Sample records for weak agonist activity

  1. The constitutively active V2 receptor mutants conferring NSIAD are weakly sensitive to agonist and antagonist regulation.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Julie; Ayoub, Mohammed A; Perkovska, Sanja; Adra-Delenne, Anne-Laure; Mendre, Christiane; Ranchin, Bruno; Bricca, Giamperro; Geelen, Ghislaine; Mouillac, Bernard; Durroux, Thierry; Morin, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Patients having the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis present either the R137C or R137L V2 mutated receptor. While the clinical features have been characterized, the molecular mechanisms of functioning of these two mutants remain elusive. In the present study, we compare the pharmacological properties of R137C and R137L mutants with the wild-type and the V2 D136A receptor, the latter being reported as a highly constitutively active receptor. We have performed binding studies, second messenger measurements and BRET experiments in order to evaluate the affinities of the ligands, their agonist and antagonist properties and the ability of the receptors to recruit beta-arrestins, respectively. The R137C and R137L receptors exhibit small constitutive activities regarding the G(s) protein activation. In addition, these two mutants induce a constitutive beta-arrestin recruitment. Of interest, they also exhibit weak sensitivities to agonist and to inverse agonist in term of G(s) protein coupling and beta-arrestin recruitment. The small constitutive activities of the mutants and the weak regulation of their functioning by agonist suggest a poor ability of the antidiuretic function to be adapted to the external stimuli, giving to the environmental factors an importance which can explain some of the phenotypic variability in patients having NSIAD. PMID:20027297

  2. Dissociation of peripheral T cell responses from thymocyte negative selection by weak agonists supports a spare receptor model of T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Lisa K.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have focused on stability of the peptide-MHC complex as a determining factor of ligand potency for thymocytes and peripheral CD4+ T cell responses. MHC variant peptides that have low affinities and fast dissociation rates are different in that they stimulate proliferation and cytolysis of mature T cells (classifying the variant peptides as weak agonists) but do not induce thymocyte negative selection. The MHC variant weak agonists require significant receptor reserve, because decreasing the level of T cell receptor on mature T cells blocks the proliferative response. These results demonstrate that peripheral T cells are more sensitive to MHC variant ligands by virtue of increased T cell receptor expression; in addition, the data support a T cell model of the spare receptor theory. PMID:11904393

  3. Aluminum is a weak agonist for the calcium-sensing receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Spurney; Min Pi; Patrick Flannery; L. Darryl Quarles

    1999-01-01

    Aluminum is a weak agonist for the calcium-sensing receptor.BackgroundAluminum (Al3+) has diverse biological effects mediated through activation of a putative extracellular cation-sensing receptor. A recently identified calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which has been identified in target tissues for Al3+, may transduce some of the biological effects of Al3+.MethodsTo test this possibility, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells with

  4. Agonist-activated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ion channels as an example of the pharmacologist's stock in trade, the action of an agonist on a receptor to produce a response. Looked at in this way, ion channels have been helpful because they are still the only system which is simple enough for quantitative investigation of transduction mechanisms. A short history is given of attempts to elucidate what happens between the time when agonist first binds, and the time when the channel opens. PMID:16402101

  5. TLR3 Agonists and Proinflammatory Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sherven; Zhu, Li; Davoodi, Michael; Harris White, Marni; Lee, Jay M.; John, Maie St.; Salgia, Ravi; Dubinett, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Although tumor growth leads to inflammatory responses, the immune system develops tolerance to cancer. One way to break host tolerance to tumors is to activate key immune effector activities. Toward this end, various adjuvants are under investigation in an effort to harness the immune system to overcome tolerance to tumor associated self-antigens. There is enthusiasm for the use of specific ligands for toll-like 3 receptors (TLR3) that play a key role in the innate immune system. TLR3 agonists serve as immune adjuvants because they potently induce innate immune responses by activating dendritic cell (DC) maturation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. These activities facilitate the bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems promoting the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that destroy cancer cells. TLR3 agonists either alone or in combination with tumor antigens have shown success in terms of enhancing immune responses and eliciting antitumor activity in preclinical models. However, TLR3 agonists can also impact regulatory cells that dampen immune responses. Thus, immune strategies that utilize TLR3 agonists should consider the relative induction of suppressive as well as beneficial anti tumor immune activities. Herein, we summarize the TLR3 agonists that will hopefully come to clinical fruition. PMID:23506058

  6. Agonist activation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    How does an agonist activate a receptor? In this article I consider the activation process in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), a prototype for understanding the energetics of binding and gating in other ligand-gated ion channels. Just as movements that generate gating currents activate voltage-gated ion channels, movements at binding sites that generate an increase in affinity for the agonist activate ligand-gated ion channels. The main topics are: i) the schemes and intermediate states of AChR activation, ii) the energy changes of each of the steps, iii) the sources of the energies, iv) the three kinds of AChR agonist binding site and v) the correlations between binding and gating energies. The binding process is summarized as sketches of different conformations of an agonist site. The results suggest that agonists lower the free energy of the active conformation of the protein in stages by establishing favorable, local interactions at each binding site, independently. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25446670

  7. ?-Opioid Receptors: Correlation of Agonist Efficacy for Signalling with Ability to Activate InternalizationS?

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Jamie; Rivero, Guadalupe; Baptist, Myma; Llorente, Javier; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Dewey, William L.; Bailey, Chris P.; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M.; Charlton, Steven J.; Henderson, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the ability of a number of ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) ligands to activate G proteins with their abilities to induce MOPr phosphorylation, to promote association of arrestin-3 and to cause MOPr internalization. For a model of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation where all agonists stabilize a single active conformation of the receptor, a close correlation between signaling outputs might be expected. Our results show that overall there is a very good correlation between efficacy for G protein activation and arrestin-3 recruitment, whereas a few agonists, in particular endomorphins 1 and 2, display apparent bias toward arrestin recruitment. The agonist-induced phosphorylation of MOPr at Ser375, considered a key step in MOPr regulation, and agonist-induced internalization of MOPr were each found to correlate well with arrestin-3 recruitment. These data indicate that for the majority of MOPr agonists the ability to induce receptor phosphorylation, arrestin-3 recruitment, and internalization can be predicted from their ability as agonists to activate G proteins. For the prototypic MOPr agonist morphine, its relatively weak ability to induce MOPr internalization can be explained by its low agonist efficacy. PMID:20647394

  8. Elimination of a cholecystokinin receptor agonist 'trigger' in an effort to develop positive allosteric modulators without intrinsic agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aditya J; Henke, Brad R; Miller, Laurence J

    2015-05-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) acts at the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor (CCK1R) to elicit satiety and is a well-established drug target for obesity. To date, small molecule agonists have been developed, but have failed to demonstrate adequate efficacy in clinical trials, and concerns about side effects and potential toxicity have limited further development of full agonists. The use of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) without intrinsic agonist activity that are active only for a brief period of time after a meal might represent a safer alternative. Here, we propose a possible novel strategy to develop such compounds by modifying the agonist 'trigger' of an existing small molecule agonist. We have studied analogues of the 1,5-benzodiazepine agonist, GI181771X, in which the N1-isopropyl agonist 'trigger' was modified. While agonist activity was greatly reduced in these compounds, they acted as negative, rather than positive modulators. The parent drug was also found to exhibit no positive modulation of CCK action. Receptor structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the mode of docking these derivatives was distinct from that of the parent compound, perhaps explaining their action as negative allosteric modulators. We conclude that this outcome is likely characteristic of the parental agonist, and that this strategy may be more successfully utilized with a parental ago-PAM, possessing intrinsic positive modulatory activity. PMID:25862198

  9. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Cureri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of cAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of cAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  10. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  11. Retinoic acid receptor agonist activity of naturally occurring diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Yasui, Tomohiro; Kotani, Hitoshi; Nagatsu, Akito; Makishima, Makoto; Amagaya, Sakae; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-06-15

    Recent accumulating evidence indicates that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may be useful for preventing or treating inflammation, allergy, and autoimmune diseases, despite its severe side effects. In this study, screening of 99 crude drugs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligands by luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the methanol extract of Aralia cordata Rhizoma most effectively activates the transcriptional activity of RAR?. Pimaradienoic acid (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) was subsequently isolated as the constituent capable of activating RAR. Pimaric acid and abietic acid, which have similar structures to pimaradienoic acid, were also found to be novel RAR agonists, although abietic acid only slightly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These three natural RAR agonists with diterpene structures, while structurally different from ATRA, were able to increase the mRNA levels of the constitutive androstane receptor in HepG2 cells, induce F9 cell differentiation followed by Cyp26a1 mRNA expression, and differentiate HL-60 cells via RAR activation in a different manner from ATRA. These results demonstrate that some diterpenes exist as naturally occurring RAR agonists and that the differences in chemical structure between ATRA and these diterpenes may induce distinct gene activation and a specific cellular response. PMID:24799257

  12. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR alpha, and pioglitazone, an agonist of PPAR gamma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antônio Carlos P. Oliveira; Caryne M. Bertollo; Leonardo Tadeu S. Rocha; Elias B. Nascimento; Karina A. Costa; Márcio M. Coelho

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that control the expression of many genes. The antiinflammatory activity of fibrates, PPAR? agonists, and thiazolidinediones, PPAR? agonists, has been demonstrated in many in vitro and a few in vivo studies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of acute (100 or 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) or prolonged (100 or 300 mg\\/kg day,

  13. Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline.

    PubMed

    Haenisch, Britta; Walstab, Jutta; Herberhold, Stephan; Bootz, Friedrich; Tschaikin, Marion; Ramseger, René; Bönisch, Heinz

    2010-12-01

    Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline are both used as nasal mucosa decongesting ?-adrenoceptor agonists during a common cold. However, it is largely unknown which of the six ?-adrenoceptor subtypes are actually present in human nasal mucosa, which are activated by the two alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and to what extent. Therefore, mRNA expression in human nasal mucosa of the six ?-adrenoceptor subtypes was studied. Furthermore, the affinity and potency of the imidazolines oxymetazoline and xylometazoline at these ?-adrenoceptor subtypes were examined in transfected HEK293 cells. The rank order of mRNA levels of ?-adrenoceptor subtypes in human nasal mucosa was: ?(2A) > ?(1A) ? ?(2B) > ?(1D) ? ?(2C) > ?(1B) . Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline exhibited in radioligand competition studies higher affinities than the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline at most ?-adrenoceptor subtypes. Compared to xylometazoline, oxymetazoline exhibited a significantly higher affinity at ?(1A) - but a lower affinity at ?(2B) -adrenoceptors. In functional studies in which adrenoceptor-mediated Ca(2+) signals were measured, both, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline behaved at ?(2B) -adrenoceptors as full agonists but oxymetazoline was significantly more potent than xylometazoline. Furthermore, oxymetazoline was also a partial agonist at ?(1A) -adrenoceptors; however, its potency was relatively low and it was much lower than its affinity. The higher potency at ?(2B) -adrenoceptors, i.e. at receptors highly expressed at the mRNA level in human nasal mucosa, could eventually explain why in nasal decongestants oxymetazoline can be used in lower concentrations than xylometazoline. PMID:20030735

  14. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  15. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  16. FXR agonist activity of conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064

    SciTech Connect

    Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caldwell, Richard D.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Navas, III, Frank; Parks, Derek J.; Spearing, Paul K.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce; (GSKNC)

    2010-09-27

    Two series of conformationally constrained analogs of the FXR agonist GW 4064 1 were prepared. Replacement of the metabolically labile stilbene with either benzothiophene or naphthalene rings led to the identification of potent full agonists 2a and 2g.

  17. Dual Activation and Inhibition of Adenylyl Cyclase by Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Evidence for Agonist-Specific Trafficking of Intracellular Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. BONHAUS; L. K. CHANG; J. KWAN; G. R. MARTIN

    Cannabinoid receptors couple to both Gs and Gi proteins and can consequently stimulate or inhibit the formation of cAMP. To test whether there is specificity among cannabinoid receptor agonists in activating Gs -o r G i-coupled pathways, the potency and intrinsic activity of various cannabinoid receptor ligands in stimulating or inhibiting cAMP accumulation were quantified. The rank order of potencies

  18. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Ong, Karen M.; Kagan, Benjamin; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA) of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS), which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists. PMID:25984562

  19. Structure-activity relationship in PAF-acether. 3. Hydrophobic contribution to agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J J; Broquet, C; Jouquey, S; Lebbar, M; Heymans, F; Redeuilh, C; Steiner, E; Michel, E; Coeffier, E; Fichelle, J

    1987-05-01

    The synthesis of some selected PAF-acether homologues with an alkoxy-chain length from C1 to C20 in position 1 is described. All agonist activities are closely correlated among themselves and with the calculated fatty-chain hydrophobicity. After a discussion on recent published results and comparison with our data, we conclude that the ether oxide function is absolutely essential at the glycerol 1-position for potent agonist activity and that potency correlates well with hydrophobicity parameters. We indicate the importance of steric and configurational constraints. PMID:3572968

  20. Separation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist activity evaluation of synthetic racemic bavachinin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Du, Guoxin; Feng, Li; Yang, Zhuo; Shi, Jiye; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Bo; Zhu, Weiliang; Li, Yiming

    2015-06-15

    Bavachinin, isolated from Psoralea corylifolia seeds, has been reported to demonstrate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist activity. However, isolated bavachinin is actually a mixture of S and R configurations, with an enantiomeric excess value of approximately 24.3%. For further study on the structure-activity relationships of bavachinin, investigating the PPAR-? agonist activity of the two enantiomers is crucial. Considering the limited availability, racemic bavachinin was prepared in this study using chemical synthesis. The enantiomers of racemic bavachinin were then separated using supercritical fluid chromatography. This concise strategy yielded (S)- and (R)-bavachinin in optical purity as high as ?97.5%. The PPAR-? agonist activity of the two enantiomers was evaluated using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based competitive binding assay method; IC50 values of (S)- and (R)-bavachinin were 616.7 and 471.2nM, respectively. The interaction between the compounds and PPAR-? was further explored using a molecular docking method. This study suggests that (S)- and (R)-bavachinin demonstrate similar PPAR-? agonist activities. PMID:25978962

  1. Different structures of the two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) ligand-binding domains in homodimeric complex with partial agonist, but not full agonist.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masao; Oyama, Takuji; Miyachi, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    We designed and synthesized acylsulfonamide derivative (3) as a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR?) partial agonist by structural modification of hPPAR? full agonist 1. Co-crystallization of 3 with hPPAR? LBD afforded a homodimeric complex, and X-ray crystallographic analysis at 2.1Å resolution showed that one of the LBDs adopts a fully active structure identical with that in the complex of rosiglitazone, a full agonist; however, the other LBD in the complex of 3 exhibits a different (non-fully active) structure. Interestingly, the apo-homodimer contained similar LBD structures. Intrigued by these results, we surveyed reported X-ray crystal structures of partial agonists complexed with hPPAR? LBD homodimer, and identified several types of LBD structures distinct from the fully active structure. In contrast, both LBDs in the rosiglitazone complex have the fully active structure. These results suggest hPPAR? partial agonists lack the ability to induce fully active LBD. The presence of at least one non-fully active LBD in the agonist complex may be a useful criterion to distinguish hPPAR? partial agonists from full agonists. PMID:25987371

  2. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zim?ík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. PMID:25882246

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and retinoid X receptor agonists inhibit inflammatory responses of astrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Xu; Janet A. Chavis; Michael K. Racke; Paul D. Drew

    2006-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated that administration of the PPAR-? agonists gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, inhibit the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonists on primary mouse astrocytes, a cell type

  4. Immunomodulatory Activity of mu- and kappa-Selective Opiod Agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis D. Taub; Toby K. Eisenstein; Ellen B. Geller; Martin W. Adler; Thomas J. Rogers

    1991-01-01

    Opioids and opioid peptides have been shown by numerous laboratories to modulate various parameters of the immune response, but little attention has been given to the type of opioid receptor that might be involved. This study focuses on the in vitro influences of morphine and DAMGE (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol), mu-selective agonists, and U50, 488H and U69, 593, kappa-selective agonists, on the generation

  5. Access to 7?-analogs of codeine with mixed ?/? agonist activity via 6,7-?-epoxide opening.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Philip; Ghavimi, Bahman; Coe, Jotham W

    2013-09-01

    (-)-Codeine 1 was converted into previously unknown 7?-methyl-7,8-dihydrocodeine/morphine derivatives such as 13 via classical diaxial opening of ?-epoxide 3. Several analogs exhibited dual ?/?-agonist activity. PMID:23880538

  6. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate maintains bone mass, while the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerates bone loss, in ovariectomized rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid K Stunes; Irene Westbroek; Björn I Gustafsson; Reidar Fossmark; Jan H Waarsing; Erik F Eriksen; Christiane Petzold; Janne E Reseland; Unni Syversen

    2011-01-01

    Background  Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk,\\u000a while PPARalpha activation seems to have positive skeletal effects. To further explore these effects we have examined the\\u000a effect of the PPARalpha agonists fenofibrate and Wyeth 14643, and the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone, on bone mineral density\\u000a (BMD), bone architecture and biomechanical strength in ovariectomized rats.

  7. Pharmacological characterization and therapeutic potential for the treatment of opioid abuse with ATPM-ET, an N-ethyl substituted aminothiazolomorphinan with ? agonist and ? agonist/antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yu-Hua; Chai, Jing-Rui; Li, Fu-Ying; Hang, Ai; Lu, Gang; Tao, Yi-Min; Cheng, Yun; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; Neumeyer, John L; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Jing-Gen; Wang, Yu-Jun

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that the ? agonists with mixed ? activity could attenuate heroin self-administration with less potential to develop tolerance. The present study further investigated the effects of (-)-3-N-Ethylamino-thiazolo[5,4-b]-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan hydrochloride (ATPM-ET), a ? agonist and ? agonist/antagonist, on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), heroin self-administration and heroin-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. We found that ATPM-ET produced a longer duration of potent antinociceptive effects with less side effect of sedation. More importantly, ATPM-ET attenuated the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP, without affecting the reinstatement of morphine CPP. Furthermore, ATPM-ET significantly inhibited heroin self-administration and the reinstatement of heroin primed drug-seeking behavior. Taken together, ATPM-ET, a novel ? agonist and ? agonist/antagonist may have utility for the treatment of drug dependence. PMID:24998879

  8. Structure-activity relationships of the prototypical TRPM8 agonist icilin.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ortar, Giorgio; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Serum, Eric M; Rusterholz, David B

    2015-06-01

    A series of structural analogues of the TRPM8 agonist icilin was prepared. The compounds were examined for their ability to exert agonist or antagonist effects in HEK-293 cells expressing the TRPM8 receptor. Most structural modifications of the icilin structure largely met with diminished TRPM8 agonist activity. Cinnamamide 'open-chain' analogs of icilin, however, demonstrated significant antagonistic actions at the TRPM8 receptor. Optimal potency (IC50=73nM) was observed in the 3-iodo derivative 18l. PMID:25935641

  9. High specific activity tritium labelling of some sigma-1 receptor agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Ahern; Richard J. Seguin; Crist N. Filer

    The high specific activity tritiation of (+)-SKF-10,047 (1) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4) is described. [N-allyl-3H] (+)-SKF-10,047 (3) was prepared by Lindlar catalyst tritiation of (+)-N-propargylnormetazocine (2) and [N-methyl-3H] N,N-dimethyltryptamine (6) was synthesized by the alkylation of N-methyltryptamine (5) with [3H] methyl iodide. Both sigma-1 synthetic agonist 3 and endogenous agonist 6 have been useful in studying this receptor.

  10. Inhibitory effects of sigma-2 receptor agonists on T lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Miguel A; Punzón, Carmen; Nieto, Raquel; Burgueño, Javier; Vela, José M; Fresno, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Sigma (?) receptor ligands are essentially known for their effects on the nervous system although recent studies have shown their potential effects modulating some other pathophysiological processes as cell proliferation, cancer, and the immune response. Here, we have analyzed the actions of ?-1 and ?-2 receptors ligands on T cell activation. Our results show that treatment of Jurkat T cells with ?-2 agonists decreased the induction of the expression of Interleukin (IL)-2, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 by activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects take place at the transcriptional level since ?-2 agonists BD-737 and CB-184 diminished the activity of the promoters of those genes. Those immunosuppressive effects could be attributable to interference with transcription factor activation. Induced transcription mediated by Nuclear factor (NF)-?B or Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) was inhibited by ?-2 agonists. These effects seem to be specific for ?-2 agonists as no significant effects on T cell activation by ?-1 ligands PRE-084 and BD-1063 were found. Our results provide new insights into the immunomodulatory actions of ? ligands and describe a new property of ?-2 agonists, through inhibition of activation of transcription factors as NFAT by which these compounds are regulating gene expression. This may have important consequences on the possible therapeutic use of those compounds. PMID:23494519

  11. Agonist activity of N-desmethylclozapine at delta-opioid receptors of human frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Ambu, Rossano; Onali, Pierluigi

    2009-04-01

    The clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) has been recently shown to act at different neurotransmitter receptors and to display both antagonist and agonist activities. We have previously reported that in cells over-expressing the recombinant delta-opioid receptor NDMC behaved as partial agonist with high intrinsic activity, but its action at the receptors naturally expressed in human brain remained to be investigated. In the present study, we examined whether NDMC was able to bind to and activate delta-opioid receptors in membranes of post-mortem human frontal cortex. In radioligand binding assays, NDMC competition curves displayed high- (K(i)=26 nM) and low-affinity (K(i)=3 microM) components, whose proportion was regulated by guanine nucleotides in an agonist-like fashion. In functional assays, NDMC stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (EC(50)=905 nM) and inhibited cyclic AMP formation (EC(50)=590 nM) as effectively as delta-opioid agonists, whereas clozapine was much less potent and efficacious and clozapine N-oxide was completely inactive. The NDMC agonist activity was potently antagonized by the delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole, but not by the micro-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (D-phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)) or the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, blockade of either acetylcholine muscarinic, dopamine D(2) or serotonin 5HT(1A) receptors failed to affect NDMC agonist activity. These data demonstrate that at clinically relevant concentrations NDMC behaves as an efficacious agonist at delta-opioid receptors of human frontal cortex. PMID:19239909

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity via the generation of platelet activating factor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Petrache, Irina; Van Demark, Mary J; Rashid, Badri M.; Ocana, Jesus A.; Tang, Yuxuan; Yi, Qiaofang; Turner, Matthew J.; Konger, Raymond L.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have established that pro-oxidative stressors suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipids with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) agonist activity. Although exposure to the pro-oxidative stressor cigarette smoke (CS) is known to exert immunomodulatory effects, little is known regarding the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in these events. The current studies sought to determine the role of PAF-R signaling in CS-mediated immunomodulatory effects. We demonstrate that CS exposure induces the generation of a transient PAF-R agonistic activity in the blood of mice. CS exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity in a PAF-R-dependent manner as PAF-R-deficient mice were resistant to these effects. Blocking PAF-R agonist production either by systemic antioxidants or treatment with serum PAF-acetyl hydrolase enzyme blocked both the CS-mediated generation of PAF-R-agonists and PAF-R dependent inhibition of CHS reactions, indicating a role for oxidized glycerophosphocholines with PAF-R agonistic activity in this process. In addition, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition did not block PAF-R agonist production but prevented CS-induced inhibition of CHS. This suggests that COX-2 acts downstream of the PAF-R in mediating CS-induced systemic immunosuppression. Moreover, CS-exposure induced a significant increase in the expression of the regulatory T cell reporter gene in FoxP3EGFP mice but not in FoxP3EGFP mice on a PAF-R-deficient background. Finally, Treg depletion via anti-CD25 antibodies blocked CS-mediated inhibition of CHS, indicating the potential involvement of Tregs in CS-mediated systemic immunosuppression. These studies provide the first evidence that the pro-oxidative stressor CS can modulate cutaneous immunity via the generation of PAF-R agonists produced through lipid oxidation. PMID:23355733

