPAR? agonists is necessary to overcome these diseases. In this study, a newly developed approach, multi-conformation dynamic pharmacophore modeling (MCDPM), was used for screening candidate compounds that can properly bind PPAR?. Highly populated structures obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were selected by clustering analysis. Based on these structures, pharmacophore models were generated from the ligand-binding pocket and then validated to check the rationality. Consequently, two hits were retrieved as final candidates by utilizing virtual screening and molecular docking simulations. These compounds can be used in the design of novel PPAR? agonists. PMID:24104184

Sohn, Young-sik; Park, Chanin; Lee, Yuno; Kim, Songmi; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; Kim, Yongseong; Kim, Hyong-Ha; Suh, Jung-Keun; Lee, Keun Woo

2013-11-01

152

A yeast ARS-binding protein activates transcription synergistically in combination with other weak activating factors.  

PubMed Central

ABFI (ARS-binding protein I) is a yeast protein that binds specific DNA sequences associated with several autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs). ABFI also binds sequences located in promoter regions of some yeast genes, including DED1, an essential gene of unknown function that is transcribed constitutively at a high level. ABFI was purified by specific binding to the DED1 upstream activating sequence (UAS) and was found to recognize related sequences at several other promoters, at an ARS (ARS1), and at a transcriptional silencer (HMR E). All ABFI-binding sites, regardless of origin, provided weak UAS function in vivo when examined in test plasmids. UAS function was abolished by point mutations that reduced ABFI binding in vitro. Analysis of the DED1 promoter showed that two ABFI-binding sites combine synergistically with an adjacent T-rich sequence to form a strong constitutive activator. The DED1 T-rich element acted synergistically with all other ABFI-binding sites and with binding sites for other multifunctional yeast activators. An examination of the properties of sequences surrounding ARS1 left open the possibility that ABFI enhances the initiation of DNA replication at ARS1 by transcriptional activation. Images

Buchman, A R; Kornberg, R D

1990-01-01

153

Treatment of erosive osteoarthritis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is a common condition associated with high disease burden and frequently accompanied by comorbidities including dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and obesity. The most debilitating HOA phenotype is erosive HOA (EHOA), characterized by synovial inflammation, formation of erosions, and substantial decline in hand function. Currently, there is no proven symptomatic treatment for the EHOA. Due to their broad spectrum effects directed on lipid metabolism, inflammation and pain, the agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha or fibrates are a candidate class of drugs for the treatment of EHOA. In this study, we assessed the influence of fenofibrate treatment on clinical efficacy parameters, in vivo cytokine and adipokine production and concentrations of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in patients with EHOA. Fourteen patients received treatment with 145 mg of fenofibrate/day for 12 weeks. Fenofibrate treatment was associated with significant decreases in pain score, tender joint count, duration of morning stiffness, disease activity score, Cochin index, and ESR. Eight (57.14 %) patients developed Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials-Osteoarthritis Research Society response at the end of treatment. Paracetamol consumption did not change during the treatment course. There was a significant reduction in triglyceride levels. No changes were detected in serum pro-inflammatory cytokine and adipokine concentrations while circulating IL-10 levels significantly decreased. There were no differences in circulating EPC numbers before and after the treatment. Fenofibrate was well tolerated, no patient experienced disease flare during the treatment. In conclusion, in EHOA patients, fenofibrate is associated with pleiotropic effects on pain, inflammation, and lipid profile. Larger, controlled studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23620259

Shirinsky, Ivan V; Shirinsky, Valery S

2014-05-01

154

Satellite observations of the impact of weak volcanic activity on marine clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emissions from weak volcanic eruptions tend to remain in the low troposphere, they may have a significant radiative impact through the indirect effect on clouds. However, this type of volcanic activity is underreported and its global impact has been assessed only by model simulations constrained with very limited observations. First observations of the impact of high-latitude active volcanoes on

Santiago Gassó

2008-01-01

155

Food Does Not Affect the Pharmacokinetics of Tesaglitazar, a Novel Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor &bgr;\\/&ggr; Agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tesaglitazar is a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) &agr;\\/&ggr; agonist in development to treat lipid and glucose abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated the effects of food on tesaglitazar pharmacokinetics. In an open, randomized, 2-way crossover study, 20 healthy men received tesaglitazar 1 mg during fasting and after a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast. Blood samples were taken to

S. Samuelsson; S. Johansson; S. Halldórsdóttir; H. Stenhoff; K. P. Öhman

2006-01-01

156

3-Acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethylene ketal functions as a potent antiandrogen with marginal agonist activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of available antiandrogens have been reported to possess agonist activity to induce prostate-specific antigen, which might result in antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. Here we report the identification of 3-acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethyl- ene ketal (ADEK) from dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites and derivatives as a potent antiandrogen. We found ADEK could interrupt androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and suppress androgen-induced transactivations of WT

Hiroshi Miyamoto; Padma Marwah; Ashok Marwah; Henry Lardy; Chawnshang Chang

157

Modulating ?-Opioid Receptor Phosphorylation Switches Agonist-dependent Signaling as Reflected in PKC? Activation and Dendritic Spine Stability*  

PubMed Central

A new role of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphorylation was demonstrated in the current studies by using the ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) as a model. Morphine induces a low level of receptor phosphorylation and uses the PKC? pathway to induce ERK phosphorylation and receptor desensitization, whereas etorphine, fentanyl, and [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) induce extensive receptor phosphorylation and use the ?-arrestin2 pathway. Blocking OPRM1 phosphorylation (by mutating Ser363, Thr370 and Ser375 to Ala) enabled etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO to use the PKC? pathway. This was not due to the decreased recruitment of ?-arrestin2 to the receptor signaling complex, because these agonists were unable to use the PKC? pathway when ?-arrestin2 was absent. In addition, overexpressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) decreased the ability of morphine to activate PKC?, whereas overexpressing dominant-negative GRK2 enabled etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO to activate PKC?. Furthermore, by overexpressing wild-type OPRM1 and a phosphorylation-deficient mutant in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that receptor phosphorylation contributes to the differential effects of agonists on dendritic spine stability. Phosphorylation blockage made etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO function as morphine in the primary cultures. Therefore, agonist-dependent phosphorylation of GPCR regulates the activation of the PKC pathway and the subsequent responses.

Zheng, Hui; Chu, Ji; Zhang, Yuhan; Loh, Horace H.; Law, Ping-Yee

2011-01-01

158

Isolation and functional characterization of peptide agonists of PTPRJ, a tyrosine phosphatase receptor endowed with tumor suppressor activity.  

PubMed

PTPRJ is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase whose expression is strongly reduced in the majority of investigated cancer cell lines and tumor specimens. PTPRJ negatively interferes with mitogenic signals originating from several oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including HGFR, PDGFR, RET, and VEGFR-2. Here we report the isolation and characterization of peptides from a random peptide phage display library that bind and activate PTPRJ. These agonist peptides, which are able to both circularize and form dimers in acqueous solution, were assayed for their biochemical and biological activity on both human cancer cells and primary endothelial cells (HeLa and HUVEC, respectively). Our results demonstrate that binding of PTPRJ-interacting peptides to cell cultures dramatically reduces the extent of both MAPK phosphorylation and total phosphotyrosine levels; conversely, they induce a significant increase of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). Moreover, PTPRJ agonist peptides both reduce proliferation and trigger apoptosis of treated cells. Our data indicate that peptide agonists of PTPRJ positively modulate the PTPRJ activity and may lead to novel targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:22759068

Paduano, Francesco; Ortuso, Francesco; Campiglia, Pietro; Raso, Cinzia; Iaccino, Enrico; Gaspari, Marco; Gaudio, Eugenio; Mangone, Graziella; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Bilotta, Anna; Narciso, Domenico; Palmieri, Camillo; Agosti, Valter; Artese, Anna; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel; Sala, Marina; Cuda, Giovanni; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Perrotti, Nicola; Scala, Giuseppe; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Alcaro, Stefano; Croce, Carlo M; Novellino, Ettore; Fusco, Alfredo; Trapasso, Francesco

2012-10-19

159

Modulating micro-opioid receptor phosphorylation switches agonist-dependent signaling as reflected in PKCepsilon activation and dendritic spine stability.  

PubMed

A new role of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphorylation was demonstrated in the current studies by using the ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) as a model. Morphine induces a low level of receptor phosphorylation and uses the PKC? pathway to induce ERK phosphorylation and receptor desensitization, whereas etorphine, fentanyl, and [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) induce extensive receptor phosphorylation and use the ?-arrestin2 pathway. Blocking OPRM1 phosphorylation (by mutating Ser363, Thr370 and Ser375 to Ala) enabled etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO to use the PKC? pathway. This was not due to the decreased recruitment of ?-arrestin2 to the receptor signaling complex, because these agonists were unable to use the PKC? pathway when ?-arrestin2 was absent. In addition, overexpressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) decreased the ability of morphine to activate PKC?, whereas overexpressing dominant-negative GRK2 enabled etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO to activate PKC?. Furthermore, by overexpressing wild-type OPRM1 and a phosphorylation-deficient mutant in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that receptor phosphorylation contributes to the differential effects of agonists on dendritic spine stability. Phosphorylation blockage made etorphine, fentanyl, and DAMGO function as morphine in the primary cultures. Therefore, agonist-dependent phosphorylation of GPCR regulates the activation of the PKC pathway and the subsequent responses. PMID:21292762

Zheng, Hui; Chu, Ji; Zhang, Yuhan; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

2011-04-01

160

MIF-1 fails to modify agonist-induced oral activity in neonatal 6-OHDA-treated rats.  

PubMed

L-Prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (MIF-1) is known to attenuate apomorphine-induced stereotypes in adult rats that are lesioned as neonates with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). To test whether MIF-1 would affect dopamine (DA) agonist-induced and serotonin (5-HT) agonist-induced oral activity, both intact and neonatal 6-OHDA-treated rats were studied. Rats at 3 days from birth were injected with desipramine (20 mg/kg, IP), 1 h before 6-OHDA HBr (100 micrograms, salt form, in each lateral ventricle) or its vehicle, saline-ascorbic acid (0.1%). At approximately 6 months rats were treated with MIF-1 (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg, IP), 10 min before SKF 38393 HCl (1.0 mg/kg, IP) or m-chlorophenylpiperazine 2HCl (m-CPP 2HCl; 0.5 mg/kg, IP), DA D1 and 5-HT1C,2 receptor agonists, respectively. Although both agonists increased oral activity in control and neonatal 6-OHDA-treated rats, MIF-1 did not modify the response. In rats that received either of the three doses of MIF-1 for 21 consecutive days, there was still no observed effect of MIF-1 on the oral response of control and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats to SKF 38393 and m-CPP. These findings indicate that MIF-1 does not modify the oral activity response of supersensitized D1 and 5-HT1C receptors in adult rats that are lesioned neonatally with 6-OHDA. PMID:7907787

Gong, L; Kostrzewa, R M; Kalbfleisch, J H

1993-01-01

161

The environmental stressor ultraviolet B radiation inhibits murine antitumor immunity through its ability to generate platelet-activating factor agonists  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitous pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) to human or mouse skin generates platelet-activating factor (PAF) and novel oxidatively modified glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity. These lipids mediate systemic immunosuppression in a process involving IL-10. The current studies sought to determine the functional significance of UVB-mediated systemic immunosuppression in an established model of murine melanoma. We show that UVB irradiation augments B16F10 tumor growth and is dependent on host, but not melanoma cell; PAF-R-expression as UVB or the PAF-R agonist, carbamoyl PAF (CPAF), both promote B16F10 tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice, independent of whether B16F10 cells express PAF-Rs, but do not augment tumor growth in Pafr ? /? mice. UVB-mediated augmentation of experimental murine tumor growth was inhibited with antioxidants, demonstrating the importance of Ox-GPC PAF-R agonists produced non-enzymatically. Host immune cells are required as CPAF-induced augmentation of tumor growth which is not seen in immunodeficient NOD SCID mice. Finally, depleting antibodies against IL-10 in WT mice or depletion of CD25-positive cells in FoxP3EGFP transgenic mice block UVB and/or CPAF-induced tumor growth supporting a requirement for IL-10 and Tregs in this process. These findings indicate that UVB-generated Ox-GPCs with PAF-R agonistic activity enhance experimental murine melanoma tumor growth through targeting host immune cells, most notably Tregs, to mediate systemic immunosuppression.

Sahu, Ravi P.; Turner, Matthew J.; DaSilva, Sonia C.; Rashid, Badri M.; Ocana, Jesus A.; Perkins, Susan M.; Konger, Raymond L.; Touloukian, Christopher E.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

2012-01-01

162

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas M1-macrophage-related molecules such as integrin {alpha}X, IL-1{beta}, MIP2{alpha} and leptin were decreased at rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites. Moreover, transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated peritoneal macrophages into the incisional sites significantly attenuated hyperalgesia. We speculate that local administration of rosiglitazone significantly alleviated the development of postincisional pain, possibly through regulating macrophage polarity at the inflamed site. PPAR{gamma} signaling in macrophages may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of acute pain development.

Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko, E-mail: hase-mai@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

2012-09-14

163

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist effect on rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disease, is associated with insulin resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that the relationship between insulin resistance and inflammation is bidirectional: Inflammation promotes insulin resistance, and insulin resistance promotes inflammation. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist, would decrease inflammation and disease activity and improve insulin resistance in patients with RA. Methods In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study patients with RA (N?=?34) receiving stable therapy were randomized to also receive either pioglitazone 45 mg daily (n?=?17) or matching placebo (n?=?17) for eight weeks. This was followed by a four-week washout period and alternative treatment for eight weeks. Outcomes included change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) score, individual components of the DAS28 score and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA). Intention-to-treat analysis and linear mixed-effects models were used. Results Patients had a mean (±SD) age of 51 (±14.2) years, 82.4% were female and baseline DAS28 high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) was 4.58 (±1.1) units. Addition of pioglitazone was associated with a 9.3% reduction (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.17% to 17.6%) in DAS28-CRP (P?=?0.046), but no significant change in DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) (P?=?0.92). There was a 10.7mm (95% CI?=?0.4 to 20.9 mm) improvement in patient-reported global health (P?=?0.042), a 48.6% decrease (95% CI?=?27.6% to 63.5%) in CRP (P??0.05). Lower-extremity edema was more common during pioglitazone treatment (16%) than placebo (0%). Conclusion Addition of pioglitazone to RA therapy improves insulin resistance and modestly reduces RA disease activity measured by DAS28-CRP and two of its components, including patient-reported global health and CRP, but not DAS28-ESR or ESR. Trial registration NCT00763139

2013-01-01

164

Anti-analgesia of a selective NPFF 2 agonist depends on opioid activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NPFF agonists designed to be selective NPFF2 receptor probes were synthesized. d.Asn-Pro-(N-Me)Ala-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2 (dNPA) displays a very high affinity (0.027nM) for NPFF2 receptors transfected in CHO cells, and a very high selectivity with a discrimination ratio greater than 100 versus NPFF1 receptors. dNPA acts as a potent and selective agonist in [35S]GTP?S binding experiments and inhibits intracellular cAMP production with the

Anne Roussin; Fuschia Serre; Christine Gouardères; Honoré Mazarguil; Michel Roumy; Catherine Mollereau; Jean-Marie Zajac

2005-01-01

165

Antidepressant-like activity of 5HT 1A agonists measured with the forced swim test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the abilities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) agonists with varying selectivity for different subtypes of 5-HT receptors to produce antidepressant-like behavioral effects in the forced swim test in rats. The 5-HT1A agonists 8-OH-DPAT (0.125–1.0 mg\\/kg, SC) and tandospirone (SM-3997) (5–20 mg\\/kg, SC) both produced dose-related decreases in immobility time following subchronic treatment in rats. These effects were similar to

Scott Wieland; Irwin Lucki

1990-01-01

166

Discovery of 3-aryl-3-ethoxypropanoic acids as orally active GPR40 agonists.  

PubMed

The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) mediates enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic ? cells. The GPR40 agonist has been attracting attention as a novel insulin secretagogue with glucose dependency for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The optimization study of compound 1 led to a potent and bioavailable GPR40 agonist 24, which showed insulin secretion and glucose lowering effects in rat OGTT. Compound 24 is a potential lead compound for a novel insulin secretagogue with a low risk of hypoglycemia. PMID:24835985

Takano, Rieko; Yoshida, Masao; Inoue, Masahiro; Honda, Takeshi; Nakashima, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Koji; Yano, Tatsuya; Ogata, Tsuneaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Toda, Narihiro

2014-07-01

167

Effects of peripheral ?, ?, and ?-opioid receptor agonists on the levels of anxiety and motor activity of rats.  

PubMed

The effects of intragastric administration of ?-, ?, and ?-opioid receptor agonists DAMGO, DADLE, and ICI 204,448, respectively, on the anxiety and motor activity of rats in an elevated plus-maze were studied. Peripheral administration of ICI 204,448 produced an anxiolytic effect, but had no effect on motor activity of rats. DAMGO and DADLE reduced motor activity; DADLE also increased anxiety. The data on the opposite effects of ICI 204,448 and DADLE on anxiety confirmed our previous hypothesis on the interactions between the central and peripheral components of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:23113268

Alexeeva, E V; Nazarova, G A; Sudakov, S K

2012-09-01

168

Potent and selective activation of abscisic acid receptors in vivo by mutational stabilization of their agonist-bound conformation  

PubMed Central

Pyrabactin resistance (PYR) 1 and its relatives belong to a family of soluble abscisic acid (ABA) receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) when in their agonist-stabilized conformation. Given their switch-like properties, we envisioned that mutations that stabilize their agonist-bound conformation could be used to activate signaling in vivo. To identify such mutations, we subjected PYR1 to site-saturation mutagenesis at 39 highly conserved residues that participate in ABA or PP2C contacts. All 741 possible single amino acid substitutions at these sites were tested to identify variants that increase basal PYR1-PP2C interactions, which uncovered activating mutations in 10 residues that preferentially cluster in PYR1's gate loop and C-terminal helix. The mutations cause measurable but incomplete receptor activation in vitro; however, specific triple and quadruple mutant combinations were constructed that promote an agonist-bound conformation, as measured by heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, and lead to full receptor activation. Moreover, these mutations retain functionality when introduced into divergent family members, and can therefore be used to dissect individual receptor function in vivo, which has been problematic because of redundancy and family size. Expression of activated PYL2 in Arabidopsis seeds activates ABA signaling by a number of measures: modulation of ABA-regulated gene expression, induction of hyperdormancy, and suppression of ABA deficiency phenotypes in the aba2-1 mutant. Our results set the stage for systematic gain-of-function studies of PYR1 and related ABA receptors and reveal that, despite the large number of receptors, activation of a single receptor is sufficient to activate signaling in planta.

Mosquna, Assaf; Peterson, Francis C.; Park, Sang-Youl; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.

2011-01-01

169

Agonist pharmacology of neonatal and adult glycine receptor alpha subunits: identification of amino acid residues involved in taurine activation.  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a pentameric chloride channel protein which mediates postsynaptic inhibition in the mammalian central nervous system. In spinal cord, different GlyR isoforms originate from the sequential expression of developmentally regulated variants of the ligand binding alpha subunit. Here, neonatal alpha 2 and adult alpha 1 subunits are shown to generate GlyRs with distinct agonist activation profiles upon heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. Whereas alpha 1 receptors are efficiently gated by beta-alanine and taurine, alpha 2 GlyRs show only a low relative response to these agonists, which also display a reduced sensitivity to inhibition by the glycinergic antagonist strychnine. Construction of an alpha 2/alpha 1 subunit chimera and site-directed mutagenesis of the extracellular region of the alpha 1 sequence identified amino acid positions 111 and 212 as important determinants of taurine activation. Our results indicate the existence of distinct subsites for agonists on alpha 1 and alpha 2 GlyRs and suggest that the ligand binding pocket of these receptor proteins is formed from discontinuous domains of their extracellular region. Images

Schmieden, V; Kuhse, J; Betz, H

1992-01-01

170

Effects of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, on the urine and urothelium of the rat.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some PPARgamma agonists, such as pioglitazone, and dual PPARgamma/PPARalpha agonists, such as muraglitazar, induced urothelial bladder tumors in rats but not in mice. In this study, we investigated the early effects in the urine and bladder of rats treated with pioglitazone to evaluate the possible relation between urinary solids formation and urothelial cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. In a 4-week experiment, treatment of rats with 16 mg/kg pioglitazone induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation measured by bromodeoxyuridine labeling index and hyperplasia by histology. It also produced alterations in urinary solid formation, especially calcium-containing crystals and calculi. PPARgamma agonists (pioglitazone and troglitazone) in vitro reduced rat urothelial cell proliferation and induced uroplakin synthesis, a specific differentiation marker in urothelial cells. Our data support the hypothesis that the bladder tumors produced in rats by pioglitazone are related to the formation of urinary solids. This strongly supports the previous conclusion in studies with muraglitazar that this is a rat-specific phenomenon and does not pose a urinary bladder cancer risk to humans treated with these agents. PMID:19858066

Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Cohen, Samuel M

2010-02-01

171

Correlation of the Anticholinesterase Activity of a Series of Organophosphates with Their Ability to Compete with Agonist Binding to Muscarinic Receptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity compete directly with quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding, a muscarinic antagonist which binds to all subtypes equally, and with cis-methyldioxolane (CD), an agonist that binds with high a...

T. R. Ward D. J. Ferris H. A. Tilson W. R. Mundy

1993-01-01

172

Discovery of N-sulfonyl-7-azaindoline derivatives as potent, orally available and selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.  

PubMed

We designed and synthesized novel N-sulfonyl-7-azaindoline derivatives as selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Modification of the N-carbethoxy piperidine moiety of compound 2, an M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-preferring agonist, led to compound 1, a selective M4 mAChR agonist. Compound 1 showed a highly selective M4 mAChR agonistic activity with weak hERG inhibition in vitro. A pharmacokinetic study of compound 1 in vivo revealed good bioavailability and brain penetration in rats. Compound 1 reversed methamphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity in rats (1-10mg/kg, po). PMID:24852118

Suwa, Atsushi; Konishi, Yasuko; Uruno, Yoshiharu; Takai, Kentaro; Nakako, Tomokazu; Sakai, Mutsuko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Ochi, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Harumi; Kitamura, Atsushi; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Sumiyoshi, Takaaki

2014-07-01

173

Delta agonist hydroxy bioisosteres: The discovery of 3-((1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl){4-[(diethylamino)carbonyl]phenyl}amino)benzamide with improved delta agonist activity and in vitro metabolic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated phenol replacements in a series of diaryl amino piperidine delta opioid agonists. From this study we have demonstrated that the hydroxy functional group can be replaced with a primary amide group, giving enhanced activity at the delta receptor, increased selectivity versus mu and kappa as well as improved in vitro metabolic stability.

Andrew M. Griffin; William Brown; Christopher Walpole; Martin Coupal; Lynda Adam; Mylene Gosselin; Dominic Salois; Pierre-Emmanuel Morin; Marie Roumi

2009-01-01

174

The activation of Na+-dependent efflux of Ca2+ from liver mitochondria by glucagon and beta-adrenergic agonists.  

PubMed Central

The Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+ from liver mitochondria was activated by tissue pretreatment with 1 microM-adrenaline, 1 microM-isoprenaline, 10 nM-glucagon and 100 microM-cyclic AMP when 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate were present in the perfusion medium. Infusion of the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10 microM), was ineffective. The activation induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline, was maximal after infusion of agonist for 2 min. The isoprenaline-induced activation was very marked (120-220%), with about 7 nmol of intramitochondrial Ca2+/mg of protein, but was not evident with greater than 15 nmol of Ca2+/mg. Ca2+ efflux in the absence of Na+ and in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was not affected by isoprenaline pretreatment over the range 6-23 nmol of internal Ca2+/mg. With 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate in the perfusion medium, glucagon and isoprenaline infusion increased tissue cyclic AMP content about 8-fold and 3-fold respectively. With 10 mM-pyruvate alone, neither glucagon nor isoprenaline caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP. Omission of lactate also abolished the ability of glucagon, but not of isoprenaline, to activate the Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+. The data indicate that cyclic AMP may mediate the activation caused by glucagon, but provide no evidence that cyclic AMP is an obligatory link in the beta-adrenergic-induced activation.

Goldstone, T P; Duddridge, R J; Crompton, M

1983-01-01

175

Anticoccidial activities of 7-bromo-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)-1H-indazol-6-amine and other alpha 2 adrenergic agonists.  

PubMed Central

Activity against the coccidial pathogen Eimeria tenella in chickens has been discovered among alpha 2 adrenergic agonists. The clonidine analog 7-bromo-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)-1H-indazol-6-amine was active in feed at 7.5 ppm, a concentration similar to the use levels of potent commercial agents, e.g., maduramicin. Additional alpha 2 agonists were also found to have anticoccidial activity, for example, the catecholamine nordefrin, which is chemically unrelated to clonidine. However, alpha 1 agonists and alpha antagonists were inactive. These observations imply that anticoccidial effects reflect involvement of a receptor with the characteristics of the vertebrate alpha 2 adrenoceptor. alpha 2 agonists that permeate the blood-brain barrier (like clonidine) inhibit feed intake at efficacious levels, whereas those that are restricted to the peripheral compartment (such as catecholamines) do not inhibit feed intake as much. Hence, anticoccidial efficacy may be a peripheral adrenergic effect whereas depression of feed intake is likely centrally mediated.

McFarland, J W; Ricketts, A P; Newcomb, D M; Shively, J E; Glazer, E A

1992-01-01

176

In vitro autoradiography of receptor-activated G proteins in rat brain by agonist-stimulated guanylyl 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding.  

PubMed Central

Agonists stimulate guanylyl 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]-triphosphate (GTP[gamma-35S]) binding to receptor-coupled guanine nucleotide binding protein (G proteins) in cell membranes as revealed in the presence of excess GDP. We now report that this reaction can be used to neuroanatomically localize receptor-activated G proteins in brain sections by in vitro autoradiography of GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Using the mu opioid-selective peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) as an agonist in rat brain sections and isolated thalamic membranes, agonist stimulation of GTP[gamma-35S] binding required the presence of excess GDP (1-2 mM GDP in sections vs. 10-30 microM GDP in membranes) to decrease basal G-protein activity and reveal agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Similar concentrations of DAMGO were required to stimulate GTP[gamma-35S] binding in sections and membranes. To demonstrate the general applicability of the technique, agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding in tissue sections was assessed with agonists for the mu opioid (DAMGO), cannabinoid (WIN 55212-2), and gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (baclofen) receptors. For opioid and cannabinoid receptors, agonist stimulation of GTP[gamma-35S] binding was blocked by incubation with agonists in the presence of the appropriate antagonists (naloxone for mu opioid and SR-141716A for cannabinoid), thus demonstrating that the effect was specifically receptor mediated. The anatomical distribution of agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding qualitatively paralleled receptor distribution as determined by receptor binding autoradiography. However, quantitative differences suggest that variations in coupling efficiency may exist between different receptors in various brain regions. This technique provides a method of functional neuroanatomy that identifies changes in the activation of G proteins by specific receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Sim, L J; Selley, D E; Childers, S R

1995-01-01

177

Novel photoactivatable agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of potential use for exploring the functional activated state.  

PubMed

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) exhibits at least four different conformational states varying in affinity for agonists such as acetylcholine (ACh). Photoaffinity labeling has been previously used to elucidate the topography of the AChR. However, to date, the photosensitive probes used to explore the cholinergic binding site photolabeled only closed or desensitized states of the receptor. To identify the structural modifications occurring at the ACh binding site on allosteric transition associated with receptor activation, we have investigated novel photoactivatable 4-diazocyclohexa-2,5-dienone derivatives as putative cholinergic agonists. Such compounds are fairly stable in the dark and generate highly reactive carbenic species on irradiation. In binding experiments using AChRs from Torpedo marmorata, these ligands had affinities for the ACh binding site in the micromolar range and did not interact with the noncompetitive blocker site (greater than millimolar affinity). Irreversible photoinactivation of ACh binding sites was obtained with the ligand 1b (up to 42% at 500 microM) in a protectable manner. In patch-clamp studies, 1b was shown to be a functional agonist of peripheral AChR in TE 671 cells, with the interesting property of exhibiting no or very little desensitization even at high concentrations. PMID:8931490

Kotzyba-Hibert, F; Kessler, P; Zerbib, V; Bogen, C; Snetkov, V; Takeda, K; Goeldner, M; Hirth, C

1996-12-01

178

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? agonist GW0742 has direct protective effects on right heart hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pulmonary hypertension is a debilitating disease with no cure. We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? agonists protect the right heart in hypoxia-driven pulmonary hypertension without affecting vascular remodeling. PPAR?/? is an important receptor in lipid metabolism, athletic performance, and the sensing of prostacyclin. Treatment of right heart hypertrophy and failure in pulmonary hypertension is an emerging target for future therapy. Here we have investigated the potential of GW0742, a PPAR? agonist, to act directly on the right heart in vivo and what transcriptomic signatures are associated with its actions. Right heart hypertrophy and failure was induced in mice using a pulmonary artery banding (PAB) model. GW0742 was administered throughout the study. Cardiovascular parameters were measured using echocardiography and pressure monitoring. Fibrosis and cellular changes were measured using immunohistochemistry. Transcriptomics were measured using the Illumina MouseRef-8v3 BeadChip array and analyzed using GeneSpring GX (ver. 11.0). PAB resulted in right heart hypertrophy and failure and in increased fibrosis. GW0742 reduced or prevented the effects of PAB on all parameters measured. GW0742 altered a number of genes in the transcriptome, with Angptl4 emerging as the top gene altered (increased) in animals with PAB. In conclusion, the PPAR?/? agonist GW0742 has direct protective effects on the right heart in vivo. These observations identify PPAR?/? as a viable therapeutic target to treat pulmonary hypertension that may complement current and future vasodilator drugs.