  13. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  14. The two-state model of receptor activation: The agonist and the efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Lynn Blevins

    1999-01-01

    The Two State model describes how drugs activate receptors by inducing or supporting a conformational change in the receptor from “off” to “on”. The beta 2 adrenergic receptor system is the model system which was used to formalize the concept of two states, and the mechanism of hormone agonist stimulation of this receptor is similar to ligand activation of other

  15. Design and synthesis of silicon-containing fatty acid amide derivatives as novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Yotaro; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Fujii, Shinya

    2015-08-15

    We recently reported that diphenylsilane structure can function as a cis-stilbene mimetic. Here, we investigate whether silyl functionality can also serve as a mimetic of aliphatic cis-olefin. We designed and synthesized various silyl derivatives of oleoylethanolamide (OEA: 8), an endogenous cis-olefin-containing PPAR? agonist, and evaluated their PPAR?/?/? agonistic activity. We found that diethylsilyl derivative 20 exhibited PPAR?/? agonistic activity, and we also obtained a PPAR?-selective agonist, 32. Our results suggest that incorporation of silyl functionality is a useful option for structural development of biologically active compounds. PMID:26071639

  16. Activation of a common potassium channel in molluscan neurones by glutamate, dopamine and muscarinic agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Bolshakov VYu; Gapon, S A; Katchman, A N; Magazanik, L G

    1993-01-01

    1. The potassium currents evoked in isolated and identified neurones of molluscan pedal ganglia by either glutamate, dopamine or the muscarinic agonist F-2268 were investigated using voltage and patch clamp techniques. 2. Potassium currents induced by either dopamine or F-2268 could be blocked by pertussis toxin, as well as by a prolonged intracellular injection of the G protein inhibitor, GDP-beta-S. Loading the neurones with the G protein activator, GppNHp, on the other hand, induced a potassium current. This current was not additive to the currents evoked by agonist application. 3. Intracellular injection of the calcium buffer BAPTA failed to affect any of the agonist-induced currents, although it effectively blocked the after-hyperpolarization following directly evoked action potentials. 4. The activity of the potassium channels seen in cell-attached patches was greatly enhanced by application to the bath of either glutamate, dopamine, or F-2268. 5. The only effect of an addition of agonists to the bath was to increase the open probability (Po) of the K+ channel already active in the control conditions. The identity of the spontaneously active and agonist-activated channels was concluded from the identity of their channel conductances, rectification properties and current amplitudes. 6. Phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, when applied to the bath, induced an increase in open time and caused an increase in Po, as did the agonists. Staurosporine completely prevented changes of Po induced by the phorbol ester but not those induced by the agonists. 7. The same inwardly rectifying potassium channel may be opened by both the receptor-linked G protein (with glutamate, dopamine, F-2268) and by protein kinase C (with phorbol ester) activation. 8. Strong evidence was obtained against the involvement of any known secondary messenger systems (formation of nucleotides, phosphoinositide turnover and subsequent activation of protein kinase C, formation of nitric oxide, metabolism of arachidonic acid) in the transduction mechanism of F-2268-, dopamine- and glutamate-induced responses. 9. Since none of the known secondary messenger systems seems to affect the activation by agonists applied to receptors outside the patch of channels located under the patch electrode, it appears that some as yet undescribed linking system must exist that could connect the spatially separated receptor-G protein complex and the potassium channel. PMID:7902868

  17. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of ?2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Annette J; Steel, Helen C; Tintinger, Gregory R; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (?2-agonists) are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled ?2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of ?2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ?2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of ?2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. PMID:24285920

  18. Diffusion model in ion channel gating. Extension to agonist-activated ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, R E; Millhauser, G L; Carter, A A

    1991-01-01

    Previously, we described a model which treats ion channel gating as a discrete diffusion problem. In the case of agonist-activated channels at high agonist concentration, the model predicts that the closed lifetime probability density function from single channel recording approximates a power law with an exponent of -3/2 (Millhauser, G. L., E. E. Salpeter, and R. E. Oswald. 1988a. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85: 1503-1507). This prediction is consistent with distributions derived from a number of ligand-gated channels at high agonist concentration (Millhauser, G. L., E. E. Salpeter, and R. E. Oswald. 1988b. Biophys. J. 54: 1165-1168.) but does not describe the behavior of ion channels at low activator concentrations. We examine here an extension of this model to include an agonist binding step. This extended model is consistent with the closed time distributions generated from the BC3H-1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for agonist concentrations varying over three orders of magnitude. PMID:1714303

  19. Pungency of TRPV1 agonists is directly correlated with kinetics of receptor activation and lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Ursu, Daniel; Knopp, Kelly; Beattie, Ruth E; Liu, Bin; Sher, Emanuele

    2010-09-01

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed predominantly in nociceptive primary afferents that plays a key role in pain processing. In vivo activation of TRPV1 receptors by natural agonists like capsaicin is associated with a sharp and burning pain, frequently described as pungency. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying pungency we investigated a series of TRPV1 agonists that included both pungent and non-pungent compounds covering a large range of potencies. Pungency of capsaicin, piperine, arvanil, olvanil, RTX (resiniferatoxin) and SDZ-249665 was evaluated in vivo, by determining the increase in the number of eye wipes caused by direct instillation of agonist solutions into the eye. Agonist-induced calcium fluxes were recorded using the FLIPR technique in a recombinant, TRPV1-expressing cell line. Current-clamp recordings were performed in rat DRG (dorsal root ganglia) neurons in order to assess the consequences of TRPV1 activation on neuronal excitability. Using the eye wipe assay the following rank of pungency was obtained: capsaicin>piperine>RTX>arvanil>olvanil>SDZ-249665. We found a strong correlation between kinetics of calcium flux, pungency and lipophilicity of TRPV1 agonists. Current-clamp recordings confirmed that the rate of receptor activation translates in the ability of agonists to generate action potentials in sensory neurons. We have demonstrated that the lipophilicity of the compounds is directly related to the kinetics of TRPV1 activation and that the latter influences their ability to trigger action potentials in sensory neurons and, ultimately, pungency. PMID:20576527

  20. Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Agonists Mediate Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Photosensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yongxue; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Murphy, Robert C.; Rezania, Samin; Konger, Raymond L.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    To date, oxidized glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with platelet-activating factor (PAF) activity produced non-enzymatically have not been definitively demonstrated to mediate any known disease processes. Here we provide evidence that these Ox-GPCs play a pivotal role in the photosensitivity associated with the deficiency of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPA). It should be noted that XPA-deficient cells are known to have decreased antioxidant defenses. These studies demonstrate that treatment of human XPA-deficient fibroblasts with the pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation resulted in increased reactive oxygen species and PAF receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity in comparison with gene-corrected cells. The UVB irradiation-generated PAF-R agonists were inhibited by antioxidants. UVB irradiation of XPA-deficient (Xpa?/?) mice also resulted in increased PAF-R agonistic activity and skin inflammation in comparison with control mice. The increased UVB irradiation-mediated skin inflammation and TNF-? production in Xpa?/? mice were blocked by systemic antioxidants and by PAF-R antagonists. Structural characterization of PAF-R-stimulating activity in UVB-irradiated XPA-deficient fibroblasts using mass spectrometry revealed increased levels of sn-2 short-chain Ox-GPCs along with native PAF. These studies support a critical role for PAF-R agonistic Ox-GPCs in the pathophysiology of XPA photosensitivity. PMID:22303003

  1. Co-activation: its association with weakness and specific neurological pathology

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Monica E; Wiles, Charles M; van Deursen, Robert WM

    2006-01-01

    Background Net agonist muscle strength is in part determined by the degree of antagonist co-activation. The level of co-activation might vary in different neurological disorders causing weakness or might vary with agonist strength. Aim This study investigated whether antagonist co-activation changed a) with the degree of muscle weakness and b) with the nature of the neurological lesion causing weakness. Methods Measures of isometric quadriceps and hamstrings strength were obtained. Antagonist (hamstring) co-activation during knee extension was calculated as a ratio of hamstrings over quadriceps activity both during an isometric and during a functional sit to stand (STS) task (using kinematics) in groups of patients with extrapyramidal (n = 15), upper motor neuron (UMN) (n = 12), lower motor neuron (LMN) with (n = 18) or without (n = 12) sensory loss, primary muscle or neuromuscular junction disorder (n = 17) and in healthy matched controls (n = 32). Independent t-tests or Mann Witney U tests were used to compare between the groups. Correlations between variables were also investigated. Results In healthy subjects mean (SD) co-activation of hamstrings during isometric knee extension was 11.8 (6.2)% and during STS was 20.5 (12.9)%. In patients, co-activation ranged from 7 to 17% during isometric knee extension and 15 to 25% during STS. Only the extrapyramidal group had lower co-activation levels than healthy matched controls (p < 0.05). Agonist isometric muscle strength and co-activation correlated only in muscle disease (r = -0.6, p < 0.05) and during STS in UMN disorders (r = -0.7, p < 0.5). Conclusion It is concluded that antagonist co-activation does not systematically vary with the site of neurological pathology when compared to healthy matched controls or, in most patient groups, with strength. The lower co-activation levels found in the extrapyramidal group require confirmation and further investigation. Co-activation may be relevant to individuals with muscle weakness. Within patient serial studies in the presence of changing muscle strength may help to understand these relationships more clearly. PMID:17116259

  2. Changes in agonist EMG activation level during MVC cannot explain early strength improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Holtermann; Karin Roeleveld; Beatrix Vereijken; Gertjan Ettema

    2005-01-01

    A substantial gain in strength is often observed in the early phase of resistance training. The aim of this study was to address whether improved strength in the early phase of resistance training, can be attributed to increased activation, or to intra-muscular changes of the agonist muscle during maximal isometric torque production. Fourteen male subjects trained maximal isometric dorsiflexion during

  3. Accessory Cell Mediated Activation of Porcine NK Cells by TLR7 and TLR8 Agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction of innate immune responses by toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is the subject of intense investigation in many different species. In large part, this reflects the potential of such compounds to be effective vaccine adjuvants. For that reason, we analyzed the activation of innate cells...

  4. Quantitative structure–Activity studies of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Kuwano; C PAN; K SHINKAI; J TOMITA; E TANIGUCHI; M ETO

    1998-01-01

    The quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against the thoracic nerve cord of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was analyzed using physicochemical parameters and regression analysis. The hydrophobic effect, dipole moment, and shape index were important in terms of Ki: the more hydrophobic, the greater dipole moment, and the smaller shape index of the molecules, the

  5. Differential gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes exposed to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Fang, Hong; Collins, Jim; Fan, Xiao-hui; Dial, Stacey; Wong, Alex; Mehta, Kshama; Blann, Ernice; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Dragan, Yvonne P

    2006-01-01

    Background Fibrates are a unique hypolipidemic drugs that lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels through their action as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonists. The activation of PPAR? leads to a cascade of events that result in the pharmacological (hypolipidemic) and adverse (carcinogenic) effects in rodent liver. Results To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pleiotropic effects of PPAR? agonists, we treated mouse primary hepatocytes with three PPAR? agonists (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643) at multiple concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 100 ?M) for 24 hours. When primary hepatocytes were exposed to these agents, transactivation of PPAR? was elevated as measured by luciferase assay. Global gene expression profiles in response to PPAR? agonists were obtained by microarray analysis. Among differentially expressed genes (DEGs), there were 4, 8, and 21 genes commonly regulated by bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 treatments across 3 doses, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments with 100 ?M of bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 resulted in 151, 149, and 145 genes altered, respectively. Among them, 121 genes were commonly regulated by at least two drugs. Many genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism including oxidative reaction. Some of the gene changes were associated with production of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation of peroxisomes, and hepatic disorders. In addition, 11 genes related to the development of liver cancer were observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment of PPAR? agonists results in the production of oxidative stress and increased peroxisome proliferation, thus providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying PPAR? agonist-induced hepatic disorders and hepatocarcinomas. PMID:17118139

  6. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Heiss, Elke H; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2014-11-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR? are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPAR? agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPAR?-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPAR?-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPAR? ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPAR? (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPAR?-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPAR? (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPAR? activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  7. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?): a review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR? are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPAR? agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPAR?-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPAR?-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPAR? ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPAR? (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPAR?-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPAR? (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPAR? activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  8. K+ efflux agonists induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation independently of Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Michael A; Rucker, L Graham; Russo, Hana M; Dubyak, George R

    2015-04-15

    Perturbation of intracellular ion homeostasis is a major cellular stress signal for activation of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling that results in caspase-1-mediated production of IL-1? and pyroptosis. However, the relative contributions of decreased cytosolic K(+) concentration versus increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) remain disputed and incompletely defined. We investigated roles for elevated cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in NLRP3 activation and downstream inflammasome signaling responses in primary murine dendritic cells and macrophages in response to two canonical NLRP3 agonists (ATP and nigericin) that facilitate primary K(+) efflux by mechanistically distinct pathways or the lysosome-destabilizing agonist Leu-Leu-O-methyl ester. The study provides three major findings relevant to this unresolved area of NLRP3 regulation. First, increased cytosolic [Ca(2+)] was neither a necessary nor sufficient signal for the NLRP3 inflammasome cascade during activation by endogenous ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channels, the exogenous bacterial ionophore nigericin, or the lysosomotropic agent Leu-Leu-O-methyl ester. Second, agonists for three Ca(2+)-mobilizing G protein-coupled receptors (formyl peptide receptor, P2Y2 purinergic receptor, and calcium-sensing receptor) expressed in murine dendritic cells were ineffective as activators of rapidly induced NLRP3 signaling when directly compared with the K(+) efflux agonists. Third, the intracellular Ca(2+) buffer, BAPTA, and the channel blocker, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, widely used reagents for disruption of Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways, strongly suppressed nigericin-induced NLRP3 inflammasome signaling via mechanisms dissociated from their canonical or expected effects on Ca(2+) homeostasis. The results indicate that the ability of K(+) efflux agonists to activate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling can be dissociated from changes in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] as a necessary or sufficient signal. PMID:25762778

  9. The transcriptional PPAR?/? network in human macrophages defines a unique agonist-induced activation state

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Till; Wortmann, Annika; Schumann, Tim; Finkernagel, Florian; Lieber, Sonja; Roth, Katrin; Toth, Philipp M.; Diederich, Wibke E.; Nist, Andrea; Stiewe, Thorsten; Kleinesudeik, Lara; Reinartz, Silke; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor with established metabolic functions, whereas its anti-inflammatory function is poorly understood. To address this issue, we determined the global PPAR?/?-regulated signaling network in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Besides cell type-independent, canonical target genes with metabolic and immune regulatory functions we identified a large number of inflammation-associated NF?B and STAT1 target genes that are repressed by agonists. Accordingly, PPAR?/? agonists inhibited the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory mediators and induced an anti-inflammatory, IL-4-like morphological phenotype. Surprisingly, bioinformatic analyses also identified immune stimulatory effects. Consistent with this prediction, PPAR?/? agonists enhanced macrophage survival under hypoxic stress and stimulated CD8+ T cell activation, concomitantly with the repression of immune suppressive target genes and their encoded products CD274 (PD-1 ligand), CD32B (inhibitory Fc? receptor IIB) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1), as well as a diminished release of the immune suppressive IDO-1 metabolite kynurenine. Comparison with published data revealed a significant overlap of the PPAR?/? transcriptome with coexpression modules characteristic of both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings indicate that PPAR?/? agonists induce a unique macrophage activation state with strong anti-inflammatory but also specific immune stimulatory components, pointing to a context-dependent function of PPAR?/? in immune regulation. PMID:25934804

  10. The transcriptional PPAR?/? network in human macrophages defines a unique agonist-induced activation state.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Till; Wortmann, Annika; Schumann, Tim; Finkernagel, Florian; Lieber, Sonja; Roth, Katrin; Toth, Philipp M; Diederich, Wibke E; Nist, Andrea; Stiewe, Thorsten; Kleinesudeik, Lara; Reinartz, Silke; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-05-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor with established metabolic functions, whereas its anti-inflammatory function is poorly understood. To address this issue, we determined the global PPAR?/?-regulated signaling network in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Besides cell type-independent, canonical target genes with metabolic and immune regulatory functions we identified a large number of inflammation-associated NF?B and STAT1 target genes that are repressed by agonists. Accordingly, PPAR?/? agonists inhibited the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory mediators and induced an anti-inflammatory, IL-4-like morphological phenotype. Surprisingly, bioinformatic analyses also identified immune stimulatory effects. Consistent with this prediction, PPAR?/? agonists enhanced macrophage survival under hypoxic stress and stimulated CD8(+) T cell activation, concomitantly with the repression of immune suppressive target genes and their encoded products CD274 (PD-1 ligand), CD32B (inhibitory Fc? receptor IIB) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1), as well as a diminished release of the immune suppressive IDO-1 metabolite kynurenine. Comparison with published data revealed a significant overlap of the PPAR?/? transcriptome with coexpression modules characteristic of both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings indicate that PPAR?/? agonists induce a unique macrophage activation state with strong anti-inflammatory but also specific immune stimulatory components, pointing to a context-dependent function of PPAR?/? in immune regulation. PMID:25934804

  11. Recovery of brain biomarkers following peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist neuroprotective treatment before ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipid lowering agent such as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are suggested as neuroprotective agents and may protect from the sequelae of brain ischemic stroke. Although the demonstration is not clearly established in human, the underlying molecular mechanism may be of interest for future therapeutic purposes. To this end, we have used our well established rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion pre-treated or not with fenofibrate or atorvastatin and performed a differential proteomics analyses of the brain and analysed the protein markers which levels returned to “normal” following pre-treatments with PPAR? agonists. Results In order to identify potential therapeutic targets positively modulated by pre-treatment with the PPAR? agonists, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome profiles between control, ischemia-reperfusion and pre-treated or not, were compared. The polypeptide which expression was altered following ischemia – reperfusion but whose levels remain unchanged after pre-treatment were characterized by mass spectrometry and further investigated by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry. A series of 28 polypeptides were characterized among which the protein disulfide isomerase reduction – a protein instrumental to the unfolded protein response system - was shown to be reduced following PPAR? agonists treatment while it was strongly increased in ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusions Pre-treatment with PPAR? agonist or atorvastatin show potential neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the PDI overexpression in conjunction with the preservation of other neuronal markers, several of which are associated with the regulation of protein homeostasis, signal transduction and maintenance of synaptic plasticity. This proteomic study therefore suggests that neuroprotective effect of PPAR? agonists supposes the preservation of the expression of several proteins essential for the maintenance of protein homeostasis not necessarily directly linked to PPAR? known-regulated targets. PMID:24944524

  12. Selective Ligand Behaviors Provide New Insights into Agonist Activation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a diverse set of ion channels that are essential to everyday brain function. Contemporary research studies selective activation of individual subtypes of receptors, with the hope of increasing our understanding of behavioral responses and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we aim to expand current binding models to help explain the specificity seen among three activators of ?4?2 receptors: sazetidine-A, cytisine, and NS9283. Through mutational analysis, we can interchange the activation profiles of the stoichiometry-selective compounds sazetidine-A and cytisine. In addition, mutations render NS9283—currently identified as a positive allosteric modulator—into an agonist. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) occupation at each primary face of an ? subunit is needed to activate the channel and (2) the complementary face of the adjacent subunit dictates the binding ability of the agonist. PMID:24564429

  13. Selective ligand behaviors provide new insights into agonist activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Christopher B; Rreza, Iva; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2014-05-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a diverse set of ion channels that are essential to everyday brain function. Contemporary research studies selective activation of individual subtypes of receptors, with the hope of increasing our understanding of behavioral responses and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we aim to expand current binding models to help explain the specificity seen among three activators of ?4?2 receptors: sazetidine-A, cytisine, and NS9283. Through mutational analysis, we can interchange the activation profiles of the stoichiometry-selective compounds sazetidine-A and cytisine. In addition, mutations render NS9283--currently identified as a positive allosteric modulator--into an agonist. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) occupation at each primary face of an ? subunit is needed to activate the channel and (2) the complementary face of the adjacent subunit dictates the binding ability of the agonist. PMID:24564429

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists as Therapy for Autoimmune Disease1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Lovett-Racke; Rehana Z. Hussain; Sara Northrop; Judy Choy; Anne Rocchini; Lela Matthes; Janet A. Chavis; Asim Diab; Paul D. Drew; Michael K. Racke

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPAR ligands, which include the naturally occurring PG metabolite 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), as well as thiazolidinediones, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity. The PPAR agonists, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, and fenofibrate, have an excellent track history as oral agents used to treat hypertriglyceridemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that

  15. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing ?4, ?2, and sometimes other subunits (?4?2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of ?4 and ?2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is ?4 but not if it is ?2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical ?4?2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (?4?2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and ?4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that ?2, ?3, ?4, and ?6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with ?4 subunits, but ?2 and ?4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, ?4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of ?4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the ?4?2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  16. Synthesis and biological activities of some new dibenzopyranones and dibenzopyrans: search for potential oestrogen receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jaya; Jha, Ashok K; Hajela, K

    2004-05-01

    Continuing our search for newer oestrogen agonists or antagonists and extending our work on the exploration of benzopyran related compounds, some new tricyclic molecules bridged between the active molecules of 3,4-diaryl chroman and 2,3-diaryl benzopyrans have been synthesised. Structural modifications at different positions with elements known to impart agonist or antagonist activities have been carried out to prepare the desired molecules. The target compounds were screened for their anti-osteoporotic (agonist) and anti-uterotrophic (antagonist) activities and were found to be moderately active. PMID:15080923

  17. Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonists structurally different from other opioid ligands.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Hiromitsu; Ishikawa, Hayato; Kurihara, Mika; Kitajima, Mariko; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Koyama, Fumi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Moriyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Leonard T; Watanabe, Kazuo; Murayama, Toshihiko; Horie, Syunji

    2002-04-25

    Mitragynine (1) is a major alkaloidal component in the Thai traditional medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, and has been proven to exhibit analgesic activity mediated by opioid receptors. By utilizing this natural product as a lead compound, synthesis of some derivatives, evaluations of the structure-activity relationship, and surveys of the intrinsic activities and potencies on opioid receptors were performed with guinea pig ileum. The affinities of some compounds for mu-, delta-, and kappa-receptors were determined in a receptor binding assay. The essential structural moieties in the Corynanthe type indole alkaloids for inducing the opioid agonistic activity were also clarified. The oxidative derivatives of mitragynine, i.e., mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (2) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (12), were found as opioid agonists with higher potency than morphine in the experiment with guinea pig ileum. In addition, 2 induced an analgesic activity in the tail flick test in mice. PMID:11960505

  18. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel, E-mail: molinajm@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Amaya, Esperanza [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Grimaldi, Marina [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Balaguer, Patrick [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Olea, Nicolás [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hER?, hER?, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  19. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist and other constituents from Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Dat, Nguyen Tien; Lee, Kyeong; Hong, Young-Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Minh, Chau Van; Lee, Jung Joon

    2009-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various diseases. The phytochemical investigation of the chloroform-soluble extract of Chromolaena odorata led to the isolation of a PPAR-gamma agonist, (9 S,13 R)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1), together with 12 other compounds. The structures of chromomoric acid G (2), a new dehydrogenated derivative of 1, and chromolanone (3) were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed a significant effect on PPAR-gamma activation in comparison with rosiglitazone. However, compound 2 was inactive, suggesting that the dehydrogenation of the prostaglandin-like structure in 1 abrogates its PPAR-gamma agonistic activity. PMID:19242902

  20. Differential Effects of Allosteric M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists on Receptor Activation, Arrestin 3 Recruitment, and Receptor Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are drug targets for multiple neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, but the full therapeutic potential of mAChR-targeted drugs has not been realized, mainly because of a lack of subtype-selective agonists. Recent advances have allowed the development of highly selective agonists that bind to an allosteric site on the M1 mAChR that is spatially distinct from the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site, but less is known about the profile of intracellular signals activated by orthosteric versus allosteric M1 mAChR agonists. We investigated the activation and regulatory mechanisms of two structurally distinct allosteric M1 mAChR agonists, AC260584 and TBPB. We show that allosteric agonists potently activate multiple signal transduction pathways linked to the M1 mAChR receptor but, compared to orthosteric agonists, much less efficiently recruit arrestin 3, a protein involved in the regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Consistent with decreased arrestin recruitment, both allosteric agonists showed blunted responses in measurements of receptor desensitization, internalization, and downregulation. These results advance the understanding of mAChR biology and may shed light on unanticipated differences in the pharmacology of orthosteric versus allosteric agonists that might be capitalized upon for drug development for the treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:20835371

  1. Allosteric activation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor by selective, nonpeptide agonists.

    PubMed

    Yanofsky, Stephen D; Shen, Emily S; Holden, Frank; Whitehorn, Erik; Aguilar, Barbara; Tate, Emily; Holmes, Christopher P; Scheuerman, Randall; MacLean, Derek; Wu, May M; Frail, Donald E; López, Francisco J; Winneker, Richard; Arey, Brian J; Barrett, Ronald W

    2006-05-12

    The pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), act through their cognate receptors to initiate a series of coordinated physiological events that results in germ cell maturation. Given the importance of FSH in regulating folliculogenesis and fertility, the development of FSH mimetics has been sought to treat infertility. Currently, purified and recombinant human FSH are the only FSH receptor (FSH-R) agonists available for infertility treatment. By screening unbiased combinatorial chemistry libraries, using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter assay, we discovered thiazolidinone agonists (EC50's = 20 microm) of the human FSH-R. Subsequent analog library screening and parallel synthesis optimization resulted in the identification of a potent agonist (EC50 = 2 nm) with full efficacy compared with FSH that was FSH-R-selective and -dependent. The compound mediated progesterone production in Y1 cells transfected with the human FSH-R (EC50 = 980 nm) and estradiol production from primary rat ovarian granulosa cells (EC50 = 10.5 nm). This and related compounds did not compete with FSH for binding to the FSH-R. Use of human FSH/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor chimeras suggested a novel mechanism for receptor activation through a binding site independent of the natural hormone binding site. This study is the first report of a high affinity small molecule agonist that activates a glycoprotein hormone receptor through an allosteric mechanism. The small molecule FSH receptor agonists described here could lead to an oral alternative to the current parenteral FSH treatments used clinically to induce ovarian stimulation for both in vivo and in vitro fertilization therapy. PMID:16540466

  2. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) - surprisingly - autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

  3. Activation of Dendritic Cells by the Novel Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonist RGC100

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Rebekka; Schwarze, Anett; Petzold, Christiane; Schmitz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonists emerged as attractive candidates for vaccination strategies against tumors and pathogens. An important mechanism of action of such agonists is based on the activation of TLR3-expressing dendritic cells (DCs), which display a unique capacity to induce and stimulate T-cell responses. In this context, it has been demonstrated that targeting of TLR3 by double-stranded RNA such as poly(I:C) results in potent activation of DCs. Major disadvantages of poly(I:C) comprise its undefined chemical structure and very poor homogeneity, with subsequent unpredictable pharmacokinetics and high toxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties and biological activity of the novel TLR3 agonist RGC100. RGC100 has a defined chemical structure, with a defined length (100?bp) and molecular weight (64.9?KDa) and a good solubility. RGC100 is stable in serum and activates myeloid DCs through TLR3 targeting, as evidenced by gene silencing experiments. Activation of mouse and human myeloid CD1c+ DCs by RGC100 leads to secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, RGC100 improves the ability of CD1c+ DCs to stimulate T-cell proliferation. Due to its physicochemical properties and its immunostimulatory properties, RGC100 may represent a promising adjuvant for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. PMID:24454470

  4. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) – surprisingly – autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists modulate neuropathic pain: a link to chemokines?

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Caroline M.; Miller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain presents a widespread and intractable medical problem. While numerous pharmaceuticals are used to treat chronic pain, drugs that are safe for extended use and highly effective at treating the most severe pain do not yet exist. Chronic pain resulting from nervous system injury (neuropathic pain) is common in conditions ranging from multiple sclerosis to HIV-1 infection to type II diabetes. Inflammation caused by neuropathy is believed to contribute to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1?, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent research has revealed that PPARs also play a role in inflammatory gene repression. PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal models. Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. In early clinical research, one PPAR? agonist, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), shows promise in relieving chronic pain. If this link can be better established, PPAR agonists may represent a new drug therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:25191225

  6. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPAR? agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 ? M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a ?-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  7. Lanthanide labeling of a potent protease activated receptor-2 agonist for time-resolved fluorescence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Justin; Flynn, Andrea N.; Tillu, Dipti V.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Patek, Renata; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef; Boitano, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is one of four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be activated by exogenous or endogenous proteases, which cleave the extracellular amino-terminus to expose a tethered ligand and subsequent G-protein signaling. Alternatively, PAR2 can be activated by peptide or peptidomimetic ligands derived from the sequence of the natural tethered ligand. Screening of novel ligands that directly bind to PAR2 to agonize or antagonize the receptor has been hindered by the lack of a sensitive, high-throughput, affinity binding assay. In this report we describe the synthesis and use of a modified PAR2 peptidomimetic agonist, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-(diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-NH2 (2-f-LIGRLO-dtpa), designed for lanthanide-based time resolved fluorescence screening. We first demonstrate that 2-f-LIGRLO-dtpa is a potent and specific PAR2 agonist across a full spectrum of in vitro assays. We then show that 2-f-LIGRLO-dtpa can be utilized in an affinity binding assay to evaluate the ligand-receptor interactions between known high potency peptidomimetic agonists (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, 2-f-LIGRLO; 2-aminothiazol-4-yl-LIGRL-NH2, 2-at-LIGRL and; 6-aminonicotinyl-LIGRL-NH2, 6-an-LIGRL) and PAR2. A separate N-terminal peptidomimetic modification (3-indoleacetyl-LIGRL-NH2, 3-ia-LIGRL) that does not activate PAR2 signaling was used as a negative control. All three peptidomimetic agonists demonstrated sigmoidal competitive binding curves, with the more potent agonists (2-f-LIGRLO and 2-at-LIGRL) displaying increased competition. In contrast, the control peptide (3-ia-LIGRL) displayed limited competition for PAR2 binding. In summary, we have developed a Europium-containing PAR2 agonist that can be used in a highly sensitive affinity binding assay to screen novel PAR2 ligands in a high-throughput format. This ligand can serve as a critical tool in the screening and development of PAR2 ligands. PMID:22994402

  8. Agonist-activated ionic channels in acetylcholine receptor reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Boheim, G; Hanke, W; Barrantes, F J; Eibl, H; Sakmann, B; Fels, G; Maelicke, A

    1981-01-01

    Planar lipid bilayers were formed with the mixed chain phospholipid 1-stearoyl-3-myristolglycero-2-phosphocholine. Acetylcholine receptor membrane fragments or the purified receptor protein was incorporated into these bilayers by fusing receptor-containing vesicles with the planar membranes a few degrees below the lipid phase transition temperature. Single-channel currents activated by nicotinic agonists in the reconstituted system resembled those observed in intact rat and frog muscle membrane as measured by the patch clamp technique. The observed channel characteristics did not depend on the degree of receptor purification. Thus, the receptor-enriched fragments and those depleted of nonreceptor peripheral peptides, the purified receptor monomer/dimer mixtures, and the isolated receptor monomer as defined by gel electrophoresis all shared similar electrochemical properties in the synthetic lipid bilayer. The agonist-activated ionic channel seems, therefore, to be contained within the receptor monomer. PMID:6267599

  9. FRET-Based Detection of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation by Orthosteric and Allosteric Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Danijela; Holdich, Jonathan; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Mistry, Rajendra; Krasel, Cornelius; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Challiss, R. A. John

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Methods Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M1-cam5) was expressed stably in HEK293 cells. Results The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with G?q/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M1 FRET (FEYFP/FECFP) that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine. Conclusion The M1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a valuable molecular reagent for pharmacological and structural investigations of M1 mAChR activation. PMID:22272263

  10. [Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid and its agonists on uterine contractile activity].

    PubMed

    Sizov, P I; Iasnetsov, V S

    1988-01-01

    In chronic experiments on female rabbits it was shown that GABA-receptor agonist phenibut given in small doses exerts the stimulating effect, while GABA and phenibut administered in large doses suppress the uterine contractile activity, acting probably as modulators of presynaptic release of neuromediators. Diazepam displays the regulatory effect on the uterine contractions via the postsynaptic receptor mechanisms. The data suggest the involvement of the GABAergic mechanisms in the uterine contractile function. PMID:3191975

  11. Analysis of Derivatives Subtypes Agonist and Antagonist Activities of Phenylglycine for Different Cloned Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Hayashi; Shigetada Nakanishi; David E. Jane; David C. Sunter; Ewan F. Birse; Peter M. Udvarhelyi; Jeffrey C. Watkins

    1994-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) consist of at least seven different subtypes and are coupled to intra- cellular signal transduction via G proteins. However, the lack of specific antagonists for the mGluRs limited the precise characterization of the role of the individual mGluRs. In this study, we investigated the agonist and antagonist activities of a series of phenylglycine derivatives for

  12. Differential effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on regional brain activity using pharmacological MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chin, C-L; Tovcimak, A E; Hradil, V P; Seifert, T R; Hollingsworth, P R; Chandran, P; Zhu, C Z; Gauvin, D; Pai, M; Wetter, J; Hsieh, G C; Honore, P; Frost, J M; Dart, M J; Meyer, M D; Yao, B B; Cox, B F; Fox, G B

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and/or CB2 receptors mediates analgesic effects across a broad spectrum of preclinical pain models. Selective activation of CB2 receptors may produce analgesia without the undesirable psychotropic side effects associated with modulation of CB1 receptors. To address selectivity in vivo, we describe non-invasive, non-ionizing, functional data that distinguish CB1 from CB2 receptor neural activity using pharmacological MRI (phMRI) in awake rats. Experimental approach: Using a high field (7?T) MRI scanner, we examined and quantified the effects of non-selective CB1/CB2 (A-834735) and selective CB2 (AM1241) agonists on neural activity in awake rats. Pharmacological specificity was determined using selective CB1 (rimonabant) or CB2 (AM630) antagonists. Behavioural studies, plasma and brain exposures were used as benchmarks for activity in vivo. Key results: The non-selective CB1/CB2 agonist produced a dose-related, region-specific activation of brain structures that agrees well with published autoradiographic CB1 receptor density binding maps. Pretreatment with a CB1 antagonist but not with a CB2 antagonist, abolished these activation patterns, suggesting an effect mediated by CB1 receptors alone. In contrast, no significant changes in brain activity were found with relevant doses of the CB2 selective agonist. Conclusion and implications: These results provide the first clear evidence for quantifying in vivo functional selectivity between CB1 and CB2 receptors using phMRI. Further, as the presence of CB2 receptors in the brain remains controversial, our data suggest that if CB2 receptors are expressed, they are not functional under normal physiological conditions. PMID:17965748

  13. Agonist activity of LSD and lisuride at cloned 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina T. Egan; Katharine Herrick-Davis; Keith Miller; Richard A. Glennon; M. Teitler

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from studies with phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens indicates that the 5HT2A receptor is the likely target for the initiation of events leading to hallucinogenic activity associated with LSD?and related\\u000a drugs. Recently, lisuride (a purported non-hallucinogenic congener of LSD) was reported to be a potent antagonist at the 5HT2C receptor and an agonist at the 5HT2A receptor. LSD exhibited agonist activity at

  14. A rapid agonist application system for fast activation of ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Komal, Pragya; Evans, Gareth; Nashmi, Raad

    2011-06-15

    The synaptic delay between neurotransmitter release across the synaptic cleft and activation of neurotransmitter gated ion channels is less than a ms. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), like many other classes of ligand-gated ion channels, are comprised of different protein subunits forming a variety of receptors with different activation and desensitization kinetics and pharmacological sensitivities. To measure and fully characterize ligand-gated ion channel currents accurately, one must apply agonists in a fraction of a ms and repeatedly at various concentrations without any prior desensitization of the receptors. In this paper, we describe an economical, easy to assemble and operate rapid drug application system. The drug applicator system consists of a parallel array of three pinch valves, which allow either agonist or wash solution into a theta tube. Solution exchanges of 0.16 ms can be achieved. In transfected cells, ACh elicited ?4?2 nicotinic currents with mean rise times of 55±13 ms. We recorded ?7 nAChRs, which desensitize very rapidly, and obtained very fast rise times of 19±2 ms. With this novel drug applicator, agonists can be applied repeatedly without any loss of current. Hence, complete dose-response relations can be obtained for even ?7 nAChRs, which are very sensitive to desensitization caused by agonist exposure on a ms time scale. The drug application system can also be extended to the study of ligand-gated ion channels in brain slices. The theta tube valve-driven drug applicator system can be applied to study other ligand-gated ion channels including glutamate and GABA receptors. PMID:21549754

  15. Structure-activity relationship of bile alcohols as human farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yusuke; Kihira, Kenji; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Une, Mizuho

    2010-01-01

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor) is a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor that regulates not only the biosynthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, but also triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose metabolism. FXR-mediated signaling pathways have become promising novel drug targets for the treatment of common metabolic and hepatic diseases. With the aim of uncovering novel modulators of FXR and further elucidating the molecular basis of FXR activation, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of a variety of naturally occurring sterols structurally related to bile acids in terms of their FXR agonist activity. Here, we report that the ability of bile alcohols to activate FXR varied with the position and number of hydroxyl groups existing in the steroid side chain of bile alcohols. In addition, we showed that the shortening of the steroid side chain of bile acids as well as bile alcohols resulted in a decline of the ability of these agents to activate FXR. Thus, we provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of bile acids and bile alcohols as FXR agonists. PMID:19913569

  16. Cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists induce gamma frequency activity in dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christen; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Williams, D. Keith; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus (SubCD) is involved in generating two signs of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: muscle atonia and ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves. We tested the hypothesis that single cell and/or population responses of SubCD neurons are capable of generating gamma frequency activity in response to intracellular stimulation or receptor agonist activation. Whole cell patch clamp recordings (immersion chamber) and population responses (interface chamber) were conducted on 9- to 20-day-old rat brain stem slices. All SubCD neurons (n = 103) fired at gamma frequency when subjected to depolarizing steps. Two statistically distinct populations of neurons were observed, which were distinguished by their high (>80 Hz, n = 24) versus low (35–80 Hz, n = 16) initial firing frequencies. Both cell types exhibited subthreshold oscillations in the gamma range (n = 43), which may underlie the gamma band firing properties of these neurons. The subthreshold oscillations were blocked by the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin (TTX, n = 21) extracellularly and N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium bromide (QX-314) intracellularly (n = 5), indicating they were sodium channel dependent. Gamma frequency subthreshold oscillations were observed in response to the nonspecific cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CAR, n = 11, d = 1.08) and the glutamate receptor agonists N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, n = 12, d = 1.09) and kainic acid (KA, n = 13, d = 0.96), indicating that cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs may be involved in the activation of these subthreshold currents. Gamma band activity also was observed in population responses following application of CAR (n = 4, P < 0.05), NMDA (n = 4, P < 0.05) and KA (n = 4, P < 0.05). Voltage-sensitive, sodium channel-dependent gamma band activity appears to be a part of the intrinsic membrane properties of SubCD neurons. PMID:21543743

  17. The Ultra-Potent and Selective TLR8 Agonist VTX-294 Activates Human Newborn and Adult Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Prokopowicz, Zofia M.; Palmer, Christine D.; Matthews, Maura-Ann H.; Dietsch, Gregory N.; Hershberg, Robert M.; Levy, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Newborns display distinct immune responses that contribute to susceptibility to infection and reduced vaccine responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists may serve as vaccine adjuvants, when given individually or in combination, but responses of neonatal leukocytes to many TLR agonists are diminished. TLR8 agonists are more effective than other TLR agonists in activating human neonatal leukocytes in vitro, but little is known about whether different TLR8 agonists may distinctly activate neonatal leukocytes. We characterized the in vitro immuno-stimulatory activities of a novel benzazepine TLR8 agonist, VTX-294, in comparison to imidazoquinolines that activate TLR8 (R-848; (TLR7/8) CL075; (TLR8/7)), with respect to activation of human newborn and adult leukocytes. Effects of VTX-294 and R-848 in combination with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA; TLR4) were also assessed. Methods TLR agonist specificity was assessed using TLR-transfected HEK293 cells expressing a NF-?B reporter gene. TLR agonist-induced cytokine production was measured in human newborn cord and adult peripheral blood using ELISA and multiplex assays. Newborn and adult monocytes were differentiated into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and TLR agonist-induced activation assessed by cytokine production (ELISA) and co-stimulatory molecule expression (flow cytometry). Results VTX-294 was ?100x more active on TLR8- than TLR7-transfected HEK cells (EC50, ?50 nM vs. ?5700 nM). VTX-294-induced TNF and IL-1? production were comparable in newborn cord and adult peripheral blood, while VTX-294 was ? 1 log more potent in inducing TNF and IL-1? production than MPLA, R848 or CL075. Combination of VTX-294 and MPLA induced greater blood TNF and IL-1? responses than combination of R-848 and MPLA. VTX-294 also potently induced expression of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules HLA-DR and CD86 in human newborn MoDCs. Conclusions VTX-294 is a novel ultra-potent TLR8 agonist that activates newborn and adult leukocytes and is a candidate vaccine adjuvant in both early life and adulthood. PMID:23483986

  18. Polyyne Hybrid Compounds from Notopterygium incisum with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonistic Effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the search for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) active constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum, 11 new polyacetylene derivatives (1–11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and HRESIMS as new polyyne hybrid molecules of falcarindiol with sesquiterpenoid or phenylpropanoid moieties, named notoethers A–H (1–8) and notoincisols A–C (9–11), respectively. Notoincisol B (10) and notoincisol C (11) represent two new carbon skeletons. When tested for PPAR? activation in a luciferase reporter assay with HEK-293 cells, notoethers A–C (1–3), notoincisol A (9), and notoincisol B (10) showed promising agonistic activity (EC50 values of 1.7 to 2.3 ?M). In addition, notoincisol A (9) exhibited inhibitory activity on NO production of stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:25333853

  19. Polyyne hybrid compounds from Notopterygium incisum with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Kunert, Olaf; Blunder, Martina; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Noha, Stefan M; Malainer, Clemens; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H; Atanasov, Atanas G; Kollroser, Manfred; Schuster, Daniela; Dirsch, Verena M; Bauer, Rudolf

    2014-11-26

    In the search for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) active constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum, 11 new polyacetylene derivatives (1-11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and HRESIMS as new polyyne hybrid molecules of falcarindiol with sesquiterpenoid or phenylpropanoid moieties, named notoethers A-H (1-8) and notoincisols A-C (9-11), respectively. Notoincisol B (10) and notoincisol C (11) represent two new carbon skeletons. When tested for PPAR? activation in a luciferase reporter assay with HEK-293 cells, notoethers A-C (1-3), notoincisol A (9), and notoincisol B (10) showed promising agonistic activity (EC50 values of 1.7 to 2.3 ?M). In addition, notoincisol A (9) exhibited inhibitory activity on NO production of stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:25333853

  20. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

  1. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity.