2013-01-01

179

PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

Lee, Seong-Ryong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hahn-Young [Department of Neurology, Kunkuk University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Suk [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Emergency Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wook [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: j303nih@dsmc.or.kr

2009-02-27

180

Parallel functional activity profiling reveals valvulopathogens are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor agonists: implications for drug safety assessment.  

PubMed

Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) (5-HT(2B)) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then "functionally profiled" (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC(50) data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT(2B) receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N; Allen, John A; Rogan, Sarah C; Hanson, Bonnie J; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris; Roth, Bryan L

2009-10-01

181

GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has antinociceptive activity.  

PubMed Central

1. The pharmacological profile of GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has been investigated. Its antinociceptive activity has been compared with that of GR103545, a centrally-penetrating kappa-agonist and ICI204448, the previously described peripherally-selective kappa-agonist. 2. GR94839 was a potent agonist in the rabbit vas deferens in vitro assay for kappa-opioid receptors (IC50: 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM; n = 6), but had limited activity at mu- or delta-opioid receptors. 3. In the mouse abdominal constriction test, GR94839 was 238 fold more potent when given i.c.v. (ED50: 0.008 (0.004-0.029) mg kg-1; n = 18) than when s.c. (ED50: 1.9 (0.7-3.1) mg kg-1; n = 30). In comparison, GR103545 was equipotent when given i.c.v. or s.c. 4. After intravenous administration, the maximum plasma to brain concentration-ratio attained by GR94839 was 18 compared with 2 for GR85571, a structurally-related kappa-agonist that is centrally-penetrating. 5. GR94839 inhibited the 2nd phase of the rat formalin response at doses 7 fold lower than those required to inhibit the 1st phase (ED50 vs 1st phase: 10.2 (6.7-17.1) mg kg-1, s.c.; ED50 vs 2nd phase: 1.4 (1.0-1.8) mg kg-1, s.c.; n = 18). GR103545 was equipotent against the two phases. 6. Intraplantar administration of the opioid antagonists, norbinaltorphimine (100 micrograms) or naltrexone (1 microgram), reversed the antinociceptive effect of systemic GR94839 (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) against the 2nd phase of the formalin response and intraplantar injection of GR94839 (30-100 micrograms) selectively inhibited the 2nd phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Rogers, H.; Birch, P. J.; Harrison, S. M.; Palmer, E.; Manchee, G. R.; Judd, D. B.; Naylor, A.; Scopes, D. I.; Hayes, A. G.

1992-01-01

182

Prevention of RhoA activation and cofilin-mediated actin polymerization mediates the antihypertrophic effect of adenosine receptor agonists in angiotensin II- and endothelin-1-treated cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Adenosine receptor activation has been shown to be associated with diminution of cardiac hypertrophy and it has been suggested that endogenously produced adenosine may serve to blunt pro-hypertrophic processes. In the present study, we determined the effects of two pro-hypertrophic stimuli, angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nM) and endothelin-1 (ET-1, 10 nM) on Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) activation in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and whether the latter serves as a target for the anti-hypertrophic effect of adenosine receptor activation. Both hypertrophic stimuli potently increased RhoA activity with peak activation occurring 15-30 min following agonist addition. These effects were associated with significantly increased phosphorylation (inactivation) of cofilin, a downstream mediator of RhoA, an increase in actin polymerization, and increased activation and nuclear import of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. The ability of both Ang II and ET-1 to activate the RhoA pathway was completely prevented by the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N (6)-cyclopentyladenosine, the A2a receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, the A3 receptor agonist N (6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-methyluronamide as well as the nonspecific adenosine analog 2-chloro adenosine. All effects of specific receptor agonists were prevented by their respective receptor antagonists. Moreover, all adenosine agonists prevented either Ang II- or ET-1-induced hypertrophy, a property shared by the RhoA inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme, the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 or the actin depolymerizing agent latrunculin B. Our study therefore demonstrates that both Ang II and ET-1 can activate the RhoA pathway and that prevention of the hypertrophic response to both agonists by adenosine receptor activation is mediated by prevention of RhoA stimulation and actin polymerization. PMID:24096734

Zeidan, Asad; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Thomas, Ashley; Karmazyn, Morris

2014-01-01

183

Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini.

Galas, M.C.; Lignon, M.F.; Rodriguez, M.; Mendre, C.; Fulcrand, P.; Laur, J.; Martinez, J. (Centre de Pharmacologie-Endocrinologie, Montpellier (France))

1988-02-01

184

The Novel PPAR ?/? Dual Agonist MHY 966 Modulates UVB-Induced Skin Inflammation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activity  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet B (UVB; 290~320nm) irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation induces inflammatory responses that lead to skin wrinkle formation and epidermal thickening. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? dual agonists have the potential to be used as anti-wrinkle agents because they inhibit inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation. In this study, we evaluated the function of 2-bromo-4-(5-chloro-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) phenol (MHY 966), a novel synthetic PPAR ?/? dual agonist, and investigated its anti-inflammatory and anti-lipid peroxidation effects. The action of MHY 966 as a PPAR ?/? dual agonist was also determined in vitro by reporter gene assay. Additionally, 8-week-old melanin-possessing hairless mice 2 (HRM2) were exposed to 150 mJ/cm2 UVB every other day for 17 days and MHY 966 was simultaneously pre-treated every day for 17 days to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. MHY 966 was found to stimulate the transcriptional activities of both PPAR ? and ?. In HRM2 mice, we found that the skins of mice exposed to UVB showed significantly increased pro-inflammatory mediator levels (NF-?B, iNOS, and COX-2) and increased lipid peroxidation, whereas MHY 966 co-treatment down-regulated these effects of UVB by activating PPAR ? and ?. Thus, the present study shows that MHY 966 exhibits beneficial effects on inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation by simultaneously activating PPAR ? and ?. The major finding of this study is that MHY 966 demonstrates potential as an agent against wrinkle formation associated with chronic UVB exposure.

Park, Min Hi; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Hye Rim; Park, Chan Hum; Kim, So Ra; Chun, Pusoon; Byun, Youngjoo; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

2013-01-01

185

FFA1-selective agonistic activity based on docking simulation using FFA1 and GPR120 homology models  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The free fatty acid FFA1 receptor and GPR120 are GPCRs whose endogenous ligands are medium- and long-chain FFAs, and they are important in regulating insulin and GLP-1 secretion respectively. Given that the ligands of FFA1 receptor and GPR120 have similar properties, selective pharmacological tools are required to study their functions further. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a docking simulation approach using homology models for each receptor. Biological activity was assessed by phosphorylation of ERK and elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cells transfected with FFA1 receptor or GPR120. Insulin secretion from murine pancreatic beta cells (MIN6) was also measured. KEY RESULTS Calculated hydrogen bonding energies between a series of synthetic carboxylic acid compounds and the homology models of the FFA1 receptor and GPR120, using docking simulations, correlated well with the effects of the compounds on ERK phosphorylation in transfected cells (R2= 0.65 for FFA1 receptor and 0.76 for GPR120). NCG75, the compound with the highest predicted selectivity for FFA1 receptors from this structure-activity relationship analysis, activated ERK and increased [Ca2+]i as potently as the known FFA1 receptor-selective agonist, Compound 1. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis based on the docking simulation showed that different amino acid residues were important for the recognition and activation by FFA1 receptor agonists. Moreover, NCG75 strongly induced ERK and [Ca2+]i responses, and promoted insulin secretion from MIN6 cells, which express endogenous FFA1 receptors. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS A docking simulation approach using FFA1 receptor and GPR120 homology models could be useful in predicting FFA1 receptor-selective agonists.

Takeuchi, Masato; Hirasawa, Akira; Hara, Takafumi; Kimura, Ikuo; Hirano, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Awaji, Takeo; Ishiguro, Masaji; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

2013-01-01

186

Toll-like receptor 8 agonist and bacteria trigger potent activation of innate immune cells in human liver.  

PubMed

The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear cells purified from human healthy and diseased livers with distinct pathogen-associated molecules. We discovered that only the TLR8 agonist ssRNA40 selectively activated liver-resident innate immune cells to produce substantial quantities of IFN-?. We identified CD161Bright mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) and CD56Bright NK cells as the responding liver-resident innate immune cells. Their activation was not directly induced by the TLR8 agonist but was dependent on IL-12 and IL-18 production by ssRNA40-activated intrahepatic monocytes. Importantly, the ssRNA40-induced cytokine-dependent activation of MAIT cells mirrored responses induced by bacteria, i.e., generating a selective production of high levels of IFN-?, without the concomitant production of TNF-? or IL-17A. The intrahepatic IFN-? production could be detected not only in healthy livers, but also in HBV- or HCV-infected livers. In conclusion, the human liver harbors a network of immune cells able to modulate their immunological responses to different pathogen-associated molecules. Their ability to generate a strong production of IFN-? upon stimulation with TLR8 agonist opens new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diverse liver pathologies. PMID:24967632

Jo, Juandy; Tan, Anthony T; Ussher, James E; Sandalova, Elena; Tang, Xin-Zi; Tan-Garcia, Alfonso; To, Natalie; Hong, Michelle; Chia, Adeline; Gill, Upkar S; Kennedy, Patrick T; Tan, Kai Chah; Lee, Kang Hoe; De Libero, Gennaro; Gehring, Adam J; Willberg, Christian B; Klenerman, Paul; Bertoletti, Antonio

2014-06-01

187

Toll-Like Receptor 8 Agonist and Bacteria Trigger Potent Activation of Innate Immune Cells in Human Liver  

PubMed Central

The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear cells purified from human healthy and diseased livers with distinct pathogen-associated molecules. We discovered that only the TLR8 agonist ssRNA40 selectively activated liver-resident innate immune cells to produce substantial quantities of IFN-?. We identified CD161Bright mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) and CD56Bright NK cells as the responding liver-resident innate immune cells. Their activation was not directly induced by the TLR8 agonist but was dependent on IL-12 and IL-18 production by ssRNA40-activated intrahepatic monocytes. Importantly, the ssRNA40-induced cytokine-dependent activation of MAIT cells mirrored responses induced by bacteria, i.e., generating a selective production of high levels of IFN-?, without the concomitant production of TNF-? or IL-17A. The intrahepatic IFN-? production could be detected not only in healthy livers, but also in HBV- or HCV-infected livers. In conclusion, the human liver harbors a network of immune cells able to modulate their immunological responses to different pathogen-associated molecules. Their ability to generate a strong production of IFN-? upon stimulation with TLR8 agonist opens new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diverse liver pathologies.

Ussher, James E.; Sandalova, Elena; Tang, Xin-Zi; Tan-Garcia, Alfonso; To, Natalie; Hong, Michelle; Chia, Adeline; Gill, Upkar S.; Kennedy, Patrick T.; Tan, Kai Chah; Lee, Kang Hoe; De Libero, Gennaro; Gehring, Adam J.; Willberg, Christian B.; Klenerman, Paul; Bertoletti, Antonio

2014-01-01

188

Structure-Activity Relationships in Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-1 (Nod1)-Agonistic ?-Glutamyl-diaminopimelic Acid Derivatives  

PubMed Central

N-acyl-?-glutamyl-diaminopimelic acid is a prototype ligand for Nod1. We report a detailed SAR of C12-?-D-Glu-DAP. Analogues with glutaric or ?-aminobutyric acid replacing the glutamic acid show greatly attenuated Nod1-agonistic activity. Substitution of the meso-diaminopimelic (DAP) acid component with monoaminopimelic acid, L- or D-lysine, or cadaverine also results in reduced activity. The free amine on DAP is crucial. However, the N-acyl group on the D-glutamyl residue can be substituted with N-alkyl groups with full preservation of activity. The free carboxylates on the DAP and Glu components can also be esterified, resulting in more lipophilic, but active analogues. Transcriptomal profiling showed a dominant upregulation of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, which may explain the pronounced Th2-polarizing activity of these compounds, and also implicate cell signaling mediated by TREM-1. These results may explain the hitherto unknown mechanism of synergy between Nod1- and TLR-agonists, and are likely to be useful in designing vaccine adjuvants.

Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Ukani, Rehman; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Wang, Xinkun; David, Sunil A.

2011-01-01

189

A Bioluminescent Assay for Agonist Activity at Potentially Any G-Protein-Coupled Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient expression of apoaequorin in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and reconstitution with the cofactor coelenterazine resulted in a large, concentration-dependent agonist-mediated luminescent response following cotransfection with the endothelin ETA, angiotensin ATII, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and neurokinin NK1receptors, all of which interact predominantly with the G?q-like phosphoinositidase-linked G-proteins. A substantially greater luminescence was obtained with mitochondrially targeted apoaequorin compared to

Jenny Stables; Andrew Green; Fiona Marshall; Neil Fraser; Emma Knight; Martine Sautel; Graeme Milligan; Melanie Lee; Stephen Rees

1997-01-01

190

Structure–activity relationships of dinucleotides: Potent and selective agonists of P2Y receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinucleoside polyphosphates act as agonists on purinergic P2Y receptors to mediate a variety of cellular processes. Symmetrical,\\u000a naturally occurring purine dinucleotides are found in most living cells and their actions are generally known. Unsymmetrical\\u000a purine dinucleotides and all pyrimidine containing dinucleotides, however, are not as common and therefore their actions are\\u000a not well understood. To carry out a thorough examination

Sammy R. Shaver; Janet L. Rideout; William Pendergast; James G. Douglass; Edward G. Brown; José L. Boyer; Roshni I. Patel; Catherine C. Redick; Arthur C. Jones; Maryse Picher; Benjamin R. Yerxa

2005-01-01

191

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist attenuates hepatic steatosis by anti-inflammatory mechanism.  

PubMed

Although peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR)-? and PPAR-? agonist have been developed as chemical tools to uncover biological roles for the PPARs such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, PPAR-? has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of the PPAR-? agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes and inflammatory markers. We investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes in OLETF rats. Intrahepatic triglyceride contents and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and also, PPAR-? coactivator (PGC)-1? gene were evaluated in liver tissues of OLETF rats and HepG2 cells after GW0742 treatment. The level of TNF-? and MCP-1 was also examined in supernatant of Raw264. 7 cell culture. To address the effects of GW0742 on insulin signaling, we performed in vitro study with AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Rats treated with GW0742 (10 mg/kg/day) from 26 to 36 weeks showed improvement in fatty infiltration of the liver. In liver tissues, mRNA expressions of TNF-?, MCP-1, and PGC-1? were significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with GW0742 compared to diabetic control rats. We also observed that GW0742 had inhibitory effects on palmitic acid-induced fatty accumulation and inflammatory markers in HepG2 and Raw264.7 cells. The expression level of Akt and IRS-1 was significantly increased by treatment with GW0742. The PPAR-? agonist may attenuate hepatic fat accumulation through anti-inflammatory mechanism, reducing hepatic PGC-1? gene expression, and improvement of insulin signaling. PMID:22824914

Lee, Mi Young; Choi, Ran; Kim, Hong Min; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Bo Hwan; Choi, Yeon Sik; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Young Chul; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Chung, Choon Hee

2012-10-31

192

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist attenuates hepatic steatosis by anti-inflammatory mechanism  

PubMed Central

Although peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR)-? and PPAR-? agonist have been developed as chemical tools to uncover biological roles for the PPARs such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, PPAR-? has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of the PPAR-? agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes and inflammatory markers. We investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes in OLETF rats. Intrahepatic triglyceride contents and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and also, PPAR-? coactivator (PGC)-1? gene were evaluated in liver tissues of OLETF rats and HepG2 cells after GW0742 treatment. The level of TNF-? and MCP-1 was also examined in supernatant of Raw264. 7 cell culture. To address the effects of GW0742 on insulin signaling, we performed in vitro study with AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Rats treated with GW0742 (10 mg/kg/day) from 26 to 36 weeks showed improvement in fatty infiltration of the liver. In liver tissues, mRNA expressions of TNF-?, MCP-1, and PGC-1? were significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with GW0742 compared to diabetic control rats. We also observed that GW0742 had inhibitory effects on palmitic acid-induced fatty accumulation and inflammatory markers in HepG2 and Raw264.7 cells. The expression level of Akt and IRS-1 was significantly increased by treatment with GW0742. The PPAR-? agonist may attenuate hepatic fat accumulation through anti-inflammatory mechanism, reducing hepatic PGC-1? gene expression, and improvement of insulin signaling.

Lee, Mi Young; Choi, Ran; Kim, Hong Min; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Bo Hwan; Choi, Yeon Sik; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Young Chul; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo

2012-01-01

193

Attenuation of nicotine’s discriminative stimulus effects in rats and its locomotor activity effects in mice by serotonergic 5HT 2A\\/2C receptor agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Reports have indicated that adminis- tration of nicotine inhibits, while withdrawal of chronically administered nicotine augments effects of serotonergic 5HT2A\\/2C agonists. Objective: It was our objective to de- termine whether 5HT2A\\/2C agonists can modulate the dis- criminativestimuluseffectsofnicotineinratsoritslocomotor activity effects in mice. Methods: Adult male Sprague- Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg\\/kg nicotine base from saline in a

Angela M. Batman; Patrik Munzar; Patrick M. Beardsley

2005-01-01

194

Differential postmortem delay effect on agonist-mediated phospholipase Cbeta activity in human cortical crude and synaptosomal brain membranes.  

PubMed

The phosphoinositide signal transduction system, and particularly, phospholipase Cbeta isozymes, are relevant in the etiopathogeny of human neuropsychiatric pathologies such as depression. Stimulation of phospholipase Cbeta activity by muscarinic receptors and G proteins was determined in crude and synaptosomal membrane preparations from nine postmortem human frontal cortices (postmortem delay range 8 to 50 h). Thus, the phospholipase Cbeta activity was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of exogenous [3H]-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. There was a postmortem delay-mediated decrease in the PIP2 hydrolysis irrespective of the membrane preparation used (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were statistically significant differences for exponential decay curve parameters (K factor and Span) of PLCbeta activity induced by agonist-mediated activation between crude and synaptosomal membrane preparations. These results show that the postsynaptic component of the PLCbeta activity is more sensible to the postmortem delay effect. PMID:15202780

Garro, M Asier; López de Jesús, Maider; Ruíz de Azúa, Iñigo; Callado, Luis F; Meana, J Javier; Sallés, Joan

2004-07-01

195

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone protects against cisplatin-induced renal damage in mice.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists not only improve metabolic abnormalities of diabetes and consequent diabetic nephropathy, but they also protect against non-diabetic kidney disease in experimental models. Here, we investigated the effect of PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone against acute renal injury on a cisplatin model in mice. Nephrotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (10?mg?kg(-1)). Pioglitazone was administered for six consecutive days in doses of 15 or 30?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1), per os (p.o.), starting 3?days before cisplatin injection. Cisplatin treatment to mice induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine levels and alterations in renal tissue architecture. Cisplatin exposure induced oxidative stress as indicated by decreased levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses [glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid levels] and components of the enzymatic antioxidant defenses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and and glutathione S-transferase(GST) activities)] in renal tissue. Administration of pioglitazone markedly protected against the increase in urea and creatinine levels and histological alterations in kidney induced by cisplatin treatment. Pioglitazone administration ameliorated GSH and ascorbic acid levels decreased by cisplatin exposure in mice. Pioglitazone protected against the inhibition of CAT, SOD, GPx, GR and GST activities induced by cisplatin in the kidneys of mice. These results indicated that pioglitazone has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced renal damage in mice. The protection is mediated by preventing the decline of antioxidant status. The results have implications in use of PPAR-? agonists in human application for protecting against drugs-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:22987311

Jesse, Cristiano R; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Roman, Silvane Souza; Prigol, Marina; Nogueira, Cristina W

2014-01-01

196

Central effect of SNC 80, a selective and systemically active ?-opioid receptor agonist, on gastrointestinal propulsion in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of SNC 80 ((+)-4-[?R)-?-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide), a new highly selective, non-peptidic and systemically active ?-opioid receptor agonist, on gastrointestinal and colonic propulsion in mice. Intraperitoneally (i.p.) SNC 80 (1, 10 and 30 mg\\/kg) significantly decreased gastrointestinal propulsion measured as transit of an orally administered charcoal meal. Pretreatment with the ?-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (1 mg\\/kg) subcutaneously (s.c.), with

Maria Broccardo; Giovanna Improta; Alessandra Tabacco

1998-01-01

197

Structure-activity relationships and pharmacological profiles of new 5-HT(1) receptor agonists as antimigraine agents.  

PubMed

The design of new generation drugs acting as 5-HT1 receptor agonists, in the field of acute treatment of migraine, is still very active. The reason is the need for safer medicines with improved response rates and a reduced rate of headache recurrence. This review focuses on the different classes of drugs, which have been classified based on the target upon which they act rather than upon structural characteristics. Short SAR studies are reported for each series with a detailed pharmacological profile for the most interesting compounds. PMID:19649958

Perez, M; John, G W

1999-07-01

198

4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis  

SciTech Connect

(5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

Yamamoto, Keiko [Laboratory of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko [Division of Translational Research, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nishii, Yasuho [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Petrovsky, Nikolai [Diabetes and Endocrinology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA 5042 (Australia); Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Translational Research, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan)], E-mail: okazaki@saitama-med.ac.jp

2008-03-14

199

Neuron-released oligomeric ?-synuclein is an endogenous agonist of TLR2 for paracrine activation of microglia  

PubMed Central

Abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein and sustained microglial activation are important contributors to the pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease. However, the relationship between disease-associated protein aggregation and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation remains unknown. Here, using a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches, we show that extracellular ?-synuclein released from neuronal cells is an endogenous agonist for toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which activates inflammatory responses in microglia. TLR2 ligand activity of ?-synuclein is conformation-sensitive; only specific types of oligomer can interact with and activate TLR2. This paracrine interaction between neuron-released oligomeric ?-synuclein and TLR2 in microglia suggests that both of these proteins are novel therapeutic targets for modification of neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease and related neurological diseases.

Kim, Changyoun; Ho, Dong-Hwan; Suk, Ji-Eun; You, Sungyong; Michael, Sarah; Kang, Junghee; Lee, Sung Joong; Masliah, Eliezer; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, He-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jae

2014-01-01

200

Fish somatostatin sst3 receptor: comparison of radioligand and GTPgammaS binding, adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities reveals different agonist-dependent pharmacological signatures.  

PubMed

1 The fish somatostatin receptor 3 (fsst3) is one of the few somatostatin (SRIF) receptors cloned from a non-mammalian species so far. Here we extended our earlier characterization of this receptor by investigating the guanine nucleotide sensitivity of agonist radioligand binding at the fsst3 receptor recombinantly expressed in CCL39 (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast) cells. Further, we measured somatostatin (SRIF) and cortistatin (CST) analogues stimulated GTPgammaS binding, inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase (FSAC) and stimulation of phospholipase C (PLC) activities. The present transductional data were then compared with previous radioligand binding and/or second messenger features determined for fsst3 and/or human SRIF receptors (hsst2, hsst3 and hsst5). 2 The GTP analogue guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp) inhibited binding of [125I]CGP 23996 and [125I][Tyr3octreotide by 72 and 83% suggesting preferential labelling of G-protein-coupled fsst3 receptors. By contrast, [125I]LTT-SRIF28 and [125I][Tyr10]CST14 binding was rather GppNHp insensitive (42 and 35% inhibition) suggesting labelling of both coupled and non-coupled receptor states. These results might explain the apparent higher receptor densities determined in saturation experiments with [125I]LTT-SRIF28 and [125I][Tyr10]CST14 (4470 and 4030 fmol mg(-1)) compared with [125I]CGP 23996 and [125I][Tyr3]octreotide (3420 and 1520 fmol mg(-1)). 3 SRIF14 (10 microm)-stimulated specific [35S]GTPgammaS binding by three-fold; SRIF28 and octreotide displayed full agonism, whereas most other ligands displayed 60-80% intrinsic activity compared with SRIF14. SRIF14 and SRIF28 inhibited forskolin-stimulated AC (FSAC) activity by 60%; all tested ligands except BIM 23056 inhibited FSAC with comparable high intrinsic activities. SRIF14 stimulated PLC activity five- to six-fold, as determined by measuring total [3H] IP(x) accumulation; it was rather insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX, 100 ng ml(-1), 21% inhibition), which suggests the G(q)-family proteins couple to PLC activity. SRIF14, SRIF28 and [Tyr10]CST14 showed full agonism at PLC, whereas all other ligands behaved as partial agonists (20-70% intrinsic activity). BIM 23056, which showed weak partial or no agonism, antagonized SRIF14-induced total [3H]-IP(x) production (pK(B) = 6.83), but failed to block competitively agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding or agonist-induced inhibition of FSAC activity. 4 Comparison of the pharmacological profiles of fsst3 receptors established in GTPgammaS binding, FSAC inhibition and PLC stimulation resulted in low correlations (r = 0.410-0.594). Both rank orders of potency and rank orders of relative efficacy varied in the three second messenger experiments. Significant, although variable correlations were obtained comparing GTPgammaS binding and inhibition of FSAC activity with previously reported affinity profiles of [125I]LTT-SRIF28, [125I][Tyr10]CST14, [125I]CGP 23996, [125I][Tyr3]octreotide (r = 0.75-0.83; 0.68-0.89). By contrast, the PLC stimulation and radioligand-binding profiles did not correlate. 5 Comparison of the functional data (GTPgammaS binding, FSAC inhibition, PLC stimulation) of fsst3 receptors with those of human sst2, sst3, sst5 receptors expressed in CCL39 cells resulted in highest correlation with the hsst5 receptor (r = 0.94, 0.97, 0.49) > hsst2 (0.80, 0.50, n.d.) > hsst3 (0.25, 0.19, 0.17). 6 In summary, fsst3 receptors expressed in CCL39 cells are involved in signalling cascades similar to those reported for mammalian SRIF receptors, suggesting SRIF receptors to be highly conserved in evolution. Binding and functional data showed highest similarity of fsst3 receptors with the human sst5 receptor subtype. Different affinities, receptor densities and GppNHp-sensitivities determined with the four radioligands (agonists) are assumed to results from ligand-specific states of the fsst3-ligand complex. The differences in the rank orders of potency and relative efficacy in the various signalling cascades may be explained by agonist-induced recepto

Siehler, S; Nunn, C; Zupanc, G K H; Hoyer, D

2005-01-01

201

Toll-like Receptor-8 Agonistic Activities in C2, C4, and C8 Modified Thiazolo[4,5-c]quinolines  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor (TLR)-8 agonists typified by the 2-alkylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine (CL075) chemotype are uniquely potent in activating adaptive immune responses by inducing robust production of T helper 1-polarizing cytokines, suggesting that TLR8-active compounds could be promising candidate vaccine adjuvants, especially for neonatal vaccines. Alkylthiazoloquinolines with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl groups at C2 displayed comparable TLR8-agonistic potencies; activity diminished precipitously in the C2-pentyl compound, and higher homologues were inactive. The C2-butyl compound was unique in possessing substantial TLR7-agonistic activity. Analogues with branched alkyl groups at C2 displayed poor tolerance of terminal steric bulk. Virtually all modifications at C8 led to abrogation of agonistic activity. Alkylation on the C4-amine was not tolerated, whereas N-acyl analogues with short acyl groups (other than acetyl) retained TLR8 agonistic activity, but were substantially less water-soluble. Immunization in rabbits with a model subunit antigen adjuvanted with the lead C2-butyl thiazoloquinoline showed enhancements of antigen-specific antibody titers.