    PubMed

    Renton, Paul; Green, Brenda; Maddaford, Shawn; Rakhit, Suman; Andrews, John S

    2012-03-01

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure-activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, K i = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

  2. Increase in locomotor activity after acute administration of the nicotinic receptor agonist 3-bromocytisine in rats.

    PubMed

    Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Urbanavicius, Jessika; Scorza, Cecilia; Rebolledo-Fuentes, Marcos; Wonnacott, Susan; Cassels, Bruce K; Dajas, Federico

    2010-05-25

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence striatal dopaminergic activity and its outcome on motor behavior. For these reasons, nicotinic receptors have been considered as therapeutically relevant targets for Parkinson's disease, in which a dramatic loss of dopamine affects motor functions. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects on locomotor activity induced by the nicotinic agonist cytisine and two brominated derivatives, 5- and 3-bromocytisine (5-BrCy and 3-BrCy) using nicotine for comparison. After acute systemic administration of the agonists only 3-BrCy induced an increase in locomotor activity. To study the mechanism of action involved in this increase we co-administered 3-BrCy with the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine and also examined 3-BrCy's effects in rats pre-treated with the long acting nicotinic antagonist chlorisondamine, administered directly in the dorsal and ventral striatum. We studied the role of the dopaminergic system by co-administration of the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. The results indicate that the increase in motor activity elicited by 3-BrCy was mediated by nicotinic receptors in the dorsal and ventral striatum and depends on the interaction of nicotinic receptors with the dopaminergic system. We conclude that 3-BrCy might be a new tool to study the modulation of the dopaminergic system by nicotinic receptors and their behavioral implications. PMID:20184877

  3. Involvement of Asn-293 in stereospecific agonist recognition and in activation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, K; Zuurmond, H M; Krasel, C; Ijzerman, A P; Lohse, M J

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism for stereospecific binding of agonists to beta 2-adrenergic receptors we used receptor models to identify potential binding sites for the beta-OH-group of the ligand, which defines the chiral center. Ser-165, located in transmembrane helix IV, and Asn-293, situated in the upper half of transmembrane helix VI, were identified as potential binding sites. Mutation of Ser-165 to Ala did not change the binding of either isoproterenol isomer as revealed after transient expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. In contrast, a receptor mutant in which Asn-293 was replaced by Leu showed substantial loss of stereospecific isoproterenol binding. Adenylyl cyclase stimulation by this mutant after stable expression in CHO cells confirmed the substantial loss of stereospecificity for isoproterenol. In a series of agonists the loss of affinity in the Leu-293 mutant receptor was strongly correlated with the intrinsic activity of the compounds. Full agonists showed a 10-30-fold affinity loss, whereas partial agonists had almost the same affinity for both receptors. Stereospecific recognition of antagonists was unaltered in the Leu-293 mutant receptor. These data indicate a relationship between stereospecificity and intrinsic activity of agonists and suggest that Asn-293 is important for both properties of the agonist-receptor interaction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8799191

  4. Differential agonist activity of somatostatin and L-362855 at human recombinant sst4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, K S M; Feniuk, W; Humphrey, P P A

    1998-01-01

    The operational characteristics of somatostatin (SRIF) sst4 receptors are poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized human recombinant sst4 receptors expressed in CHO cells (CHOsst4) by radioligand binding and microphysiometry.Increasing concentrations SRIF or other SRIF receptor ligands inhibited specific [125I]-Tyr11-SRIF binding in CHOsst4 cell membranes with respective pIC50 values of SRIF (8.82), L-362855 (7.40), BIM-23027 (<5.5) and MK-678 (<5.5).These ligands displayed agonist activity, producing concentration-dependent increases in rates of extracellular acidification (EAR) with pEC50 values of SRIF (9.6) and L-362855 (8.0), respectively. BIM-23027 and MK-678 were at least 1000 times weaker than SRIF. The SRIF maximum was about 40% of that observed with L-362855.In the presence of SRIF (0.1–1?nM), concentration-effect curves to L-362855 were displaced to the right with a progressive reduction in the L-362855 maximum.When cells were only exposed to a single maximally effective concentration of SRIF or L-362855, there was no difference in the magnitude of the agonist-induced increase in EAR. However, a second agonist challenge, 30?min later showed that responses to SRIF but not L-362855 were markedly desensitized.When concentration-effect curves to SRIF and L-362855 were obtained by combining data from cells exposed to only a single agonist concentration, SRIF (pEC50 9.2) was approximately 20 times more potent than L-362855 (pEC50 8.0) but the maxima were the same. Responses to both SRIF and L-362855 were abolished by pertussis toxin.SRIF and L-362855-induced increases in EAR were inhibited by N-ethyl isopropyl amiloride (10??M) but were not modified by inhibitors of PKC (Go-6976), MAP kinase (PD-98059), tyrosine kinase (genistein) or tyrosine phosphatase (sodium orthovanadate).The results suggest that SRIF-induced increases in EAR in CHOsst4 cells involved activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter and were mediated via Gi/Go G proteins. Responses to SRIF, but not L-362855, were subject to marked desensitization which may be a consequence of differential activation of receptor-effector coupling pathways. PMID:9831922

  5. Agonists for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and the retinoid X receptor inhibit inflammatory responses of microglia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jihong; Storer, Paul D; Chavis, Janet A; Racke, Michael K; Drew, Paul D

    2005-08-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated that administration of the PPAR-alpha agonists gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, inhibit the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study we investigated the effects of PPAR-alpha agonists on primary mouse microglia, a cell type implicated in the pathology of MS and EAE. Our studies demonstrated that the PPAR-alpha agonists ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and WY 14,643 each inhibited NO production by cytokine-stimulated microglia in a dose-dependent manner. However, fenofibrate and WY 14,643 were more potent inhibitors than gemfibrozil and ciprofibrate. In LPS-stimulated microglia, only fenofibrate and WY 14,643 significantly suppressed NO production. Additionally, PPAR-alpha agonists inhibited the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and the chemokine MCP-1 by LPS-stimulated microglia. Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) physically interact with PPAR-alpha receptors, and the resulting heterodimers regulate the expression of PPAR-responsive genes. Interestingly, the RXR agonist 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) inhibited NO production by LPS-stimulated microglia. Furthermore, a combination of 9-cis RA and the PPAR-alpha agonist fenofibrate cooperatively inhibited NO production by these cells. A combination of these agonists also selectively inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated microglia. Collectively, these results raise the possibility that PPAR-alpha and RXR agonists might have benefit as a therapy in MS, where activated microglia are believed to contribute to disease pathology. PMID:15968640

  6. Agonist stimulation, talin-1, and kindlin-3 are crucial for ?(IIb)?(3) activation in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Tadokoro, Seiji; Kamae, Tsuyoshi; Kiyomizu, Kazunobu; Kashiwagi, Hirokazu; Honda, Shigenori; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Platelet integrin ?(IIb)?(3) activation is regulated by inside-out signaling via agonist stimulation. However, when ?(IIb)?(3) was exogenously expressed in cell lines such as Chinese hamster ovarian cells, physiological agonists hardly induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. To overcome this disadvantage, we characterized the functional regulation of endogenously expressed ?(IIb)?(3) in a megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK, employing an initial velocity assay for PAC-1 binding. We firstly demonstrated that protease-activated receptor 1-activating peptide induced robust, but transient ?(IIb)?(3) activation in CMK cells with high glycoprotein-Ib expression. Stable talin-1 or kindlin-3 knockdown cells confirmed that the protease-activated receptor 1-activating peptide-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation was dependent on talin-1 and kindlin-3 expression. In sharp contrast to exogenously expressed ?(IIb)?(3) in Chinese hamster ovarian cells, transient overexpression of full-length talin (FL-talin) or talin-head domain (THD) alone did not activate ?(IIb)?(3) in CMK cells, but required agonist stimulation. Similarly, kindlin-3 overexpression alone did not induce ?(IIb)?(3) activation, but it significantly augmented agonist-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. Several mutants of FL-talin and THD suggested that the head-rod interaction was critical for autoinhibition of talin-1, and the interaction between the THD and the membrane-proximal region of the ?(3) cytoplasmic tail was essential for talin-mediated ?(IIb)?(3) activation. In addition, THD and kindlin-3 cooperatively augmented protease-activated receptor 1-induced ?(IIb)?(3) activation. We proposed that the CMK cell line is an attractive platform for investigating agonist-, talin-1-, and kindlin-3- dependent ?(IIb)?(3) activation. PMID:23022222

  7. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues with enhanced ? opioid agonist potency and with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent ? opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe(3) with various 2',6'-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2',4',6'-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2'-ethyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3'-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3'-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased ? agonist potency, retained ? receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp(3)-, Imp(3)-, Emp(3)- and 1-Nal(3)-containing analogues showed much increased ? receptor binding affinity and had mixed ?/? properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C(?)C(?) bond of the Xxx(3) residue, in correlation with the observed ? receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:24602401

  8. [Dmt1]DALDA analogues with enhanced ? opioid agonist potency and with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N.; Wilkes, Brian C.; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Analogues of [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2?,6?-dimethyltyrosine), a potent ? opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe3 with various 2?,6?-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2?,6?-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2?4?,6?-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2?-isopropyl-6?-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2?-ethyl-6?-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3?-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3?-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased ? agonist potency, retained ? receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp3-, Imp3-, Emp3- and 1-Nal3-containing analogues showed much increased ? receptor binding affinity and had mixed ?/? properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C?-C? bond of the Xxx3 residue, in correlation with the observed ? receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:24602401

  9. A polymorphic protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) displaying reduced sensitivity to trypsin and differential responses to PAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Compton, S J; Cairns, J A; Palmer, K J; Al-Ani, B; Hollenberg, M D; Walls, A F

    2000-12-15

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a trypsin-activated member of a family of G-protein-coupled PARs. We have identified a polymorphic form of human PAR2 (PAR(2)F240S) characterized by a phenylalanine to serine mutation at residue 240 within extracellular loop 2, with allelic frequencies of 0.916 (Phe(240)) and 0.084 (Ser(240)) for the wild-type and mutant alleles, respectively. Elevations in intracellular calcium were measured in permanently transfected cell lines expressing the receptors. PAR(2)F240S displayed a significant reduction in sensitivity toward trypsin ( approximately 3.7-fold) and the PAR2-activating peptides, SLIGKV-NH(2) ( approximately 2.5-fold) and SLIGRL-NH(2) ( approximately 2.8-fold), but an increased sensitivity toward the selective PAR2 agonist, trans-cinnamoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2) ( approximately 4-fold). Increased sensitivity was also observed toward the selective PAR-1 agonist, TFLLR-NH(2) ( approximately 7-fold), but not to other PAR-1 agonists tested. Furthermore, we found that TLIGRL-NH(2) and a PAR4-derived peptide, trans-cinnamoyl-YPGKF-NH(2), were selective PAR(2)F240S agonists. By introducing the F240S mutation into rat PAR2, we observed shifts in agonist potencies that mirrored the human PAR(2)F240S, suggesting that Phe(240) is involved in determining agonist specificity of PAR2. Finally, differences in receptor signaling were paralleled in a cell growth assay. We suggest that the distinct pharmacological profile induced by this polymorphism will have important implications for the design of PAR-targeted agonists/antagonists and may contribute to, or be predictive of, an inflammatory disease. PMID:10995771

  10. Peroxisome proliferators-activated alpha agonist treatment ameliorates hepatic damage in rats with obstructive jaundice: an experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Cindoruk; Mustafa Kerem; Tarkan Karakan; Bulent Salman; Okan Akin; Murat Alper; Ozlem Erdem; Selahattin Ünal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activation modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of short-term administration of fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, on proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and hepatocellular damage in cholestasis. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I = sham operated, II = bile duct ligation (BDL),

  11. Assessment of natural products in the Drosophila melanogaster B II cell bioassay for ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Bourne; Y. Meng; R. B. Tolentino; P. Whiting

    2001-01-01

    Ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities can be detected and quantified with the Drosophila melanogaster BII cell bioassay. This bioassay is convenient, sensitive and robust. We report the assessment with this bioassay of the activities of a wide range of compounds representing a number of classes of natural products. Many compounds were inactive over a wide concentration range (10ъ to 10ц

  12. A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Chang, Yu-Ying [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ya-Wen [SunWay Biotechnology Company, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pan, Tzu-Ming, E-mail: tmpan@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to D-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes. - Highlights: • Monascin acts as a PPARgamma agonist. • Monascin activates Nrf2 and AMPK. • Monascin promotes MG metabolism into D-lactic acid. • Monascin attenuates inflammation and diabetes in vivo.

  13. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor labeled with a tritiated, photoactivatable agonist: a new tool for investigating the functional, activated state.

    PubMed

    Kotzyba-Hibert, F; Kessler, P; Zerbib, V; Grutter, T; Bogen, C; Takeda, K; Hammadi, A; Knerr, L; Goeldner, M

    1997-01-01

    Upon agonist activation, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor undergoes allosteric transitions leading to channel opening and sodium ion influx. The molecular structure of the agonist binding site has been mapped previously by photoaffinity labeling, but most photosensitive probes used for this purpose interact only with closed receptor states (resting or desensitized). We have synthesized two novel photoactivatable 4-diazocyclohexa-2,5-dienone derivatives as cholinergic agonist candidates, with the objective of identifying structural changes at the acetylcholine binding site associated with receptor activation. One of these ligands, 9b, is a functional agonist at muscle acetylcholine receptors in human TE 671 cells. In photolabeling experiments with 9b, up to 35% inactivation of agonist binding sites was observed at Torpedo acetylcholine receptors. Tritiated 9b was synthesized, and photolabeling was found to occur mainly on the alpha-subunit in a partially protectable manner. This novel radiolabeled photoprobe appears to be suitable for future investigation of the molecular dynamics of allosteric transitions occurring at the active acetylcholine receptor binding site. PMID:9258443

  14. Antibodies to a peptide from the maize auxin-binding protein have auxin agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Venis, M A; Napier, R M; Barbier-Brygoo, H; Maurel, C; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Guern, J

    1992-08-01

    The major auxin-binding protein in maize membranes is thought to function as a physiological receptor. From earlier information, including the use of site-directed irreversible inhibitors, several of the amino acids likely to form part of the active auxin-binding site were provisionally assigned. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of the auxin-binding protein showed a short region containing all but one of these amino acids. We find that antisera raised against a synthetic peptide encompassing this region recognize all isoforms of the maize auxin-binding protein together with homologous polypeptides in other species. We further find that the antibodies hyperpolarize protoplast transmembrane potential in an auxin-like manner. We conclude that these antibodies display auxin agonist activity and that we have identified an essential portion of the auxin-binding site. PMID:1323130

  15. PPAR-? agonist elicits metabolically active brown adipocytes and weight loss in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Bringhenti, Isabele; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is considered a public health problem worldwide. Fenofibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) agonist, elicits weight loss in animal models. This study aimed to examine the effects of fenofibrate on energy expenditure, body mass (BM) and gene expression of thermogenic factors in brown adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) diet or a high-fat (HF; 50% lipids) diet for 10?weeks. Afterwards, groups were subdivided as SC, SC-F, HF and HF-F (n?=?10, each). Treatment with fenofibrate (100?mg?kg(-1) BM mixed into the diet) lasted 5?weeks. Treated groups had reduced final BM compared with their counterparts (p?agonist can induce thermogenesis by increasing energy expenditure and enhancing the expression of genes involved in the thermogenic pathway. These results suggest fenofibrate as a coadjutant drug for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25959716

  16. The Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Imiquimod Is Active against Prions

    PubMed Central

    Beringue, Vincent; Soubigou, Flavie; Pang, Yanhong; Desban, Nathalie; Massacrier, Catherine; Morel, Yannis; Paturel, Carine; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Bouaziz, Serge; Sanyal, Suparna; Galons, Hervé; Blondel, Marc; Voisset, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Using a yeast-based assay, a previously unsuspected antiprion activity was found for imiquimod (IQ), a potent Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist already used for clinical applications. The antiprion activity of IQ was first detected against yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3], and then against mammalian prion both ex vivo in a cell-based assay and in vivo in a transgenic mouse model for prion diseases. In order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies, we conducted a new synthetic pathway which provides a more efficient means of producing new IQ chemical derivatives, the activity of which was tested against both yeast and mammalian prions. The comparable antiprion activity of IQ and its chemical derivatives in the above life forms further emphasizes the conservation of prion controlling mechanisms throughout evolution. Interestingly, this study also demonstrated that the antiprion activity of IQ and IQ-derived compounds is independent from their ability to stimulate TLRs. Furthermore, we found that IQ and its active chemical derivatives inhibit the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR) in vitro. PMID:23977222

  17. Preclinical Activity of Eltrombopag (SB-497115), an Oral, Nonpeptide Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Miller, Connie L; Delorme, Evelyne; Tian, Shin-Shay; Hopson, Christopher B; Landis, Amy J; Valoret, Elizabeth I; Sellers, Teresa S; Rosen, Jon; Miller, Stephen G; Luengo, Juan I; Duffy, Kevin J; Jenkins, Julian M

    2009-01-01

    Eltrombopag is a first-in-class, orally bioavailable, small-molecule, nonpeptide agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), which is being developed as a treatment for thrombocytopenia of various etiologies. In vitro studies have demonstrated that the activity of eltrombopag is dependent on expression of TpoR, which activates the signaling transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. The objective of this preclinical study is to determine if eltrombopag interacts selectively with the TpoR to facilitate megakaryocyte differentiation in platelets. Functional thrombopoietic activity was demonstrated by the proliferation and differentiation of primary human CD34+ bone marrow cells into CD41+ megakaryocytes. Measurements in platelets in several species indicated that eltrombopag specifically activates only the human and chimpanzee STAT pathways. The in vivo activity of eltrombopag was demonstrated by an increase of up to 100% in platelet numbers when administered orally (10 mg/kg per day for 5 days) to chimpanzees. In conclusion, eltrombopag interacts selectively with the TpoR without competing with Tpo, leading to the increased proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow progenitor cells into megakaryocytes and increased platelet production. These results suggest that eltrombopag and Tpo may be able to act additively to increase platelet production. PMID:19038790

  18. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Xiang Hua [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: byhwang@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: junelee@korea.ac.kr [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  19. Identification of PPARgamma Partial Agonists of Natural Origin (II): In Silico Prediction in Natural Extracts with Known Antidiabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. Methodology/Principal Findings From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally), we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPAR? partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus) to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPAR? partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPAR? partial agonists obtained from the literature. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPAR? partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused towards the prevention/treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:23405231

  20. Identification of a potent synthetic FXR agonist with an unexpected mode of binding and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Soisson, Stephen M.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Adams, Alan D.; Sahoo, Soumya; Sitlani, Ayesha; Sparrow, Carl; Cui, Jisong; Becker, Joseph W. (Merck)

    2008-07-08

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. There is intense interest in understanding the mechanisms of FXR regulation and in developing pharmaceutically suitable synthetic FXR ligands that might be used to treat metabolic syndrome. We report here the identification of a potent FXR agonist (MFA-1) and the elucidation of the structure of this ligand in ternary complex with the human receptor and a coactivator peptide fragment using x-ray crystallography at 1.9-{angstrom} resolution. The steroid ring system of MFA-1 binds with its D ring-facing helix 12 (AF-2) in a manner reminiscent of hormone binding to classical steroid hormone receptors and the reverse of the pose adopted by naturally occurring bile acids when bound to FXR. This binding mode appears to be driven by the presence of a carboxylate on MFA-1 that is situated to make a salt-bridge interaction with an arginine residue in the FXR-binding pocket that is normally used to neutralize bound bile acids. Receptor activation by MFA-1 differs from that by bile acids in that it relies on direct interactions between the ligand and residues in helices 11 and 12 and only indirectly involves a protonated histidine that is part of the activation trigger. The structure of the FXR:MFA-1 complex differs significantly from that of the complex with a structurally distinct agonist, fexaramine, highlighting the inherent plasticity of the receptor.

  1. Effects of structural modifications of N-CPM-normorphine derivatives on agonist and antagonist activities in isolated organs.

    PubMed

    Riba, P; Tóth, Z; Hosztafi, S; Friedmann, T; Fürst, S

    2003-01-01

    The agonistic and antagonistic properties of N-cyclopropylmethyl (N-CPM) morphine derivatives were observed in mouse vas deferens (MVD), longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum (GPI) and rabbit vas deferens (LVD). In MVD the K(e) values of the titled compounds (N-CPM-morphine, N-CPM-isomorphine, N-CPM-dihydromorphine, N-CPM-dihydroisomorpPhine, N-CPM-dihydromorphone and naltrexone) were measured for mu-, kappa- and delta-receptors using normorphine, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and D-Pen2-D-Pen5-enkephaline (DPDPE) as selective agonists on the receptors, respectively. For mu-receptors of MVD the tested compounds showed similar affinity. For kappa-receptors the non-iso-6-OH derivatives possessed much less affinity than the iso-derivatives. Similar difference could be observed for delta-receptors. The agonistic activities of these compounds in MVD were observed to be between 0-20% of the inhibition of muscle contractions. In GPI the compounds except naltrexone possessed strong agonistic activities effectively antagonized by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) (K(e) of nor-BNI was 0.23 nM) suggesting that they were strong kappa-receptor agonists. We investigated these agents in LVD too, which contains kappa-receptors, but they did not produce any agonist potencies. It raises the possibility that the kappa-receptor subtypes of LVD and MVD are different from the kappa-receptor subtype of GPI or the vasa deferentia contain much fewer kappa-receptors than GPI and the intrinsic activities of these compounds are too small to reach the 50% inhibition of the contractions. PMID:14535623

  2. Agonist activation of arachidonate-regulated Ca2+-selective (ARC) channels in murine parotid and pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Mignen, Olivier; Thompson, Jill L; Yule, David I; Shuttleworth, Trevor J

    2005-05-01

    ARC channels (arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)-selective channels) are a novel type of highly Ca(2+)-selective channel that are specifically activated by low concentrations of agonist-induced arachidonic acid. This activation occurs in the absence of any depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores (i.e. they are 'non-capacitative'). Previous studies in HEK293 cells have shown that these channels provide the predominant pathway for the entry of Ca(2+) seen at low agonist concentrations where oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals are typically produced. In contrast, activation of the more widely studied store-operated Ca(2+) channels (e.g. CRAC channels) is only seen at higher agonist concentrations where sustained 'plateau-type'[Ca(2+)](i) responses are observed. We have now demonstrated the presence of ARC channels in both parotid and pancreatic acinar cells and shown that, again, they are specifically activated by the low concentrations of appropriate agonists (carbachol in the parotid, and both carbachol and cholecystokinin in the pancreas) that are associated with oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells. Uncoupling the receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) with isotetrandrine reduces the activation of the ARC channels by carbachol and, correspondingly, markedly inhibits the [Ca(2+)](i) signals induced by low carbachol concentrations, whilst those signals seen at high agonist concentrations are essentially unaffected. Interestingly, in the pancreatic acinar cells, activation by cholecystokinin induces a current through the ARC channels that is only approximately 60% of that seen with carbachol. This is consistent with previous reports indicating that carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells are much more dependent on Ca(2+) entry than are the cholecystokinin-induced responses. PMID:15760932

  3. Transcriptional Modulation of the Immune Response by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Agonists in Autoimmune Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Gocke, Anne R.; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Yang, Yuhong; Peng, Haiyan; Weiner, Jeffrey; Ben, Li-Hong; Drew, Paul D.; Stuve, Olaf; Lovett-Racke, Amy E.; Racke, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists have been shown to have a therapeutic benefit in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the PPAR? agonist gemfibrozil induces immune deviation and protects mice from EAE. We demonstrated that treatment with gemfibrozil increases expression of the Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 and decreases expression of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet in vitro and directly ex vivo. These changes correlated with an increase in nuclear PPAR? expression. Moreover, the protective effects of PPAR? agonists in EAE were shown to be partially dependent on IL-4 and to occur in a receptor-dependent manner. PPAR? was demonstrated, for the first time, to regulate the IL-4 and IL-5 genes and to bind the IL-4 promoter in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator-1, indicating that PPAR? can directly transactivate the IL-4 gene. Finally, therapeutic administration of PPAR? agonists ameliorated clinically established EAE, suggesting that PPAR? agonists may provide a treatment option for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:19299749

  4. Structure?Activity Study of Dihydrocinnamic Acids and Discovery of the Potent FFA1 (GPR40) Agonist TUG-469

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFA1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic ?-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists containing the para-substituted dihydrocinnamic acid moiety are known. We here present a structure?activity relationship study of this compound family suggesting that the central methyleneoxy linker is preferable for the smaller compounds, whereas the central methyleneamine linker gives higher potency to the larger compounds. The study resulted in the discovery of the potent and selective full FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (29). PMID:24900217

  5. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Wei Lo; Yao-Chang Chen; Yi-Jen Chen; Wanwarang Wongcharoen; Cheng-I Lin; Shih-Ann Chen

    2007-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system and calcium regulation play important roles in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Calmodulin regulates the calcium homeostasis and may mediate the proarrhythmic effects of autonomic nervous agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ?- and ?-adrenoceptor agonists on the pulmonary vein electrical activity and evaluate whether calmodulin kinase II inhibitors may

  6. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, and effects of its agonist, rosiglitazone, on transient cerebral ischemic damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong Hyun Lee; Ok Kyu Park; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Kyunghee Byun; Bonghee Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; In Koo Hwang; Young-Myeong Kim; Moo-Ho Won

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is expressed in neurons and glia, and its synthetic agonist, rosiglitazone (RSG), regulates inflammatory process and has neuroprotective effects against neurological disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of PPAR? in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after transient cerebral ischemia and the neuroprotective effects of RSG on ischemic damage. RSG attenuated neuronal damage