Kokatla, Hari Prasad; Yoo, Euna; Salunke, Deepak B.; Sil, Diptesh; Ng, Cameron F.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Fox, Lauren M.; David, Sunil A.

2013-01-01

202

Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.  

PubMed

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (?Glu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia. PMID:24812056

Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

2014-06-15

203

Microwave-assisted synthesis of quinoline, isoquinoline, quinoxaline and quinazoline derivatives as CB2 receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Quinoline, isoquinoline, quinoxaline, and quinazoline derivatives were synthesized using microwave-assisted synthesis and their CB1/CB2 receptor activities were determined using the [³?S]GTP?S binding assay. Most of the prepared quinoline, isoquinoline, and quinoxalinyl phenyl amines showed low-potency partial CB2 receptor agonists activity. The most potent CB2 ligand was the 4-morpholinylmethanone derivative (compound 40e) (-log EC?? = 7.8; E(max) = 75%). The isoquinolin-1-yl(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)amine (compound 26c) was a high efficacy CB2 agonist (-log EC?? = 5.8; E(max) = 128%). No significant CB1 receptor activation or inactivation was shown in these studies, except 40e, which showed weak CB1 agonist activity (CB1 -log EC?? = 5.0). These ligands serve as novel templates for the development of selective CB2 receptor agonist. PMID:21215643

Saari, Raimo; Törmä, Jonna-Carita; Nevalainen, Tapio

2011-01-15

204

Modulation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 agonist activity of ubiquitin through C-terminal protein modification.  

PubMed

Extracellular ubiquitin has recently been described as a CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 agonist. Studies on the structure-function relationship suggested that the C-terminus of ubiquitin facilitates CXCR4 activation. It remains unknown, however, whether C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could be biologically relevant and whether modifications of the ubiquitin C-terminus can modulate CXCR4 activation. We show that C-terminal truncated ubiquitin antagonizes ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1? induced effects on cell signaling and function. Reduction of cell surface expression of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), which cleaves the C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin, enhances ubiquitin induced reduction of cAMP levels in BV2 and THP-1 cells, but does not influence changes in cAMP levels in response to SDF-1?. Reduction of cell surface IDE expression in THP-1 cells also increases the chemotactic activity of ubiquitin. As compared with native ubiquitin, C-terminal Tyr extension of ubiquitin results in reduced CXCR4 mediated effects on cellular cAMP levels and abolishes chemotactic activity. Replacement of C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin with di-Val or di-Arg enhances CXCR4 mediated effects on cAMP levels and the di-Arg substitution exerts increased chemotactic activity, when compared with wild type ubiquitin. The chemotactic activities of the di-Val and di-Arg mutants and their effects on cAMP levels can be antagonized with C-terminal truncated ubiquitin. These data suggest that the development of CXCR4 ligands with enhanced agonist activities is possible and that C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could constitute a biological mechanism, which regulates termination of receptor signaling. PMID:23697661

Tripathi, Abhishek; Saini, Vikas; Marchese, Adriano; Volkman, Brian F; Tang, Wei-Jen; Majetschak, Matthias

2013-06-18

205

Modulation of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Agonist Activity of Ubiquitin through C-Terminal Protein Modification  

PubMed Central

Extracellular ubiquitin has recently been described as a CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 agonist. Studies on the structure–function relationship suggested that the C-terminus of ubiquitin facilitates CXCR4 activation. It remains unknown, however, whether C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could be biologically relevant and whether modifications of the ubiquitin C-terminus can modulate CXCR4 activation. We show that C-terminal truncated ubiquitin antagonizes ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1? induced effects on cell signaling and function. Reduction of cell surface expression of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), which cleaves the C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin, enhances ubiquitin induced reduction of cAMP levels in BV2 and THP-1 cells, but does not influence changes in cAMP levels in response to SDF-1?. Reduction of cell surface IDE expression in THP-1 cells also increases the chemotactic activity of ubiquitin. As compared with native ubiquitin, C-terminal Tyr extension of ubiquitin results in reduced CXCR4 mediated effects on cellular cAMP levels and abolishes chemotactic activity. Replacement of C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin with di-Val or di-Arg enhances CXCR4 mediated effects on cAMP levels and the di-Arg substitution exerts increased chemotactic activity, when compared with wild type ubiquitin. The chemotactic activities of the di-Val and di-Arg mutants and their effects on cAMP levels can be antagonized with C-terminal truncated ubiquitin. These data suggest that the development of CXCR4 ligands with enhanced agonist activities is possible and that C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could constitute a biological mechanism, which regulates termination of receptor signaling.

Tripathi, Abhishek; Saini, Vikas; Marchese, Adriano; Volkman, Brian F.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Majetschak, Matthias

2014-01-01

206

Identification of a potent inverse agonist at a constitutively active mutant of human P2Y12 receptor.  

PubMed

Human platelets express two P2Y receptors: G(q)-coupled P2Y(1), and G(i)-coupled P2Y(12). Both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) are ADP receptors on human platelets and are essential for ADP-induced platelet aggregation that plays pivotal roles in thrombosis and hemostasis. Numerous constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors have been described in natural or recombinant systems, but in the P2Y receptors, to date, no constitutive activity has been reported. In our effort to identify G protein coupling domains of the human platelet ADP receptor, we constructed a chimeric hemagglutinin-tagged human P2Y(12) receptor with its C terminus replaced by the corresponding part of human P2Y(1) receptor and stably expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. It is interesting that the chimeric P2Y(12) mutant exhibited a high level of constitutive activity, as evidenced by decreased cAMP levels in the absence of agonists. The constitutive activation of the chimeric P2Y(12) mutant was dramatically inhibited by pertussis toxin, a G(i) inhibitor. The constitutively active P2Y(12) mutant retained normal responses to 2-methylthio-ADP, with an EC(50) of 0.15 +/- 0.04 nM. The constitutively active P2Y(12) mutant caused Akt phosphorylation that was abolished by the addition of pertussis toxin. Pharmacological evaluation of several P2Y(12) antagonists revealed (E)-N-[1-[7-(hexylamino)-5-(propylthio)-3H-1,2,3-triazolo-[4,5-d]-pyrimidin-3-yl]-1,5,6-trideoxy-beta-d-ribo-hept-5-enofuranuronoyl]-l-aspartic acid (AR-C78511) as a potent P2Y(12) inverse agonist and 5'-adenylic acid, N-[2-(methylthio)ethyl]-2-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)thio]-, monoanhydride with (dichloromethylene)bis[phosphonic acid] (AR-C69931MX) as a neutral antagonist. In conclusion, this is the first report of a cell line stably expressing a constitutively active mutant of human platelet P2Y(12) receptor and the identification of potent inverse agonist. PMID:16234484

Ding, Zhongren; Kim, Soochong; Kunapuli, Satya P

2006-01-01

207

Identification of Isosilybin A from Milk Thistle Seeds as an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPAR? activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPAR?-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPAR? agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor.

2014-01-01

208

Synthesis, Pharmacological Characterization, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Small Molecular Agonists for the Orphan GPR88 Receptor.  

PubMed

GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched in the striatum. Genetic deletion and gene expression studies have suggested that GPR88 plays an important role in the regulation of striatal functions and is implicated in psychiatric disorders. The signal transduction pathway and receptor functions of GPR88, however, are still largely unknown due to the lack of endogenous and synthetic ligands. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a GPR88 agonist 2-PCCA and its pure diastereomers, which were functionally characterized in both transiently and stably expressing GPR88 HEK293 cells. 2-PCCA inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in cells expressing GPR88 but not in the control cells, suggesting that the observed cAMP inhibition is mediated through GPR88 and that GPR88 is coupled to G?i. 2-PCCA did not induce calcium mobilization in GPR88 cells, indicating no G?q-mediated response. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 2-PCCA was also conducted to explore the key structural features for GPR88 agonist activity. PMID:24793972

Jin, Chunyang; Decker, Ann M; Huang, Xi-Ping; Gilmour, Brian P; Blough, Bruce E; Roth, Bryan L; Hu, Yang; Gill, Joseph B; Zhang, X Peter

2014-07-16

209

Complex pharmacology of natural cannabivoids: Evidence for partial agonist activity of ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), cannabinol and cannabidiol are three important natural cannabinoids from the Marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa). Using [35S]GTP-?-S binding on rat cerebellar homogenate as an index of cannabinoid receptor activation we show that: ?9-THC does not induce the maximal effect obtained by classical cannabinoid receptor agonists such as CP55940. Moreover at high concentration ?9-THC exhibits antagonist properties. Cannabinol is a

François Petitet; Bernadette Jeantaud; Michel Reibaud; Assunta Imperato; Marie-Christine Dubroeucq

1998-01-01

210

In Silico Design for Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Agonist from Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Metabolic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a master mediator of metabolic homeostasis. It is considered as a significant millstone to treat metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver. It can sense cellular energy or nutrient status by switching on the catabolic pathways. Investigation of AMPK has new findings recently. AMPK can inhibit cell growth by the way of autophagy. Thus AMPK has become a hot target for small molecular drug design of tumor inhibition. Activation of AMPK must undergo certain extent change of the structure. Through the methods of structure-based virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation, we attempted to find out appropriate small compounds from the world's largest TCM Database@Taiwan that had the ability to activate the function of AMPK. Finally, we found that two TCM compounds, eugenyl_beta-D-glucopyranoside and 6-O-cinnamoyl-D-glucopyranose, had the qualification to be AMPK agonist.

Tang, Hsin-Chieh

2014-01-01

211

Agonists for the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4  

PubMed Central

The development of agonists for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 could provide promising therapeutic candidates. On the basis of previously forwarded two site model of chemokine–receptor interactions, we hypothesized that linking the agonistic N-terminus of SDF-1 to the T140 backbone would yield new high-affinity agonists of CXCR4. We developed chimeras with the agonistic SDF-1 N-terminus grafted to a T140 side chain and tested their binding affinity and chemotactic agonist activity. While chimeras with the peptide grafted onto position 12 of T140 remained high-affinity antagonists, those bearing the peptide on position 14 were in part agonists. One chimera was a full CXCR4 agonist with 25 nM affinity, and several chimeras showed low nanomolar affinities with partial agonist activity. Our results confirmed that we have developed high-affinity agonists of CXCR4.

2011-01-01

212

Bucindolol exerts agonistic activity on the propranolol-insensitive state of beta1-adrenoceptors in human myocardium.  

PubMed

In congestive heart failure patients, treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists improves symptoms and decreases mortality. However, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists might be disadvantageous in chronic heart failure. The nonselective beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist bucindolol has failed to decrease mortality in clinical trials. A putative beta4-adrenoceptor, which mediates positive inotropic effects by activation of the adenylate cyclase has been described. Recently, this putative beta4-adrenoceptor has been identified to be a propranolol-insensitive state of the beta1-adrenoceptor. The present study aimed to characterize whether bucindolol exhibits agonistic activity on this atypical beta1-adrenoceptor state as one possible reason for clinical inefficiency. For comparison (S)-4-(3'-t-butylamino-1'-hydroxypropoxy)-benzimidozole-2 (CGP 12177), metoprolol, and nebivolol were investigated. Bucindolol did not reveal intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in electrically driven (1 Hz, 37 degrees C), forskolin-stimulated, left ventricular papillary muscle strips (donor hearts, nonfailing; n = 5) and in right auricular trabeculae (bypass operation; n = 4). Functional studies on the propranolol-insensitive state of beta1-adrenoceptors were performed in isolated muscle preparations after beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor antagonism (propranolol, 1 microM), inhibition of beta3-mediated inotropic effects (N-nitro-L-arginine, 100 microM) and forskolin treatment (0.3 microM). Positive inotropic response to stimulation of atypical state beta1-adrenoceptors could be demonstrated in right auricular as well as left ventricular human myocardium (CGP 12177 treatment, 10 microM). Under these conditions, also bucindolol, but not metoprolol and nebivolol, significantly increased contractility (all 10 microM). In conclusion, bucindolol but not metoprolol or nebivolol mediate positive inotropic effects in human myocardium due to activation of atypical state beta1-adrenoceptors. Thus, the agonistic activity of bucindolol may influence outcome in heart failure patients. PMID:11861783

Bundkirchen, Andreas; Brixius, Klara; Bölck, Birgit; Schwinger, Robert H G

2002-03-01

213

Cannabinoid agonists induce contractile responses through Gi/o-dependent activation of phospholipase C in the bovine ciliary muscle.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of some cannabinoid agonists on the bovine ciliary muscle. Both anandamide and CP 55,940 (cis-3-(2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethyl heptyl) phenyl)-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexanol) produced a concentration-dependent contractile response in ciliary muscle. These responses were inhibited by SR 141716A (N-[piperidin-1-yl]-5-(4-cholophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (0.1 and 1 microM) but not by SR 144528 (N-[1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-yl] 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4 methoxy benzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (1 and 10 microM). A preincubation with G(i/o) protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (500 ng/ml) for 20 min inhibited the contractile action of anandamide and CP 55,940. In addition, the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (1[6-[[(17 beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl] amino] hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) blocked the anandamide- and CP 55,940-induced contractions, whereas the protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (PDBu) significantly potentiated the contractions evoked by cannabinoid receptor agonists. We evaluated the binding of [(3)H]CP 55,940, which specifically labelled a single class of cannabinoid sites with affinity in low subnanomolar range (K(d)=0.6 nM) and the maximal number of binding sites of 1243 fmol/mg protein. Binding of [(3)H]CP 55,940 was inhibited by ligands having a major selectivity for cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors. These findings provide strong evidence of the involvement of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors promoting contraction in the bovine ciliary muscle. Furthermore, the action of cannabinoid receptor agonists appears to be mediated via phospholipase C. These data also contribute to elucidate the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor pivotal role in the modulation of intraocular pressure and to show that cannabinoid receptor agonists may be regarded as potential antiglaucoma agents. PMID:15194451

Lograno, Marcello D; Romano, Maria Rosaria

2004-06-21

214

A new perspective for schizophrenia: TAAR1 agonists reveal antipsychotic- and antidepressant-like activity, improve cognition and control body weight.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and highly complex mental illness. Current treatments manage the positive symptoms, yet have minimal effects on the negative and cognitive symptoms, two prominent features of the disease with critical impact on the long-term morbidity. In addition, antipsychotic treatments trigger serious side effects that precipitate treatment discontinuation. Here, we show that activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a modulator of monoaminergic neurotransmission, represents a novel therapeutic option. In rodents, activation of TAAR1 by two novel and pharmacologically distinct compounds, the full agonist RO5256390 and the partial agonist RO5263397, blocks psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and produces a brain activation pattern reminiscent of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine, suggesting antipsychotic-like properties. TAAR1 agonists do not induce catalepsy or weight gain; RO5263397 even reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy and prevented olanzapine from increasing body weight and fat accumulation. Finally, TAAR1 activation promotes vigilance in rats and shows pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like properties in rodent and primate models. These data suggest that TAAR1 agonists may provide a novel and differentiated treatment of schizophrenia as compared with current medication standards: TAAR1 agonists may improve not only the positive symptoms but also the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, without causing adverse effects such as motor impairments or weight gain. PMID:22641180

Revel, F G; Moreau, J-L; Pouzet, B; Mory, R; Bradaia, A; Buchy, D; Metzler, V; Chaboz, S; Groebke Zbinden, K; Galley, G; Norcross, R D; Tuerck, D; Bruns, A; Morairty, S R; Kilduff, T S; Wallace, T L; Risterucci, C; Wettstein, J G; Hoener, M C

2013-05-01

215

Exposure of MC4R to agonist in the endoplasmic reticulum stabilizes an active conformation of the receptor that does not desensitize  

PubMed Central

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus where it regulates food intake. MC4R responds to an agonist, ?-melanocyte–stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and to an antagonist/inverse agonist, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which are released by upstream neurons. Binding to ?-MSH leads to stimulation of receptor activity and suppression of food intake, whereas AgRP has opposite effects. MC4R cycles constantly between the plasma membrane and endosomes and undergoes agonist-mediated desensitization by being routed to lysosomes. MC4R desensitization and increased AgRP expression are thought to decrease the effectiveness of MC4R agonists as an antiobesity treatment. In this study, ?-MSH, instead of being delivered extracellularly, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neuronal cells and cultured hypothalamic neurons. We find that the ER-targeted agonist associates with MC4R at this location, is transported to the cell surface, induces constant cAMP and AMP kinase signaling at maximal amplitude, abolishes desensitization of the receptor, and promotes both cell-surface expression and constant signaling by an obesity-linked MC4R variant, I316S, that otherwise is retained in the ER. Formation of the MC4R/agonist complex in the ER stabilizes the receptor in an active conformation that at the cell surface is insensitive to antagonism by AgRP and at the endosomes is refractory to routing to the lysosomes. The data indicate that targeting agonists to the ER can stabilize an active conformation of a G protein-coupled receptor that does not become desensitized, suggesting a target for therapy.

Granell, Susana; Molden, Brent M.; Baldini, Giulia

2013-01-01

216

Exposure of MC4R to agonist in the endoplasmic reticulum stabilizes an active conformation of the receptor that does not desensitize.  

PubMed

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus where it regulates food intake. MC4R responds to an agonist, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and to an antagonist/inverse agonist, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which are released by upstream neurons. Binding to ?-MSH leads to stimulation of receptor activity and suppression of food intake, whereas AgRP has opposite effects. MC4R cycles constantly between the plasma membrane and endosomes and undergoes agonist-mediated desensitization by being routed to lysosomes. MC4R desensitization and increased AgRP expression are thought to decrease the effectiveness of MC4R agonists as an antiobesity treatment. In this study, ?-MSH, instead of being delivered extracellularly, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neuronal cells and cultured hypothalamic neurons. We find that the ER-targeted agonist associates with MC4R at this location, is transported to the cell surface, induces constant cAMP and AMP kinase signaling at maximal amplitude, abolishes desensitization of the receptor, and promotes both cell-surface expression and constant signaling by an obesity-linked MC4R variant, I316S, that otherwise is retained in the ER. Formation of the MC4R/agonist complex in the ER stabilizes the receptor in an active conformation that at the cell surface is insensitive to antagonism by AgRP and at the endosomes is refractory to routing to the lysosomes. The data indicate that targeting agonists to the ER can stabilize an active conformation of a G protein-coupled receptor that does not become desensitized, suggesting a target for therapy. PMID:24248383

Granell, Susana; Molden, Brent M; Baldini, Giulia

2013-12-01

217

The acceleration of SEPs by shocks during periods of weak solar activity (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of particle acceleration at collisionless shocks is discussed in the context of understanding possible consequences for the production of solar-energetic particles (SEPs) during periods of weak solar activity. For example, periods of weak solar activity might be characterized by weaker a interplanetary magnetic field, which was known to occur during the most-recent sunspot minimum period of the solar cycle. This has important consequences for the maximum energy attainable from acceleration by transient shocks, including those driven by coronal mass ejections. This will be discussed in detail. Weaker solar activity may also result in fewer pre-existing suprathermal ions that are known to be an important "seed" population that are further accelerated at strong interplanetary shocks to produce large SEP events. However, even when there are few pre-existing suprathermal particles present, shocks are known to be capable of accelerating a significant fraction of the thermal solar-wind plasma distribution to high energies. Thus, while the intensity and maximum energy of SEPs may be reduced during periods of low solar activity, there may also be important consequences for the composition of SEPs as well.

Giacalone, J.

2013-12-01

218

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists  

MedlinePLUS

... GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Share: Fact Sheet GLP-1 Receptor Agonists May, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... too high or too low. What are GLP-1 receptor agonist medicines? GLP-1 receptor agonist medicines, ...

219

Discovery, design and synthesis of Y-shaped peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists as potent anti-obesity agents in vivo.  

PubMed

We have discovered and demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo PPAR?-selective activity of novel Y-shaped agonists. These compounds activated hPPAR? with EC(50) values between 1 and 523 nM. Surprisingly, compounds 10a, 11d, 11e and 11f were the most potent and most selective hPPAR? agonists with 10(4)-fold selectivity over the other two subtypes, namely, hPPAR? and hPPAR?. The PPAR? ligands 10a, 11e and 11f showed good bioavailability and in vivo efficacy. PMID:22534184

Ham, Jungyeob; Hwang, Hoosang; Kim, Euno; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Cho, Sung Jin; Ko, Jaeyoung; Lee, Woojin; Lee, Jaehwan; Holla, Harish; Banerjee, Joydeep; Kim, Seokho; Yang, Inho; Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Kyoungjin; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Tak, Jungae; Hahn, Dongyup; Oh, Taekyung; Won, Dong Hwan; Lee, Tae Gu; Choi, Jihye; Park, Mi Sun; Seok, Chaok; Chin, Jungwook; Kang, Heonjoong

2012-07-01

220

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study of bicyclic piperazine analogs of indole-3-carboxamides as novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Bicyclic piperazine derivatives were synthesized as conformationally constrained analogs of N-alkyl piperazines and were found to be potent CB1 receptor agonists. The CB1 receptor agonist activity was dependent upon the absolute configuration of the chiral center of the bicyclic ring system. Although the conformational constraint did not protect the compounds from metabolism by N-dealkylation, several bicyclic analogs were found to be more potent than the unconstrained lead compound. Compound 8b demonstrated potent antinociceptive activity in vivo. PMID:21074434

Moir, Elizabeth M; Yoshiizumi, Kazuya; Cairns, Jim; Cowley, Phillip; Ferguson, Morag; Jeremiah, Fiona; Kiyoi, Takao; Morphy, Richard; Tierney, Jason; Wishart, Grant; York, Mark; Baker, James; Cottney, Jean E; Houghton, Andrea K; McPhail, Petula; Osprey, Andrew; Walker, Glenn; Adam, Julia M

2010-12-15

221

?-amino-?-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acids as a new tool for drug development: synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor 4.  

PubMed

Herein we describe the diastereoselective synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and the evaluation of their agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4). These analogs are based on a monofluorinated cyclopropane core substituted with an ?-aminoacid function. The potential of this new building block as a tool for the development of a novel class of drugs is demonstrated with racemic analog 11a that displayed the best agonist activity with an EC50 of 340 nM. PMID:22750138

Lemonnier, Gérald; Lion, Cédric; Quirion, Jean-Charles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Jubault, Philippe

2012-08-01

222

The Effect of PPAR?, PPAR?, PPAR?, and PPARpan Agonists on Body Weight, Body Mass, and Serum Lipid Profiles in Diet-Induced Obese AKR/J Mice  

PubMed Central

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, ?, and ? subtypes increases expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation and alters adiposity in animal models of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PPARpan agonists which activate all three receptor subtypes have antidiabetic activity in animal models without the weight gain associated with selective PPAR? agonists. Herein we report the effects of selective PPAR agonists (GW9578, a PPAR? agonist, GW0742, a PPAR? agonist, GW7845, a PPAR? agonist), combination of PPAR? and ? agonists, and PPARpan (PPAR?/?/?) activators (GW4148 or GW9135) on body weight (BW), body composition, food consumption, fatty acid oxidation, and serum chemistry of diet-induced obese AKR/J mice. PPAR? or PPAR? agonist treatment induced a slight decrease in fat mass (FM) while a PPAR? agonist increased BW and FM commensurate with increased food consumption. The reduction in BW and food intake after cotreatment with PPAR? and ? agonists appeared to be synergistic. GW4148, a PPARpan agonist, induced a significant and sustained reduction in BW and FM similar to an efficacious dose of rimonabant, an antiobesity compound. GW9135, a PPARpan agonist with weak activity at PPAR?, induced weight loss initially followed by rebound weight gain reaching vehicle control levels by the end of the experiment. We conclude that PPAR? and PPAR? activations are critical to effective weight loss induction. These results suggest that the PPARpan compounds may be expected to maintain the beneficial insulin sensitization effects of a PPAR? agonist while either maintaining weight or producing weight loss.

Harrington, W. Wallace; S. Britt, Christy; G. Wilson, Joan; O. Milliken, Naphtali; G. Binz, Jane; C. Lobe, David; R. Oliver, William; C. Lewis, Michael; M. Ignar, Diane

2007-01-01

223

Active-State Model of a Dopamine D2 Receptor - G?i Complex Stabilized by Aripiprazole-Type Partial Agonists  

PubMed Central

Partial agonists exhibit a submaximal capacity to enhance the coupling of one receptor to an intracellular binding partner. Although a multitude of studies have reported different ligand-specific conformations for a given receptor, little is known about the mechanism by which different receptor conformations are connected to the capacity to activate the coupling to G-proteins. We have now performed molecular-dynamics simulations employing our recently described active-state homology model of the dopamine D2 receptor-G?i protein-complex coupled to the partial agonists aripiprazole and FAUC350, in order to understand the structural determinants of partial agonism better. We have compared our findings with our model of the D2R-G?i-complex in the presence of the full agonist dopamine. The two partial agonists are capable of inducing different conformations of important structural motifs, including the extracellular loop regions, the binding pocket and, in particular, intracellular G-protein-binding domains. As G-protein-coupling to certain intracellular epitopes of the receptor is considered the key step of allosterically triggered nucleotide-exchange, it is tempting to assume that impaired coupling between the receptor and the G-protein caused by distinct ligand-specific conformations is a major determinant of partial agonist efficacy.

Kling, Ralf C.; Tschammer, Nuska; Lanig, Harald; Clark, Timothy; Gmeiner, Peter

2014-01-01

224

The inverse agonist propranolol confers no corticosteroid-sparing activity in mild-to-moderate persistent asthma.  

PubMed

The murine asthma model shows that switching off airway ?2 receptors with an inverse agonist may confer anti-inflammatory effects as well as corticosteroid-sparing activity. We have assessed for any corticosteroid-sparing effects of propranolol, an inverse agonist, added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) compared with higher dose ICS. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial in mild-to-moderate persistent asthmatic patients was performed. After a run-in (2 weeks) on hydrofluoroalkane-beclometasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) at 100 ?g/day (HFA-BDP100), patients received randomized treatments (4 weeks) with propranolol at 80 mg/day plus HFA-BDP at 100 ?g/day compared with placebo plus HFA-BDP at 400 ?g/day (HFA-BDP400). Propranolol was up-titrated to 80 mg/day over the initial 2 weeks. Tiotropium was co-administered until 5 days before each histamine challenge (the primary outcome). Sixteen patients completed the study [mean age, 38 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 86.4%; histamine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20), 1.39 mg/ml; ICS dose, 406 ?g/day]. Histamine PC20 was unchanged by adding propranolol to HFA-BDP100 compared with baseline (HFA-BDP100) {0.17 doubling dilution (dd) difference [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.58 to 0.92]}, but there was a significant improvement with HFA-BDP400 compared with both baseline [1.05 dd (95% CI: 0.43-1.66); P=0.02], and propranolol+HFA-BDP100 [0.88 dd (95% CI: 0.45-1.30); P=0.006]. Significant improvements were also observed with HFA-BDP400 for exhaled nitric oxide, blood eosinophils, serum eosinophilic cationic protein and asthma quality-of-life questionnaire symptoms compared with propranolol+HFA-BDP100. Salbutamol recovery post-challenge was partially blunted by propranolol (median prolongation 5 min; P=0.002). Domiciliary evening FEV1 also fell with propranolol+HFA-BDP100 [mean reduction from baseline 0.22 litres (95% CI: 0.10-0.34); P=0.012], whereas Asthma Control Questionnaire remained unchanged. In conclusion, the inverse agonist propranolol produced no improvements when given with low-dose ICS, whereas further significant improvements in airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation were demonstrated with higher dose ICS. Thus, propranolol does not confer corticosteroid-sparing activity in persistent asthma. PMID:24938324

Anderson, William J; Short, Philip M; Williamson, Peter A; Manoharan, Arvind; Lipworth, Brian J

2014-12-01

225

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? agonists stimulate cardiac glucose uptake via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial energy and glucose homeostasis are crucial for normal cardiac structure and function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in controlling transcriptional expression of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, and they have been demonstrated to significantly reduce tissue injury in cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor that maintains intracellular energy

Xiaoyan Xiao; Guohai Su; Stacey N. Brown; Li Chen; Jianmin Ren; Peng Zhao

2010-01-01

226

Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1.  

PubMed

Coniferyl esters--capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate--were isolated from the fruits of the pepper, Capsicum baccatum L. var. praetermissum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be coniferyl (E)-8-methyl-6-nonenoate (capsiconiate) and coniferyl 8-methylnonanoate (dihydrocapsiconiate). This finding was further confirmed by the lipase-catalyzed condensation of coniferyl alcohol with its corresponding fatty acid derivative. The agonist activity of the esters for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was evaluated by conducting an analysis of the intracellular calcium concentrations in TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. The EC50 values of capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate were 3.2 and 4.2 microM, respectively. PMID:18190936

Kobata, Kenji; Tate, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsu, Keigo; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2008-03-01

227

Differences in the locomotor-activating effects of indirect serotonin agonists in habituated and non-habituated rats  

PubMed Central

The indirect serotonin (5-HT) agonist 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a distinct behavioral profile in rats consisting of locomotor hyperactivity, thigmotaxis, and decreased exploration. The indirect 5-HT agonist ?-ethyltryptamine (AET) produces a similar behavioral profile. Using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), the present investigation examined whether the effects of MDMA and AET are dependent on the novelty of the testing environment. These experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats housed on a reversed light cycle and tested during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. We found that racemic MDMA (RS-MDMA; 3 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in rats tested in novel BPM chambers, but had no effect on locomotor activity in rats habituated to the BPM chambers immediately prior to testing. Likewise, AET (5 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in non-habituated animals but not in animals habituated to the test chambers. These results were unexpected because previous reports indicate that MDMA has robust locomotor-activating effects in habituated animals. To further examine the influence of habituation on MDMA-induced locomotor activity, we conducted parametric studies with S-(+)-MDMA (the more active enantiomer) in habituated and non-habituated rats housed on a standard or reversed light cycle. Light cycle was included as a variable due to reported differences in sensitivity to serotonergic ligands during the dark and light phases. In confirmation of our initial studies, rats tested during the dark phase and habituated to the BPM did not show an S-(+)-MDMA (3 mg/kg, SC)-induced increase in locomotor activity, whereas non-habituated rats did. By contrast, in rats tested during the light phase, S-(+)-MDMA increased locomotor activity in both non-habituated and habituated rats, although the response in habituated animals was attenuated. The finding that habituation and light cycle interact to influence MDMA- and AET-induced hyperactivity demonstrates that there are previously unrecognized complexities associated with the behavioral effects of these drugs.

Halberstadt, Adam L.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Price, Diana L.; Geyer, Mark A.

2012-01-01

228

Adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (CGS-21680) prevents endotoxin-induced effects on nucleotidase activities in mouse lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released during inflammation presents proinflammatory properties. Adenosine, produced by catabolism of ATP, is an anti-inflammatory compound. Considering the role of ATP and adenosine in inflammation and the importance of ectonucleotidases in the maintenance of their extracellular levels, we investigated the effect of a selective agonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptor (CGS-21680) on ectonucleotidase activities and gene expression patterns in lymphocytes from mice submitted to an endotoxemia model. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 12mg/kg Lipopolyssacharide (LPS) and/or 0.5mg/kg CGS-21680 or saline. Nucleotidase activities were determined in lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes and analysis of ectonucleotidase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Exposure to endotoxemia promoted an increase in nucleotide hydrolysis. When CGS-21680 was administered concomitantly with LPS, this increase was prevented for ATP, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and p-Nitrophenyl thymidine 5'-monophosphate (p-Nph-5'-TMP) hydrolysis. However, when CGS-21680 was administered 24h after LPS injection, the increase was not reversed. The expression pattern of ectonucleotidases was not altered between LPS and LPS plus CGS-21680 groups, indicating that the transcriptional control was not involved on the effect exerted for CGS-21680. These results showed an enhancement of extracellular nucleotide catabolism in lymphocytes after induction of endotoxemia, which was prevented, but not reversed by CGS-21680 administration. These findings suggest that the control of nucleotide and nucleoside levels exerted by CGS-21680 could contribute to the modulation of the inflammatory process promoted by adenosine A(2A) agonists. PMID:21114987

Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Savio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio; Bastos, Carolina Maria Alves; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

2011-01-25

229

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPARs): a promising prospect in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a polygenic, inflammatory and progressive disease, characterized by an abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, associated with impaired immunologic activation and systemic disorders, while psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory articular disease. Pathophysiology of psoriasis comprises a dysfunction of the immune system cells with an interactive network between cells and cytokines supporting the initiation and perpetuation of disease and leading to inflammation of skin, enthesis and joints. Recent studies have shown an important role of systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. Corroborating these findings, patients with severe Psoriasis have marked incidence of psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus, showing an increased risk for acute myocardial infarction, which suggests that the condition is not restricted to the skin. Nuclear receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors, whose activation affects genes that control vital processes. Among them the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is responsible for establishing the relationship between lipids, metabolic diseases and innate immunity. In the skin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have an important effect in keratinocyte homeostasis, suggesting a role in diseases such as psoriasis. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists represent a relevant source of research in the treatment of skin conditions, however more clinical studies are needed to define the potential response of these drugs in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. PMID:24474126

Lima, Emerson de Andrade; Lima, Mariana Modesto Dantas de Andrade; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pita, Ivan da Rocha; Pita, Maira Galdino da Rocha

2013-01-01

230

Pharmacological profile of DA-6886, a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic motor activity in mice.  

PubMed

DA-6886, the gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamide derivative is a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of DA-6886. We used various receptor binding assay, cAMP accumulation assay, organ bath experiment and colonic transit assay in normal and chemically constipated mice. DA-6886 exhibited high affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants, with mean pKi of 7.1, 7.5, 7.9 for the human 5-HT4a, 5-HT4b and 5-HT4d, respectively. By contrast, DA-6886 did not show significant affinity for several receptors including dopamine D2 receptor, other 5-HT receptors except for 5-HT2B receptor (pKi value of 6.2). The affinity for 5-HT4 receptor was translated into functional agonist activity in Cos-7 cells expressing 5-HT4 receptor splice variants. Furthermore, DA-6886 induced relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation (pEC50 value of 7.4) in a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. The evaluation of DA-6886 in CHO cells expressing hERG channels revealed that it inhibited hERG channel current with an pIC50 value of 4.3, indicating that the compound was 1000-fold more selective for the 5-HT4 receptor over hERG channels. In the normal ICR mice, oral administration of DA-6886 (0.4 and 2mg/kg) resulted in marked stimulation of colonic transit. Furthermore, in the loperamide-induced constipation mouse model, 2mg/kg of DA-6886 significantly improved the delay of colonic transit, similar to 10mg/kg of tegaserod. Taken together, DA-6886 is a highly potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic transit in mice, which might be therapeutic agent having a favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastrointestinal motor disorders such as IBS-C and chronic constipation. PMID:24769304

Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Kang Hun; Park, Hyun Min; Sung, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin

2014-07-15

231

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in human lung epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists inhibited the inflammatory response of RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we supply evidence that specific PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone, troglitazone, Fmoc-Leu) efficiently blocked the RSV-induced cytotoxicity and development of syncytia in tissue culture (A549, HEp-2). All PPAR{gamma} agonists under study markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of the viral G and F protein on RSV-infected A549 cells. This was paralleled by a reduced cellular amount of N protein-encoding mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR. Concomitantly, a reduced release of infectious progeny virus into the cell supernatants of human lung epithelial cells (A549, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE)) was observed. Similar results were obtained regardless whether PPAR{gamma} agonists were added prior to RSV infection or thereafter, suggesting that the agonists inhibited viral gene expression and not the primary adhesion or fusion process.

Arnold, Ralf [Institute of Medical Microbiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Leipzigerstr. 44, 39120 Magdeburg (Germany)]. E-mail: ralf.arnold@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de; Koenig, Wolfgang [Institute of Medical Microbiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Leipzigerstr. 44, 39120 Magdeburg (Germany)

2006-07-05

232

Muscarinic activity of the thiolactone, lactam, lactol, and thiolactol analogues of pilocarpine and a hypothetical model for the binding of agonists to the m1 receptor.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine isosteres have been synthesized and characterized with regard to their in vitro muscarinic properties. The results indicate that the carbonyl oxygen of the lactone function of pilocarpine is of primary importance for agonist activity with the ether oxygen being of lesser or secondary importance. An X-ray structure determination for the hydrogen O,O'-ditoluoyltartrate salt of thiolactone pilocarpine isostere 2a has been performed. This compound has an unusual pharmacological profile exhibiting M1-agonist selectivity as well ass presynaptic antagonism. As a result this compound is also viewed as having therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease. A model for the binding of pilocarpine and other muscarinic agonists to the third transmembrane helix of the human m1 muscarinic receptor has been developed. PMID:1732522

Shapiro, G; Floersheim, P; Boelsterli, J; Amstutz, R; Bolliger, G; Gammenthaler, H; Gmelin, G; Supavilai, P; Walkinshaw, M

1992-01-01

233

Covalent modification of engineered cysteines in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist-binding domain inhibits receptor activation.  

PubMed Central

We constructed and characterized a series of nicotinic receptor mutants with a cysteine substituted for one of the amino acid residues in the alpha-subunit between positions 183 and 198. This region of the receptor is known to participate in agonist binding and channel activation. The goal of this 'cysteine scanning mutagenesis' is to introduce the reactivity of a free thiol group into functionally important protein domains; modification of the introduced cysteines can then be used to probe the structure and function of the targeted region. Mutants were examined by coexpression with the beta-, gamma- and delta-subunits in Xenopus oocytes using two-microelectrode voltage clamp recording. Twelve of fourteen mutants expressed receptors with properties comparable with the wild-type, including sensitivity to reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT). This indicates that introduction of an additional cysteine within this region of the receptor did not interfere with formation of the native disulphide between alpha Cys-192 and alpha Cys-193. Only one mutation, alpha Y198C, caused dramatic changes in the EC50 for acetylcholine (ACh) and in the sensitivity to DTT. We then examined the effects of the thiol modification and found two mutants, alpha H186C and alpha V188C, that showed significant decreases in responsiveness to ACh after exposure to methylmethanethiosulphonate (MMTS). Dose-response measurements show that exposure of alpha H186C mutants to MMTS causes a shift in apparent agonist affinity without changing the peak response, and this is not reversible by DTT. In contrast, the MMTS-treated alpha V188C mutants show changes in both apparent affinity and peak response which are readily reversed by DTT. Together, our data show that these two nearby residues occupy markedly different environments relative to the contact points for ACh. They also demonstrate that cysteine-substitution mutagenesis can be successfully applied to protein domains that include functionally important disulphides.

McLaughlin, J T; Hawrot, E; Yellen, G

1995-01-01

234

CORRELATION OF THE ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF A SERIES OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES WITH THEIR ABILITY TO COMPETE WITH AGONIST BINDING TO MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Some compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity compete directly with quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding, a muscarinic antagonist which binds to all subtypes equally, and with cis-methyldioxolane (CD), an agonist that binds with high affinity to the M2 subtype...

235

Experience modulates both aromatase activity and the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to testosterone in black-headed gulls.  

PubMed

In young black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), exposure to testosterone increases the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to a subsequent exposure to this hormone. The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze whether social experience, gained during testosterone exposure, mediates this increase in hormonal sensitivity (priming), and whether this in turn is mediated by an increase in central aromatase activity. To this end, we performed three experiments. In the first juvenile gulls were exposed to two consecutive treatments with testosterone (T1 and T2), with more than a week interval in between. During T1, half of the birds were housed in social isolation (Iso) and the other half in groups (Soc). All birds were re-housed in a new social situation during the second treatment. The increase in social behaviour during T2 was significantly more rapid in Soc than Iso birds. In experiment 2 we show that 17beta-estradiol treatment facilitates the behaviour measured in experiment 1. In experiment 3 we used a set-up comparable with that of experiment 1, but birds were sacrificed early in the T2 period. Aromatase activity in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus was measured using the tritiated water releasing method. In some parts of the preoptic area and hypothalamus aromatase activity was higher in Soc birds relative to Iso birds. The results indicate that social experience can modulate the increase of social behaviour to testosterone via modulation of aromatase activity and independently of actual hormone levels. PMID:19419676

Ros, Albert F H; Franco, Aldina M A; Groothuis, Ton G G

2009-04-20

236

Agonist-triggered Modulation of the Activated and Silent State of the Vitamin D 3 Receptor by Interaction with Co-repressors and Co-activators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear receptor for the hormone 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3), VDR, regulates gene expression via a ternary complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and a 1?,25(OH)2D3 response element (VDRE). This complex mediates transcriptional repression through interaction with co-repressor proteins, such as NCoR, and transactivation through agonist-triggered contacts with co-activator proteins, such as SRC-1. This study demonstrates that the interaction of

Michaela Herdick; Carsten Carlberg

2000-01-01

237

Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPAR? agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPAR? whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPAR? agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPAR? agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPAR? in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPAR?-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPAR? agonists.

Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan) [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia)] [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan)] [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-10-18

238

A GPBAR1 (TGR5) Small Molecule Agonist Shows Specific Inhibitory Effects on Myeloid Cell Activation In Vitro and Reduces Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis (EAE) In Vivo.  

PubMed

GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24967665

Lewis, Nuruddeen D; Patnaude, Lori A; Pelletier, Josephine; Souza, Donald J; Lukas, Susan M; King, F James; Hill, Jonathan D; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E; Ryan, Kelli; Desai, Sudha; Skow, Donna; Kauschke, Stefan G; Broermann, Andre; Kuzmich, Daniel; Harcken, Christian; Hickey, Eugene R; Modis, Louise K

2014-01-01

239

A GPBAR1 (TGR5) Small Molecule Agonist Shows Specific Inhibitory Effects on Myeloid Cell Activation In Vitro and Reduces Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis (EAE) In Vivo  

PubMed Central

GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Patnaude, Lori A.; Pelletier, Josephine; Souza, Donald J.; Lukas, Susan M.; King, F. James; Hill, Jonathan D.; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E.; Ryan, Kelli; Desai, Sudha; Skow, Donna; Kauschke, Stefan G.; Broermann, Andre; Kuzmich, Daniel; Harcken, Christian; Hickey, Eugene R.; Modis, Louise K.

2014-01-01

240

Understanding compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits seen post-stroke.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal simulations have been used to explore compensatory strategies, but have focused on responses to simulated atrophy in a single muscle or muscle group. In a population such as stroke, however, impairments are seen in muscle activation across multiple muscle groups. The objective of this study was to identify available compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits in multiple muscle groups. Three dimensional dynamics simulations were created from 10 healthy subjects (48.8 ± 13.3 years, self-selected speed 1.28 ± 0.17 m/s) and constraints were set on the activation capacity of the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups to simulate activation impairme nts seen post-stroke. When the muscle groups are impaired individually, the model requires that the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups are activated to at least 55%, 64%, and 18%, respectively, to recreate the subjects' normal gait pattern. The models were unable to recreate the normal gait pattern with simultaneous impairment of all three muscle groups. Other muscle groups are unable to assist the dorsiflexor muscles during early swing, which suggests that rehabilitation or assistive devices may be required to correct foot drop. By identifying how muscles can interact, clinicians may be able to develop specific strategies for using gait retraining and orthotic assistance to best address an individual's needs. PMID:23273489

Knarr, Brian A; Reisman, Darcy S; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A; Higginson, Jill S

2013-06-01

241

Understanding compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits seen post-stroke  

PubMed Central

Musculoskeletal simulations have been used to explore compensatory strategies, but have focused on responses to simulated atrophy in a single muscle or muscle group. In a population such as stroke, however, impairments are seen in muscle activation across multiple muscle groups. The objective of this study was to identify available compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits in multiple muscle groups. Three dimensional dynamics simulations were created from 10 healthy subjects (48.8±13.3yrs, self-selected speed 1.28±0.17m/s) and constraints were set on the activation capacity of the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups to simulate activation impairments seen post stroke. When the muscle groups are impaired individually, the model requires that the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups are activated to at least 55%, 64%, and 18%, respectively, to recreate the subjects’ normal gait pattern. The models were unable to recreate the normal gait pattern with simultaneous impairment of all three muscle groups. Other muscle groups are unable to assist the dorsiflexor muscles during early swing, which suggests that rehabilitation or assistive devices may be required to correct foot drop. By identifying how muscles can interact, clinicians may be able to develop specific strategies for using gait retraining and orthotic assistance to best address an individual’s needs.

Knarr, Brian A.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.; Higginson, Jill S.

2012-01-01

242

Allometric radial growth in muscle, comparing fibres with strong and with weak adenosine triphosphatase activity.  

PubMed Central

A large flock of male and female white turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) was reared for 22 weeks after hatching. At two weeks intervals small groups of birds were removed from the flock and killed. Samples of sartorius muscles were taken from the bird nearest the mean weight for its group. Transverse frozen sections were tested for ATPase activity by calcium method at pH 9.4. Fibres were separated into two categories (strong-ATPase and weak-ATPase) and their mean minimum diameters were measured with a micrometer scale in the microscope eyepiece. Mean minimum diameters of different fibre types were compared using the logarithmic form of Huxley's allometric growth equation. Weak-ATPase fibres grew at a relatively faster rate than strong-ATPase fibres in both males and females (k = 1.12, P less than 0.01 and k = 1.14, P less than 0.01 respectively). Transition of muscle fibres from one histochemical type to another was not detected, so that differences in the rate of increase of mean diameters of different fibre types were attributed to allometric radial growth. The possibility that transitional fibres might make some contribution cannot, however, be totally ignored.

Swatland, H J

1979-01-01

243

RXR Agonists Activate PPARa-Inducible Genes, Lower Triglycerides, and Raise HDL Levels In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the intracellular receptor superfamily. PPARs bind to peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPREs) as heterodimers with RXR and as such activate gene transcription in response to activators. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are well-known PPARa activators and are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. We show that the RXR ligand LGD1069 (Targretin™

Ranjan Mukherjee; Josef Strasser; Lily Jow; Patricia Hoener; James R. Paterniti; Richard A. Heyman

244

Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650 Degree-Sign C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S. [National Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Chennai - 600025 (India); Saravanan, P. [Advanced Magnetics Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad - 500 058 (India); Jaisankar, S. N. [Polymer Lab, Central Leather Research Laboratory, Adyar, Chennai - 600020 (India)

2013-02-05

245

Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650°C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and ?-Fe2O3 phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

2013-02-01

246

Molecular engineering of organophosphate hydrolysis activity from a weak promiscuous lactonase template.  

PubMed

Rapid evolution of enzymes provides unique molecular insights into the remarkable adaptability of proteins and helps to elucidate the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We interrogated the evolution of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta (PdPTE), which hydrolyzes synthetic organophosphates with remarkable catalytic efficiency. PTE is thought to be an evolutionarily "young" enzyme, and it has been postulated that it has evolved from members of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) family that show promiscuous organophosphate-degrading activity. Starting from a weakly promiscuous PLL scaffold (Dr0930 from Deinococcus radiodurans ), we designed an extremely efficient organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) with broad substrate specificity using rational and random mutagenesis in combination with in vitro activity screening. The OPH activity for seven organophosphate substrates was simultaneously enhanced by up to 5 orders of magnitude, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiencies up to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Structural and computational analyses identified the molecular basis for the enhanced OPH activity of the engineered PLL variants and demonstrated that OPH catalysis in PdPTE and the engineered PLL differ significantly in the mode of substrate binding. PMID:23837603

Meier, Monika M; Rajendran, Chitra; Malisi, Christoph; Fox, Nicholas G; Xu, Chengfu; Schlee, Sandra; Barondeau, David P; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard; Raushel, Frank M

2013-08-01

247

Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

2013-04-01

248

Caspase and calpain activation both contribute to sepsis-induced diaphragmatic weakness  

PubMed Central

The cecal ligation perforation (CLP) model of sepsis is known to induce severe diaphragm dysfunction, but the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. We hypothesized that CLP induces diaphragm caspase-3 and calpain activation, and that these two enzymes act at the level of the contractile proteins to reduce muscle force generation. Rats (n = 4/group) were subjected to 1) sham surgery plus saline (intraperitoneal); 2) CLP; 3) CLP plus administration of calpain inhibitor peptide III (12 mg/kg ip); or 4) CLP plus administration of a caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk (3 mg/kg). At 24 h, diaphragms were removed, and the following were determined: 1) calpain and caspase-3 activities by fluorogenic assay; 2) caspase-3 and calpain I protein levels; 3) the intact diaphragm force-frequency relationship; and 4) the force generated by contractile proteins of single, permeabilized diaphragm fibers in response to exogenous calcium. CLP significantly increased diaphragm calpain activity (P < 0.02), caspase-3 activity (P < 0.02), active calpain I protein levels (P < 0.02), and active caspase-3 protein (P < 0.02). CLP also reduced the force generated by intact diaphragm muscle (P < 0.001) and the force generated by single-fiber contractile proteins (P < 0.001). Administration of either calpain inhibitor III or zVAD-fmk markedly improved force generation of both intact diaphragm muscle (P < 0.01) and single-fiber contractile proteins (P < 0.001). CLP induces significant reductions in diaphragm contractile protein force-generating capacity. This force reduction is mediated by the combined effects of activated caspase and calpain. Inhibition of these pathways may prevent diaphragm weakness in infected patients.

Wang, W.; Callahan, L. A.

2009-01-01

249

Cannabinoid receptor agonists upregulate and enhance serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor activity via ERK1/2 signaling.  

PubMed

Recent behavioral studies suggest that nonselective agonists of cannabinoid receptors may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor neurotransmission. Two cannabinoids receptors are found in brain, CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the molecular mechanism by which cannabinoid receptors would regulate 5-HT(2A) receptor neurotransmission remains unknown. Interestingly, we have recently found that certain cannabinoid receptor agonists can specifically upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors. Here, we present experimental evidence that rats treated with a nonselective cannabinoid receptor agonist (CP 55,940, 50 µg/kg, 7 days) showed increases in 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels, 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA levels, and 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phospholipase C beta (PLC?) activity in prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Similar effects were found in neuronal cultured cells treated with CP 55,940 but these effects were prevented by selective CB2, but not selective CB1, receptor antagonists. CB2 receptors couple to the extracellular kinase (ERK) signaling pathway by G?(i/o) class of G-proteins. Noteworthy, GP 1a (selective CB2 receptor agonist) produced a strong upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA and protein, an effect that was prevented by selective CB2 receptor antagonists and by an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD 198306. In summary, our results identified a strong cannabinoid-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor signaling in rat PFCx. Our cultured cell studies suggest that selective CB2 receptor agonists upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptor signaling by activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Activity of cortical 5-HT(2A) receptors has been associated with several physiological functions and neuropsychiatric disorders such as stress response, anxiety and depression, and schizophrenia. Therefore, these results may provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be relevant to the pathophysiology of some cognitive and mood disorders in humans. PMID:23151877

Franklin, Jade M; Carrasco, Gonzalo A

2013-03-01

250

Assessment of binding affinity to 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and inverse agonist activity of naftidrofuryl: comparison with those of sarpogrelate.  

PubMed

Naftidrofuryl is a peripheral vasodilator that has been clinically used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and dementia. It has 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 (5-HT(2)) antiserotonergic activity and selectively binds with the 5-HT(2) receptor. The purpose of the present study is to assess the binding affinity and functional potency of naftidrofuryl to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, to find out the inverse agonist activity of this compound at a constitutively active mutant of 5-HT(2A) receptor, and finally to compare the findings with those of sarpogrelate. The investigation showed that the binding affinity (pK(i)) of naftidrofuryl was decreased 25- or 50-fold compared to sarpogrelate in the wild-type 5-HT(2A) receptor or Cys322Lys mutant receptor, respectively. Moreover, the functional potency (pK(b)) of naftidrofuryl was much lower compared to sarpogrelate at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. In addition, inverse agonist activity of naftidrofuryl was lower compared with sarpogrelate at the constitutively active mutant receptor. Thus, the data of the present study would be very important for the clarification of interaction sites of naftidrofuryl to 5-HT(2A) receptors and also may help to understand the mechanism of inverse agonist activity at the constitutively active mutant receptor. PMID:19672037

Aly, Saida Abdel Regal; Hossain, Murad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Nakamura, Takashi; Nagatomo, Takafumi

2009-08-01

251

Effects of 5-HT1A Receptor Stimulation on D1 Receptor Agonist-Induced Striatonigral Activity and Dyskinesia in Hemiparkinsonian Rats  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence supports the value of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) agonists for dyskinesias that arise with long-term L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Yet, how 5-HT1AR stimulation directly influences the dyskinetogenic D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing striatonigral pathway remains largely unknown. To directly examine this, one cohort of hemiparkinsonian rats received systemic injections of Vehicle + Vehicle, Vehicle + the D1R agonist SKF81297 (0.8 mg/kg), or the 5-HT1AR agonist ±8-OH-DPAT (1.0 mg/kg) + SKF81297. Rats were examined for changes in abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), rotations, striatal preprodynorphin (PPD), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; 65 and 67) mRNA via RT-PCR. In the second experiment, hemiparkinsonian rats received intrastriatal pretreatments of Vehicle (aCSF), ±8-OH-DPAT (7.5 mM), or ±8-OH-DPAT + the 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY100635 (4.6 mM), followed by systemic Vehicle or SKF81297 after which AIMs, rotations, and extracellular striatal glutamate and nigral GABA efflux were measured by in vivo microdialysis. Results revealed D1R agonist-induced AIMs were reduced by systemic and intrastriatal 5-HT1AR stimulation while rotations were enhanced. Although ±8-OH-DPAT did not modify D1R agonist-induced increases in striatal PPD mRNA, the D1R/5-HT1AR agonist combination enhanced GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA. When applied locally, ±8-OH-DPAT alone diminished striatal glutamate levels while the agonist combination increased nigral GABA efflux. Thus, presynaptic 5-HT1AR stimulation may attenuate striatal glutamate levels, resulting in diminished D1R-mediated dyskinetic behaviors, but maintain or enhance striatal postsynaptic factors ultimately increasing nigral GABA levels and rotational activity. The current findings offer a novel mechanistic explanation for previous results concerning 5-HT1AR agonists for the treatment of dyskinesia.

2013-01-01

252

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new class of selective EP3 receptor agonist, 13,14-didehydro-16-phenoxy analogues of prostaglandin E1.  

PubMed

A series of 13,14-didehydro-16-phenoxy analogues of prostaglandin E1 was synthesized and their agonistic activity on EP receptor subtypes was evaluated. 13,14-Didehydro-16-phenoxy-1-decarboxy analogues, 7e and 7f, display highly selective activity on the EP3 receptor subtype, thus, their utility as a selective anti-ulcer agent can be expected. PMID:10722158

Shimazaki, Y; Kameo, K; Tanami, T; Tanaka, H; Ono, N; Kiuchi, Y; Okamoto, S; Sato, F; Ichikawa, A

2000-02-01

253

Similar coronary vascular effects in the rat perfused heart of platelet-activating factor structural analogues with agonist and antagonist properties.  

PubMed Central

1. Selective blockade of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor subtypes by PAF receptor antagonists has been demonstrated. However, selective activation of PAF receptor subtypes by PAF receptor agonists has not been reported. 2. When structural analogues of PAF that have been shown to possess either agonist or antagonist effects were administered by a bolus injection in the rat perfused heart, they all showed agonist effects. Lower amounts produced vasodilation while higher amounts produced vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. These coronary vascular effects were typical of that observed with PAF. Lyso-PAF did not show the same typical pattern of coronary vascular effect, confirming that the detergent effect of PAF structural analogues did not play a role in the coronary vascular effects. Other PAF antagonists, CV-6209 and WEB 2170, also did not produce the PAF-like response in the rat perfused heart. 3. The coronary vascular effects of hexanolamine-PAF (H-PAF, putative antagonist) and ethanolamine-PAF (E-PAF, agonist) were further studied. Pretreatment with FR-900452 (a PAF receptor antagonist) or MK-886 (a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor) significantly reduced the vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects of H-PAF and E-PAF. 4. Pretreatment of rat perfused hearts with low concentrations of H-PAF and E-PAF blocked the response to PAF administration in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the pretreatment with either H-PAF or E-PAF did not result in a coronary vascular effect expected of a PAF receptor agonist. These results were compatible with H-PAF and E-PAF behaving as PAF receptor antagonists. 5. In summary, our results demonstrate that several PAF structural analogues possess agonist action in the rat perfused heart. Like the coronary vascular effects of PAF, the effects of H-PAF and E-PAF were blocked by a PAF antagonist (FR-900452) and a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor (MK-886). This suggests that both H-PAF and E-PAF mediate their effect through activation of PAF receptors with a subsequent release of leukotrienes that produced vasodilatation and vasoconstriction. Furthermore, pretreatment of perfused hearts with these compounds blocked the response to PAF in these hearts. Thus these compounds can also behave like a PAF receptor antagonist. This latter action may be due to a gradual receptor inactivation or desensitization by the pretreatment of H-PAF and E-PAF through a PAF receptor agonist effect rather than being a PAF receptor antagonist.