  7. Agonist Activated PKC?II Translocation and Modulation of Cardiac Myocyte Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyosook; Robinson, Dustin; Rogers, Julie B.; Stevenson, Tamara K.; Lang, Sarah E.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Day, Sharlene M.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated protein kinase C ?II (PKC?II) expression develops during heart failure and yet the role of this isoform in modulating contractile function remains controversial. The present study examines the impact of agonist-induced PKC?II activation on contractile function in adult cardiac myocytes. Diminished contractile function develops in response to low dose phenylephrine (PHE, 100?nM) in controls, while function is preserved in response to PHE in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. PHE also caused PKC?II translocation and a punctate distribution pattern in myocytes expressing this isoform. The preserved contractile function and translocation responses to PHE are blocked by the inhibitor, LY379196 (30?nM) in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. Further analysis showed downstream protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation and phosphatase activation are associated with the LY379196-sensitive contractile response. PHE also triggered a complex pattern of end-target phosphorylation in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. These patterns are consistent with bifurcated activation of downstream signaling activity by PKC?II. PMID:23756828

  8. Treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Miho; Kuroyanagi, Kana; Kohno, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist has been approved for treating hypercholesterolemia and lipid abnormalities. Researchers have recently discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of fenofibrate on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Methods EAU was induced in Lewis rats using bovine S-antigen (S-Ag) peptide. Fenofibrate was suspended in 3% arabic gum and administered orally at a high dose of 100 mg/kg and at a low dose of 20 mg/kg every day. Fenofibrate treatment was initiated after the clinical onset once daily for 14 days. The rats were examined every other day for clinical signs of EAU. The histological scores and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were evaluated on day 28 post-immunization. Morphologic and immunohistochemical examinations were performed with light and confocal microscopy, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with [3H] thymidine incorporation into antigen-stimulated T cells from inguinal lymph nodes. Results Clinical and histological scores of EAU were decreased in the fenofibrate-treated groups. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and Müller cell proliferation were inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups. DTH was significantly inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups, compared with the vehicle-treated groups (controls). Lymphocyte proliferation assay demonstrated decreased proliferation in the presence of 25 mg/ml S-Ag peptide in the fenofibrate-treated groups compared with controls. Conclusions The current results indicate that fenofibrate administered orally following clinical onset has therapeutic effect in EAU. Fenofibrate may be useful for treating intraocular inflammation. PMID:25489225

  9. Modulation of the activity of central serotoninergic neurons by novel serotonin1A receptor agonists and antagonists: a comparison to adrenergic and dopaminergic neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Gobert, A; Lejeune, F; Rivet, J M; Audinot, V; Newman-Tancredi, A; Millan, M J

    1995-06-01

    In this study, we used a complementary in vivo electrophysiological and (in individual rats) neurochemical approach to characterize the actions of chemically diverse serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor ligands at central 5-HT1A autoreceptors as compared to dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors and presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (ARs). The novel, high efficacy, 5-HT1A agonists, WY 48,723 (an arylpiperazine), (+)-flesinoxan (a benzodioxane) and S 14671 and S 14506 (methoxynaphtylpiperazines) mimicked the aminotetralin, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), in inhibiting the firing of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons. Similarly, the firing rate of DRN neurons was reduced by the "partial" agonists, MDL 73005EF, BMY 7378, NAN-190, tandospirone and the novel pyrimidinylpiperazine, zalospirone. Furthermore, S 14489, S 15535 and S 15931, novel benzodioxopiperazines, which behave as antagonists at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, inhibited completely DRN firing, whereas the methoxyphenylpiperazine, WAY 100,135, and the aryloxoarylamine, (-)-tertatolol, were ineffective. Indeed, in analogy to spiperone, both WAY 100,135 and (-)-tertatolol behaved as apparently competitive antagonists in that, in their presence, the dose-response curves for inhibition of DRN firing by S 14671, S 14506 or 8-OH-DPAT were shifted in parallel to the right with no loss of maximal effect. In distinction to WAY 100,135 and (-)-tertatolol, a further novel, putative "antagonist," SDZ 216-525 (a benzoisothiazolpiperazine) weakly inhibited the electrical activity of the DRN. With the exception of (-)-tertatolol, which behaved as a weak agonist, a very similar pattern of inhibition of 5-HT turnover was seen in the striatum (innervated by the DRN), the hippocampus and the hypothalamus (DRN and median raphe nucleus) and the spinal cord (nucleus raphe magnus), with the striatum displaying the greatest sensitivity. Drug potency for inhibition of firing and turnover was highly correlated (r = 0.80-0.82) and these actions were significantly correlated to affinity at (hippocampal) 5-HT1A receptors (r = 0.62-0.73). As concerns DA D2 autoreceptors, the agonist action of apomorphine in reducing DA turnover were mimicked only by 8-OH-DPAT, whereas the majority of the other 5-HT1A ligands, in analogy to raclopride, enhanced DA turnover. The facilitation of DA turnover appeared to reflect direct blockade of DA D2 autoreceptors because potency was correlated powerfully to affinity at these D2 sites (r = 0.89).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7791073

  10. Active Components of Ginger Potentiate ?-Agonist–Induced Relaxation of Airway Smooth Muscle by Modulating Cytoskeletal Regulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Wakita, Ryo; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    ?-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate ?-agonist–induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with ?-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 ?M). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C ? enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C ? activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C–potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate ?-agonist–induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with ?-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms through complementary intracellular pathways. PMID:23962082

  11. Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations.

    PubMed

    Chavkin, Charles; Sud, Sumit; Jin, Wenzhen; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Siebert, Daniel J; Toth, Beth Ann; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Roth, Bryan L

    2004-03-01

    The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors. PMID:14718611

  12. Differential DAergic Control of D1 and D2 Receptor Agonist Over Locomotor Activity and GABA Level in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Yee; Shim, Insop

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia, a group of nuclei, are associated with a variety of functions, including motor control. The striatum, which is the major input station of the basal ganglia in the brain, is regulated in part by dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra. The striatum is made up 96% of medium spiny neurons which are GABAergic cells. GABAergic cells are known to contain DA receptors which divide into two main branches- the D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing direct pathway and the D2 receptor (D2R)-expressing indirect pathway. The role of these two efferent pathways has not been clear in control of motor behaviors. To establish the influence of the different DA subtypes on GABAergic systems in the striatum, D1 selective receptor agonist (SKF 38393) and D2 selective receptor agonist (Quinpirole) were administered to mice. SKF 38393 and quinpirole were administered intraperitoneally in a volume of 0, 1, 5, 10 (mg/kg) and motor activity was assessed for 60 min immediately after the injection of DA agonists. Mice were sacrificed after behavioral test and the striatum in the brain were dissected for analysis of GABA level with HPLC. Both SKF 38393 and quinpirole dose-dependently increased locomotor activity but, GABA level in the striatum was clearly different in two agonists. These findings provide insight into the selective contributions of the direct and indirect pathways to striatal GABAergic motor behaviors. PMID:22110374

  13. T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density

    PubMed Central

    Wedagedera, J. R.; Burroughs, N. J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell receptor (TCR) within the framework of queuing theory, in which TCRs enter the queue upon full activation and exit by downregulation. We fit our model to four experimentally characterized threshold activation criteria and analyze their specificity and sensitivity: the initial calcium spike, cytotoxicity, immunological synapse formation, and cytokine secretion. Specificity characteristics improve as the time window for detection increases, saturating for time periods on the timescale of downregulation; thus, the calcium spike (30 s) has low specificity but a sensitivity to single-peptide MHC ligands, while the cytokine threshold (1 h) can distinguish ligands with a 30% variation in the complex lifetime. However, a robustness analysis shows that these properties are degraded when the queue parameters are subject to variation—for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface and population variation in the cellular threshold. A time integration of the queue over a period of hours is shown to be able to control parameter noise efficiently for realistic parameter values when integrated over sufficiently long time periods (hours), the discrimination characteristics being determined by the TCR signal cascade kinetics (a kinetic proofreading scheme). Therefore, through a combination of thresholds and signal integration, a T cell can be responsive to low ligand density and specific to agonist quality. We suggest that multiple threshold mechanisms are employed to establish the conditions for efficient signal integration, i.e., coordinate the formation of a stable contact interface. PMID:16766611

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist, HPP593, Prevents Renal Necrosis under Chronic Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Larisa V.; Sodhi, Komal; Gatto-Weis, Cara; Puri, Nitin; Hinds, Terry D.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    The Goldblatt’s 2 kidney 1 clip (2K1C) rat animal model of renovascular hypertension is characterized by ischemic nephropathy of the clipped kidney. 2K1C rats were treated with a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, HPP593. Clipped kidneys from untreated rats developed tubular and glomerular necrosis and massive interstitial, periglomerular and perivascular fibrosis. HPP593 kidneys did not exhibit any histochemical features of necrosis; fibrotic lesions were present only in perivascular areas. Necrosis in the untreated clipped kidneys was associated with an increased oxidative stress, up regulation and mitochondrial translocation of the pro-death protein BNIP3 specifically in tubules. In the kidneys of HPP593-treated rats oxidative stress was attenuated and BNIP3 protein decreased notably in the mitochondrial fraction when compared to untreated animals. In untreated clipped kidneys, mitochondria were dysfunctional as revealed by perturbations in the levels of MCAD, COXIV, TFAM, and Parkin proteins and AMPK activation, while in HPP593-treated rats these proteins remained at the physiological levels. Nuclear amounts of oxidative stress-responsive proteins, NRF1 and NRF2 were below physiological levels in treated kidneys. Mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy were inhibited similarly in both treated and untreated 2K1C kidneys as indicated by a decrease in PGC1-? and deficiency of the autophagy-essential proteins LC3-II and ATG5. However, HPP593 treatment resulted in increased accumulation of p62 protein, an autophagic substrate and an enhancer of NRF2 activity. Therefore, inhibition of BNIP3 activation by the preservation of mitochondrial function and control of oxidative stress by PPAR? is the most likely mechanism to account for the prevention of necrotic death in the kidney under conditions of persistent ischemia. PMID:23691217

  15. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Ko?an, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Va?ková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. PMID:25666281

  16. Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum–New Selective Partial Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M.; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P.; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPAR? agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPAR? activation using a PPAR?-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPAR? agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPAR? activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPAR? receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPAR? expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPAR? agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements. PMID:23630612

  17. Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum--new selective partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Blunder, Martina; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H; Schuster, Daniela; Dirsch, Verena M; Bauer, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPAR? agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPAR? activation using a PPAR?-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPAR? agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPAR? activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPAR? receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPAR? expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPAR? agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements. PMID:23630612

  18. Effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonist GW501516 on bone and muscle in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mosti, M P; Stunes, A K; Ericsson, M; Pullisaar, H; Reseland, J E; Shabestari, M; Eriksen, E F; Syversen, U

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency promotes bone loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have 3 subtypes (?, ?, and ?). PPAR? agonists induce bone loss, whereas PPAR? agonists increase bone mass. Although PPAR? agonists are known to influence skeletal muscle metabolism, the skeletal effects are unsettled. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of the PPAR? agonist GW501516 in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats, 12 weeks of age, were allocated to a sham-operated group and 3 OVX groups; high-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW5), low-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW1), and a control group (OVX-CTR), respectively (n = 12 per group). Animals received GW501516 or vehicle (methylcellulose) daily for 4 months by gavage. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the femur, spine, and whole body. Bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia was assessed by microcomputed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry was performed. Quadriceps muscle morphology and the relative expression of mitochondrial proteins were analyzed. Bone metabolism markers and metabolic markers were measured in plasma. After 4 months, the OVX-GW5 group displayed lower femoral BMD than OVX-CTR. Trabecular separation was higher in the GW-treated groups, compared with OVX-CTR. The OVX-GW5 group also exhibited lower cortical area fraction and a higher structure model index than OVX-CTR. These effects coincided with impaired bone formation in both GW groups. The OVX-GW5 group displayed elevated triglyceride levels and reduced adiponectin levels, whereas no effects on muscle morphology or mitochondrial gene expression appeared. In summary, the PPAR? agonist GW501516 negatively affected bone properties in OVX rats, whereas no effects were detected in skeletal muscle. PMID:24708238

  19. Tesaglitazar, a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor Agonist (PPAR?\\/?), Improves Metabolic Abnormalities and Reduces Renal Injury in Obese Zucker Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Liao; Zohreh Soltani; Philip Ebenezer; Angel A. Isidro-Carrión; Rubin Zhang; Arshad Asghar; Erwin Aguilar; Joseph Francis; Xuejiao Hu; León Ferder; Efrain Reisin

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing diabetes as well as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This research studied the effects of tesaglitazar, a dual-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?\\/? agonist, on metabolic abnormalities and kidney injury in obese Zucker rats (OZR). Lean Zucker rats (LZR) and OZR were used as control groups. Tesaglitazar (1 ?mol\\/kg\\/day) was given for 8 weeks in

  20. A new indole alkaloid, 7-hydroxyspeciociliatine, from the fruits of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa and its opioid agonistic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Kitajima; Kaori Misawa; Noriyuki Kogure; Ikram M. Said; Syunji Horie; Yoshio Hatori; Toshihiko Murayama; Hiromitsu Takayama

    2006-01-01

    A new indole alkaloid, 7-hydroxyspeciociliatine (1), was isolated from the fruits of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth., together with 11 known indole and oxindole alkaloids (3–13). The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The opioid agonistic activity of the new alkaloid was investigated in guinea-pig ileum experiments. The compound was found to have a

  1. The influence of platelet activating factor on the effects of platelet agonists and antiplatelet agents in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friederike K. Keating; David J. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the intercellular mediator of inflammation, platelet activating factor (PAF), on platelet function.\\u000a The interaction between PAF and the platelet agonists ADP, thrombin and convulxin was analyzed in vitro in whole blood with\\u000a the use of flow cytometry and was further characterized with the use of receptor antagonists to PAF (ABT-491), P2Y1 (MRS-2179),\\u000a and P2Y12 (cangrelor)

  2. The tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist senktide induces locomotor activity in male Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; Durkin, Sean; Jacquet, Aurélie; Spooren, Will

    2008-12-14

    The tachykinin family of receptors has been of strong interest recently due to the potential of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism in treatment of schizophrenia. However, critical differences in the tachykinin NK(3) receptor between rats, mice and humans make rats and mice less acceptable species for testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism. This has led to testing of tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity in gerbils and guinea pigs. As these species are much less common laboratory animals than rats and mice, there is a relative paucity of in vivo testing models for tachykinin NK(3) receptor activation. In the present study, locomotor activity induced by the tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonist senktide was characterized. Injection of senktide i.c.v. was found to dose-dependently induce hyperlocomotion from a dose of 0.06 nmol to the maximal dose tested, 0.6 nmol. Locomotion induced by 0.1 nmol of senktide could be blocked by injection of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonists SB222200 (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) and talnetant (SB223412; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.), as well as by osanetant (SR142801; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) when administered in a vehicle containing vitamin E and glycofurol. Senktide-induced activity was also reversed by the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.) and risperidone (1 mg/kg p.o.), but not by the serotonin 5HT(2a/c) receptor antagonist MDL100907 (tested at 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.). Hyperlocomotion induced by 0.03 nmol of senktide was potentiated by antagonism of the tachykinin NK(1) receptor with aprepitant (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, hyperlocomotion induced by senktide in gerbils is a tachykinin NK(3) receptor-mediated behavior that is appropriate for use in testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity of novel compounds. PMID:18930726

  3. The environmental stressor ultraviolet B radiation inhibits murine antitumor immunity through its ability to generate platelet-activating factor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Turner, Matthew J.; DaSilva, Sonia C.; Rashid, Badri M.; Ocana, Jesus A.; Perkins, Susan M.; Konger, Raymond L.; Touloukian, Christopher E.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) to human or mouse skin generates platelet-activating factor (PAF) and novel oxidatively modified glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity. These lipids mediate systemic immunosuppression in a process involving IL-10. The current studies sought to determine the functional significance of UVB-mediated systemic immunosuppression in an established model of murine melanoma. We show that UVB irradiation augments B16F10 tumor growth and is dependent on host, but not melanoma cell; PAF-R-expression as UVB or the PAF-R agonist, carbamoyl PAF (CPAF), both promote B16F10 tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice, independent of whether B16F10 cells express PAF-Rs, but do not augment tumor growth in Pafr ? /? mice. UVB-mediated augmentation of experimental murine tumor growth was inhibited with antioxidants, demonstrating the importance of Ox-GPC PAF-R agonists produced non-enzymatically. Host immune cells are required as CPAF-induced augmentation of tumor growth which is not seen in immunodeficient NOD SCID mice. Finally, depleting antibodies against IL-10 in WT mice or depletion of CD25-positive cells in FoxP3EGFP transgenic mice block UVB and/or CPAF-induced tumor growth supporting a requirement for IL-10 and Tregs in this process. These findings indicate that UVB-generated Ox-GPCs with PAF-R agonistic activity enhance experimental murine melanoma tumor growth through targeting host immune cells, most notably Tregs, to mediate systemic immunosuppression. PMID:22542595

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist effect on rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disease, is associated with insulin resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that the relationship between insulin resistance and inflammation is bidirectional: Inflammation promotes insulin resistance, and insulin resistance promotes inflammation. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist, would decrease inflammation and disease activity and improve insulin resistance in patients with RA. Methods In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study patients with RA (N?=?34) receiving stable therapy were randomized to also receive either pioglitazone 45 mg daily (n?=?17) or matching placebo (n?=?17) for eight weeks. This was followed by a four-week washout period and alternative treatment for eight weeks. Outcomes included change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) score, individual components of the DAS28 score and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA). Intention-to-treat analysis and linear mixed-effects models were used. Results Patients had a mean (±SD) age of 51 (±14.2) years, 82.4% were female and baseline DAS28 high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) was 4.58 (±1.1) units. Addition of pioglitazone was associated with a 9.3% reduction (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.17% to 17.6%) in DAS28-CRP (P?=?0.046), but no significant change in DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) (P?=?0.92). There was a 10.7mm (95% CI?=?0.4 to 20.9 mm) improvement in patient-reported global health (P?=?0.042), a 48.6% decrease (95% CI?=?27.6% to 63.5%) in CRP (P??0.05). Lower-extremity edema was more common during pioglitazone treatment (16%) than placebo (0%). Conclusion Addition of pioglitazone to RA therapy improves insulin resistance and modestly reduces RA disease activity measured by DAS28-CRP and two of its components, including patient-reported global health and CRP, but not DAS28-ESR or ESR. Trial registration NCT00763139 PMID:24020899

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko, E-mail: hase-mai@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas M1-macrophage-related molecules such as integrin {alpha}X, IL-1{beta}, MIP2{alpha} and leptin were decreased at rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites. Moreover, transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated peritoneal macrophages into the incisional sites significantly attenuated hyperalgesia. We speculate that local administration of rosiglitazone significantly alleviated the development of postincisional pain, possibly through regulating macrophage polarity at the inflamed site. PPAR{gamma} signaling in macrophages may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of acute pain development.

  6. Conformational changes in the parathyroid hormone receptor associated with activation by agonist.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena E; Woznica, Iwona; Mierke, Dale F; Wittelsberger, Angela; Rosenblatt, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Binding of hormones to their cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces conformational shifts within the receptor based on evidence from a few hormone-receptor systems. Employing an engineered disulfide bond formation strategy and guided by a previously established model of the PTH-PTH receptor (PTHR)1 bimolecular complex, we set out to document and characterize the nature of agonist-induced changes in this family B GPCR. A mutant PTHR1 was generated which incorporates a Factor Xa cleavage site in the third intracellular loop. Treatment with Factor Xa fragments the receptor. However, if a new disulfide bond was formed before exposure to the enzyme, the fragments remain held together. A set of double cysteine-containing mutants were designed to probe the internal relative movements of transmembrane (TM) helices 2 and TM7. PTH enhanced formation of disulfide bonds in the K240C/F447C and A242C/F447C mutants. For the F238C/F447C mutant, a disulfide bond is formed in the basal state, but is disrupted by interaction with PTH. For the D241C/F447C PTHR1 construct, no disulfide bond formation was observed in either the basal or hormone-bound state. These findings demonstrate that the conformation of PTHR1 is altered from the basal state when PTH is bound. Novel information regarding spatial proximities between TM2 and TM7 of PTHR1 and the nature of relative movements between the two transmembrane regions was revealed. The data confirm and extend the experimentally derived model of the PTH-PTHR1 complex and provide insights at a new level of detail into the early events in PTHR1 activation by PTH. PMID:18258686

  7. Conformational Changes in the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Associated with Activation by Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Beena E.; Woznica, Iwona; Mierke, Dale F.; Wittelsberger, Angela; Rosenblatt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Binding of hormones to their cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces conformational shifts within the receptor based on evidence from a few hormone-receptor systems. Employing an engineered disulfide bond formation strategy and guided by a previously established model of the PTH-PTH receptor (PTHR)1 bimolecular complex, we set out to document and characterize the nature of agonist-induced changes in this family B GPCR. A mutant PTHR1 was generated which incorporates a Factor Xa cleavage site in the third intracellular loop. Treatment with Factor Xa fragments the receptor. However, if a new disulfide bond was formed before exposure to the enzyme, the fragments remain held together. A set of double cysteine-containing mutants were designed to probe the internal relative movements of transmembrane (TM) helices 2 and TM7. PTH enhanced formation of disulfide bonds in the K240C/F447C and A242C/F447C mutants. For the F238C/F447C mutant, a disulfide bond is formed in the basal state, but is disrupted by interaction with PTH. For the D241C/F447C PTHR1 construct, no disulfide bond formation was observed in either the basal or hormone-bound state. These findings demonstrate that the conformation of PTHR1 is altered from the basal state when PTH is bound. Novel information regarding spatial proximities between TM2 and TM7 of PTHR1 and the nature of relative movements between the two transmembrane regions was revealed. The data confirm and extend the experimentally derived model of the PTH-PTHR1 complex and provide insights at a new level of detail into the early events in PTHR1 activation by PTH. PMID:18258686

  8. N-desmethylclozapine, an allosteric agonist at muscarinic 1 receptor, potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Sur, Cyrille; Mallorga, Pierre J; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene A; Pascarella, Danette; Williams, Jacinta B; Brandish, Philip E; Pettibone, Douglas J; Scolnick, Edward M; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2003-11-11

    The molecular and neuronal substrates conferring on clozapine its unique and superior efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia remain elusive. The interaction of clozapine with many G protein-coupled receptors is well documented but less is known about its biologically active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine. Recent clinical and preclinical evidences of the antipsychotic activity of the muscarinic agonist xanomeline prompted us to investigate the effects of N-desmethylclozapine on cloned human M1-M5 muscarinic receptors. N-desmethylclozapine preferentially bound to M1 muscarinic receptors with an IC50 of 55 nM and was a more potent partial agonist (EC50, 115 nM and 50% of acetylcholine response) at this receptor than clozapine. Furthermore, pharmacological and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that N-desmethylclozapine preferentially activated M1 receptors by interacting with a site that does not fully overlap with the acetylcholine orthosteric site. As hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-driven neuronal ensembles has been implicated in psychotic disorders, the neuronal activity of N-desmethylclozapine was electrophysiologically investigated in hippocampal rat brain slices. N-desmethylclozapine was shown to dose-dependently potentiate NMDA receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal cells by 53% at 100 nM, an effect largely mediated by activation of muscarinic receptors. Altogether, our observations provide direct evidence that the brain penetrant metabolite N-desmethylclozapine is a potent, allosteric agonist at human M1 receptors and is able to potentiate hippocampal NMDA receptor currents through M1 receptor activation. These observations raise the possibility that N-desmethylclozapine contributes to clozapine's clinical activity in schizophrenics through modulation of both muscarinic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:14595031

  9. Exploring pharmacological activities and signaling of morphinans substituted in position 6 as potent agonists interacting with the ? opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesics are the most effective drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, they also produce several adverse effects that can complicate pain management. The ? opioid (MOP) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, is recognized as the opioid receptor type which primarily mediates the pharmacological actions of clinically used opioid agonists. The morphinan class of analgesics including morphine and oxycodone are of main importance as therapeutically valuable drugs. Though the natural alkaloid morphine contains a C-6-hydroxyl group and the semisynthetic derivative oxycodone has a 6-carbonyl function, chemical approaches have uncovered that functionalizing position 6 gives rise to a range of diverse activities. Hence, position 6 of N-methylmorphinans is one of the most manipulated sites, and is established to play a key role in ligand binding at the MOP receptor, efficacy, signaling, and analgesic potency. We have earlier reported on a chemically innovative modification in oxycodone resulting in novel morphinans with 6-acrylonitrile incorporated substructures. Results This study describes in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities and signaling of new morphinans substituted in position 6 with acrylonitrile and amido functions as potent agonists and antinociceptive agents interacting with MOP receptors. We show that the presence of a 6-cyano group in N-methylmorphinans has a strong influence on the binding to the opioid receptors and post-receptor signaling. One 6-cyano-N-methylmorphinan of the series was identified as the highest affinity and most selective MOP agonist, and very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, this MOP agonist showed to be greatly effective against thermal and chemical nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency than the lead molecule oxycodone. Conclusion Development of such novel chemotypes by targeting position 6 provides valuable insights on ligand-receptor interaction and molecular mode of action, and may aid in identification of opioid therapeutics with enhanced analgesic properties and fewer undesirable effects. PMID:25059282

  10. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of the active state of the nociceptin receptor reveal new insights into agonist binding and activation.