Man, R. Y.; Kinnaird, A. A.

1995-01-01

254

Benzydamine inhibits monocyte migration and MAPK activation induced by chemotactic agonists  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of benzydamine, an anti-inflammatory drug devoid of activity on arachidonic acid metabolism, on monocyte chemotaxis and to define the possible biochemical correlates of activity. Benzydamine inhibited monocyte chemotaxis in response to three classes of chemoattractants: the prototypic CC-chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), the microbial product fMLP and the complement cascade component C5a. The effect was dose-dependent with IC50's of 100, 50 and 45 ?M for MCP-1/CCL2, fMLP and C5a, respectively. At the dose of 100 ?M, the effect resulted in a 50±10% inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2-induced chemotaxis and 53±6 and 54±5% inhibitions of chemotaxis in response of fMLP and C5a, respectively (n=3). Receptor expression as well as calcium fluxes in response to chemoattractants were not affected by benzydamine. Benzydamine strongly inhibited chemoattractant-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2, and of its upstream activator kinase MEK1/2. ERK1/12 activation in response to chemoattractants was 89–98% inhibited by a 100 ?M concentration of benzydamine with an IC50 of 30 ?M. Under the same experimental conditions, pretreatment with 100 ?M benzydamine caused a 75–89% inhibition of p38 activation (IC50 25 ?M). These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of benzydamine is exerted at multiple levels, including monocyte migration to chemotactic factors associated to a blockage of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways.

Riboldi, Elena; Frascaroli, Giada; Transidico, Pietro; Luini, Walter; Bernasconi, Sergio; Mancini, Francesca; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Milanese, Claudio; Pinza, Mario; Sozzani, Silvano; Mantovani, Alberto

2003-01-01

255

CMHX008, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Partial Agonist, Enhances Insulin Sensitivity In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPAR? activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPAR? agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPAR? target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.

Song, Ying; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jibin; Gao, Rufei; Zhang, Yuyao; Mei, Hu; Guo, Tingwang; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Bochu; Wu, Chaodong; Xiao, Xiaoqiu

2014-01-01

256

CMHX008, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Partial Agonist, Enhances Insulin Sensitivity In Vitro and In Vivo.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPAR? activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPAR? agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPAR? target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders. PMID:25004107

Ming, Yue; Hu, Xiangnan; Song, Ying; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jibin; Gao, Rufei; Zhang, Yuyao; Mei, Hu; Guo, Tingwang; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Bochu; Wu, Chaodong; Xiao, Xiaoqiu

2014-01-01

257

The protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) polymorphic variant F240S constitutively activates PAR2 receptors and potentiates responses to small-molecule PAR2 agonists.  

PubMed

AC-55541 [N-[[1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-eth-(E)-ylidene-hydrazinocarbonyl]-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-phthalazin-1-yl)-methyl]-benzamide] and AC-264613 [2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid [1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-(E/Z)-ethylidene]-hydrazide] are the first two small-molecule agonists described for the G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), but whether they activate PAR2 through a similar mechanism as its tethered peptide ligand or soluble peptide mimetics of its tethered peptide ligand is unclear. Extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) has been shown to play a critical role in the activation mechanism of PAR2. Therefore, we constructed a series of PAR2 receptors mutated in ECL2, including a previously described polymorphic variant of PAR2 (F240S), and compared AC-55541 and AC-264613 to SLIGRL and a potent analog of SLIGRL called 2-furoyl LIGRLO in a series of functional assays, including cellular proliferation, phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, and ?-arrestin recruitment assays. Surprisingly, receptors with the F240S mutation were constitutively active in all functional assays tested. Furthermore, AC-55541 and AC-264613 were potentiated over 30-fold at the receptors with the F240S mutation, whereas SLIGRL and 2-furoyl LIGRLO were much less affected. In contrast, mutagenesis of charged residues in ECL2 confirmed their important role in the actions of peptide agonists of PAR2, whereas these mutations did not significantly affect activation of PAR2 by AC-55541 or AC-264613. These results suggest that F240S PAR2 receptors may be useful in screens to detect novel small-molecule PAR2 modulators and that further work on the biological importance of the F240S PAR2 variant is warranted. PMID:24078870

Ma, Jian-Nong; Burstein, Ethan S

2013-12-01

258

Thrombin-receptor agonist peptides, in contrast to thrombin itself, are not full agonists for activation and signal transduction in human platelets in the absence of platelet-derived secondary mediators.  

PubMed Central

Synthetic thrombin receptor peptides (TRPs), comprising the first 6-14 amino acids of the new N-terminus tethered ligand of the thrombin receptor that is generated by thrombin's proteolytic activity, were reported to activate platelets equally with thrombin itself and are considered to be full agonists [Vu et al. (1991) Cell 64, 1057-1068]. Using aspirin plus ADP-scavengers or the ADP-receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-[alpha-thio]triphosphate to prevent the secondary effects of the potent agonists that are normally released from stimulated platelets (i.e. ADP and thromboxane A2), we assessed the direct actions of thrombin and TRPs (i.e. TRP42-47 and TRP42-55). Compared with thrombin, under these conditions, TRPs: (1) failed to aggregate platelets completely; (2) produced less activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa; (3) did not cause association of GPIIb and pp60c-src with the cytoskeleton; and (4) caused less alpha-granule secretion, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, arachidonic acid release and phosphatidyl inositol (PtdOH) production. Furthermore, TRPs induced transient increases in protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas these same responses to thrombin were greater and more sustained. Hirudin added after thrombin accelerated protein dephosphorylation, thereby mimicking the rate of spontaneous dephosphorylation seen after stimulation by TRPs. Platelets totally desensitized to very high concentrations of TRPs, by prior exposure to maximally effective concentrations of the peptides, remained responsive to alpha- and gamma-thrombins. Thrombin-stimulated PtdOH production in permeabilized platelets desensitized to TRPs was abolished by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta S]), as in normal platelets. These results are discussed in terms of the allosteric Ternary Complex Model for G-protein linked receptors [Samama et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 4625-4636]. We conclude that: (1) TRPs are partial agonists for the thrombin receptor and produce incomplete receptor desensitization in keeping with their lower intrinsic activity; (2) thrombin's effects in platelets, even in TRP-desensitized platelets, are entirely mediated through the recently cloned G-protein linked receptor, and (3) thrombin's ability to produce sustained signals, compared with TRPs, may require the continued progressive proteolytic activation of naive thrombin receptors. Images Figure 3

Lau, L F; Pumiglia, K; Cote, Y P; Feinstein, M B

1994-01-01

259

Weak hydrogen bonding interactions influence slip system activity and compaction behavior of pharmaceutical powders.  

PubMed

Markedly different mechanical behavior of powders of polymorphs, cocrystals, hydrate/anhydrate pairs, or structurally similar molecules has been attributed to the presence of active slip planes system in their crystal structures. Presence of slip planes in the crystal lattice allows easier slip under the applied compaction pressure. This allows greater plastic deformation of the powder and results into increased interparticulate bonding area and greater tensile strength of the compacts. Thus, based on this crystallographic feature, tableting performance of the active pharmaceutical ingredients can be predicted. Recently, we encountered a case where larger numbers of C?H···O type interactions across the proposed slip planes hinder the slip and thus resist plastic deformation of the powder under the applied compaction pressure. Hence, attention must be given to these types of interactions while identifying slip planes by visualization method. Generally, slip planes are visualized as flat layers often strengthened by a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network within the layers or planes. No hydrogen bonding should exist between these layers to consider them as slip planes. Moreover, one should also check the presence of C?H···O type interactions across these planes. Mercury software provides an option for visualization of these weak hydrogen bonding interactions. Hence, caution must be exercised while selecting appropriate solid form based on this crystallographic feature. PMID:24136007

Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

2013-12-01

260

Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist, improves peritoneal alterations resulting from an encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis model.  

PubMed

Inflammation, fibrosis, and angiogenesis underlie the pathophysiology of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). The irreversible sclerosis of visceral and parietal peritoneum that characterizes EPS can be seen in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients after long periods on dialysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the major regulator of key metabolic pathways of various inflammatory responses in fibrosing processes in most tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone on the progression and regression of peritoneal alterations in chlorhexidine gluconate-induced EPS in rats. We divided 53 nonuremic Wistar albino rats into 5 groups: control group--isotonic saline 2 mL, injected intraperitoneally (IP) daily for 3 weeks; chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) group--CG 2 mL per 200 g body weight, injected IP daily for 3 weeks; Rozi-P group--CG injection as described, plus rosiglitazone in drinking water (8 mg/L) for 3 weeks; resting group--CG injection as described during weeks 1 - 3, then peritoneal rest during weeks 4 - 6; Rozi-R group--CG injection as described during weeks 1 - 3, then rosiglitazone in drinking water (8 mg/L) during weeks 4 - 6. At the end of the study, a 1-hour peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was performed with 25 mL 3.86% glucose PD solution. Dialysate-to-plasma ratio of urea (D/P urea), dialysate white blood cell (WBC) count, ultrafiltration (UF) volume, and morphology change in parietal peritoneum were examined. Exposure to CG for 3 weeks resulted in alterations in peritoneal transport (increased D/P urea, decreased UF volume, both p < 0.05) and morphology (increased inflammation, neovascularization, fibrosis, and peritoneal thickness, all p < 0.05). Peritoneal rest had some advantages in UF failure and WBC count only (both p < 0.05). However, rosiglitazone was more effective than peritoneal rest for vascularity and peritoneal thickness (p < 0.05). We suggest that the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone may have a therapeutic value in the management of EPS by inhibiting inflammation and neovascularization. PMID:18985998

Bozkurt, Devrim; Taskin, Hüseyin; Sezak, Murat; Biçak, Selahattin; Sen, Sait; Ok, Ercan; Duman, Soner

2008-01-01

261

Targeting human CD27 with an agonist antibody stimulates T-cell activation and antitumor immunity  

PubMed Central

CD27 is an important co-stimulatory receptor of T cells that can potentially be exploited for immunotherapy. We developed a human IgG1 antibody that targets human CD27, and demonstrated its immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activity in various preclinical models. Currently, the antibody (1F5, CDX-1127) is being tested in patients affected by advanced malignancies.

Thomas, Lawrence J; He, Li-Zhen; Marsh, Henry; Keler, Tibor

2014-01-01

262

Thiazolidinediones, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists, regulate endothelial cell growth and secretion of vasoactive peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin resistance has been highlighted as a common causal factor for glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, all of which are cardiovascular risk factors. A new class of antidiabetic agents, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), has been developed and demonstrated to improve insulin sensitivity. TZDs are high affinity ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), the crucial transcription factor for adipocytes. Recent studies showed

Yasutomo Fukunaga; Hiroshi Itoh; Kentaro Doi; Tokuji Tanaka; Jun Yamashita; Tae-Hwa Chun; Mayumi Inoue; Ken Masatsugu; Naoki Sawada; Takatoshi Saito; Kiminori Hosoda; Hyun Kook; Makiko Ueda; Kazuwa Nakao

2001-01-01

263

Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones

Sashi Nadanaciva; James A. Dykens; Autumn Bernal; Roderick A. Capaldi; Yvonne Will

2007-01-01

264

Agonist and Antagonist Muscle EMG Activity Pattern Changes with Skill Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using electromyography (EMG), researchers studied changes in the control of biceps and triceps brachii muscles that occurred as women college students learned two elbow flexion tasks. Data on EMG activity, angular kinematics, training, and angular displacement were analyzed. (Author/PP)

Engelhorn, Richard

1983-01-01

265

Histamine H4 receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Since its discovery 10 years ago the histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) has attracted attention as a potential drug target, for instance, for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Potent and selective ligands including agonists are required as pharmacological tools to study the role of the H(4)R in vitro and in vivo. Many H(4)R agonists, which were identified among already known histamine receptor ligands, show only low or insufficient H(4)R selectivity. In addition, the investigation of numerous H(4)R agonists in animal models is hampered by species-dependent discrepancies regarding potencies and histamine receptor selectivities of the available compounds, especially when comparing human and rodent receptors. This article gives an overview about structures, potencies, and selectivities of various compounds showing H(4)R agonistic activity and summarizes the structure-activity relationships of selected compound classes. PMID:21044842

Igel, Patrick; Dove, Stefan; Buschauer, Armin

2010-12-15

266

Rho-dependent kinase is involved in agonist-activated calcium entry in rat arteries.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at investigating whether, besides its pivotal role in Ca(2+)-independent contraction of smooth muscle, Rho-kinase is involved in the mechanisms underlying the Ca2+ signal activated by noradrenaline in arteries. In rat aorta and mesenteric artery, the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (10 microM) completely relaxed the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (1 microM) and simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal by 54 +/- 1 % (mesenteric artery) and 71 +/- 15 % (aorta), and the cell membrane depolarisation by 56 +/- 11 % (mesenteric artery). A similar effect was observed in arteries contracted by AlF4-, while in KCl-contracted arteries, Y-27632 decreased tension without changing cytosolic Ca2+. The same effects were observed with another inhibitor of Rho-kinase (HA1077) but not with an inhibitor of protein kinase C (Ro-31-8220). Effects of Y-27632 were not prevented by incubating the artery in 25 mM KCl, with K+ channel blockers or with the Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine. Y-27632 did not affect either the increase in the production of inositol phosphates activated by noradrenaline, or the release of Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial stores evoked by InsP3 in permeabilised aortic cells, or the Ca2+ signals evoked by thapsigargin or caffeine. The capacitative Ca2+ entry activated by thapsigargin was not impaired by Y-27632, but the entry of Ba2+ activated by noradrenaline in the presence of nimodipine was blocked by 10 microM Y-27632. These results indicate that Rho-kinase is involved in noradrenaline activation of a Ca2+ entry distinct from voltage- or store-operated channels in rat arteries. PMID:12853654

Ghisdal, Philippe; Vandenberg, Greet; Morel, Nicole

2003-09-15

267

Activation and desensitization of TRPV1 channels in sensory neurons by the PPAR? agonist palmitoylethanolamide  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide displaying anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for these effects, the ability of PEA and of pain-inducing stimuli such as capsaicin (CAP) or bradykinin (BK) to influence intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in peripheral sensory neurons, has been assessed in the present study. The potential involvement of the transcription factor PPAR? and of TRPV1 channels in PEA-induced effects was also studied. Experimental Approach [Ca2+]i was evaluated by single-cell microfluorimetry in differentiated F11 cells. Activation of TRPV1 channels was assessed by imaging and patch-clamp techniques in CHO cells transiently-transfected with rat TRPV1 cDNA. Key Results In F11 cells, PEA (1–30 ?M) dose-dependently increased [Ca2+]i. The TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine (1 ?M) and SB-366791 (1 ?M), as well as the PPAR? antagonist GW-6471 (10 ?M), inhibited PEA-induced [Ca2+]i increase; blockers of cannabinoid receptors were ineffective. PEA activated TRPV1 channels heterologously expressed in CHO cells; this effect appeared to be mediated at least in part by PPAR?. When compared with CAP, PEA showed similar potency and lower efficacy, and caused stronger TRPV1 currents desensitization. Sub-effective PEA concentrations, closer to those found in vivo, counteracted CAP- and BK-induced [Ca2+]i transients, as well as CAP-induced TRPV1 activation. Conclusions and Implications Activation of PPAR? and TRPV1 channels, rather than of cannabinoid receptors, largely mediate PEA-induced [Ca2+]i transients in sensory neurons. Differential TRPV1 activation and desensitization by CAP and PEA might contribute to their distinct pharmacological profile, possibly translating into potentially relevant clinical differences.

Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Russo, Claudio; Taglialatela, Maurizio

2013-01-01

268

In vivo effect of a beta-adrenergic agonist on activity of calcium-dependent proteinases, their specific inhibitor, and cathepsins B and H in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

DEAE-Sephacel and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography were compared as methods for separating and quantitatively isolating calpain I, calpain II, and calpastatin from lamb muscle extracts. DEAE-Sephacel chromatography gave greater than 90% recovery of all three proteins, while phenyl-Sepharose gave only 70, 66, and 48% of the DEAE recovery of calpain I, calpain II, and calpastatin, respectively. Additionally, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography was shown to effectively separate calpastatin and calpain I. Consequently DEAE-Sephacel appears to be superior to phenyl-Sepharose for quantitative isolation of the components of the calcium-dependent proteinase system from muscle extracts. Dietary administration of beta-agonist (L-644, 969; Merck Sharpe & Dohme Research Laboratories) decreases extractable calpain I activity in lamb longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle by 10-14% (P less than 0.05), increases calpain II activity by 34-42% (P less than 0.001), and increases calpastatin activity by 59-75% (P less than 0.001). Additionally, net cathepsin B activity is reduced by 30% (P less than 0.05) in the LD of beta-agonist-treated lambs. Reduced activity of the calcium-dependent or catheptic proteinase systems may contribute to the increased protein accretion in muscles of beta-agonist-treated lambs. PMID:2573315

Kretchmar, D H; Hathaway, M R; Epley, R J; Dayton, W R

1989-11-15

269

TGF-?-activated Kinase 1 (Tak1) Mediates Agonist-induced Smad Activation and Linker Region Phosphorylation in Embryonic Craniofacial Neural Crest-derived Cells*  

PubMed Central

Although the importance of TGF-? superfamily signaling in craniofacial growth and patterning is well established, the precise details of its signaling mechanisms are still poorly understood. This is in part because of the concentration of studies on the role of the Smad-dependent (so-called “canonical”) signaling pathways relative to the Smad-independent ones in many biological processes. Here, we have addressed the role of TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (Tak1, Map3k7), one of the key mediators of Smad-independent (noncanonical) TGF-? superfamily signaling in craniofacial development, by deleting Tak1 specifically in the neural crest lineage. Tak1-deficient mutants display a round skull, hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, and cleft palate resulting from a failure of palatal shelves to appropriately elevate and fuse. Our studies show that in neural crest-derived craniofacial ecto-mesenchymal cells, Tak1 is not only required for TGF-?- and bone morphogenetic protein-induced p38 Mapk activation but also plays a role in agonist-induced C-terminal and linker region phosphorylation of the receptor-mediated R-Smads. Specifically, we demonstrate that the agonist-induced linker region phosphorylation of Smad2 at Thr-220, which has been shown to be critical for full transcriptional activity of Smad2, is dependent on Tak1 activity and that in palatal mesenchymal cells TGF?RI and Tak1 kinases mediate both overlapping and distinct TGF-?2-induced transcriptional responses. To summarize, our results suggest that in neural crest-derived ecto-mesenchymal cells, Tak1 provides a critical point of intersection in a complex dialogue between the canonical and noncanonical arms of TGF-? superfamily signaling required for normal craniofacial development.

Yumoto, Kenji; Thomas, Penny S.; Lane, Jamie; Matsuzaki, Kouichi; Inagaki, Maiko; Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun; Scott, Gregory J.; Ray, Manas K.; Ishii, Mamoru; Maxson, Robert; Mishina, Yuji; Kaartinen, Vesa

2013-01-01

270

Fenofibrate A peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? agonist treatment ameliorates Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in rats.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is physiologically highly expressed by hepatocytes, where it plays a pivotal anti-inflammatory and metabolic role. The decrease expression and functional activity of PPAR? in hepatocytes during hepatitis C virus infection may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease in humans. This study aims at evaluating the effects of PPAR? activation with fenofibrate (FF) on liver inflammation, fibrosis and portal pressure (PP) in Concanavalin A (Con A)- induced hepatitis in rats. The rats were randomly divided to 3 groups; control (1 ml saline iv/wk) group, Con A (20mg/kg/iv/wk) group and Con A with FF (100mg/kg/day p.o) group. Blood samples and livers were collected by the end of the first, second, fourth and eighth injections of Con A for biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry studies for ?-smooth muscle actin (? SMA). Measurement of PP was performed by the end of the 8th week. FF group had a significant (P<0.05) decrease of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases with significant reduction of hepatic tumor necrosis factor alpha and malondialdehyde levels than Con A group. Histopathological examination revealed that treatment with FF significantly suppressed early inflammation, reduced ? SMA, and apoptosis of hepatocytes induced by Con A, thereby preventing the progression of chronic liver injury and fibrosis. In addition FF group had a significantly lower PP (-89.0%) than Con A group. In conclusion PPAR? activation significantly reduced liver inflammation, fibrosis and PP in Con A model of hepatitis that may represent a new therapeutic strategy for hepatitis and its complications. PMID:24140572

Mohamed, Doaa I; Elmelegy, Ahmed A M; El-Aziz, Lubna F A; Abdel Kawy, Hala S; El-Samad, Abeer A Abd; El-Kharashi, Omnyah A

2013-12-01

271

Evaluation of bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriovulnificus cause severe foodborne illness in humans; thus, to reduce outbreaks of disease, it is clearly important to reduce food contamination by these pathogens. Although electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been reported to exhibit strong bactericidal activities against many pathogens, it has never been tested against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW), a type of EO water, against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. Cell suspensions and cell cultures of both pathogens were treated for 30s with sodium hypochlorite solution containing 35mg/L available chlorine concentration (ACC) or WAEW containing 35mg/L ACC. After an initial inoculum of 5.7logCFU/mL, the number of viable V. vulnificus cells was reduced by 2.2 logs after treatment for 60s with sodium hypochlorite solution containing 35mg/L ACC, while no cells survived treatment with WAEW for 30s. Similar results were obtained for V. parahaemolyticus. Under open storage conditions, WAEW maintained bactericidal activities against cell suspensions of both strains after 5weeks but disappeared against cell cultures of the two strains after 5weeks. Under closed storage conditions, however, WAEW maintained bactericidal activities against both cell suspensions and cell cultures of each strain after 5weeks. No cells were detected in the cell suspensions and cultures when the ACC of WAEW was more than 20mg/L and treatment time was greater than 15s. Bactericidal activity of WAEW against V. vulnificus cell culture was reduced when the ACC of WAEW was less than 15mg/L but was maintained in the V. vulnificus cell suspension when the ACC of WAEW was 0.5mg/L. Thus, the bactericidal activity of WAEW was primarily affected by ACC rather than treatment time. Similar results were obtained for V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that WAEW kills these microorganisms more quickly than a chemical product such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), even at equivalent ACCs. PMID:20004034

Quan, Yaru; Choi, Kyoo-Duck; Chung, Donghwa; Shin, Il-Shik

2010-01-01

272

Optimization of a Small Tropomyosin-related Kinase B (TrkB) Agonist 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Active in Mouse Models of Depression  

PubMed Central

Structure-activity relationship study shows that the catechol group in 7,8-dihdyroxyflavone, a selective small TrkB receptor agonist, is critical for the agonistic activity. To improve the poor pharmacokinetic profiles intrinsic to catechol-containing molecules and elevate the agonistic effect of the lead compound, we initiated the lead optimization campaign by synthesizing various bioisosteric derivatives. Here we show that the optimized 2-methyl-8-(4?-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl)chromeno[7,8-d]imidazol-6(1H)-one derivative possesses the enhanced TrkB stimulatory activity. Chronic oral administration of this compound significantly reduces the immobility in forced swim test and tail suspension test, two classical antidepressant behavioral animal models, which is accompanied by robust TrkB activation in hippocampus of mouse brain. Further, in vitro ADMET studies demonstrate that this compound possesses the improved features compared to the previous lead compound. Hence, this optimized compound may act as a promising lead candidate for in-depth drug development for treating various neurological disorders including depression.

Liu, Xia; Chan, Chi-Bun; Qi, Qi; Xiao, Ge; Luo, Hongbo R.; He, Xiaolin; Ye, Keqiang

2012-01-01

273

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and the Thyroid: C-Cell Effects in Mice Are Mediated via the GLP-1 Receptor and not Associated with RET Activation  

PubMed Central

Liraglutide and exenatide are glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R) agonists used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both molecules have been associated with the development of thyroid C-cell tumors after lifetime exposure in rodents. Previously, it has been reported that these tumors are preceded by increased plasma calcitonin and C-cell hyperplasia. We can now document that the murine C-cell effects are mediated via GLP-1R. Thus, 13 wk of continuous exposure to GLP-1R agonists was associated with marked increases in plasma calcitonin and in the incidence of C-cell hyperplasia in wild-type mice. In contrast, similar effects were not seen in GLP-1R knockout mice. Human C-cell cancer is often caused by activating mutations in the rearranged-during-transfection (RET) protooncogene. We developed an immunohistochemical method to assess RET activation in tissues. Liraglutide dosing to mice was not found to activate RET. Further evaluation of the signaling pathways demonstrated that liraglutide increased ribosomal S6, but not MAPK kinase, phosphorylation. These observations are consistent with effects of GLP-1R agonists on rodent C cells being mediated via mammalian target of rapamycin activation in a RET- and MAPK-independent manner.

Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Gotfredsen, Carsten; Pilling, Andrew; Sjogren, Ingrid; Andersen, S?ren; Andersen, Lene; Sietske de Boer, Anne; Manova, Katia; Barlas, Afsar; Vundavalli, Sushil; Nyborg, Niels C. Berg; Bjerre Knudsen, Lotte; Moelck, Anne Marie

2012-01-01

274

An ophthalmic solution of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist prevents corneal inflammation in a rat alkali burn model  

PubMed Central

Purpose We clarified the effects of an ophthalmic solution of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonist on corneal inflammation and wound healing after alkali burn injury in rats. Methods After alkali exposure, either an ophthalmic solution with 0.1% pioglitazone hydrochloride (the PPAR? group) or vehicle (the vehicle group) was topically applied to the cornea until day 14. Histological, immunohistochemical, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. Results After alkali injury, PPAR? expression increased, with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells. The infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages started from the corneal limbus within 6 h, and developed in the corneal center by day 7, with associated neovascularization. The accumulation of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts and the deposition of type III collagen were noted on day 14. The histological changes were suppressed significantly by treatment with the ophthalmic solution of the PPAR? agonist. In addition, the number of infiltrating M2 macrophages in the cornea was increased by PPAR? agonist treatment. In real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, the messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-?, transforming growth factor beta 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were decreased in the PPAR? group compared to the vehicle group in the early periods of corneal inflammation. Conclusions The ophthalmic solution of the PPAR? agonist inhibited inflammation, decreased the fibrotic reaction, and prevented neovascularization in the cornea from the early phase after alkali burn injury. The ophthalmic solution of the PPAR? agonist may provide a new treatment strategy with useful clinical applications for corneal inflammation and wound healing.

Uchiyama, Masaaki; Masuda, Yukinari; Nagasaka, Shinya; Fukuda, Yuh; Takahashi, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

275

Novel N-Substituted Benzimidazolones as Potent, Selective, CNS-Penetrant, and Orally Active M1 mAChR Agonists.  

PubMed

Virtual screening of the corporate compound collection yielded compound 1 as a subtype selective muscarinic M1 receptor agonist hit. Initial optimization of the N-capping group of the central piperidine ring resulted in compounds 2 and 3 with significantly improved potency and selectivity. Subsequent optimization of substituents on the phenyl ring of the benzimidazolone moiety led to the discovery of novel muscarinic M1 receptor agonists 4 and 5 with excellent potency, general and subtype selectivity, and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties including good central nervous system (CNS) penetration and oral bioavailability. Compound 5 showed robust in vivo activities in animal models of cognition enhancement. The combination of high potency, excellent selectivity, and good PK properties makes compounds 4 and 5 valuable tool compounds for investigating and validating potential therapeutic benefits resulting from selective M1 activation. PMID:24900202

Budzik, Brian; Garzya, Vincenzo; Shi, Dongchuan; Walker, Graham; Woolley-Roberts, Marie; Pardoe, Joanne; Lucas, Adam; Tehan, Ben; Rivero, Ralph A; Langmead, Christopher J; Watson, Jeannette; Wu, Zining; Forbes, Ian T; Jin, Jian

2010-09-01

276

Novel N-Substituted Benzimidazolones as Potent, Selective, CNS-Penetrant, and Orally Active M1 mAChR Agonists  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening of the corporate compound collection yielded compound 1 as a subtype selective muscarinic M1 receptor agonist hit. Initial optimization of the N-capping group of the central piperidine ring resulted in compounds 2 and 3 with significantly improved potency and selectivity. Subsequent optimization of substituents on the phenyl ring of the benzimidazolone moiety led to the discovery of novel muscarinic M1 receptor agonists 4 and 5 with excellent potency, general and subtype selectivity, and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties including good central nervous system (CNS) penetration and oral bioavailability. Compound 5 showed robust in vivo activities in animal models of cognition enhancement. The combination of high potency, excellent selectivity, and good PK properties makes compounds 4 and 5 valuable tool compounds for investigating and validating potential therapeutic benefits resulting from selective M1 activation.

2010-01-01

277

Interfacial behavior of polar, weakly polar, and nonpolar compounds bound to activated carbons.  

PubMed

Detailed analysis of the interfacial behavior of water and weakly polar or nonpolar organics adsorbed alone or co-adsorbed onto activated carbons (AC) at different temperatures is a complex problem important for practical applications of adsorbents. Interaction of water, 1-decanol, and n-decane with AC possessing highly developed porosity (pore volume Vp?1.4-2.3 cm(3)/g, specific surface area S(BET)?1500-3500 m(2)/g) was studied over a broad temperature range using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermoporometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, cryoporometry, and temperature-programmed desorption with mass-spectrometry control methods. Comparison of the pore size distributions (PSD) calculated using the DSC thermoporometry, NMR cryoporometry, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms allows us to determine localization of adsorbates in different pores, as well as changes in the PSD of AC due to freezing of adsorbates in pores. Theoretical calculations (using ab initio HF/6-31G(d,p), DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and PM7 methods) explain certain aspects of the interfacial behavior of water, decane, and decanol adsorbed onto AC that appear in the experimental data. Obtained results show strong temperature dependence (above and below the freezing point, Tf, of bulk liquids) of the interfacial behavior of adsorbates on the textural characteristics and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of AC and the adsorbate amounts that affect the distributions of adsorbates unfrozen at T

Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Zarko, V I; Goncharuk, O V; Nychiporuk, Yu M; Kozynchenko, O P; Skubiszewska-Zi?ba, J; Leboda, R; Charmas, B; Balakin, D Yu; Ptushinskii, Yu G

2013-08-15

278

Comparison of the effects of NMDA and AMPA antagonists on the locomotor activity induced by selective D 1 and D 2 dopamine agonists in reserpine-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interaction between various glutamate antagonists and selective D1 (SKF 38393) and D2 (RU 24213) dopamine agonists in the production of locomotion in the reserpine-treated mouse. Firstly, in normal mice, the NMDA channel blocker MK 801 (0.1–1.6 mg\\/kg) caused a biphasic stimulation\\/depression of locomotor activity, whereas the competitive NMDA antagonists CGP 40116 (0.25–8 mg\\/kg) and CPP (0.2–20

M. S. Starr; B. S. Starr

1994-01-01

279

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Stimulates Phagocytosis and Blocks Agonist-Induced Activation of the Neutrophil Oxidative Burst: A Possible Cellular Mechanism to Protect against Oxygen Radical Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on agonist-induced activation of the superoxide-generating oxidative burst in human neutrophils was tested. PDGF had no effect on the resting level of superoxide generation but inhibited both the rate and the extent of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated superoxide production in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration required to inhibit the response by 50% was 95 ± 26

Emily Wilson; Scott M. Laster; Linda R. Gooding; J. David Lambeth

1987-01-01

280

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of 3-aryl-4-isoxazolecarboxamides as a new class of TGR5 agonists.  

PubMed

A series of 3-aryl-4-isoxazolecarboxamides identified from a high-throughput screening campaign as novel, potent agonists of the human TGR5 G-protein-coupled receptor is described. Many analogues were readily accessible via solution-phase synthesis which resulted in the rapid identification of key structure-activity relationships (SAR), and the discovery of potent exemplars (up to pEC50=9). Details of the SAR and optimization of this series are presented herein. PMID:20097073

Budzik, Brian W; Evans, Karen A; Wisnoski, David D; Jin, Jian; Rivero, Ralph A; Szewczyk, George R; Jayawickreme, Channa; Moncol, David L; Yu, Hongshi

2010-02-15

281

Agonist and antagonist properties of antipsychotics at human dopamine D4.4 receptors: G-protein activation and K+ channel modulation in transfected cells.  

PubMed

Interaction at dopamine D4 receptors may improve cognitive function, which is highly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia, but comparative studies of recent antipsychotics in cellular models of D4 receptor activation are lacking. Here, we report the in-vitro profile of over 30 ligands at recombinant hD4.4 receptors. In [35S]GTPgammaS binding experiments using membranes of CHO-hD4.4 cells, apomorphine, preclamol and the selective D4 agonists, ABT724, CP226269, Ro-10-5824 and PD168077, behaved as partial agonists (Emax 20-60% vs. dopamine), whereas L745870 and RBI257, displayed antagonist properties. The 'conventional' antipsychotic, haloperidol and the 'atypicals', clozapine and risperidone, exhibited antagonist properties, while 'third generation' compounds bifeprunox, SLV313 and F15063, acted as partial agonists (10-30%). Aripiprazole and SSR181507 slightly stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding at micromolar concentrations. In Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing hD4.4 receptors with G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, apomorphine, preclamol, ABT724, CP226269, and PD168077 stimulated GIRK currents (Emax 70-80%). The 5-HT1A receptor ligands, WAY100635 and flibanserin, also exhibited partial agonist activity (30% and 15%, respectively). Haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine and nemonapride did not stimulate GIRK currents, whereas aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SLV313 and F15063, but not SSR181507, exhibited partial agonism (Emax 20-35%). In-vitro responses depended on experimental conditions: increasing NaCl concentration (30 mm to 100 mm) reduced agonist efficacy in [35S]GTPgammaS binding, whereas decreasing the amount of hD4.4 cRNA injected into oocytes (from 2.0 to 0.5 ng/oocyte) reduced agonist efficacy of several compounds. These data indicate that, unlike conventional or 'atypical' antipsychotics, several 'third generation' agents display D4 receptor partial agonism that may be sufficient to influence physiological D4 receptor activity in vivo. PMID:17897483

Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Heusler, Peter; Martel, Jean-Claude; Ormière, Anne-Marie; Leduc, Nathalie; Cussac, Didier

2008-05-01

282

Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones examined, ciglitazone, troglitazone, and darglitazone potently disrupted mitochondrial respiration. In accord with these data, ciglitazone and troglitazone were also potent inhibitors of Complexes II + III, IV, and V, while darglitazone predominantly inhibited Complex IV. Of the six statins evaluated, lovastatin, simvastatin, and cerivastatin impaired mitochondrial respiration the most, with simvastatin and lovastatin impairing multiple OXPHOS Complexes. Within the class of fibrates, gemfibrozil more potently impaired respiration than fenofibrate, clofibrate, or ciprofibrate. Gemfibrozil only modestly inhibited Complex I, fenofibrate inhibited Complexes I, II + III, and V, and clofibrate inhibited Complex V. Our findings with the two complementary methods indicate that (1) some members of each class impair mitochondrial respiration, whereas others have little or no effect, and (2) the rank order of mitochondrial impairment accords with clinical adverse events observed with these drugs. Since the statins are frequently co-prescribed with the fibrates or thiazolidinediones, various combinations of these three drug classes were also analyzed for their mitochondrial effects. In several cases, the combination additively uncoupled or inhibited respiration, suggesting that some combinations are more likely to yield clinically relevant drug-induced mitochondrial side effects than others.

Nadanaciva, Sashi [MitoSciences, Inc., 1850 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Dykens, James A. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., 10646 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bernal, Autumn; Capaldi, Roderick A. [MitoSciences, Inc., 1850 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Will, Yvonne [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., 10646 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)], E-mail: Yvonne.will@pfizer.com

2007-09-15

283

Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [alpha/delta] Agonist  

SciTech Connect

Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPAR{alpha} ligand-binding domain and PPAR{delta} ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPAR{alpha}/{delta} by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPAR{alpha} ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPAR{alpha}/{delta} interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

2012-03-15

284

Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones examined, ciglitazone, troglitazone, and darglitazone potently disrupted mitochondrial respiration. In accord with these data, ciglitazone and troglitazone were also potent inhibitors of Complexes II+III, IV, and V, while darglitazone predominantly inhibited Complex IV. Of the six statins evaluated, lovastatin, simvastatin, and cerivastatin impaired mitochondrial respiration the most, with simvastatin and lovastatin impairing multiple OXPHOS Complexes. Within the class of fibrates, gemfibrozil more potently impaired respiration than fenofibrate, clofibrate, or ciprofibrate. Gemfibrozil only modestly inhibited Complex I, fenofibrate inhibited Complexes I, II+III, and V, and clofibrate inhibited Complex V. Our findings with the two complementary methods indicate that (1) some members of each class impair mitochondrial respiration, whereas others have little or no effect, and (2) the rank order of mitochondrial impairment accords with clinical adverse events observed with these drugs. Since the statins are frequently co-prescribed with the fibrates or thiazolidinediones, various combinations of these three drug classes were also analyzed for their mitochondrial effects. In several cases, the combination additively uncoupled or inhibited respiration, suggesting that some combinations are more likely to yield clinically relevant drug-induced mitochondrial side effects than others. PMID:17658574

Nadanaciva, Sashi; Dykens, James A; Bernal, Autumn; Capaldi, Roderick A; Will, Yvonne

2007-09-15

285

Structure-activity relationships in Toll-like receptor 7 agonistic 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines.  

PubMed

Engagement of TLR7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells leads to the induction of IFN-?/? which plays essential functions in the control of adaptive immunity. We had previously examined structure-activity relationships (SAR) in TLR7/8-agonistic imidazoquinolines with a focus on substituents at the N(1), C(2), N(3) and N(4) positions, and we now report SAR on 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines. 1-Benzyl-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-amine was found to be a pure TLR7-agonist with negligible activity on TLR8. Increase in potency was observed in N(6)-substituted analogues, especially in those compounds with electron-rich substituents. Direct aryl-aryl connections at C6 abrogated activity, but TLR7 agonism was reinstated in 6-benzyl and 6-phenethyl analogues. Consistent with the pure TLR7-agonistic behavior, prominent IFN-? induction in human PBMCs was observed with minimal proinflammatory cytokine induction. A benzologue of imidazoquinoline was also synthesized which showed substantial improvements in potency over the parent imidazopyridine. Distinct differences in N(6)-substituted analogues were observed with respect to IFN-? induction in human PBMCs on the one hand, and CD69 upregulation in lymphocytic subsets, on the other. PMID:23974333

Yoo, Euna; Crall, Breanna M; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S; Fox, Lauren M; Hermanson, Alec R; David, Sunil A

2013-10-14

286

5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor activity of the dopamine receptor agonist fenoldopam in canine tracheal smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Fenoldopam is a new vasodilator undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Its pharmacologic effects result from activation of vascular dopamine-1 receptors. In canine tracheal smooth muscle strips, fenoldopam caused a concentration- and calcium-dependent increase in tension, which was not antagonized by atropine, indomethacin or the dopamine-1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390. The EC50 (1.89 x 10(-6) M) exceeded that of serotonin or acetylcholine (8.38 x 10(-8) and 8.25 x 10(-8) M, respectively). Maximum tension was similar for fenoldopam and serotonin (11.6 +/- 1.5 g, n = 7 and 13.8 +/- 0.8 g, n = 24; P greater than .2) and considerably greater for acetylcholine (20.5 +/- 1.3 g, n = 14; P less than .005). The serotonin antagonists ketanserin and methysergide reversed completely the effect of fenoldopam (5 x 10(-7) M) with IC50 values of 2.5 x 10(-9) and 2.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively. Phentolamine, rauwolscine and chlorpheniramine were also effective, but they were less potent (IC50 values 6.6 x 10(-8), 1.0 x 10(-7) and 1.7 x 10(-7) M, respectively). By contrast, only very high concentrations (IC50, 5.3 x 10(-5) M) of terazosin produced an inhibition of fenoldopam-induced tension increases. The effect of antagonists could be overcome by increasing the fenoldopam concentration. Experiments performed on strips precontracted with serotonin (5 x 10(-8) M) revealed a very similar order of potency for the five antagonists. The addition of serotonin did not increase the tension produced by supramaximal concentrations of fenoldopam (and vice-versa), whereas acetylcholine increased tension further.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1346635

Gretler, D D; Jones, K C; Murphy, M B

1992-02-01

287

A robotic MCF-7:WS8 cell proliferation assay to detect agonist and antagonist estrogenic activity.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) have been extensively reported to possibly have many adverse health effects. We have developed robotized assays using MCF-7:WS8 cell proliferation (or suppression) to detect EA (or AEA) of 78 test substances supplied by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods for validation studies. We also assayed ICI 182,780, a strong estrogen antagonist. Chemicals to be assayed were initially examined for solubility and volatility to determine optimal assay conditions. For both EA and AEA determinations, a Range-Finder assay was conducted to determine the concentration range for testing, followed by a Comprehensive assay. Test substances with potentially positive results from an EA Comprehensive assay were subjected to an EA Confirmation assay that evaluated the ability of ICI 182,780 to reverse chemically induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. The AEA assays examined the ability of chemicals to decrease MCF-7 cell proliferation induced by nonsaturating concentrations of 17?-estradiol (E2), relative to ICI or raloxifene, also a strong estrogen antagonist. To be classified as having AEA, a saturating concentration of E2 had to significantly reverse the decrease in cell proliferation produced by the test substance in nonsaturating E2. We conclude that our robotized MCF-7 EA and AEA assays have accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values at least equivalent to validated test methods accepted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. PMID:24213142

Yang, Chun Z; Casey, Warren; Stoner, Matthew A; Kollessery, Gayathri J; Wong, Amy W; Bittner, George D

2014-02-01

288

Antitumor Activity of Corynebacterium Parvum: Reduced Effectiveness Against Weakly Immunogenic Tumors Growing in Senescent Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to determine whether injections of Corynebacterium parvum would alter the survival patterns of mice bearing weakly immunogenic spontaneous mammary carcinomas. Thirty-five to 40 days following injections regression was observed i...

J. M. Yuhas A. E. Walker R. L. Ullrich

1975-01-01

289

Effect of dopamine receptor agonists on sensory nerve activity: possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of asthma and COPD.  

PubMed

Sensory nerves regulate central and local reflexes such as airway plasma leakage, and cough and their function may be enhanced during inflammation. Evidence suggests that dopamine receptor agonists may inhibit sensory nerve-mediated responses. In this study dopamine inhibited vagal sensory nerve induced microvascular leakage in the rat. In order to characterize the receptor involved rat vagus preparations were utilized. Quinagolide (D(2/3) agonist), ropinirole (D(2/3/4) agonist), SKF 38393 (D(1/5) agonist), AR-C68397AA (Viozan) (dual D(2)/B(2) agonist) and dopamine inhibited hypertonic saline induced depolarization by approximately 50%. Data suggests that AR-C68397AA and quinagolide also inhibited depolarization of the human vagus. The quinagolide response was blocked by sulpiride (D(2/3) antagonist) but not SCH 23390 (D(1/5) antagonist); ropinirole was partially blocked by sulpiride, totally blocked by spiperone (at a concentration that blocks all dopamine receptors) but not by SCH 23390. The response to SKF 38393 was not blocked by sulpiride but was by SCH 23390. The inhibition evoked by AR-C68397AA was only partially blocked by SCH 23390 but not by sulpiride or spiperone whereas dopamine was blocked by spiperone. The effect of dopamine was not stimulus-specific as it inhibited capsaicin-induced depolarization of the rat vagus in a spiperone sensitive manner. In conclusion, dopamine receptor ligands inhibit depolarization of the rat and human vagus. These data suggest that dopamine receptor agonists may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of symptoms such as cough and mucus secretion which are evident in respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:12055141

Birrell, Mark A; Crispino, Natascia; Hele, David J; Patel, Hema J; Yacoub, Magdi H; Barnes, Peter J; Belvisi, Maria G

2002-06-01

290

Pharmacology of 5HT(2C) receptor-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation: agonist-specific activation pathways and the impact of RNA editing.  

PubMed

We have previously characterized a mechanism of 5HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation via the non-RNA-edited isoform of the serotonin 5HT(2C) receptor (5HT(2C)R-INI) in a CHO cell line. We have now used CV1 cells, which endogenously express epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), to investigate whether the mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by the 5HT(2C)R change in a time-, agonist-, and cell background-dependent manner. Interrogation of the CV1 5HT(2C)R-INI ERK1/2 signaling pathway, using a variety of pathway-selective inhibitors, revealed a clear time-dependence in the involvement of specific pathway components such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, EGFR, matrix metalloproteases and protein kinase C. The contribution of these components to the overall response also varied with the agonist used to stimulate the receptor, providing further evidence for the ability of 5HT(2C)R-INI to signal in an agonist-specific manner. We also investigated the impact of 5HT(2C)R RNA editing on this phenomenon. Although we found no alteration in antagonist pharmacology, the partially edited VSV and fully edited VGV isoforms of the 5HT(2C)R exhibited altered temporal and pharmacological characteristics, including the degree of dependence on specific effectors, in signaling to ERK1/2 in comparison to the 5HT(2C)R-INI. In conclusion, we provide evidence for remarkable flexibility in 5HT(2C)R-mediated ERK1/2 signaling that can be pharmacologically and mechanistically distinct depending on the agonist or edited isoform involved and on the duration of receptor activation. PMID:18812172

Werry, Tim D; Stewart, Gregory D; Crouch, Michael F; Watts, Anne; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur

2008-11-15

291

Benzofuran Derivatives as Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Receptor Agonists: A Preclinical Lead Molecule for MS  

PubMed Central

We have discovered novel benzofuran-based S1P1 agonists with excellent in vitro potency and selectivity. 1-((4-(5-Benzylbenzofuran-2-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)methyl) azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (18) is a potent S1P1 agonist with >1000× selectivity over S1P3. It demonstrated a good in vitro ADME profile and excellent oral bioavailability across species. Dosed orally at 0.3 mg/kg, 18 significantly reduced blood lymphocyte counts 24 h postdose and demonstrated efficacy in a mouse EAE model of relapsing MS.

2010-01-01

292

Synthesis, structure–activity relationships, and biological profiles of a dihydrobenzoxathiin class of histamine H 3 receptor inverse agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel dihydrobenzoxathiin derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as potent human histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists. After systematic modification of lead 1a, the potent and selective histamine H3 inverse agonist 1-(3-{4-[(2S,3S)-8-methoxy-3-methyl-4,4-dioxido-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzoxathiin-2-yl]phenoxy}propyl)pyrrolidine (5k) was identified. Compound 5k showed good pharmacokinetic profiles and brain penetrability in laboratory animals. After 3mg\\/kg oral administration of 5k, significant elevation of brain histamine levels

Takahide Sasaki; Toshiyuki Takahashi; Tsuyoshi Nagase; Takashi Mizutani; Sayaka Ito; Yuko Mitobe; Yasuhisa Miyamoto; Maki Kanesaka; Ryo Yoshimoto; Takeshi Tanaka; Norihiro Takenaga; Shigeru Tokita; Nagaaki Sato

2009-01-01

293

Activating persulfate by Fe(0) coupling with weak magnetic field: Performance and mechanism.  

PubMed

Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. PMID:24934323

Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong

2014-10-01

294

Trifluoromethyl group as a pharmacophore: effect of replacing a CF3 group on binding and agonist activity of a glucocorticoid receptor ligand.  

PubMed

Compound 1, a potent glucocorticoid receptor ligand, contains a quaternary carbon bearing trifluoromethyl and hydroxyl groups. This paper describes the effect of replacing the trifluoromethyl group on binding and agonist activity of the GR ligand 1. The results illustrate that replacing the CF3 group with a cyclohexylmethyl or benzyl group maintains the GR binding potency. These substitutions alter the functional behavior of the GR ligands from agonists to antagonists. Docking studies suggest that the benzyl analog 19 binds in a similar fashion as the GR antagonist, RU486. The central benzyl group of 19 and the C-11 dimethylaniline moiety of RU486 overlay. Binding of compound 19 is believed to force helix 12 to adopt an open conformation and this leads to the antagonist properties of the non-CF3 ligands carrying a large group at the center of the molecule. PMID:16112571

Betageri, Raj; Zhang, Yan; Zindell, Renee M; Kuzmich, Daniel; Kirrane, Thomas M; Bentzien, Jörg; Cardozo, Mario; Capolino, Alison J; Fadra, Tazmeen N; Nelson, Richard M; Paw, Zofia; Shih, Daw-Tsun; Shih, Cheng-Kon; Zuvela-Jelaska, Ljiljana; Nabozny, Gerald; Thomson, David S

2005-11-01

295

Activation of the human. beta. sub 2 -interferon/hepatocyte-stimulating factor/interleukin 6 promoter by cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists  

SciTech Connect

The hallmark of {beta}{sub 2}-interferon (IFN-{beta}{sub 2})/hepatocyte-stimulating factor/interleukin 6 gene expression is its inducibility in different types of human cells (fibroblasts, monocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells) by different stimuli, which include cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 (IL-1) and platelet-derived growth factor, different viruses, and bacterial products such as endotoxin. The activation by cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists of the IFN-{beta}{sub 2} promoter linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was studied after transfection into HeLa cells. A chimeric gene containing IFN-{beta}{sub 2} DNA from -1180 to +13 linked to the CAT gene was inducible {approx}10-fold by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), followed, in decreasing order, by pseudorabies and Sendai viruses; serum; the cytokines tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, and epidermal growth factor; the cAMP agonists BrcAMP and forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; poly(I){center dot}poly(C); 1,2-diacylglycerol and the calcium ionophore A23187. The region between -225 and -113 in IFN-{beta}{sub 2}, which contains DNA motifs similar to the regulatory elements in the human c-fos gene, appears to contain the major cis-acting regulatory elements responsible for the activation of the IFN-{beta}{sub 2} promoter by several different cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists.

Ray, A.; Tatter, S.B.; May, L.T.; Sehgal, P.B. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1988-09-01

296

Structure-activity relationship-guided development of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR?)-selective inverse agonists with a phenanthridin-6(5H)-one skeleton from a liver X receptor ligand.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs), which belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, regulate many physiological processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, immune function and circadian rhythm. Since RORs resemble liver X receptors (LXRs) in the fold structure of their ligand-binding domains, we speculated that ROR-mediated transcription might be modulated by LXR ligands, in line with the multi-template hypothesis. Therefore, we screened our LXR ligand library for compounds with ROR ligand activity and identified a novel ROR ligand with a phenanthridin-6(5H)-one skeleton. Structure-activity relationship studies aimed at separating ROR inverse agonistic activity from LXR-agonistic activity enabled us to develop a series of ROR inverse agonists based on the phenanthridin-6(5H)-one skeleton, including a ROR?-selective inverse agonist. PMID:24702856

Nishiyama, Yuko; Nakamura, Masahiko; Misawa, Takashi; Nakagomi, Madoka; Makishima, Makoto; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi

2014-05-01

297

Agonists to the A3 adenosine receptor induce G-CSF production via NF-?B activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CF101, a synthetic agonist to the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR), on the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The ability of CF101 to act as a myeloprotective agent in chemotherapy-treated mice was tested.

Sara Bar-Yehuda; Lea Madi; Dana Barak; Moshe Mittelman; Eti Ardon; Avivit Ochaion; Shira Cohn; Pnina Fishman

2002-01-01

298

NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies in the literature have shown that exposure of mice and rats to nicotine early in development alters its effects when the rodents are subsequently challenged with nicotine. Anatoxin-a is a nicotinic agonist produced by several genera of cyanobacteria, and has caus...

299

Strengths and weaknesses of in vitro assays for estrogenic and androgenic activity.  

PubMed

The endocrine and reproductive effects of xenobiotics are believed to be due to (1) their mimicking the effects of endogenous hormones; (2) their antagonizing the effects of endogenous hormones; (3) their altering the pattern of synthesis and metabolism of natural hormones; and (4) their modifying hormone receptor levels. It has been suggested that endocrine disruptors may play a role in the decrease in human semen quantity and quality, an increase in the anomalies of male genital tract, and an increase in the testicular and breast cancer incidence during the last 50 years. Testing these hypotheses will require: (1) identifying estrogen and androgen agonists and antagonists among the chemicals present in the environment; (2) assessing the interactions among the endocrine disruptors to which humans are exposed; and (3) finding markers of estrogen (and androgen) exposure. The development of fast and sensitive bioassays is central to the achievement of these three goals. PMID:16522517

Soto, Ana M; Maffini, Maricel V; Schaeberle, Cheryl M; Sonnenschein, Carlos

2006-03-01

300

A Structure-Activity Relationship Study and Combinatorial Synthetic Approach of C-Terminal Modified Bifunctional Peptides That Are ?/? Opioid Receptor Agonists and Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

A series of bifunctional peptides with opioid agonist and substance P antagonist bioactivities were designed with the concept of overlapping pharmacophores. In this concept, the bifunctional peptides were expected to interact with each receptor separately in the spinal dorsal horn where both the opioid receptors and the NK1 receptors were found to be expressed, to show an enhanced analgesic effect, no opioid-induced tolerance, and to provide better compliance than coadministration of two drugs. Compounds were synthesized using a two-step combinatorial method for C-terminal modification. In the method, the protected C-terminal-free carboxyl peptide, Boc-Tyr(tBu)-d-Ala-Gly Phe-Pro-Leu-Trp(Boc)-OH, was synthesized as a shared intermediate using Fmoc solid phase chemistry on a 2-chlorotrityl resin. This intermediate was esterified or amidated in solution phase. The structure–activity relationships (SAR) showed that the C-terminus acted as not only a critical pharmacophore for the substance P antagonist activities, but as an address region for the opioid agonist pharmacophore that is structurally distant from the C-terminal. Among the peptides, H-Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bzl (3) demonstrated high binding affinities at both ? and ? receptors (Ki = 10 and 0.65 nM, respectively) with efficient agonist functional activity in the mouse isolated vas deferens (MVD) and guinea pig isolated ileum (GPI) assays (IC50 = 50 and 13 nM, respectively). Compound 3 also showed a good antagonist activity in the GPI assay with substance P stimulation (Ke = 26 nM) and good affinity for the hNK1 receptor (Ki = 14 nM). Consequently, compound 3 is expected to be a promising and novel type of analgesic with bifunctional activities.

Yamamoto, Takashi; Nair, Padma; Vagner, Josef; Largent-Milnes, Tally; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Navratilova, Edita; Moye, Sharif; Tumati, Suneeta; Lai, Josephine; Yamamura, Henry I.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J.

2009-01-01

301

Source of /sup 3/H-labeled inositol bis- and monophosphates in agonist-activated rat parotid acinar cells  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of (3H)inositol phosphate metabolism in agonist-activated rat parotid acinar cells were characterized in order to determine the sources of (3H)inositol monophosphates and (3H)inositol bisphosphates. The turnover rates of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and its metabolites, D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, were examined following the addition of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, to cholinergically stimulated parotid cells. D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate declined with a t1/2 of 7.6 +/- 0.7 s, D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate declined with a t1/2 of 8.6 +/- 1.2 min, and D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate was metabolized with a t1/2 of 6.0 +/- 0.7 min. The sum of the rates of flux through D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (2.54% phosphatidylinositol/min) did not exceed the calculated rate of breakdown of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (2.76% phosphatidylinositol/min). Thus, there is no evidence for the direct hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in intact cells since D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate formation can be attributed to the dephosphorylation of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The source of the (3H)inositol monophosphates also was examined in cholinergically stimulated parotid cells. When parotid cells were stimulated with methacholine, D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, and D-myo-inositol 4-monophosphate levels increased within 2 s, whereas D-myo-inositol 1-monophosphate accumulation was delayed by several seconds. Rates of (3H)inositol monophosphate accumulation also were examined by the addition of LiCl to cells stimulated to steady state levels of (3H)inositol phosphates.

Hughes, A.R.; Putney, J.W. Jr.

1989-06-05

302

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2  

PubMed Central

Background More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Methods Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. Results The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Conclusion Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.

2013-01-01

303

Differences in agonist and antagonist activities for two indices of metabotropic glutamate receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover.  