    PubMed

    Daga, Pankaj R; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2012-08-01

    The opioid receptor-like receptor, also known as the nociceptin receptor (NOP), is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in the opioid receptor family. Although NOP shares a significant homology with the other opioid receptors, it does not bind known opioid ligands and has been shown to have a distinct mechanism of activation compared to the closely related opioid receptors mu, delta, and kappa. Previously reported homology models of the NOP receptor, based on the inactive-state GPCR crystal structures, give limited information on the activation and selectivity features of this fourth member of the opioid receptor family. We report here the first active-state homology model of the NOP receptor based on the opsin GPCR crystal structure. An inactive-state homology model of NOP was also built using a multiple template approach. Molecular dynamics simulation of the active-state NOP model and comparison to the inactive-state model suggest that NOP activation involves movements of transmembrane (TM)3 and TM6 and several activation microswitches, consistent with GPCR activation. Docking of the selective nonpeptidic NOP agonist ligand Ro 64-6198 into the active-state model reveals active-site residues in NOP that play a role in the high selectivity of this ligand for NOP over the other opioid receptors. Docking the shortest active fragment of endogenous agonist nociceptin/orphaninFQ (residues 1-13) shows that the NOP extracellular loop 2 (EL2) loop interacts with the positively charged residues (8-13) of N/OFQ. Both agonists show extensive polar interactions with residues at the extracellular end of the TM domain and EL2 loop, suggesting agonist-induced reorganization of polar networks, during receptor activation. PMID:22489047

  11. Homology Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Active State of the Nociceptin Receptor (NOP) Reveals New Insights Into Agonist Binding And Activation

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Pankaj R.; Zaveri, Nurulain T.

    2012-01-01

    The opioid receptor-like receptor ORL1, also known as the nociceptin receptor (NOP), is a Class A GPCR in the opioid receptor family. Although NOP shares a significant homology with the other opioid receptors, it does not bind known opioid ligands and has been shown to have a distinct mechanism of activation compared to the closely-related opioid receptors mu, delta and kappa. Previously reported homology models of the NOP receptor, based on the inactive-state GPCR crystal structures, give limited information on the activation and selectivity features of this fourth member of the opioid receptor family. We report here the first active-state homology model of the NOP receptor based on the opsin GPCR crystal structure. An inactive-state homology model of NOP was also built using a multiple template approach. Molecular dynamics simulation of the active-state NOP model and comparison to the inactive-state model suggests that NOP activation involves movements of TM3 and TM6 and several activation microswitches consistent with GPCR activation. Docking of the selective non-peptidic NOP agonist ligand Ro 64-6198 into the active-state model reveals active-site residues in NOP that play a role in the high selectivity of this ligand for NOP over the other opioid receptors. Docking the shortest active fragment of endogenous agonist nociceptin/orphaninFQ (residues 1–13) shows that the NOP EL2 loop interacts with the positively charged residues (8–13) of N/OFQ. Both agonists show extensive polar interactions with residues at the extracellular end of the transmembrane domain and EL2 loop, suggesting agonist-induced re-organization of polar networks, during receptor activation. PMID:22489047

  12. In vitro autoradiography of receptor-activated G proteins in rat brain by agonist-stimulated guanylyl 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Sim, L J; Selley, D E; Childers, S R

    1995-08-01

    Agonists stimulate guanylyl 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]-triphosphate (GTP[gamma-35S]) binding to receptor-coupled guanine nucleotide binding protein (G proteins) in cell membranes as revealed in the presence of excess GDP. We now report that this reaction can be used to neuroanatomically localize receptor-activated G proteins in brain sections by in vitro autoradiography of GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Using the mu opioid-selective peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) as an agonist in rat brain sections and isolated thalamic membranes, agonist stimulation of GTP[gamma-35S] binding required the presence of excess GDP (1-2 mM GDP in sections vs. 10-30 microM GDP in membranes) to decrease basal G-protein activity and reveal agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Similar concentrations of DAMGO were required to stimulate GTP[gamma-35S] binding in sections and membranes. To demonstrate the general applicability of the technique, agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding in tissue sections was assessed with agonists for the mu opioid (DAMGO), cannabinoid (WIN 55212-2), and gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (baclofen) receptors. For opioid and cannabinoid receptors, agonist stimulation of GTP[gamma-35S] binding was blocked by incubation with agonists in the presence of the appropriate antagonists (naloxone for mu opioid and SR-141716A for cannabinoid), thus demonstrating that the effect was specifically receptor mediated. The anatomical distribution of agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding qualitatively paralleled receptor distribution as determined by receptor binding autoradiography. However, quantitative differences suggest that variations in coupling efficiency may exist between different receptors in various brain regions. This technique provides a method of functional neuroanatomy that identifies changes in the activation of G proteins by specific receptors. PMID:7638174

  13. Food flavonoid aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated agonistic/antagonistic/synergic activities in human and rat reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Bechoux, Nathalie; Muller, Marc; Sergent, Thérèse; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2009-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the adverse effects of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we investigated the genetic-, time-, dose-, species- and tissue-dependent AhR-mediated agonistic/antagonistic activities of three food flavonoids: quercetin, chrysin and genistein. To that end, four stably transfected cell lines were used in cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays: three lines were transformed with the ptKLuc vector harbouring four dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter and the luciferase gene (HepG2-Luc, T-47D-Luc and H4IIE-ULg). The fourth is a patented cell line transformed with a different construct: H4IIE DR-CALUX((R)). Both H4IIE cells were compared for their genetic construction. Human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) and human breast tumour (T-47D-Luc) cells were compared for tissue-dependent effects. Rat hepatoma (H4IIE-ULg) and human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) cells were compared for species-dependent activities. We concluded that quercetin, chrysin and genistein act in a time-, dose-, species- and tissue-specific way. For example, genistein displayed agonistic activities when exposed to rat hepatoma cells during 6h but not after 24h. Flavonoids displayed agonistic/antagonistic activities in human breast tumour cells, depending on the exposure time, while in human hepatoma cells, only antagonistic activities of flavonoids were measured. In addition, we report, in all the cells, a synergy between an isoflavone and two food contaminants; the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3-methylcholanthrene, a PAH. In rat cells, this synergy occurred when cells were exposed to flavonoids and contaminant for 6h, while it was observed in human cells only after 24h. PMID:19286049

  14. Opiate Agonists Activate Feeding in Limax: Comparison of In Vivo and In Vitro Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wong; K. Delaney; A. Gelperin

    1991-01-01

    The neural control system for feeding in the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus is modulated by at least two major families of peptides. Sequence homology between one of the peptides known to modulate Limax feeding and some members of the opioid peptide family suggested that opioid peptides might also modulate Limax feeding. Experiments with the mu agonist morphine and the kappa

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist regulation of glial activation: Relevance to CNS inflammatory disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Drew; Jihong Xu; Paul D. Storer; Janet A. Chavis; Michael K. Racke

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play key roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recent studies indicated that PPARs are also capable of modulating immune responses. Microglia and astrocytes are cells resident to the central nervous system (CNS) that function to protect against environmental insults including pathogens. However, following CNS inflammation, reactive gliosis occurs which is characterized by astrocyte hypertrophy and increased

  16. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of novel opioid ? receptor selective agonists: ?-iminoamide derivatives with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octene skeleton.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kitazawa, Shota; Fujii, Hideaki; Nemoto, Toru; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirono, Shuichi; Nagasea, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    The ?-iminoamide derivative, 4b was designed and synthesized as a novel agonist selective for the opioid ? receptor. The amide was constrained to an orientation horizontal to the F-ring of the azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton, which remarkably improved its affinity, selectivity, and agonistic activity for the ? receptor. This finding was newly established by chemical modification of the nitrogen atom at the 8-position in the azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton. This modification would never have been found with KNT-63, a derivation of oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane. These results may provide valuable information for the future development of novel ? selective agonists. PMID:25283554

  17. Community walking activity in neurological disorders with leg weakness

    PubMed Central

    Busse, M E; Wiles, C M; van Deursen, R W M

    2006-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine walking mobility in the community in individuals with lower limb weakness and to establish the extent to which some clinic based measures predict such activity. Methods Five groups (n?=?12–18) of independently ambulant patients with lower limb weakness due to neurological conditions and a matched healthy control group were recruited. Measures of isometric knee extension/flexion muscle strength, time to stand up (sit?to?stand, STS), gait speed, and daily step counts (recorded over 7?days) were obtained. The Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) provided a measure of functional ability. Between group differences and associations were explored. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to identify variables influencing daily step count in individuals with neurological impairment. Results Patients were significantly weaker (mean (SD) quadriceps strength 69±34% v 102±37% predicted), slower to stand up (2.9±1.3 v 2.0±0.6?s), and had slower self selected gait speed (0.74±0.3 v 1.2±0.2?m/s) than controls. Mean daily step count was also lower (3090±1902 v 6374±1819) than in controls. In neurology patients step count was correlated with RMI score (rs?=?0.49, p<0.01) and STS (r?=??0.19, p<0.05). However, self selected gait speed was the only significant predictor in the regression analysis (p<0.01) of daily mean step count. Conclusions Measures of muscle strength, timed STS, and RMI do not appear to closely reflect community walking activity in these patient groups. Self selected gait speed was partially predictive. Measurement of community walking activity may add a new dimension to evaluating the impact of interventions in neurological disorders. PMID:16484644

  18. Parallel functional activity profiling reveals valvulopathogens are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor agonists: implications for drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N; Allen, John A; Rogan, Sarah C; Hanson, Bonnie J; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris; Roth, Bryan L

    2009-10-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) (5-HT(2B)) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then "functionally profiled" (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC(50) data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT(2B) receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jihong; Racke, Michael K.; Drew, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family of cytokines which includes IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 play critical roles in T cell differentiation and are important modulators of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Previously, we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -? agonists suppress the development of EAE. The present studies demonstrated that the PPAR-? agonist fenofibrate inhibited the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-12p70 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), and IL-27p28 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia. The cytokines interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-? also stimulated IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 expression by microglia, which was suppressed by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate inhibited microglial expression of CD14 which plays a critical role in TLR signaling, suggesting a mechanism by which this PPAR-? agonist regulates the production of these pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-27p28 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. Importantly, fenofibrate suppression of EAE was associated with decreased expression of IL-12 family cytokine mRNAs as well as mRNAs encoding TLR4, CD14, and MyD88 known to play critical roles in MyD88-dependent TLR signaling. These novel observations suggest that PPAR-? agonists including fenofibrate may modulate the development of EAE, at least in part, by suppressing the production of IL-12 family cytokines and MyD88-dependent signaling. PMID:17727629

  20. NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

    2014-03-19

    Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  1. Structure-Activity Relationships in Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-1 (Nod1)-Agonistic ?-Glutamyl-diaminopimelic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Ukani, Rehman; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Wang, Xinkun; David, Sunil A.

    2011-01-01

    N-acyl-?-glutamyl-diaminopimelic acid is a prototype ligand for Nod1. We report a detailed SAR of C12-?-D-Glu-DAP. Analogues with glutaric or ?-aminobutyric acid replacing the glutamic acid show greatly attenuated Nod1-agonistic activity. Substitution of the meso-diaminopimelic (DAP) acid component with monoaminopimelic acid, L- or D-lysine, or cadaverine also results in reduced activity. The free amine on DAP is crucial. However, the N-acyl group on the D-glutamyl residue can be substituted with N-alkyl groups with full preservation of activity. The free carboxylates on the DAP and Glu components can also be esterified, resulting in more lipophilic, but active analogues. Transcriptomal profiling showed a dominant upregulation of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, which may explain the pronounced Th2-polarizing activity of these compounds, and also implicate cell signaling mediated by TREM-1. These results may explain the hitherto unknown mechanism of synergy between Nod1- and TLR-agonists, and are likely to be useful in designing vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21299227

  2. Differential pathway coupling of the activated insulin receptor drives signaling selectivity by XMetA, an allosteric partial agonist antibody.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, Daniel H; Goldfine, Ira D; Corbin, John A; Roell, Marina K; Adams, Sean H

    2015-04-01

    The monoclonal antibody XMetA is an allosteric partial agonist of the insulin receptor (IR), which activates the metabolic Akt kinase signaling pathway while having little or no effect on the mitogenic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. To investigate the nature of this selective signaling, we have conducted a detailed investigation of XMetA to evaluate specific phosphorylation and activation of IR, Akt, and ERK in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either the short or long isoform of the human IR. Insulin activated both pathways, but the phosphorylation of Akt was more sensitive to the hormone than the phosphorylation of ERK. Maximally effective concentrations of XMetA elicited phosphorylation patterns similar to 40-100 pM insulin, which were sufficient for robust Akt phosphorylation, but had little effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data indicate that the preferential signaling of XMetA is due to an innate difference in pathway sensitivity of Akt versus ERK responses to IR activation and partial agonism by XMetA, rather than a separate pathway-biased mechanism. The metabolic selectivity of partial IR agonists like XMetA, if recapitulated in vivo, may be a desirable feature of therapeutic agents designed to regulate blood glucose levels while minimizing undesirable outcomes of excessive IR mitogenic activation. PMID:25613982

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 8 Agonist and Bacteria Trigger Potent Activation of Innate Immune Cells in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, James E.; Sandalova, Elena; Tang, Xin-Zi; Tan-Garcia, Alfonso; To, Natalie; Hong, Michelle; Chia, Adeline; Gill, Upkar S.; Kennedy, Patrick T.; Tan, Kai Chah; Lee, Kang Hoe; De Libero, Gennaro; Gehring, Adam J.; Willberg, Christian B.; Klenerman, Paul; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear cells purified from human healthy and diseased livers with distinct pathogen-associated molecules. We discovered that only the TLR8 agonist ssRNA40 selectively activated liver-resident innate immune cells to produce substantial quantities of IFN-?. We identified CD161Bright mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) and CD56Bright NK cells as the responding liver-resident innate immune cells. Their activation was not directly induced by the TLR8 agonist but was dependent on IL-12 and IL-18 production by ssRNA40-activated intrahepatic monocytes. Importantly, the ssRNA40-induced cytokine-dependent activation of MAIT cells mirrored responses induced by bacteria, i.e., generating a selective production of high levels of IFN-?, without the concomitant production of TNF-? or IL-17A. The intrahepatic IFN-? production could be detected not only in healthy livers, but also in HBV- or HCV-infected livers. In conclusion, the human liver harbors a network of immune cells able to modulate their immunological responses to different pathogen-associated molecules. Their ability to generate a strong production of IFN-? upon stimulation with TLR8 agonist opens new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diverse liver pathologies. PMID:24967632

  4. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, AVE8134, attenuates the progression of heart failure and increases survival in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Linz; Paulus Wohlfart; Manuel Baader; Kristin Breitschopf; Eugen Falk; Hans-Ludwig Schäfer; Martin Gerl; Werner Kramer; Hartmut Rütten

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the efficacy of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, AVE8134, in cellular and experimental models of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure.Methods:In Sprague Dawley rats with permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (post-MI), AVE8134 was compared to the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone and in a second study to the ACE inhibitor ramipril. In DOCA-salt sensitive rats, efficacy of AVE8134

  5. Amyloid-? pathology and APOE genotype modulate retinoid X receptor agonist activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tai, Leon M; Koster, Kevin P; Luo, Jia; Lee, Sue H; Wang, Yue-ting; Collins, Nicole C; Ben Aissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R J; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2014-10-31

    Previous data demonstrate that bexarotene (Bex), retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, reduces soluble and insoluble amyloid-? (A?) in Alzheimer disease (AD)-transgenic mice either by increasing the levels of mouse apolipoprotein E (apoE) or increasing ABCA1/ABCG1-induced apoE lipoprotein association/lipidation. However, although the mechanism of action of RXR agonists remains unclear, a major concern for their use is human (h)-APOE4, the greatest AD genetic risk factor. If APOE4 imparts a toxic gain-of-function, then increasing apoE4 may increase soluble A?, likely the proximal AD neurotoxin. If the APOE4 loss-of-function is lipidation of apoE4, then induction of ABCA1/ABCG1 may be beneficial. In novel EFAD-Tg mice (overexpressing h-A?42 with h-APOE), levels of soluble A? (A?42 and oligomeric A?) are highest in E4FAD hippocampus (HP) > E3FAD-HP > E4FAD cortex (CX) > E3FAD-CX, whereas levels of lipoprotein-associated/lipidated apoE have the opposite pattern (6 months). In E4FAD-HP, short-term RXR agonist treatment (Bex or LG100268; 5.75-6 months) increased ABCA1, apoE4 lipoprotein-association/lipidation, and apoE4/A? complex, decreased soluble A?, and increased PSD95. In addition, hydrogel delivery, which mimics low sustained release, was equally effective as gavage for Bex and LG100268. RXR agonists induced no beneficial effects in the E4FAD-HP in a prevention protocol (5-6 months) and actually increased soluble A? levels in E3FAD-CX and E4FAD-CX with the short-term protocol, possibly the result of systemic hepatomegaly. Thus, RXR agonists address the loss-of-function associated with APOE4 and exacerbated by A? pathology, i.e. low levels of apoE4 lipoprotein association/lipidation. Further studies are vital to address whether RXR agonists are an APOE4-specific AD therapeutic and the systemic side effects that limit translational application. PMID:25217640

  6. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity enhances the anti-tumour effects of a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist in an established cancer model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to have anti-tumour activity in basic research and clinical studies. However, TLR agonist monotherapy does not sufficiently eliminate tumours. Activation of the innate immune response by TLR agonists is effective at driving adaptive immunity via interleukin-12 (IL-12) or IL-1, but is counteracted by the simultaneous induction of immunosuppressive cytokines and other molecules, including IL-10, transforming growth factor-?, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (IMQ), in the absence of IDO activity. The administration of IMQ in IDO knockout (KO) mice inoculated with tumour cells significantly suppressed tumour progression compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice, and improved the survival rate. Moreover, injection with IMQ enhanced the tumour antigen-specific T helper type 1 response in IDO-KO mice with tumours. Combination therapy with IMQ and an IDO inhibitor also significantly inhibited tumour growth. Our results indicated that the enhancement of IDO expression with TLR agonists in cancer treatment might impair host anti-tumour immunity while the inhibition of IDO could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TLR agonists via the increase of T helper type 1 immune response. PMID:25322876

  7. (1R, 3S)-(?)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G?q to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(?)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (?)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (?)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (?)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (?)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  8. [Development of agonists/antagonists for protease-activated receptors (PARs) and the possible therapeutic application to gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko

    2005-06-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain receptors, are activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal cryptic tethered ligand by certain serine proteases. Among four PAR family members cloned to date, PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4 can also be activated through a non-enzymatic mechanism, which is achieved by direct binding of exogenously applied synthetic peptides based on the tethered ligand sequence, known as PARs-activating peptides, to the body of the receptor. Various peptide mimetics have been synthesized as agonists for PARs with improved potency, selectivity, and stability. Some peptide mimetics and/or nonpeptide compounds have also been developed as antagonists for PAR-1 and PAR-4. PARs are widely distributed in the mammalian body, especially throughout the alimentary systems, and play various roles in physiological/pathophysiological conditions, i.e., modulation of salivary, gastric, or pancreatic glandular exocrine secretion, gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility, gastric mucosal cytoprotection, suppression/facilitation of visceral pain and inflammation, etc. Thus PARs are now considered novel therapeutic targets, and development of selective agonists and/or antagonists for PARs might provide a novel strategy for the treatment of various diseases that are resistant to current therapeutics. PMID:15930817

  9. Opiate agonists activate feeding in Limax: comparison of in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Delaney, K; Gelperin, A

    1991-02-01

    The neural control system for feeding in the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus is modulated by at least two major families of peptides. Sequence homology between one of the peptides known to modulate Limax feeding and some members of the opioid peptide family suggested that opioid peptides might also modulate Limax feeding. Experiments with the mu agonist morphine and the kappa agonist U50,488H showed that the probability of feeding, but not meal size, was increased by morphine injection into intact animals, whereas the length of feeding motor program responses elicited from the isolated lip-brain preparation of Limax was augmented by U50,488H. The behavioral effect of morphine was blocked by naltrexone injection, whereas the physiological effect of U50,488H was blocked by naloxone. Factors that influence the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of opioids on mollusc feeding are discussed. PMID:1851015

  10. Conformational Changes in the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Associated with Activation by Agonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beena E. Thomas; Iwona Woznica; Dale F. Mierke; Angela Wittelsberger; Michael Rosenblatt

    2008-01-01

    Binding of hormones to their cognate G protein- coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces conforma- tional shifts within the receptor based on evidence from a few hormone-receptor systems. Employing an engineered disulfide bond formation strategy and guided by a previously established model of the PTH-PTH receptor (PTHR)1 bimolecular com- plex, we set out to document and characterize the nature of agonist-induced changes

  11. Synthetic partial agonists reveal key steps in IP3 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana M.; Riley, Andrew M.; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taufiq-Ur-Rahman; Dellis, Olivier; Taylor, Emily J. A.; Veresov, Valery G.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) are ubiquitous intracellular Ca2+ channels. IP3binding to the IP3-binding core (IBC) near the N-terminal initiates conformational changes that lead to opening of a pore. The mechanisms are unresolved. We synthesized 2-O-modified IP3 analogues that are partial agonists of IP3R. These are like IP3 in their interactions with the IBC, but they are less effective than IP3 in rearranging the relationship between the IBC and N-terminal suppressor domain (SD), and they open the channel at slower rates. IP3R with a mutation in the SD occupying a position similar to the 2-O-substituent of the partial agonists has a reduced open probability that is similar for full and partial agonists. Bulky or charged substituents from either the ligand or SD therefore block obligatory coupling of the IBC and SD. Analysis of ?G for ligand binding shows that IP3 is recognised by the IBC and conformational changes then propagate entirely via the SD to the pore. PMID:19668195