PubMed Central

1. The abilities of the four diastereoisomers of 1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) to stimulate, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (+/-)-alpha-methylcarboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) to inhibit, phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex have been studied. Two indices of phosphoinositide cycle activity were assessed; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) mass accumulation, and total inositol phosphate [3H]-InsPx accumulation (in the presence of Li+) in myo-[3H]-inositol prelabelled slices. 2. The diastereoisomers of ACPD stimulated each response with a rank order of potency of 1S, 3R > 1R, 3R > 1S, 3S >> 1R, 3S. The response to 1R, 3R-ACPD was largely prevented by pre-addition of the NMDA-receptor antagonist, MK-801, or omission of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that this isomer acts indirectly on phosphoinositide responses through activation of NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In contrast, the responses to 1S, 3R- and 1S, 3S-ACPD were unaffected by prior addition of MK-801, but were blocked by MCPG. 3. The concentration of 1S, 3R-ACPD required to half-maximally stimulate the Ins(1,4,5)P3 response (-log EC50 (M), -4.09 +/- 0.10) was significantly higher than that required to exert a similar effect on [3H]-InsPx accumulation (-log EC50 (M), -4.87 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01; n = 4). A similar marked 8-9 fold discrepancy between these two values was observed for the 1S, 3S isomer, which elicited similar maximal responses to those caused by 1S, 3R-ACPD. 4. Significant differences were also observed with respect to the ability of (+/-)-MCPG (1 mM) to cause a rightward shift in the concentration-response relationships for 1S, 3R-ACPD-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 (5.59 +/- 0.24 fold shift) and [3H]-InsPx (3.04 +/- 0.34 fold shift; P < 0.01; n = 4) responses, giving rise to Kd values of 218 and 490 microM for (+/-)-MCPG antagonism of the respective responses. 5. The potency difference between the 1S, 3R-ACPD-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 and [3H]-InsPx responses was reduced when experiments were performed in nominally calcium-free medium ([Ca2+]e = 2 - 5 microM) and EC50 values were almost identical when extracellular calcium was reduced further by EGTA addition ([Ca2+]e < or = 100 nM). Similarly, the Kd value for (+/-)-MCPG antagonism of the 1S, 3R-ACPD-stimulated [3H]-InsPx response decreased under [Ca2+]e-free conditions, approaching those obtained for the 1S, 3R-ACPD-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 response in the presence of normal [Ca2+]e. 6. These data suggest that estimates of the activities of mGluR agonists and antagonists, derived by measuring phosphoinositide turnover, can differ significantly depending on whether Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass or [3H]-InsPx responses are measured. In particular, the possibility that the mGluR-mediated [3H]-InsPx response may not simply reflect direct receptor/G protein/phosphoinositidase C (PIC) activation, but may also be the consequence of stimulation of a facilitatory Ca2+-influx pathway is discussed.

Mistry, R.; Challiss, R. A.

1996-01-01

304

Euglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of PAT5A: A unique thiazolidinedione with weak peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The euglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of PAT5A, a novel pyridine analog of thiazolidinedione, have been evaluated in different animal models. Administration of PAT5A to db\\/db mice resulted in dose-dependent decreases in plasma glucose, triglyceride, and insulin levels, and an improved glucose tolerance. The glucose-lowering activity of PAT5A was better than that of troglitazone and comparable to that of rosiglitazone. In

Reeba K. Vikramadithyan; Ranjan Chakrabarti; Parimal Misra; Mamnoor Premkumar; Sunil K. B. Kumar; Casturi S. Rao; Alpana Ghosh; Kommireddi N. Reddy; Chintakunta Uma; Ramanujam Rajagopalan

2000-01-01

305

Possible beneficial effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)--? and ? agonist against a rat model of oral dyskinesia.  

PubMed

Tardive dyskinesia is a type of hyperkinetic movement disorder which consists of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial movements. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation play important role in the pathogenesis of TD. Recently, PPAR-? and PPAR-? have been reported as neuroprotective agent in various animal models. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) and PPAR-? agonist, fenofibrate (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) in an animal model of oral dyskinesia. Oral dyskinesia was induced by chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 21 days. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, sniffing and grooming in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by pioglitazone and fenofibrate. Further, it also decreased % retention of memory in an elevated plus maze test on day 22. Chronic administration of haloperidol also induced oxidative damage and neuroinflammation (TNF-? and IL-1?) in brain regions. The fenofibrate and pioglitazone were able to reverse the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by haloperidol. Further the study proposed the antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of both PPAR agonists in this model. We concluded that administration of pioglitazone and fenofibrate individually or in combination along with antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia, prevent or delay the symptoms of oral dyskinesia. PMID:23948071

Grover, Sania; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Vikram, Vir; Budhiraja, R D

2013-10-01

306

Combined Use of the Adenosine A 2A Antagonist KW6002 with l DOPA or with Selective D1 or D2 Dopamine Agonists Increases Antiparkinsonian Activity but Not Dyskinesia in MPTP-Treated Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist KW-6002 improves motor disability in MPTP-treated parkinsonian marmosets without provoking dyskinesia. In this study we have investigated whether KW-6002 in combination with l-DOPA or selective D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists enhances antiparkinsonian activity in MPTP-treated common marmosets. Combination of KW-6002 with the selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole or the D1 receptor

Tomoyuki Kanda; Michael J. Jackson; Lance A. Smith; Ronald K. B. Pearce; Joji Nakamura; Hiroshi Kase; Yoshihisa Kuwana; Peter Jenner

2000-01-01

307

Prevention of type 1 diabetes in mice by tolerogenic vaccination with a strong agonist insulin mimetope  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic ? cells by autoreactive T cells. Insulin is an essential target of the autoimmune attack. Insulin epitopes recognized by diabetogenic T cell clones bind poorly to the class II I-Ag7 molecules of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, which results in weak agonistic activity of the peptide MHC complex. Here, we describe a strongly agonistic insulin mimetope that effectively converts naive T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in vivo, thereby completely preventing T1D in NOD mice. In contrast, natural insulin epitopes are ineffective. Subimmunogenic vaccination with strongly agonistic insulin mimetopes might represent a novel strategy to prevent T1D in humans at risk for the disease.

Daniel, Carolin; Weigmann, Benno; Bronson, Roderick

2011-01-01

308

A potential role for nuclear factor of activated T-cells in receptor tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor agonist-induced cell proliferation.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the role of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors in the induction of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and thrombin, the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, respectively. NFATc1 but not NFATc2 or NFATc3 was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon treatment of VSMCs with PDGF-BB or thrombin. Translocation of NFATc1 was followed by an increase in NFAT-DNA binding activity and NFAT-dependent reporter gene expression. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent and specific inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation and activation of NFATs, blocked NFAT-DNA binding activity and NFAT-dependent reporter gene expression induced by PDGF-BB and thrombin. CsA also completely inhibited PDGF-BB- and thrombin-induced VSMC growth, as measured by DNA synthesis and cell number. In addition, forced expression of the NFAT-competing peptide VIVIT for calcineurin binding significantly attenuated the DNA synthesis induced by PDGF-BB and thrombin in VSMCs. Together, these findings for the first time demonstrate a role for NFATs in RTK and GPCR agonist-induced growth in VSMCs.

Yellaturu, Chandrahasa R; Ghosh, Salil K; Rao, R K; Jennings, Lisa K; Hassid, Aviv; Rao, Gadiparthi N

2002-01-01

309

?2-Agonists upregulate PDE4 mRNA but not protein or activity in human airway smooth muscle cells from asthmatic and nonasthmatic volunteers.  

PubMed

?(2)-Adrenergic receptor (?2AR) agonists induce airway relaxation via cAMP. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)s degrade and regulate cAMP, and in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells PDE4D degrades cAMP. Long-acting ?(2)-agonists are now contraindicated as monotherapy for asthma, and increased PDE4D has been speculated to contribute to this phenomenon. In this study we investigated the expression of PDE4D in asthmatic and nonasthmatic ASM cells and its regulation by formoterol and budesonide. Primary ASM cells from people with or without asthma were stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?(1), formoterol, and/or budesonide. PDE4D mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR, or PCR to assess splice variant production. PDE4D protein was assessed by Western blotting, and we investigated the effect of formoterol on cAMP production and PDE activity. Interleukin (IL)-6 was assessed using ELISA. PDE4D mRNA was dose dependently upregulated by formoterol, with a single splice variant, PDE4D5, present. Formoterol did not induce PDE4D protein at time points between 3 to 72 h, whereas it did induce and increase IL-6 secretion. We pretreated cells with actinomycin D and a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, and found no evidence of alterations in mRNA, protein expression, or degradation of PDE4D. Finally PDE activity was not altered by formoterol. This study shows, for the first time, that PDE4D5 is predominantly expressed in human ASM cells from people with and without asthma and that formoterol does not upregulate PDE4D protein production. This leads us to speculate that continual therapy with ?2AR agonists is unlikely to cause PDE4-mediated tachyphylaxis. PMID:22101762

Niimi, Kyoko; Ge, Qi; Moir, Lyn M; Ammit, Alaina J; Trian, Thomas; Burgess, Janette K; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G G

2012-02-01

310

The Antidepressant Amitriptyline is a TrkA and TrkB Receptor Agonist that Promotes TrkA/TrkB Heterodimerization and Has Potent Neurotrophic Activity  

PubMed Central

Neurotrophins, the cognate ligands for the Trk receptors, are homodimers and induce Trk dimerization through a symmetric bivalent mechanism. We report here that amitriptyline, an antidepressant drug, directly binds TrkA and TrkB and triggers their dimerization and activation. Amitriptyline, but not any other tricyclic or SSRI antidepressants, promotes TrkA autophosphorylation in primary neurons and induces neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Amitriptyline binds the extracellular domain of both TrkA and TrkB and promotes TrkA-TrkB receptor heterodimerization. Truncation of amitriptyline binding motif on TrkA abrogates the receptor dimerization by amitriptyline. Administration of amitriptyline to mice activates both receptors and significantly reduces kainic acid-triggered neuronal cell death. Inhibition of TrkA, but not TrkB, abolishes amitriptyline's neuroprotective effect without impairing its antidepressant activity. Thus, amitriptyline acts as a TrkA and TrkB agonist, and possesses marked neurotrophic activity.

Jang, Sung-Wuk; Liu, Xia; Chan, Chi-Bun; Weinshenker, David; Hall, Randy A.; Xiao, Ge; Ye, Keqiang

2009-01-01

311

The ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol promotes the activity of respiratory chain complex I and lowers cellular reactive oxygen species in fibroblasts and heart myoblasts.  

PubMed

A study is presented on the effect of the ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol on mitochondrial oxygen metabolism in fibroblast and heart myoblast cultures. Isoproterenol treatment of serum-limited fibroblasts and proliferating myoblasts results in the promotion of mitochondrial complex I activity and decrease of the cellular level of reactive oxygen species. These effects of isoproterenol are associated with cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of complex I subunit(s). Addition of okadaic acid, inhibitor of protein phosphatase(s), reverses the decline of complex I activity in serum-limited fibroblast cultures and activates the complex in proliferating myoblast cultures. The effects of isoproterenol on complex I activity and reactive oxygen species balance can contribute to the therapeutic effect of the drug. PMID:21118678

De Rasmo, Domenico; Gattoni, Giuliano; Papa, Francesco; Santeramo, Arcangela; Pacelli, Consiglia; Cocco, Tiziana; Micelli, Loris; Sardaro, Nicola; Larizza, Maria; Scivetti, Michele; Milano, Serena; Signorile, Anna

2011-02-10

312

Extracellular stimulation of mammalian neurons through repetitive activation of Na+ channels by weak capacitive currents on a silicon chip.  

PubMed

Reliable extracellular stimulation of neuronal activity is the prerequisite for electrical interfacing of cultured networks and brain slices, as well as for neural implants. Safe stimulation must be achieved without damage to the cells. With respect to a future application of highly integrated semiconductor chips, we present an electrophysiological study of capacitive stimulation of mammalian cells in the geometry of adhesion on an insulated titanium dioxide/silicon electrode. We used HEK293 cells with overexpressed Na(V)1.4 channels and neurons from rat hippocampus. Weak biphasic stimuli of falling and rising voltage ramps were applied in the absence of Faradaic current and electroporation. We recorded the response of the intra- and extracellular voltage and evaluated the concomitant polarization of the attached and free cell membranes. Falling ramps efficiently depolarized the central area of the attached membrane. A transient sodium inward current was activated that gave rise to a weak depolarization of the cell on the order of 1 mV. The depolarization could be enhanced step by step by a train of biphasic stimuli until self-excitation of sodium channels set in. We applied the same protocol to cultured rat neurons and found that pulse trains of weak capacitive stimuli were able to elicit action potentials. Our results provide a basis for safe extracellular stimulation not only for cultured neurons on insulated semiconductor electrodes, but also more generally for metal electrodes in cell culture and brain tissue. PMID:18463183

Schoen, Ingmar; Fromherz, Peter

2008-07-01

313

Suzaku Observes Weak Flares from IGRJ17391-3021 Representing a Common Low-Activity State in this SFXT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an analysis of a 37-ks observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGRJ17391 -3021 (=XTEJ1739-302) gathered with Suzaku. The source evolved from quiescence to a low-activity level culminating in three weak flares lasting approx.3 ks each in which the peak luminosity is only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare luminosity. The minimum observed luminosity was 1.3 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (d/2.7 kpc)(exp 2) in the 0.5-10 keV range. The weak flares are accompanied by significant changes in the spectral parameters including a column density (N(sub H) = (4.1(+0.4/-0.5)) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm) that is approx.2-9 times the absorption measured during quiescence. Accretion of obscuring clumps of stellar wind material can explain both the small flares and the increase in NH. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we find that weak-flaring episodes, or at least epochs of enhanced activity just above the quiescent level but well below the moderately bright or high-luminosity outbursts, represent more than 60+/-5% of all observations in the 0.5-10keV energy range making this the most common state in the emission behavior of IGRJ17391 -3021.

Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriquez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.; Romano, P.

2010-01-01

314

Structural motifs of importance for the constitutive activity of the orphan 7TM receptor EBI2: analysis of receptor activation in the absence of an agonist.  

PubMed

The Epstein-Barr induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a lymphocyte-expressed orphan seven transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptor that signals constitutively through Galphai, as shown, for instance by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate incorporation. Two regions of importance for the constitutive activity were identified by a systematic mutational analysis of 29 residues in EBI2. The cAMP response element-binding protein transcription factor was used as a measure of receptor activity and was correlated to the receptor surface expression. PheVI:13 (Phe257), and the neighboring CysVI:12 (Cys256), in the conserved CW/FxP motif in TM 6, acted as negative regulators as Ala substitutions at these positions increased the constitutive activity 5.7- and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with EBI2 wild type (wt). In contrast, ArgII:20 (Arg87) in TM-2 acted as a positive regulator, as substitution to Ala, but not to Lys, decreased the constitutive activity more than 7-fold compared with wt EBI2. IleIII:03 (Ile106) is located only 4 A from ArgII:20, and a favorable electrostatic interaction with ArgII:20 was created by introduction of Glu in III:03, given that the activity increased to 4.4-fold of that wt EBI2. It is noteworthy that swapping these charges by introduction of Glu in II:20 and Arg in III:03 resulted in a 2.7-fold increase compared with wt EBI2, thereby rescuing the two signaling-deficient single mutations, which exhibited a 3.8- to 4.5-fold decrease in constitutive activity. The uncovering of these molecular mechanisms for EBI2 activation is important from a drug development point of view, in that it may facilitate the rational design and development of small-molecule inverse agonists against EBI2 of putative importance as antiviral- or immune modulatory therapy. PMID:18628402

Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, Mette M

2008-10-01

315

Activation of torularhodin production by Rhodotorula glutinis using weak white light irradiation.  

PubMed

The effects of the irradiation of weak white light on the growth of the red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and its production of carotenoids were investigated. The ability of beta-carotene and torularhodin, which are final products of carotenoid biosynthesis in R. glutinis, to quench singlet oxygen has also been investigated. Weak white light irradiation that has no effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited the growth of R. glutinis. Simultaneously, the production of torularhodin by R. glutinis markedly increased. In a mutant of R. glutinis, which exhibited increased production of torularhodin, an increase in torularhodin production was shown as a result of light irradiation during the logarithmic growth phase. An experiment using 3-(1,4-epidioxyl-4-methyl-1,4-dehydro-1-naphtyl) propionic acid clarified that torularhodin inhibited 2,5-diphenyl-3,4-benzofran decomposition by singlet oxygen quenching more strongly than did beta-carotene. This result is consistent with the report that carotenoids having a longer polyene chain may exhibit a more potent ability to quench singlet oxygen. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of carotenoids in R. glutinis may play an important role in protecting against oxidative damage caused by light irradiation, and in particular, torularhodin which has a potent singlet oxygen quenching ability may be important. We suggest that acquisition of the ability to produce torularhodin may be an important property for this yeast to promote its wider distribution in the natural world. PMID:16233099

Sakaki, H; Nakanishi, T; Tada, A; Miki, W; Komemushi, S

2001-01-01

316

The PPAR? agonist pioglitazone prevents the hyperglycemia caused by phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway inhibition by PX-866 without affecting antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The PI-3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade is an important component of the insulin signaling in normal tissues leading to glucose uptake and homeostasis, and for cell survival signaling in cancer cells. Hyperglycemia is an on-target side effect of many inhibitors of PI-3-kinase/Akt signaling including the specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor PX-866. The PPAR? agonist pioglitazone, used to treat type 2 diabetes, prevents a decrease in glucose tolerance caused by acute administration of PX-866. Our studies have shown that pioglitazone does not inhibit the antitumor activity of PX-866 in A-549 non small cell lung cancer and HT-29 colon cancer xenografts. In vitro studies also showed that pioglitazone increases 2-[1-14C]deoxy-D-glucose uptake in L-6 muscle cells, and prevents inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by PX-866. Neither pioglitazone nor PX-866 had an effect on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in A-549 lung cancer cells. In vivo imaging studies using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography showed that pioglitazone increases FDG accumulation by normal tissue but does not significantly alter FDG uptake by A549 xenografts. Thus, PPAR? agonists may be useful in overcoming the increase in blood glucose caused by inhibitors of PI-3-kinase signaling by preventing the inhibition of normal tissue insulin-mediated glucose uptake, without affecting antitumor activity.

Ihle, Nathan T.; Lemos, Robert; Schwartz, David; Oh, Junghwan; Halter, Robert J.; Wipf, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth

2009-01-01

317

In vitro screening of 200 pesticides for agonistic activity via mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} and PPAR{gamma} and quantitative analysis of in vivo induction pathway  

SciTech Connect

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and key regulators of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation. However, there have been few studies reporting on a variety of environmental chemicals, which may interact with these receptors. In the present study, we characterized mouse PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonistic activities of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 11 acid amides, 7 triazines, 8 ureas and 44 others) by in vitro reporter gene assays using CV-1 monkey kidney cells. Three of the 200 pesticides, diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, which have different chemical structures, showed PPAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activities in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, none of the 200 pesticides showed PPAR{gamma} agonistic activity at concentrations {<=} 10{sup -5} M. To investigate the in vivo effects of diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, we examined the gene expression of PPAR{alpha}-inducible cytochrome P450 4As (CYP4As) in the liver of female mice intraperitoneally injected with these compounds ({<=} 300 mg/kg). RT-PCR revealed significantly high induction levels of CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 mRNAs in diclofop-methyl- and pyrethrins-treated mice, whereas imazalil induced almost no gene expressions of CYP4As. In particular, diclofop-methyl induced as high levels of CYP4A mRNAs as WY-14643, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist. Thus, most of the 200 pesticides tested do not activate PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{gamma} in in vitro assays, but only diclofop-methyl and pyrethrins induce PPAR{alpha} agonistic activity in vivo as well as in vitro.

Takeuchi, Shinji [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Takahashi, Tetsuo [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Kojima, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)]. E-mail: kojima@iph.pref.hokkaido.jp

2006-12-15

318

Down-regulated Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) in Lung Epithelial Cells Promotes a PPAR? Agonist-reversible Proinflammatory Phenotype in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory condition and a leading cause of death, with no available cure. We assessed the actions in pulmonary epithelial cells of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a nuclear hormone receptor with anti-inflammatory effects, whose role in COPD is largely unknown. We found that PPAR? was down-regulated in lung tissue and epithelial cells of COPD patients, via both reduced expression and phosphorylation-mediated inhibition, whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity was increased. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, and exposing airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) likewise down-regulated PPAR? and activated NF-?B. CSE also down-regulated and post-translationally inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-?) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), a corepressor important for glucocorticoid action and whose down-regulation is thought to cause glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. Treating epithelial cells with synthetic (rosiglitazone) or endogenous (10-nitro-oleic acid) PPAR? agonists strongly up-regulated PPAR? expression and activity, suppressed CSE-induced production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and reversed its activation of NF-?B by inhibiting the I?B kinase pathway and by promoting direct inhibitory binding of PPAR? to NF-?B. In contrast, PPAR? knockdown via siRNA augmented CSE-induced chemokine release and decreases in HDAC activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of endogenous PPAR?. The results imply that down-regulation of pulmonary epithelial PPAR? by cigarette smoke promotes inflammatory pathways and diminishes glucocorticoid responsiveness, thereby contributing to COPD pathogenesis, and further suggest that PPAR? agonists may be useful for COPD treatment. PMID:24368768

Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C; Mallampalli, Rama K; Duncan, Steven R; Reddy, Raju C

2014-03-01

319

Equilibrium between Adenylyl Cyclase and Phosphodiesterase Patterns Adrenergic Agonist Dose-Dependent Spatiotemporal cAMP/Protein Kinase A Activities in CardiomyocytesS?  

PubMed Central

?-Adrenergic receptor induces cAMP/Protein kinase A (PKA) activation to regulate cardiac contraction. Using real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging for highly sensitive detection of cAMP and PKA activities, we show two distinct phases in isoproterenol dose-dependent responses in cardiomyocytes: a transient and dose-dependent increase in cAMP and PKA activities at lower concentrations from 10?12 to 10?8 M; and a saturated initial increases at higher concentrations from 10?8 to 10?5 M followed by a rapid decrease to different levels that were later sustained in a dose-dependent manner. The dose-dependent temporal responses are patterned by equilibrium between receptor-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE). At lower concentrations, cAMP is produced in an agonist dose-dependent manner with AC as a rate-limiting factor. However, the cAMP activities are confined within local domains for phosphorylation of PDE isoforms in the receptor complex but not for phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I. At higher concentrations, isoproterenol promotes a dose-dependent selective dissociation of PDE4D but not ACVI from the receptor complex, which shifts the equilibrium between AC and PDE. This shifted balance leads to sustained cAMP accumulation and diffusion for PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I, and for myocyte contraction. Pharmacological inhibition or overexpression of either ACVI or PDE4D8 disrupts the balance and shapes the temporal responses in cAMP accumulation. Together, our data reveal a new paradigm for adrenergic agonist dose-dependent cAMP/PKA activities for substrate-specific phosphorylation dictated by dual regulation of AC and PDE in cardiomyocytes.

De Arcangelis, Vania; Liu, Shubai; Zhang, Dawen; Soto, Dagoberto

2010-01-01

320

Quantification of Gi-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity reveals that UDP is a potent agonist of the human P2Y14 receptor.  

PubMed

The P2Y14 receptor was initially identified as a G protein-coupled receptor activated by UDP-glucose and other nucleotide sugars. We have developed several cell lines that stably express the human P2Y14 receptor, allowing facile examination of its coupling to native Gi family G proteins and their associated downstream signaling pathways (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 330:162-168, 2009). In the current study, we examined P2Y14 receptor-dependent inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293, C6 glioma, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing this receptor. Not only was the human P2Y14 receptor activated by UDP-glucose, but it also was activated by UDP. The apparent efficacies of UDP and UDP-glucose were similar, and the EC50 values (74, 33, and 29 nM) for UDP-dependent activation of the P2Y14 receptor in HEK293, CHO, and C6 glioma cells, respectively, were similar to the EC50 values (323, 132, and 72 nM) observed for UDP-glucose. UDP and UDP-glucose also stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation in P2Y14 receptor-expressing HEK293 cells but not in wild-type HEK293 cells. A series of analogs of UDP were potent P2Y14 receptor agonists, but the naturally occurring nucleoside diphosphates, CDP, GDP, and ADP exhibited agonist potencies over 100-fold less than that observed with UDP. Two UDP analogs were identified that selectively activate the P2Y14 receptor over the UDP-activated P2Y6 receptor, and these molecules stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in differentiated human HL-60 promyeloleukemia cells, which natively express the P2Y14 receptor but had no effect in wild-type HL-60 cells, which do not express the receptor. We conclude that UDP is an important cognate agonist of the human P2Y14 receptor. PMID:19759354

Carter, Rhonda L; Fricks, Ingrid P; Barrett, Matthew O; Burianek, Lauren E; Zhou, Yixing; Ko, Hyojin; Das, Arijit; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Harden, T Kendall

2009-12-01

321

Effects of weak transcranial alternating current stimulation on brain activity--a review of known mechanisms from animal studies  

PubMed Central

Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (?1 Hz) and gamma oscillations (?30 Hz). We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

Reato, Davide; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C.

2013-01-01

322

Keynote 1 - Strong Programming Model for Strong Weak Mobility: The ProActive Parallel Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProActive is a Java library (Source code under GPL license) for parallel, distributed, and concurrent computing, also featuring mobility and security in a uniform framework. ProActive aimed at simplifying the programming of applications that are distributed on Local Area Network (LAN), on cluster of workstations, or large scale Grids. ProActive promotes a strong NoC approach, Network On Ship, to cope

Denis Caromel

2008-01-01

323

Dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemia.  

PubMed

Introduction of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine heralded a major advance in the management of hyperprolactinemic disorders. Although its side effects of nausea, dizziness and headache and its short elimination half-life are limiting factors, its efficacy established it as a reference compound against the activity of which several dopamine agonists, like pergolide, lysuride, metergoline, terguride and dihydroergocristine, fell by the wayside. More recently, two new agents, cabergoline and quinagolide, have been introduced and appear to offer considerable advantages over bromocriptine. Cabergoline, an ergoline D2 agonist, has a long plasma half-life that enables once- or twice-weekly administration. Quinagolide, in contrast, is a nonergot D2 agonist with an elimination half-life intermediate between those of bromocriptine and cabergoline, allowing the drug to be administered once daily. Comparative studies indicate that cabergoline is clearly superior to bromocriptine in efficacy (prolactin suppression, restoration of gonadal function) and in tolerability. In similar studies, quinagolide appeared to have similar efficacy and superior tolerability to that of bromocriptine. Results of a small crossover study indicate that cabergoline is better tolerated, with a trend toward activity superior to that of quinagolide. In hyperprolactinemic men and in women not seeking to become pregnant, cabergoline may be regarded as the treatment of choice. PMID:10649819

Webster, J

1999-12-01

324

A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist provides neuroprotection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and PPAR? have shown neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The role of the third, more ubiquitous isoform PPAR? has not been fully explored. This study investigated the role of PPAR? in PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to model the dopaminergic neurodegeneration of PD. In vitro administration of the PPAR? antagonist GSK0660 (1 ?M) increased the detrimental effect of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+) on cell viability, which was reversed by co-treatment with agonist GW0742 (1 ?M). GW0742 alone did not affect MPP+ toxicity. PPAR? was expressed in the nucleus of dopaminergic neurons and in astrocytes. Striatal PPAR? levels were increased (over two-fold) immediately after MPTP treatment (30 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) compared to saline-treated mice. PPAR? heterozygous mice were not protected against MPTP toxicity. Intra-striatal infusion of GW0742 (84 ?g/day) reduced the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons (5036 ± 195) when compared to vehicle-infused mice (3953 ± 460). These results indicate that agonism of PPAR? provides protection against MPTP toxicity, in agreement with the effects of other PPAR agonists.

Martin, H.L.; Mounsey, R.B.; Sathe, K.; Mustafa, S.; Nelson, M.C.; Evans, R.M.; Teismann, P.

2013-01-01

325

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as TGR5 agonists.  

PubMed

Given its role in the mediation of energy and glucose homeostasis, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor?1 (TGR5) is considered a potential target for the treatment of type?2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders. By thorough analysis of diverse structures of published TGR5 agonists, a hypothetical ligand-based pharmacophore model was built, and a new class of potent TGR5 agonists, based on the novel 3,4,5-trisubstituted 4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazole core, was discovered by rational design. Three distinct synthetic methods for constructing 4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazoles and extensive structure-activity relationship studies are reported herein. Compound (R)-54?n, the structure of which was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and quantum chemical solid-state TDDFT-ECD calculations, showed the best potency, with an EC50 value of 1.4?nM toward hTGR5. Its favorable properties in?vitro warrant further investigation. PMID:23757200

Zhu, Junjie; Ye, Yangliang; Ning, Mengmeng; Mándi, Attila; Feng, Ying; Zou, Qingan; Kurtán, Tibor; Leng, Ying; Shen, Jianhua

2013-07-01

326

Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-? expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ? JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ? JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and toxicity to colon by inducing T cell apoptosis. ? JWH-133 decreased mast cells, macrophages, NK cells, IFN-?{sup +} cells in the LPL. ? AM630, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 antagonist inverted the colitis defense of JWH-133. ? Cannnabinoid receptor-2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for IBD.

Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P. [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Singh, Balwan [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States)] [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States); Price, Robert L. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: Prakash.Nagarkatti@uscmed.sc.edu [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-01-15

327

Cannabinoids Receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10?/? mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptors induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10?/? mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10?/? mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells in the LP of colitis mice declined after JWH-133 treatment in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-? expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodopravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD.

Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

2014-01-01

328

Potentiation of Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by PPAR  Agonists Is Maintained in Cells Expressing a PPAR  Dominant-Negative Mutant: Evidence for Selectivity in the Downstream Responses to PPAR  Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological agonists for the nuclear receptor PPAR enhance glucose disposal in a variety of insulin-resistant states in humans and animals. The precise mechanisms whereby activation of PPAR leads to increased glucose uptake in met- abolically active cells remain to be determined. Notably, certain novel, synthetic PPAR ligands appear to antagonize thiazolidinedione-induced adipogenesis yet stimulate cellular glucose up- take. We have

CLAIRE NUGENT; JOHANNES B. PRINS; JONATHAN P. WHITEHEAD; DAVID SAVAGE; JOHN M. WENTWORTH; V. KRISHNA CHATTERJEE; STEPHEN O'RAHILLY

2001-01-01

329

A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

Park, Ju-Young [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo [Center for Metabolic Syndrome Therapeutics, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Je-Yong [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jiwon [Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang-Hyuk [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hong-In [Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Yoon [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: syukim@knu.ac.kr; Park, Eui Kyun [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: epark@knu.ac.kr

2009-01-16

330

PET imaging to non-invasively study immune activation leading to antitumor responses with a 4-1BB agonistic antibody  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) may allow the non-invasive study of the pharmacodynamic effects of agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to 4-1BB (CD137). 4-1BB is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family expressed on activated T cells and other immune cells, and activating 4-1BB antibodies are being tested for the treatment of patients with advanced cancers. Methods We studied the antitumor activity of 4-1BB mAb therapy using [18 F]-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) microPET scanning in a mouse model of colon cancer. Results of microPET imaging were correlated with morphological changes in tumors, draining lymph nodes as well as cell subset uptake of the metabolic PET tracer in vitro. Results The administration of 4-1BB mAb to Balb/c mice induced reproducible CT26 tumor regressions and improved survival; complete tumor shrinkage was achieved in the majority of mice. There was markedly increased [18?F]FDG signal at the tumor site and draining lymph nodes. In a metabolic probe in vitro uptake assay, there was an 8-fold increase in uptake of [3H]DDG in leukocytes extracted from tumors and draining lymph nodes of mice treated with 4-1BB mAb compared to untreated mice, supporting the in vivo PET data. Conclusion Increased uptake of [18?F]FDG by PET scans visualizes 4-1BB agonistic antibody-induced antitumor immune responses and can be used as a pharmacodynamic readout to guide the development of this class of antibodies in the clinic.

2013-01-01

331

Synergistic enhancement of PRB-mediated RU486 and R5020 agonist activities through cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate represents a delayed primary response.  

PubMed

Activators of protein kinase A have been shown to affect the transactivation potential of progestins and antiprogestins. To analyze the mechanisms and factors involved, we have created HeLa and CV1 cell clones stably expressing isoform B of progesterone receptor. In the HeLa cell background, the progesterone antagonist RU486 significantly induces progesterone-regulatable reporter genes, and this agonistic effect is synergistically enhanced by elevating cAMP or through overexpression of protein kinase A catalytic subunit. In contrast, in CV1 cells containing functional progesterone receptors no agonist activity of RU486 could be detected, suggesting the involvement of cell specifically expressed factors. In a PR(B)-positive HeLa cell clone containing stably integrated copies of a thymidine kinase-luciferase reporter gene with two progesterone response elements, we observed a complete loss of RU486 antagonist potential upon cotreatment with cAMP for 25 h while partial antagonist potential was maintained in a 5-h experiment. This result shows that, particularly in the presence of protein kinase A activators, the duration of hormone treatment is a crucial parameter in the evaluation of antagonist properties of antiprogestins. A detailed analysis of the kinetics of the hormone effects on transcription revealed that the onset of cAMP/RU486 synergism is delayed relative to the responses induced by RU486 or R5020 alone. Moreover, partial inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide completely abolished cAMP/RU486 synergism while R5020 and RU486 responses were not inhibited. Together, these data indicate that cAMP/RU486 synergism is a delayed primary response requiring the intermediate induction of an essential factor. PMID:9482668

Kahmann, S; Vassen, L; Klein-Hitpass, L

1998-02-01

332

New strategies for drug discovery: activation of silent or weakly expressed microbial gene clusters.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of Streptomyces, myxobacteria, and fungi showed that although each strain contains genes that encode the enzymes to synthesize a plethora of potential secondary metabolites, only a fraction are expressed during fermentation. Interest has therefore grown in the activation of these cryptic pathways. We review current progress on this topic, describing concepts for activating silent genes, utilization of "natural" mutant-type RNA polymerases and rare earth elements, and the applicability of ribosome engineering to myxobacteria and fungi, the microbial groups known as excellent searching sources, as well as actinomycetes, for secondary metabolites. PMID:23143535

Ochi, Kozo; Hosaka, Takeshi

2013-01-01

333

Evaluation of bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriovulnificus cause severe foodborne illness in humans; thus, to reduce outbreaks of disease, it is clearly important to reduce food contamination by these pathogens. Although electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been reported to exhibit strong bactericidal activities against many pathogens, it has never been tested against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. The purpose of this study was

Yaru Quan; Kyoo-Duck Choi; Donghwa Chung; Il-Shik Shin

2010-01-01

334

[New dopaminergic agonists].  

PubMed

We present a brief review of the literature about dopaminergic agonists. We report the five known dopaminergic receptors, where they are located, the advantages and disadvantages of the employment in parkinsonian patients. The dopaminergic agonists were introduced to control the limitations of levodopa-increasing the therapeutic window. We analyse the pharmacocynetic efficacy and the side effects of cabergoline, ropinirole and pramipexole. PMID:10412541

de Mattos, J P; Mattos, V M

1999-06-01

335

Decavanadate possesses alpha-adrenergic agonist activity and a structural motif common with trans-beta form of noradrenaline.  

PubMed

Decavanadate, an inorganic polymer of vanadate, produced contraction of rat aortic rings at a relatively high concentration compared to phenylephrine, an agonist of alpha-adrenergic receptor. This effect was blocked by two known alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, prazosin and phenoxybenzamine. Decavanadate, formed by possible dimerization of V5 under acid conditions, possessed a structural feature of two pairs of unshared oxygen atoms at a distance of 3.12 A, not found in its constituents of V4 or V5. A structural motif of O..O..O using such oxygen atoms is recognized in decavanadate. This matches with a similar motif of N..O..O that uses the essential amino and hydroxyl groups of the side-chain and the m-hydroxyl group in trans-beta form of noradrenaline. The interaction of such a structural motif with the membrane receptor is likely to be the basis of the unusual noradrenaline-mimic action of decavanadate. PMID:9089628

Venkataraman, B V; Ravishankar, H N; Rao, A V; Kalyani, P; Sharada, G; Namboodiri, K; Gabor, B; Ramasarma, T

1997-04-01

336

Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the luminescent non-pathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli YMc10 demonstrated that disinfection with fluidized bed electrodes requires both the presence of granular

Justina Racyte; Jalal-Al-Din Sharabati; Astrid H. Paulitsch-Fuchs; Doekle R. Yntema; Mateo J. J. Mayer; Harry Bruning; Huub H. M. Rijnaarts

2011-01-01

337

Polychlorinated Biphenyls 105 and 118 Form Thyroid Hormone Receptor Agonists after Cytochrome P4501A1 Activation in Rat Pituitary GH3 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling by reducing TH levels in blood, by exerting direct effects on TH receptors (TRs), or both. Objective Our objective was to identify individual PCBs that directly affect TH signaling by acting on the TR. Methods We administered a mixture of six PCB congeners based on their ortho substitution pattern, including PCBs 77 and 126 (non-ortho), PCBs 105 and 118 (mono-ortho), and PCBs 138 and 153 (di-ortho), to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from gestational days (G) 6 to 16. This mixture, or various combinations of the components, was also evaluated in a transient transfection system using GH3 cells. Results The mixture reduced serum TH levels in pregnant rats on G16 but simultaneously up-regulated the expression of malic enzyme in liver. It also functioned as a TR agonist in vitro; however, none of the individual PCB congeners comprising this mixture were active in this system. Using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist ?-naphthoflavone, and the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 antagonist ellipticine, we show that the effect of the mixture on the thyroid hormone response element required AhR and CYP1A1. Conclusions We propose that PCB 126 induces CYP1A1 through the AhR in GH3 cells, and that CYP1A1 activates PCB 105 and/or 118 to a form a compound that acts as a TR agonist. These data suggest that some tissues may be especially vulnerable to PCBs interfering directly with TH signaling due to their capacity to express CYP1A1 in response to coplanar PCBs (or other dioxin-like molecules) if sufficient mono-ortho PCBs are present.

Gauger, Kelly J.; Giera, Stefanie; Sharlin, David S.; Bansal, Ruby; Iannacone, Eric; Zoeller, R. Thomas

2007-01-01

338

Effects of systemically applied nAChR?7 agonists and antagonists on light-induced phase shifts of hamster circadian activity rhythms.  

PubMed

Many physiological systems in mammals are linked to the body's master circadian rhythm in the sleep/wake cycle and dysfunctions in this rhythm has been associated with neurological diseases such as major depression, Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia. There is some evidence that nicotinic cholinergic input to the master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, may modulate circadian activity rhythms, but data employing in vivo preparations is sparse. Therefore we examined the ability of intraperitoneally applied nicotinic agonists and antagonists relatively selective for the ?7 nicotinic receptor to modulate light-induced phase shifts of hamster circadian wheel running rhythms. Hamsters were maintained in constant darkness and exposed to light pulses early and late in their active period, mimicking dusk and dawn respectively, which elicited phase delays and advances of their circadian wheel running rhythms. The ?7 receptor antagonists bPiDDB (0.03-3mg/kg) and methyllacaconitine (0.1-1mg/kg) inhibited both light- induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms by as much as 75% versus vehicle injections. In contrast, systemic injections of the ?7 agonists PHA 543613 and ABT107, both at 0.156-2.5mg/kg, had no effect on light induced phase advances or delays. Further, ?7 nicotinic receptors were identified in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus using an antibody that recognizes ?7 nicotinic receptors. These results clearly identify the ability of ?7 nicotinic receptor antagonists to inhibit light-entrainment of the hamster circadian pacemaker. Therefore, nicotinic compounds may be useful for the treatment of circadian dysfunction associated with neurological diseases. PMID:24388152

Gannon, Robert L; Garcia, David A; Millan, Mark J

2014-06-01

339

Activation of superficial dorsal horn neurons in the mouse by a PAR-2 agonist and 5-HT: potential role in itch  

PubMed Central

Itch, an unpleasant sensation associated with the desire to scratch, is symptomatic of dermatologic and systemic disorders that often resist antihistamine treatment. Histamine-independent itch mediators include serotonin (5-HT) and agonists of the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). We used behavior, Fos immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology to investigate if these mediators activate spinal dorsal horn neurons in a manner consistent with itch. Intradermal (id) injection of the PAR-2 agonist SLIGRL-NH2 in the rostral back evoked bouts of directed hind limb scratches over 20–30 min. Hind paw injection of SLIGRL-NH2 produced Fos staining in superficial dorsal horn which was then targeted for single-unit recording. Small id microinjections of SLIGRL-NH2 or 5-HT identified responsive single-units in the superficial dorsal horn of mice anesthetized with pentobarbital. Thirty-eight units characterized as wide dynamic range (WDR), nociceptive specific (NS), or mechanically insensitive, exhibited significantly increased firing after id SLIGRL-NH2 for 9 min, with partial (25%) tachyphylaxis upon repeated injection. A majority additionally responded to 5-HT (70%), mustard oil (79%) and capsaicin (71%). Seven units isolated with the 5-HT search stimulus exhibited significant and prolonged responses to 5-HT with tachyphylaxis to repeated injections. The majority also responded to SLIGRL-NH2, mustard oil and capsaicin. The prolonged responses of superficial dorsal horn neurons to SLIGRL-NH2 and 5-HT suggest a role in signaling itch. However, their responsiveness to algogens is inconsistent with itch-specificity. Alternatively, such neurons may signal itch, while noxious stimulus levels recruit these and a larger population of pruritogen-insensitive cells to signal pain which masks or occludes the itch signal.

Akiyama, Tasuku; Merrill, Austin W.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

2009-01-01

340

Phenolic derivatives from Wigandia urens with weak activity against the chemokine receptor CCR5.  

PubMed

Three compounds, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran (1), 8-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol (2) and 4-methoxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoic acid (3), have been isolated from Wigandia urens. The structures of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were determined from spectroscopic data and showed activity in a CCR5 assay with IC(50) values of 33, 46 and 26 muM respectively. PMID:14561515

Cao, Shugeng; Rossant, Christine; Ng, Siewbee; Buss, Antony D; Butler, Mark S

2003-11-01

341

AvrRpm1 missense mutations weakly activate RPS2-mediated immune response in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plants recognize microbes via specific pattern recognition receptors that are activated by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), resulting in MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens bypass MTI in genetically diverse hosts via deployment of effectors (virulence factors) that inhibit MTI responses, leading to pathogen proliferation. Plant pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas syringae utilize a type III secretion system to deliver effectors into cells. These effectors can contribute to pathogen virulence or elicit disease resistance, depending upon the host plant genotype. In disease resistant genotypes, intracellular immune receptors, typically belonging to the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat family of proteins, perceive bacterial effector(s) and initiate downstream defense responses (effector triggered immunity) that include the hypersensitive response, and transcriptional re-programming leading to various cellular outputs that collectively halt pathogen growth. Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensors can be indirectly activated via perturbation of a host protein acting as an effector target. AvrRpm1 is a P. syringae type III effector. Upon secretion into the host cell, AvrRpm1 is acylated by host enzymes and directed to the plasma membrane, where it contributes to virulence. This is correlated with phosphorylation of Arabidopsis RIN4 in vivo. RIN4 is a negative regulator of MAMP-triggered immunity, and its modification in the presence of four diverse type III effectors, including AvrRpm1, likely enhances this RIN4 regulatory function. The RPM1 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor perceives RIN4 perturbation in disease resistant plants, leading to a successful immune response. Here, demonstrate that AvrRpm1 has a fold homologous to the catalytic domain of poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase. Site-directed mutagenesis of each residue in the putative catalytic triad, His63-Tyr122-Asp185 of AvrRpm1, results in loss of both AvrRpm1-dependent virulence and AvrRpm1-mediated activation of RPM1, but, surprisingly, causes a gain of function: the ability to activate the RPS2 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor. PMID:22880057

Cherkis, Karen A; Temple, Brenda R S; Chung, Eui-Hwan; Sondek, John; Dangl, Jeffery L

2012-01-01

342

In Vivo Activity of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor ?- and ?-Selective Agonists GC-24 and CO23 on Rat Liver, Heart, and Brain  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormone analogs with selective actions through specific thyroid hormone receptor (TR) subtypes are of great interest. They might offer the possibility of mimicking physiological actions of thyroid hormone with receptor subtype or tissue specificity with therapeutic aims. They are also pharmacological tools to dissect biochemical pathways mediated by specific receptor subtypes, in a complementary way to mouse genetic modifications. In this work, we studied the in vivo activity in developing rats of two thyroid hormone agonists, the TR?-selective GC-24 and the TR?-selective CO23. Our principal goal was to check whether these compounds were active in the rat brain. Analog activity was assessed by measuring the expression of thyroid hormone target genes in liver, heart, and brain, after administration to hypothyroid rats. GC-24 was very selective for TR? and lacked activity on the brain. On the other hand, CO23 was active in liver, heart, and brain on genes regulated by either TR? or TR?. This compound, previously shown to be TR?-selective in tadpoles, displayed no selectivity in the rat in vivo.

Grijota-Martinez, Carmen; Samarut, Eric; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Morte, Beatriz

2011-01-01

343

In vivo activity of the thyroid hormone receptor beta- and ?-selective agonists GC-24 and CO23 on rat liver, heart, and brain.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone analogs with selective actions through specific thyroid hormone receptor (TR) subtypes are of great interest. They might offer the possibility of mimicking physiological actions of thyroid hormone with receptor subtype or tissue specificity with therapeutic aims. They are also pharmacological tools to dissect biochemical pathways mediated by specific receptor subtypes, in a complementary way to mouse genetic modifications. In this work, we studied the in vivo activity in developing rats of two thyroid hormone agonists, the TR?-selective GC-24 and the TR?-selective CO23. Our principal goal was to check whether these compounds were active in the rat brain. Analog activity was assessed by measuring the expression of thyroid hormone target genes in liver, heart, and brain, after administration to hypothyroid rats. GC-24 was very selective for TR? and lacked activity on the brain. On the other hand, CO23 was active in liver, heart, and brain on genes regulated by either TR? or TR?. This compound, previously shown to be TR?-selective in tadpoles, displayed no selectivity in the rat in vivo. PMID:21239431

Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Samarut, Eric; Scanlan, Thomas S; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

2011-03-01

344

GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.  

PubMed

Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. PMID:24060477

Kang, Sang-Uk

2013-12-01

345

Synchronous seasonal changes in the hydrological regime and weak earthquake activity in the Garm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinctive annual periodicity in the week earthquake activity in the Garm region and its possible origin were described in the author's previous papers. In this paper, an attempt is made to relate the annual earthquake periodicity to such a phenomenon as hydroseismicity. Within the framework of the study, seasonal variations in seismicity, snow height, and the water level of the Surkhob River are compared. As a result, good coincidence of the form of spring changes in snow height and seismicity has been revealed. It is important that according to averaged data, seismicity follows changes in snow height with some lag. However, a few cases in certain years have been found when the number of earthquakes began decreasing simultaneously or even a little before snow melt. It was also discovered that annual changes in the river water level and seismicity occur in opposite phase. Possible approaches to interpreting the results are discussed.

Sidorin, A. Ya.

2012-12-01

346

Influence of Weak Self-Field Effect on Calculated Activation Energy for Superconducting Thin Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the applied field Ba = ?0Ha (Ha > Hp) is perpendicular to the surface of a disk-shaped superconducting thin film with the full penetrated field Hp, the radius R, and the thickness d, a quantitative relation between the average field langBrang and the magnetization M is described by langBrang = ?0[Ha + (0.81 d/R) M] for R gg d, where the term ?0(0.81 d/R) M also is the average self-field of the film. Combining this relation with the magnetic flux conservation equation and the Arrhenius relation, the effective activation energy is extracted from the experimental magnetization relaxation and the dynamic magnetization relaxation, respectively.

Xu, Xiao-nong; Sun, Ai-min; Ding, Shi-ying; Jin, Xin; Yao, Xi-xian; Yan, Shao-lin; Wen, Hai-hu

1997-08-01

347

Discovery of N-benzyl-2-[(4S)-4-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-6H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,5]benzodiazepin-6-yl]-N-isopropylacetamide, an orally active, gut-selective CCK1 receptor agonist for the potential treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

We describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of triazolobenzodiazepinone CCK1 receptor agonists. Analogs in this series demonstrate potent agonist activity as measured by in vitro and in vivo assays for CCK1 agonism. Our efforts resulted in the identification of compound 4a which significantly reduced food intake with minimal systemic exposure in rodents. PMID:20851601

Elliott, Richard L; Cameron, Kimberly O; Chin, Janice E; Bartlett, Jeremy A; Beretta, Elena E; Chen, Yue; Jardine, Paul Da Silva; Dubins, Jeffrey S; Gillaspy, Melissa L; Hargrove, Diane M; Kalgutkar, Amit S; LaFlamme, Janet A; Lame, Mary E; Martin, Kelly A; Maurer, Tristan S; Nardone, Nancy A; Oliver, Robert M; Scott, Dennis O; Sun, Dexue; Swick, Andrew G; Trebino, Catherine E; Zhang, Yingxin

2010-11-15

348

Activation of G proteins and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation via human dopamine D4.4 receptors: differential pathway-dependent potencies of receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Agonist activity at recombinant human dopamine D4.4 receptors was compared in stably transfected CHO cells using two functional readouts: G protein activation by [35S]GTPgammaS binding and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2). Results with a large series of agonists reveal markedly higher relative agonist efficacy in the pERK1/2 assay compared with [35S]GTPgammaS binding, while potencies were generally higher in the latter readout. Whereas efficacies were highly correlated when comparing both tests, potencies determined using the pERK1/2 assay were neither correlated with those for G protein activation nor with binding affinities. In order to examine if these differences may be attributable to distinct assay conditions (5 min incubation for pERK1/2 compared with binding equilibrium conditions for [35S]GTPgammaS), selected compounds were tested in a modified short-duration [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay. In these experiments, potencies were generally reduced; however, compounds exhibiting comparably high potency in the pERK1/2 assay were not affected by this duration-dependent potency shift. We conclude that assay parameters such as signal amplification and incubation time have to be considered with respect to the appropriate choice of experimental approaches that best reflect agonist activity at dopamine D4 receptors in vivo. PMID:18682919

Heusler, Peter; Bruins Slot, Liesbeth; Rauly-Lestienne, Isabelle; Palmier, Christiane; Tardif, Stéphanie; Tourette, Amélie; Ailhaud, Marie-Christine; Cussac, Didier

2009-01-01

349

Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation

LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

2005-01-01

350

Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.  

PubMed

The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ?60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ?6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr) (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr) at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength. PMID:23437068

Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R; Malik, Fady I; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A; Granzier, Henk

2013-01-01

351

A pilot study of the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy on brain activation pattern in a man with pedophilia.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, such as leuprorelin, are recommended in the patients with pedophilia at highest risk of offending. However, the cerebral mechanisms of the effects of these testosterone-decreasing drugs are poorly known. This study aimed to identify changes caused by leuprorelin in a pedophilic patient's brain responses to pictures representing children. Clinical, endocrine, and fMRI investigations were done of a man with pedophilia before leuprorelin therapy and 5 months into leuprorelin therapy. Patient was compared with an age-matched healthy control also assessed 5 months apart. Before therapy, pictures of boys elicited activation in the left calcarine fissure, left insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and left cerebellar vermis. Five months into therapy, all the above-mentioned activations had disappeared. No such activations and, consequently, no such decreases occurred in the healthy control. The results of this pilot study suggest that leuprorelin decreased activity in regions known to mediate the perceptual, motivational, and affective responses to visual sexual stimuli. PMID:21518701

Moulier, Virginie; Fonteille, Véronique; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Cordier, Bernard; Baron-Laforêt, Sophie; Boriasse, Emeline; Durand, Emmanuel; Stoléru, Serge

2012-02-01

352

Selective Inhibition of Activated Stellate Cells and Protection from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by a New PPAR ? agonist KR62776  

PubMed Central

Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the primary source of extracellular matrix proteins found in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis patients. Therefore, the prevention of HSC activation is an important strategy for treating severe liver injury. This study examined the effects of KR62776, a new peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, on the rate of cell proliferation and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in rat hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cells. In addition, its effects on the liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride were investigated. KR62776 caused the apoptosis of activated HSC-T6 cells with the concomitant decrease in the ?-smooth muscle actin levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, KR62776 did not cause the apoptosis of human HepG2 and rat McARH7777 hepatoma cells, suggesting that KR62776 has a specific effect on stellate cells. KR62776 increased the levels of Gadd45, p27, p21 and PPAR? proteins but decreased the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cdk2, cyclin B and cyclin D1. These changes were reversed by BADGE, a specific PPAR? antagonist, indicating that the effects of KR62776 are, at least in part, PPAR?-dependent. In addition, KR62776 administration showed some protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular damage in rats. Overall, these results suggest that KR62776 may have potential in the chemoprevention of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis.

Bae, Myung-Ae; Rhee, Sang Dal; Jung, Won Hoon; Ahn, Jin Hee; Song, Byoung-Joon; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

2013-01-01

353

The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Effects of Its Agonist, Pioglitazone, on a Rat Model of Optic Nerve Crush: PPAR? in Retinal Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is beneficial for central nervous system injury. However its role on optic nerve injury remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the change of PPAR? expression in rat retina following optic nerve injury and investigated the effect of pioglitazone (Pio), a PPAR? agonist, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) neuroprotection using a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. Our results showed that PPAR? mRNA and protein levels were increased after ONC, and most of PPAR?-immunoreactive cells colocalized with Müller cells. Pio treatment significantly enhanced the number of surviving RGCs and inhibited RGCs apoptosis induced by ONC. However, when PPAR? antagonist GW9662 was used, these neuroprotective effects were abolished. In addition, pio attenuated Müller cell activation after ONC. These results indicate that PPAR? appears to protect RGCs from ONC possibly via the reduction of Müller glial activation. It provides evidence that activation of PPAR? may be a potential alternative treatment for RGCs neuroprotection.

Zhu, Juming; Zhang, Junfang; Ji, Min; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Yue; Chen, Chen; Hu, Nan

2013-01-01

354

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Agonist Fenofibrate Suppresses Chemically Induced Lung Alveolar Proliferative Lesions in Male Obese Hyperlipidemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? disrupts growth-related activities in a variety of human cancers. This study was designed to determine whether fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, can suppress 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced proliferative lesions in the lung of obese hyperlipidemic mice. Male Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetic mice were subcutaneously injected with 4-NQO to induce lung proliferative lesions, including adenocarcinomas. They were then fed a diet containing 0.01% or 0.05% fenofibrate for 29 weeks, starting 1 week after 4-NQO administration. At week 30, the incidence and multiplicity (number of lesions/mouse) of pulmonary proliferative lesions were lower in mice treated with 4-NQO and both doses of fenofibrate compared with those in mice treated with 4-NQO alone. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions were significantly lower in mice treated with 4-NQO and 0.05% fenofibrate compared with those in mice treated with 4-NQO alone (p < 0.05). Both doses of fenofibrate significantly reduced the proliferative activity of the lesions in 4-NQO-treated mice (p < 0.05). Fenofibrate also significantly reduced the serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels, and decreased the immunohistochemical expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), phosphorylated Akt, and phosphorylated Erk1/2 in lung adenocarcinomas. Our results indicate that fenofibrate can prevent the development of 4-NQO-induced proliferative lesions in the lung by modulating the insulin-IGF axis.

Kuno, Toshiya; Hata, Kazuya; Takamatsu, Manabu; Hara, Akira; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Satoru; Imaida, Katsumi; Tanaka, Takuji

2014-01-01

355

THE PRESENCE OF WEAK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present [O III 5007 A] observations of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) HDF-BMZ1299 (z = 1.598) using Keck Observatory's adaptive optics system with the near-infrared {integral} field spectrograph OSIRIS. Using previous Halpha and [N II] measurements of the same source, we are able for the first time to use spatially resolved observations to place a high-redshift galaxy's substructure on a traditional H II diagnostic diagram. We find that HDF-BMZ1299's spatially concentrated nebular ratios in the central {approx}1.5 kpc (0.''2) are best explained by the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN): log ([N II]/Halpha) = -0.22 +- 0.05 and 2sigma limit of log ([O III]/Hbeta) {approx}>0.26. The dominant energy source of this galaxy is star formation, and integrating a single aperture across the galaxy yields nebular ratios that are composite spectra from both AGN and H II regions. The presence of an embedded AGN in HDF-BMZ1299 may suggest a potential contamination in a fraction of other high-redshift SFGs, and we suggest that this may be a source of the 'elevated' nebular ratios previously seen in seeing-limited metallicity studies. HDF-BMZ1299's estimated AGN luminosity is L{sub Halpha} = (3.7 +- 0.5) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub [O{sub III}]} = (5.8 +- 1.9) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, making it one of the lowest luminosity AGNs discovered at this early epoch.

Wright, Shelley A.; Graham, James R.; Ma, C-P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Larkin, James E., E-mail: saw@astro.berkeley.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2010-03-10

356

Agonist-activated Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ -dependent Cl- channels in Xenopus ovarian follicular cells: functional heterogeneity within the cell monolayer.  

PubMed

Xenopus follicles are endowed with specific receptors for ATP, ACh, and AII, transmitters proposed as follicular modulators of gamete growth and maturation in several species. Here, we studied ion-current responses elicited by stimulation of these receptors and their activation mechanisms using the voltage-clamp technique. All agonists elicited Cl(-) currents that depended on coupling between oocyte and follicular cells and on an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](i)), but they differed in their activation mechanisms and in the localization of the molecules involved. Both ATP and ACh generated fast Cl(-) (F(Cl)) currents, while AII activated an oscillatory response; a robust Ca(2+) influx linked specifically to F(Cl) activation elicited an inward curr