  12. Synthesis and structure guided evaluation of estrogen agonist and antagonist activities of some new tetrazolyl indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Uma Sharan; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Gaya P; Kharkwal, Geetika; Dwivedi, Anila; Keshri, Govind; Singh, M M; Moulik, P R; Hajela, K

    2008-10-01

    Several regioisomeric tetrazolyl indole derivatives with structurally modified alkyl substituents at the tetracyclic indole nitrogen containing N-ethyl amino tetrazole moiety have been synthesized and screened for their ER binding affinity, agonist (estrogenic), antagonist (antiestrogenic) and anti-implantation activities. N-2 regioisomers were found to be moderately antagonists and one compound showed 100% contraceptive efficacy at 10 mg/kg dose. Molecular docking studies carried out in comparison to estradiol and raloxifene showed different binding modes of the two regioisomers to the binding site. PMID:18155810

  13. 4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Keiko [Laboratory of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko [Division of Translational Research, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nishii, Yasuho [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Petrovsky, Nikolai [Diabetes and Endocrinology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA 5042 (Australia); Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Translational Research, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan)], E-mail: okazaki@saitama-med.ac.jp

    2008-03-14

    (5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

  14. The CB2-preferring agonist JWH015 also potently and efficaciously activates CB1 in autaptic hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Murataeva, N; Mackie, K; Straiker, A

    2012-11-01

    The G protein coupled receptors CB(1) and CB(2) are targets for the psychoactive constituents of cannabis, chief among them ?(9)-THC. They are also key components of the multifunctional endogenous cannabinoid signaling system. CB(1) and CB(2) receptors modulate a wide variety of physiological systems including analgesia, memory, mood, reward, appetite and immunity. Identification and characterization of selective CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists and antagonists will facilitate understanding the precise physiological and pathophysiological roles of cannabinoid receptors in these systems. This is particularly necessary in the case of CB(2) because these receptors are sparsely expressed and problematic to detect using traditional immunocytochemical approaches. 1-Propyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH015) is an aminoalkylindole that has been employed as a "CB(2)-selective" agonist in more than 40 published papers. However, we have found that JWH015 potently and efficaciously activates CB(1) receptors in neurons. Using murine autaptic hippocampal neurons, which express CB(1), but not CB(2) receptors, we find that JWH015 inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents with an EC50 of 216nM. JWH015 inhibition is absent in neurons from CB(1)(-/-) cultures and is reversed by the CB(1) antagonist, SR141716 [200nM]. Furthermore, JWH015 partially occludes CB(1)-mediated DSE (?35% remaining), an action reversed by the CB(2) antagonist, AM630 [1 and 3?M], suggesting that high concentrations of AM630 also antagonize CB(1) receptors. We conclude that while JWH015 is a CB(2)-preferring agonist, it also activates CB(1) receptors at experimentally encountered concentrations. Thus, CB(1) agonism of JWH015 needs to be considered in the design and interpretation of experiments that use JWH015 to probe CB(2)-signaling. PMID:22921769

  15. The CB2-preferring agonist JWH015 also potently and efficaciously activates CB1 in autaptic hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Murataeva, N.; Mackie, K.; Straiker, A.

    2012-01-01

    The G protein coupled receptors CB1 and CB2 are targets for the psychoactive constituents of cannabis, chief among them ?9-THC. They are also key components of the multifunctional endogenous cannabinoid signaling system. CB1 and CB2 receptors modulate a wide variety of physiological systems including analgesia, memory, mood, reward, appetite and immunity. Identification and characterization of selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists and antagonists will facilitate understanding the precise physiological and pathophysiological roles of cannabinoid receptors in these systems. This is particularly necessary in the case of CB2 because these receptors are sparsely expressed and problematic to detect using traditional immunocytochemical approaches. 1-Propyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH015) is an aminoalkylindole that has been employed as a “CB2-selective” agonist in more than 40 published papers. However, we have found that JWH015 potently and efficaciously activates CB1 receptors in neurons. Using murine autaptic hippocampal neurons, which express CB1, but not CB2 receptors, we find that JWH015 inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents with an EC50 of 216 nM. JWH015 inhibition is absent in neurons from CB1?/? cultures and is reversed by the CB1 antagonist, SR141716 [200 nM]. Furthermore, JWH015 partially occludes CB1-mediated DSE (~35% remaining), an action reversed by the CB2 antagonist, AM630 [1 and 3 ?M], suggesting that high concentrations of AM630 also antagonize CB1 receptors. We conclude that while JWH015 is a CB2-preferring agonist, it also activates CB1 receptors at experimentally encountered concentrations. Thus, CB1 agonism of JWH015 needs to be considered in the design and interpretation of experiments that use JWH015 to probe CB2-signaling. PMID:22921769

  16. Modulation of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Agonist Activity of Ubiquitin through C-Terminal Protein Modification

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Abhishek; Saini, Vikas; Marchese, Adriano; Volkman, Brian F.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Majetschak, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular ubiquitin has recently been described as a CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 agonist. Studies on the structure–function relationship suggested that the C-terminus of ubiquitin facilitates CXCR4 activation. It remains unknown, however, whether C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could be biologically relevant and whether modifications of the ubiquitin C-terminus can modulate CXCR4 activation. We show that C-terminal truncated ubiquitin antagonizes ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1? induced effects on cell signaling and function. Reduction of cell surface expression of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), which cleaves the C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin, enhances ubiquitin induced reduction of cAMP levels in BV2 and THP-1 cells, but does not influence changes in cAMP levels in response to SDF-1?. Reduction of cell surface IDE expression in THP-1 cells also increases the chemotactic activity of ubiquitin. As compared with native ubiquitin, C-terminal Tyr extension of ubiquitin results in reduced CXCR4 mediated effects on cellular cAMP levels and abolishes chemotactic activity. Replacement of C-terminal di-Gly of ubiquitin with di-Val or di-Arg enhances CXCR4 mediated effects on cAMP levels and the di-Arg substitution exerts increased chemotactic activity, when compared with wild type ubiquitin. The chemotactic activities of the di-Val and di-Arg mutants and their effects on cAMP levels can be antagonized with C-terminal truncated ubiquitin. These data suggest that the development of CXCR4 ligands with enhanced agonist activities is possible and that C-terminal processing of ubiquitin could constitute a biological mechanism, which regulates termination of receptor signaling. PMID:23697661

  17. Repeated morphine treatment-mediated hyperalgesia, allodynia and spinal glial activation are blocked by co-administration of a selective cannabinoid receptor type-2 agonist

    PubMed Central

    Tumati, Suneeta; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Keresztes, Attila; Ren, Jiyang; Roeske, William R; Vanderah, Todd W.; Varga, Eva V

    2012-01-01

    Spinal glial activation has been implicated in sustained morphine-mediated paradoxical pain sensitization. Since activation of glial CB2 cannabinoid receptors attenuates spinal glial activation in neuropathies, we hypothesized that CB2 agonists may also attenuate sustained morphine–mediated spinal glial activation and pain sensitization. Our data indicate that co-administration of a CB2-selective agonist (AM 1241) attenuates morphine (intraperitoneal; twice daily; 6 days)-mediated thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in rats. A CB2 (AM 630) but not a CB1 (AM 251) antagonist mitigated this effect. AM 1241 co-treatment also attenuated spinal astrocyte and microglial marker and pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-1?, TNF?) immunoreactivities in morphine-treated rats, suggesting that CB2 agonists may be useful to prevent the neuroinflammatory consequences of sustained morphine treatment. PMID:22285397

  18. Complex pharmacology of natural cannabivoids: Evidence for partial agonist activity of ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Petitet; Bernadette Jeantaud; Michel Reibaud; Assunta Imperato; Marie-Christine Dubroeucq

    1998-01-01

    ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), cannabinol and cannabidiol are three important natural cannabinoids from the Marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa). Using [35S]GTP-?-S binding on rat cerebellar homogenate as an index of cannabinoid receptor activation we show that: ?9-THC does not induce the maximal effect obtained by classical cannabinoid receptor agonists such as CP55940. Moreover at high concentration ?9-THC exhibits antagonist properties. Cannabinol is a

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-retinoid X receptor agonists induce beta-cell protection against palmitate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, Karine; Kerckhofs, Karen; Hannaert, Jean-Claude; Martens, Geert; Van Veldhoven, Paul; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acids can stimulate the secretory activity of insulin-producing beta-cells. At elevated concentrations, they can also be toxic to isolated beta-cells. This toxicity varies inversely with the cellular ability to accumulate neutral lipids in the cytoplasm. To further examine whether cytoprotection can be achieved by decreasing cytoplasmic levels of free acyl moieties, we investigated whether palmitate toxicity is also lowered by stimulating its beta-oxidation. Lower rates of palmitate-induced beta-cell death were measured in the presence of L-carnitine as well as after addition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists, conditions leading to increased palmitate oxidation. In contrast, inhibition of mitochondrial beta-oxidation by etomoxir increased palmitate toxicity. A combination of PPARalpha and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists acted synergistically and led to complete protection; this was associated with enhanced expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, lipid metabolism, and peroxisome proliferation. PPARalpha-RXR protection was abolished by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir. These observations indicate that PPARalpha and RXR regulate beta-cell susceptibility to long-chain fatty acid toxicity by increasing the rates of beta-oxidation and by involving peroxisomes in fatty acid metabolism. PMID:17970749

  20. Identification of Isosilybin A from Milk Thistle Seeds as an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPAR? activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPAR?-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPAR? agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor. PMID:24597776

  1. Identification of isosilybin a from milk thistle seeds as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Atanasov, Atanas G; Malainer, Clemens; Noha, Stefan M; Kunert, Olaf; Schuster, Daniela; Heiss, Elke H; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M

    2014-04-25

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPAR? activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPAR?-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPAR? agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor. PMID:24597776

  2. A Novel Partial Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? with Excellent Effect on Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Cheng-Yu; Song, Fei; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Liang, Cai-Li; Li, Shan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yan-Rong; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    Partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) reportedly reverse insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this work, a novel non-thiazolidinedione-partial PPAR? ligand, MDCCCL1636 [N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanamide], was investigated. The compound displayed partial agonist activity in biochemical and cell-based transactivation assays and reversed insulin resistance. MDCCCL1636 showed a potential antidiabetic effect on an insulin-resistance model of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). High-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with MDCCCL1636 for 56 days displayed reduced fasting serum glucose and reversed dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage without significant weight gain. Furthermore, MDCCCL1636 had lower toxicity in vivo and in vitro than pioglitazone. MDCCCL1636 also potentiated glucose consumption and inhibited the impairment in insulin signaling targets, such as AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3?, and glycogen synthase, in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Overall, our results suggest that MDCCCL1636 is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25876909

  3. A new perspective for schizophrenia: TAAR1 agonists reveal antipsychotic- and antidepressant-like activity, improve cognition and control body weight.

    PubMed

    Revel, F G; Moreau, J-L; Pouzet, B; Mory, R; Bradaia, A; Buchy, D; Metzler, V; Chaboz, S; Groebke Zbinden, K; Galley, G; Norcross, R D; Tuerck, D; Bruns, A; Morairty, S R; Kilduff, T S; Wallace, T L; Risterucci, C; Wettstein, J G; Hoener, M C

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and highly complex mental illness. Current treatments manage the positive symptoms, yet have minimal effects on the negative and cognitive symptoms, two prominent features of the disease with critical impact on the long-term morbidity. In addition, antipsychotic treatments trigger serious side effects that precipitate treatment discontinuation. Here, we show that activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a modulator of monoaminergic neurotransmission, represents a novel therapeutic option. In rodents, activation of TAAR1 by two novel and pharmacologically distinct compounds, the full agonist RO5256390 and the partial agonist RO5263397, blocks psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and produces a brain activation pattern reminiscent of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine, suggesting antipsychotic-like properties. TAAR1 agonists do not induce catalepsy or weight gain; RO5263397 even reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy and prevented olanzapine from increasing body weight and fat accumulation. Finally, TAAR1 activation promotes vigilance in rats and shows pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like properties in rodent and primate models. These data suggest that TAAR1 agonists may provide a novel and differentiated treatment of schizophrenia as compared with current medication standards: TAAR1 agonists may improve not only the positive symptoms but also the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, without causing adverse effects such as motor impairments or weight gain. PMID:22641180

  4. Small molecule agonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 do not induce global conformational changes and are significantly better than activating antibodies in reducing vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Altintas, Mehmet M.; Gomez, Camilo; Duque, Juan Camilo; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.; Gupta, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and immune functions. We recently identified novel compounds, leukadherins, that allosterically enhance CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion and reduce inflammation in vivo, suggesting integrin activation to be a novel mechanism of action for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Since a number of well-characterized anti-CD11b/CD18 activating antibodies are currently available, we wondered if such biological agonists could also become therapeutic leads following this mechanism of action. METHODS We compared the two types of agonists using in vitro cell adhesion and wound-healing assays and using animal model systems. We also studied effects of the two types of agonists on outside-in signaling in treated cells. RESULTS Both types of agonists similarly enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion and decreased cell migration. However, unlike leukadherins, the activating antibodies produced significant CD11b/CD18 macro clustering and induced phosphorylation of key proteins involved in outside-in signaling. Studies using conformation reporter antibodies showed that leukadherins did not induce global conformational changes in CD11b/CD18 explaining the reason behind their lack of ligand-mimetic outside-in signaling. In vivo, leukadherins reduced vascular injury in a dose-dependent fashion, but, surprisingly, the anti-CD11b activating antibody ED7 was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that small molecule allosteric agonists of CD11b/CD18 have clear advantages over the biologic activating antibodies and provide a mechanistic basis for the difference. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE CD11b/CD18 activation represents a novel strategy for reducing inflammatory injury. Our study establishes small molecule leukadherins as preferred agonists over activating antibodies for future development as novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:23454649

  5. Exposure of MC4R to agonist in the endoplasmic reticulum stabilizes an active conformation of the receptor that does not desensitize.

    PubMed

    Granell, Susana; Molden, Brent M; Baldini, Giulia

    2013-12-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus where it regulates food intake. MC4R responds to an agonist, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and to an antagonist/inverse agonist, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which are released by upstream neurons. Binding to ?-MSH leads to stimulation of receptor activity and suppression of food intake, whereas AgRP has opposite effects. MC4R cycles constantly between the plasma membrane and endosomes and undergoes agonist-mediated desensitization by being routed to lysosomes. MC4R desensitization and increased AgRP expression are thought to decrease the effectiveness of MC4R agonists as an antiobesity treatment. In this study, ?-MSH, instead of being delivered extracellularly, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neuronal cells and cultured hypothalamic neurons. We find that the ER-targeted agonist associates with MC4R at this location, is transported to the cell surface, induces constant cAMP and AMP kinase signaling at maximal amplitude, abolishes desensitization of the receptor, and promotes both cell-surface expression and constant signaling by an obesity-linked MC4R variant, I316S, that otherwise is retained in the ER. Formation of the MC4R/agonist complex in the ER stabilizes the receptor in an active conformation that at the cell surface is insensitive to antagonism by AgRP and at the endosomes is refractory to routing to the lysosomes. The data indicate that targeting agonists to the ER can stabilize an active conformation of a G protein-coupled receptor that does not become desensitized, suggesting a target for therapy. PMID:24248383

  6. An A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Promotes Th17 Autoimmune Responses in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU) via Dendritic Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjiazi; Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that, although adenosine receptor (AR) agonists have a suppressive effect on Th1 autoreactive T cells, their effect on Th17 autoreactive T cells and ?? T cells is stimulatory and this effect is mainly mediated via A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs). In this study, we further demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with a selective A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) agonist greatly enhanced the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), whereas treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly ameliorated severity of EAU. The A2BR agonist-treated mice showed augmented Th17, but not Th1, responses. Mechanistic studies showed that the A2BR agonist-induced enhancement of the Th17 response was significantly lower when TCR-?-/- mice received the same treatment and that transfer of ?? T cells into TCR-?-/- mice partially restored this effect. We also showed that dendritic cells (DCs) from A2BR agonist-treated mice showed a significantly increased ability to activate ?? T cells and Th17 autoreactive T cells. Thus, our previous studies have shown that, in EAU, activated ?? T cells possess greatly increased ability to enhance Th17 autoimmune responses. In the present study, we showed that exposure of DCs to A2BR agonist facilitated ?? T cell activation, leading to augmented Th17 responses and progressive EAU development. Our results further support our previous finding that AR agonists have distinct effects on Th1 and Th17 autoimmune responses. PMID:26147733

  7. Exposure of MC4R to agonist in the endoplasmic reticulum stabilizes an active conformation of the receptor that does not desensitize

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Susana; Molden, Brent M.; Baldini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus where it regulates food intake. MC4R responds to an agonist, ?-melanocyte–stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and to an antagonist/inverse agonist, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which are released by upstream neurons. Binding to ?-MSH leads to stimulation of receptor activity and suppression of food intake, whereas AgRP has opposite effects. MC4R cycles constantly between the plasma membrane and endosomes and undergoes agonist-mediated desensitization by being routed to lysosomes. MC4R desensitization and increased AgRP expression are thought to decrease the effectiveness of MC4R agonists as an antiobesity treatment. In this study, ?-MSH, instead of being delivered extracellularly, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neuronal cells and cultured hypothalamic neurons. We find that the ER-targeted agonist associates with MC4R at this location, is transported to the cell surface, induces constant cAMP and AMP kinase signaling at maximal amplitude, abolishes desensitization of the receptor, and promotes both cell-surface expression and constant signaling by an obesity-linked MC4R variant, I316S, that otherwise is retained in the ER. Formation of the MC4R/agonist complex in the ER stabilizes the receptor in an active conformation that at the cell surface is insensitive to antagonism by AgRP and at the endosomes is refractory to routing to the lysosomes. The data indicate that targeting agonists to the ER can stabilize an active conformation of a G protein-coupled receptor that does not become desensitized, suggesting a target for therapy. PMID:24248383

  8. Synthesis and immunological activities of novel agonists of toll-like receptor 9.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Mary; Bett, Andrew J; Wisniewski, Thomas; Dubey, Sheri A; Precopio, Melissa; Jiang, Weiwen; Sun, Zhenhua; Wang, Hao; Nowak, Ireneusz; Putta, Mallikarjuna R; Yu, Dong; Tang, Jimmy X; Kandimalla, Ekambar R; Agrawal, Sudhir; Casimiro, Danilo R

    2010-01-01

    Novel agonists of TLR9 with two 5'-ends and synthetic immune stimulatory motifs, referred to as immune modulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs) are potent agonists of TLR9. In the present study, we have designed and synthesized 15 novel IMOs by incorporating specific chemical modifications and studied their immune response profiles both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the immunostimulatory profiles of these IMOs in human and NHP cell-based assays suggest that changes in the number of synthetic immunostimulatory motifs gave only a subtle change in immune stimulation of pDCs as indicated by IFN-alpha production and pDC maturation while the addition of self-complementary sequences produced more dramatic changes in both pDC and B cell stimulation. All IMOs induced cytokine production in vivo immediately after administration in mice. Representative compounds were also compared for the ability to stimulate cytokine production in vivo (IFN-alpha and IP-10) in rhesus macaques after intra-muscular administration. PMID:20381019

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c agonists induce neuroprotection following transient focal ischemia in normotensive, normoglycemic as well as hypertensive and type-2 diabetic rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kudret Tureyen; Ramya Kapadia; Kellie K. Bowen; Irawan Satriotomo; Jin Liang; Douglas L. Feinstein; Raghu Vemuganti

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic agonists of the lig- and-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-c (PPARc). TZDs are known to curtail inflammation associated with peripheral organ ischemia. As inflammation precipitates the neuronal death after stroke, we tested the efficacy of TZDs in preventing brain dam- age following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rodents. As hypertension and diabetes

  10. Thiazolidinedione Class of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor   Agonists Prevents Neuronal Damage, Motor Dysfunction, Myelin Loss, Neuropathic Pain, and Inflammation after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Won Park; Jae-Hyuk Yi; Guruwattan Miranpuri; Irawan Satriotomo; Kellie Bowen; Daniel K. Resnick; Raghu Vemuganti

    2006-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent synthetic agonists of the ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor- (PPAR). TZDs were shown to induce neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia by blocking inflamma- tion. As spinal cord injury (SCI) induces massive inflammation that precipitates secondary neuronal death, we currently ana- lyzed the therapeutic efficacy of TZDs pioglitazone and rosigli- tazone after SCI in adult rats.

  11. The structure of active opsin as a basis for identification of GPCR agonists by dynamic homology modelling and virtual screening assays

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    The structure of active opsin as a basis for identification of GPCR agonists by dynamic homologyAR) as a model system, we show that a dynamic homology model based on an ``active'' opsin structure 2011 Available online 21 October 2011 Edited by Robert B. Russell Keywords: Molecular dynamics

  12. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    PubMed Central

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Bylund, Johan; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323?209, 2014). In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy), meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus. PMID:25303226

  14. Nicotine enhances murine airway contractile responses to kinin receptor agonists via activation of JNK- and PDE4-related intracellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nicotine plays an important role in cigarette-smoke-associated airway disease. The present study was designed to examine if nicotine could induce airway hyperresponsiveness through kinin receptors, and if so, explore the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods Murine tracheal segments were cultured for 1, 2 or 4 days in serum-free DMEM medium in presence of nicotine (1 and 10 ?M) or vehicle (DMSO). Contractile responses induced by kinin B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg9-bradykinin, and B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, were monitored with myographs. The B1 and B2 receptor mRNA expressions were semi-quantified using real-time PCR and their corresponding protein expressions assessed with confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Various pharmacological inhibitors were used for studying intracellular signaling pathways. Results Four days of organ culture with nicotine concentration-dependently increased kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated airway contractions, without altering the kinin receptor-mediated relaxations. No such increase was seen at day 1 or day 2. The airway contractile responses to 5-HT, acetylcholine and endothelin receptor agonists remained unaffected by nicotine. Two different neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonists MG624 and hexamethonium blocked the nicotine-induced effects. The enhanced contractile responses were accompanied by increased mRNA and protein expression for both kinin receptors, suggesting the involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. Confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry showed that 4 days of nicotine treatment induced activation (phosphorylation) of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38. Inhibition of JNK with its specific inhibitor SP600125 abolished the nicotine-induced effects on kinin receptor-mediated contractions and reverted the enhanced receptor mRNA expression. Administration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (YM976 and theophylline), glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) or adenylcyclase activator (forskolin) suppressed the nicotine-enhanced airway contractile response to des-Arg9-bradykinin and bradykinin. Conclusions Nicotine induces airway hyperresponsiveness via transcriptional up-regulation of airway kinin B1 and B2 receptors, an effect mediated via neuronal nicotinic receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve activation of JNK- and PDE4-mediated intracellular inflammatory signal pathways. Our results might be relevant to active and passive smokers suffering from airway hyperresponsiveness, and suggest new therapeutic targets for the treatment of smoke-associated airway disease. PMID:20113502

  15. Activation of tongue-expressed GPR40 and GPR120 by non caloric agonists is not sufficient to drive preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Godinot, N; Yasumatsu, K; Barcos, M E; Pineau, N; Ledda, M; Viton, F; Ninomiya, Y; le Coutre, J; Damak, S

    2013-10-10

    There is mounting evidence that, in addition to texture and olfaction, taste plays a role in the detection of long chain fatty acids. Triglycerides, the main components of oils and dietary fat, are hydrolyzed in the mouth by a lingual lipase secreted from the von Ebner gland and the released free fatty acids are detected by the taste system. GPR40 and GPR120, two fatty acid responsive G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are expressed in taste bud cells, and knockout mice lacking either of those receptors have blunted taste nerve responses to and reduced preference for fatty acids. Here we investigated whether activation of those GPCRs is sufficient to elicit fat taste and preference. Five non-fatty acid agonists of GPR40 and two non-fatty acid agonists of GPR120 activated the glossopharyngeal nerve of wild-type mice but not of knockout mice lacking the cognate receptor. In human subjects, two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) tests, triangle tests and sensory profiling showed that non fatty acid agonists of GPR40 dissolved in water are detected in sip and spit tests and elicit a taste similar to that of linoleic acid, whereas 2-AFC tests showed that two agonists of GPR120 in water are not perceived fattier than water alone. Wild-type mice did not show any preference for five agonists of GPR40, two agonists of GPR120 and mixtures of both agonists over water in two-bottle preference tests. Together these data indicate that GPR40 mediated taste perception is not sufficient to generate preference. PMID:23831422

  16. CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist inhibits matrix metalloproteinase activity in spinal cord injury: A possible mechanism of improved recovery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Nandiwada, Vijaya; Jones, Victoria; Lu, Miaomiao; Warner, David S; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Sheng, Huaxin

    2015-06-15

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity contributes to glial scar formation that inhibits the repair path after spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined whether treatment with N-?(2-?chloroethyl)-?5Z,?8Z,?11Z,?14Z-?eicosatetraenamide (ACEA), a selective synthetic cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) agonist, inhibits MMP and improves functional and histological recovery in a mouse spinal cord compression injury model. Injured mice randomly received either intraperitoneal ACEA (3mg/kg/day) or vehicle for up to 3 weeks. Behavioral, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Rotarod assessment and the Basso Mouse Scale score showed an improved performance following ACEA treatment concomitant with a decrease in compression lesion volume. MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity was measured at 1, 7 and 14 days post-SCI. SCI markedly increased MMP-9, but had negligible effect on MMP-2 activity. ACEA-treatment decreased MMP-9 activity by 80%, 49%, and 56%, respectively (P<0.05) and had a smaller effect on MMP-2 activity. The CB1R antagonist SR141716, but not the CB2R antagonist SR144528, blocked ACEA-mediated decrease in MMP-9 activity confirming the role of the CB1R in the process. Collectively these data demonstrate that post-injury CB1R agonism can improve SCI outcome and also indicate marked attenuation of MMP-9 proteolytic enzyme activity as a biochemical mechanism. PMID:25881484

  17. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist.

    PubMed

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPAR? whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPAR? agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPAR? agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPAR? in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPAR?-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPAR? agonists. PMID:24025677

  18. The inverse agonist propranolol confers no corticosteroid-sparing activity in mild-to-moderate persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William J; Short, Philip M; Williamson, Peter A; Manoharan, Arvind; Lipworth, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    The murine asthma model shows that switching off airway ?2 receptors with an inverse agonist may confer anti-inflammatory effects as well as corticosteroid-sparing activity. We have assessed for any corticosteroid-sparing effects of propranolol, an inverse agonist, added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) compared with higher dose ICS. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial in mild-to-moderate persistent asthmatic patients was performed. After a run-in (2 weeks) on hydrofluoroalkane-beclometasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) at 100 ?g/day (HFA-BDP100), patients received randomized treatments (4 weeks) with propranolol at 80 mg/day plus HFA-BDP at 100 ?g/day compared with placebo plus HFA-BDP at 400 ?g/day (HFA-BDP400). Propranolol was up-titrated to 80 mg/day over the initial 2 weeks. Tiotropium was co-administered until 5 days before each histamine challenge (the primary outcome). Sixteen patients completed the study [mean age, 38 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 86.4%; histamine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20), 1.39 mg/ml; ICS dose, 406 ?g/day]. Histamine PC20 was unchanged by adding propranolol to HFA-BDP100 compared with baseline (HFA-BDP100) {0.17 doubling dilution (dd) difference [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.58 to 0.92]}, but there was a significant improvement with HFA-BDP400 compared with both baseline [1.05 dd (95% CI: 0.43-1.66); P=0.02], and propranolol+HFA-BDP100 [0.88 dd (95% CI: 0.45-1.30); P=0.006]. Significant improvements were also observed with HFA-BDP400 for exhaled nitric oxide, blood eosinophils, serum eosinophilic cationic protein and asthma quality-of-life questionnaire symptoms compared with propranolol+HFA-BDP100. Salbutamol recovery post-challenge was partially blunted by propranolol (median prolongation 5 min; P=0.002). Domiciliary evening FEV1 also fell with propranolol+HFA-BDP100 [mean reduction from baseline 0.22 litres (95% CI: 0.10-0.34); P=0.012], whereas Asthma Control Questionnaire remained unchanged. In conclusion, the inverse agonist propranolol produced no improvements when given with low-dose ICS, whereas further significant improvements in airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation were demonstrated with higher dose ICS. Thus, propranolol does not confer corticosteroid-sparing activity in persistent asthma. PMID:24938324

  19. Effect of beta-ADrenergic Agonist on Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Because it seems logical that these agonists exert their action on muscle through stimulation of cAMP synthesis, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax levels were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. In addition, the EC50 values for isoproterenol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, epinephrine, and albuterol were 360 nM, 630 nM, 900 nM, 2,470 nM, and 3,650 nM, respectively. Finally, dose response curves show that the concentrations of cimaterol and clenbuterol in culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals had no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP accumulation in chicken skeletal muscle cells.

  20. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–gamma agonist Pioglitazone improves cardiometabolic risk and renal inflammation in murine lupus*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenpu; Thacker, Seth G.; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Jeffrey H.; Park, James L.; Randolph, Ann; Somers, Emily C.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a striking increase in the risk of premature atherosclerosis, a complication preceded by significant subclinical vascular damage. A proposed mechanism leading to accelerated vascular disease in SLE is an imbalance between vascular damage and repair, as patients with this disease display significant abnormalities in phenotype and function of endothelial progenitor cells. In addition, individuals with SLE have a higher incidence of insulin resistance which may further contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. This study examined the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?) agonist pioglitazone in improving endothelial function, endothelial progenitor cell numbers and functional capacity, metabolic parameters and disease activity in the lupus-prone murine model New Zealand Black/ New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) F1. Ten-week old pre-nephritic female NZB/NZW F1 mice were exposed to 10 or 25 mg/kg/day of oral pioglitazone or vehicle for 15 or 24 weeks. Mice exposed to pioglitazone exhibited pronounced enhancement in endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation of thoracic aortas and in endothelial progenitor cell function, as assessed by the capacity of bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Pioglitazone-treated mice showed improvement in insulin resistance, adipokine and lipid profile. Kidneys from pioglitazone-treated mice showed significant decreases in immune complex deposition, renal inflammation, T cell glomerular infiltration and intrarenal synthesis of TNF-?, IL-1? and VCAM-1. These results indicate that PPAR-? agonists could serve as important tools in the prevention of premature cardiovascular disease and organ damage in SLE. PMID:19620300

  1. Pretreatment with protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate attenuates the antinociception induced by ?- but not ?-opioid receptor agonist in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Narita; M Ohsawa; H Mizoguchi; J Kamei; L. F Tseng

    1996-01-01

    The effects of pretreatment with a protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, on antinociception induced by i.c.v.-administered ?-opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala2, NMePhe4, Gly(ol)5] enkephalin (DAMGO) or morphine and ?-opioid receptor agonist ?-endorphin were studied in male ICR mice. The tail-flick responses were used for antinociceptive tests. I.c.v. pretreatment with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (50pmol) for 30 or 60 but not 10min attenuated

  2. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  3. CORRELATION OF THE ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF A SERIES OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES WITH THEIR ABILITY TO COMPETE WITH AGONIST BINDING TO MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity compete directly with quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding, a muscarinic antagonist which binds to all subtypes equally, and with cis-methyldioxolane (CD), an agonist that binds with high affinity to the M2 subtype...

  4. Pharmacological profile of DA-6886, a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic motor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Kang Hun; Park, Hyun Min; Sung, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin

    2014-07-15

    DA-6886, the gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamide derivative is a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of DA-6886. We used various receptor binding assay, cAMP accumulation assay, organ bath experiment and colonic transit assay in normal and chemically constipated mice. DA-6886 exhibited high affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants, with mean pKi of 7.1, 7.5, 7.9 for the human 5-HT4a, 5-HT4b and 5-HT4d, respectively. By contrast, DA-6886 did not show significant affinity for several receptors including dopamine D2 receptor, other 5-HT receptors except for 5-HT2B receptor (pKi value of 6.2). The affinity for 5-HT4 receptor was translated into functional agonist activity in Cos-7 cells expressing 5-HT4 receptor splice variants. Furthermore, DA-6886 induced relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation (pEC50 value of 7.4) in a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. The evaluation of DA-6886 in CHO cells expressing hERG channels revealed that it inhibited hERG channel current with an pIC50 value of 4.3, indicating that the compound was 1000-fold more selective for the 5-HT4 receptor over hERG channels. In the normal ICR mice, oral administration of DA-6886 (0.4 and 2mg/kg) resulted in marked stimulation of colonic transit. Furthermore, in the loperamide-induced constipation mouse model, 2mg/kg of DA-6886 significantly improved the delay of colonic transit, similar to 10mg/kg of tegaserod. Taken together, DA-6886 is a highly potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic transit in mice, which might be therapeutic agent having a favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastrointestinal motor disorders such as IBS-C and chronic constipation. PMID:24769304

  5. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan) [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia)] [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan)] [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPAR? agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPAR? whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPAR? agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPAR? agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPAR? in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPAR?-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPAR? agonists.

  6. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of alkoxy-3-indolylacetic acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? agonists.

    PubMed

    Gim, Hyo Jin; Li, Hua; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Su Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Song, Mi-Young; Park, Byung-Hyun; Oh, Soo Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Raok

    2015-07-01

    A series of alkoxy-3-indolylacetic acid analogs has been discovered as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. Structure-activity relationship study indicated that PPAR?/?/? activities were dependent on the nature of the hydrophobic group, the attachment position of the alkoxy linker to the indole ring, and N-alkylation of indole nitrogen. Some compounds presented significant PPAR?/? activity and molecular modeling suggested their putative binding modes in the ligand binding domain of PPAR?. Of these, compound 51 was selected for in vivo study via an evaluation of microsomal stability in mouse and human liver. Compound 51 lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c without gain in body weight in db/db mice. When compound 51 was treated, hepatic triglycerides level and the size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue of db/db mice were also reduced as opposed to treatment with rosiglitazone. Taken together, compound 51 shows high potential warranting further studies in models for diabetes and related metabolic disorders and may be in use as a chemical tool for the understanding of PPAR biology. PMID:25982078

  7. The G protein-biased ?-opioid receptor agonist RB-64 is analgesic with a unique spectrum of activities in vivo.

    PubMed

    White, Kate L; Robinson, J Elliott; Zhu, Hu; DiBerto, Jeffrey F; Polepally, Prabhakar R; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Nichols, David E; Malanga, C J; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that functionally selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists may have enhanced therapeutic benefits has revitalized interest for many GPCR targets. In particular, although ?-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists are analgesic with a low risk of dependence and abuse, their use is limited by a propensity to induce sedation, motor incoordination, hallucinations, and dysphoria-like states. Several laboratories have produced a body of work suggesting that G protein-biased KOR agonists might be analgesic with fewer side effects. Although that has been an intriguing hypothesis, suitable KOR-selective and G protein-biased agonists have not been available to test this idea. Here we provide data using a G protein-biased agonist, RB-64 (22-thiocyanatosalvinorin A), which suggests that KOR-mediated G protein signaling induces analgesia and aversion, whereas ?-arrestin-2 signaling may be associated with motor incoordination. Additionally, unlike unbiased KOR agonists, the G protein-biased ligand RB-64 does not induce sedation and does not have anhedonia-like actions, suggesting that a mechanism other than G protein signaling mediates these effects. Our findings provide the first evidence for a highly selective and G protein-biased tool compound for which many, but not all, of the negative side effects of KOR agonists can be minimized by creating G protein-biased KOR agonists. PMID:25320048

  8. Agonist-induced desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is temporally and biochemically separated from D1 receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, G Y; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J; Bouvier, M; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor was investigated by using c-myc epitope-tagged D1 receptors expressed in Sf9 (fall armyworm ovary) cells. Treatment of D1 receptors with 10 microM dopamine for 15 min led to a loss of the dopamine-detected high-affinity state of the receptor accompanying a 40% reduction in the ability of the receptor to mediate maximal dopamine stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. After 60 min of agonist exposure, 45 min after the occurrence of desensitization, 28% of the cell surface receptors were internalized into an intracellular light vesicular membrane fraction as determined by radioligand binding and supported by photoaffinity labeling, immunocytochemical staining, and immunoblot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with concanavalin A or sucrose completely blocked agonist-induced D1 receptor internalization without preventing agonist-induced desensitization, indicating a biochemical separation of these processes. Collectively, these findings indicate that the desensitization of D1 receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase activity and D1 receptor internalization are temporarily and biochemically distinct mechanisms regulating D1 receptor function following agonist activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479745

  9. Agonist activation of cytosolic Ca2+ in subfornical organ cells projecting to the supraoptic nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Sharma, R. V.; Xu, Z.; Bhatty, R. A.; Johnson, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is sensitive to both ANG II and ACh, and local application of these agents produces dipsogenic responses and vasopressin release. The present study examined the effects of cholinergic drugs, ANG II, and increased extracellular osmolarity on dissociated, cultured cells of the SFO that were retrogradely labeled from the supraoptic nucleus. The effects were measured as changes in cytosolic calcium in fura 2-loaded cells by using a calcium imaging system. Both ACh and carbachol increased intracellular ionic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, in contrast to the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on SFO neurons, manipulation of the extracellular osmolality produced no effects, and application of ANG II produced only moderate effects on [Ca2+]i in a few retrogradely labeled cells. The cholinergic effects on [Ca2+]i could be blocked with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and with the more selective muscarinic receptor antagonists pirenzepine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperdine methiodide (4-DAMP). In addition, the calcium in the extracellular fluid was required for the cholinergic-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. These findings indicate that ACh acts to induce a functional cellular response in SFO neurons through action on a muscarinic receptor, probably of the M1 subtype and that the increase of [Ca2+]i, at least initially, requires the entry of extracellular Ca2+. Also, consistent with a functional role of M1 receptors in the SFO are the results of immunohistochemical preparations demonstrating M1 muscarinic receptor-like protein present within this forebrain circumventricular organ.

  10. Antinociceptive and toxic effects of (+)-epibatidine oxalate attributable to nicotinic agonist activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rupniak, N M; Patel, S; Marwood, R; Webb, J; Traynor, J R; Elliott, J; Freedman, S B; Fletcher, S R; Hill, R G

    1994-01-01

    1. Epibatidine is an analgesic substance, isolated from the skin of the poisonous frog Epipedobates tricolor, for which the mechanism of action was previously unknown. 2. The IC50 of synthetic (+)-epibatidine oxalate (the naturally occurring isomer) for [3H]-nicotine binding to rat whole-brain membranes was 0.1 nM. The (-)-isomer also exhibited high affinity (IC50 = 0.2 nM). 3. (+)- and (-)-Epibatidine exhibited much lower affinity for displacement of the muscarinic ligand [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to rat cortical membranes (Kapp = 6.9 microM and 16.0 microM respectively). The (+)-enantiomer of epibatidine had an antagonist/agonist (NMS/oxo-M) binding ratio of 4.2 This is consistent with a muscarinic antagonist profile. 4. (+)-Epibatidine oxalate (10 microM) did not cause significant (> 30%) displacement of radioligand binding to opioid, excitatory amino acid, benzodiazepine, 5-HT, dopamine, adrenaline or peptide receptors. 5. (+)- and (-)-Epibatidine (5-20 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) doubled response latency in the mouse hot-plate test. Antinociception and behavioural depression induced by (+)-epibatidine (5 micrograms kg-1) was fully blocked by the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine (2 mg kg-1 s.c.) or dihydro-beta-erythroidine (2 mg kg-1 s.c.). The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.4 and 10 mg kg-1 s.c.) caused partial reversal of antinociception induced by (+)-epibatidine in mice, but not in rats. 6. These findings demonstrate that (+)-epibatidine oxalate salt is a highly selective and potent nicotinic analgesic agent. PMID:7889306

  11. Symptoms of activity-induced weakness in peripheral nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Straver, Dirk C G; van den Berg, Leonard H; van Doorn, Pieter A; Franssen, Hessel

    2011-06-01

    Activity-induced weakness was reported in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). This was attributed to activity-dependent conduction block (CB) arising in demyelinated axons. It is not known if activity-induced weakness is common, nor if it is specific for MMN and CIDP. We, therefore, carried out an investigation by questionnaire in 64 MMN patients, 52 CIDP patients, 48 progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PSMA) patients, and 30 normal subjects. Subjects were asked if they experienced an increase in weakness when performing 10 common tasks. The percentage of tasks causing activity-induced weakness was higher in the patient groups than in the normal subjects (p < 0.001). The risk of activity-induced weakness exceeding that in normal subjects was sixfold higher for each patient group when adjusted for sex, age, and a fatigue score. With further adjustment for scores of weakness and axon loss, no significant differences were found between the patient groups. In conclusion, activity-induced weakness is frequently reported in MMN and CIDP. It is, however, not specific for these neuropathies as PSMA patients reported it to the same extent. PMID:21692909

  12. Effect of stilbene and chalcone scaffolds incorporation in clofibric acid on PPAR? agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Giampietro, Letizia; D'Angelo, Alessandra; Giancristofaro, Antonella; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Di Matteo, Mauro; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Linciano, Pasquale; Maccallini, Cristina; Amoroso, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop safe and efficacious compounds for the treatment of metabolic disorders, new compounds based on a combination of clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate, and trans-stilbene, chalcone, and other lipophilic groups were synthesized. They were evaluated for PPAR? transactivation activity; all branched derivatives showed an increase of the transcriptional activity of receptor compared to the linear ones. Noteworthy, stilbene and benzophenone branched derivatives activated the PPAR? better than clofibric acid. PMID:23432317

  13. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Brown; Malika Fezoui; William M. Selig; Carl E. Schwartz; James L. Ellis

    2004-01-01

    1 Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and

  14. A synergistic interaction of 17-?-estradiol with specific cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist/inverse agonist on proliferation activity in primary human osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    HOJNIK, MARKO; DOBOVIŠEK, LUKA; KNEZ, ŽELJKO; FERK, POLONCA

    2015-01-01

    The bone remodeling process is influenced by various factors, including estrogens and transmitters of the endocannabinoid system. In osteoblasts, cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB-2) are expressed at a much higher level compared to CB-1 receptors. Previous studies have shown that estrogens could influence CB-2 receptor expression. In the present study, the possible interactions of a specific CB-2 agonist and a specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist with 17-?-estradiol were investigated in primary human osteoblasts (HOB). HOB cells were cultured in phenol red-free osteoblast growth medium (37°C, 5% CO2). In their 5th passage, HOB were exposed to different concentrations of i) 17-?-estradiol (1, 10 and 100 nM); ii) a specific CB-2 agonist (R,S)-AM1241 (1 and 7.5 µM); and iii) a specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist AM630 (10 µM) and to selected combinations of the substances. After 24 and 48 h of incubation, HOB proliferation activity was measured using a WST-8 assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also evaluated using spectrophotometry. Concomitant exposure of HOB to 17-?-estradiol (10 nM) and to specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist (10 µM) showed similar HOB proliferation activity to HOB incubated with 17-?-estradiol only at a 100 nM concentration. By contrast, concomitant incubation of HOB with 17-?-estradiol (10 nM) and specific CB-2 agonist (7.5 µM) resulted in decreased HOB proliferation activity as compared to HOB incubated with 17-?-estradiol only (10 nM). Similar findings were observed after 24 and 48 h of incubation. In all the experiments, HOB successfully passed the alkaline phosphatase differentiation test. In conclusion, for the first time a synergistic interaction between 17-?-estradiol and specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist was observed in HOB. Understanding the molecular pathways of this interaction would be of great importance in developing more efficient and safer drugs for treating or preventing bone diseases. PMID:26171165

  15. The FomA Porin from Fusobacterium nucleatum Is a Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist with Immune Adjuvant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Toussi, Deana N.; Liu, Xiuping

    2012-01-01

    Many bacterial components selectively activate immune and nonhematopoietic target cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling; modulation of such host responses defines the immune adjuvant properties of these bacterial products. For example, the outer membrane protein porins from Neisseria, Salmonella, and Shigella are known TLR2 agonists with established systemic and mucosal immune adjuvanticity. Early work indicated that the FomA porin from Fusobacterium nucleatum has immune adjuvant activity in mice. Using a purified recombinant FomA, we have verified its immune stimulatory properties and have defined a role for TLR2 signaling in its in vitro and in vivo activity. FomA induces interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion and NF-?B-dependent luciferase activity in HEK cells expressing TLR2, IL-6 secretion, and cell surface upregulation of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II in primary B cells from wild-type mice, but it fails to activate cells from TLR2 knockout mice. Accordingly, the immune adjuvant activity of FomA is also TLR2 dependent. In a mouse model of immunization with ovalbumin (OVA), FomA induces enhanced production of OVA-specific IgM and IgG, including IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, as well as enhanced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6, consistent with a Th2-type adjuvant effect. We also observe a moderate production of anti-FomA antibodies, suggesting that FomA is also immunogenic, a quality that is also TLR2 dependent. Therefore, modulation of host immune responses by FomA may be effective for targeting general host immunity not only to pathogens (as a novel TLR2 adjuvant) but also to F. nucleatum itself (as an antigen), expanding its use as a self-adjuvanted antigen in an immunization strategy against polymicrobial infections, including those by F. nucleatum. PMID:22623652

  16. The CD40 agonist antibody CP870,893 enhances dendritic cell and B-cell activity and promotes anti-tumor efficacy in SCID-hu mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald P. Gladue; Timothy Paradis; Susan H. Cole; Carol Donovan; Robin Nelson; Robbin Alpert; Joe Gardner; Ed Natoli; Eileen Elliott; Richard Shepard; Vahe Bedian

    2011-01-01

    CD40 is a member of the TNF family of receptors that has been shown to play a crucial role in enhancing dendritic cell activity\\u000a and fostering anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate the in vitro properties and in vivo efficacious activity\\u000a of the CD40 agonist antibody, CP-870,893. CP-870,893 is a fully human, IgG2 antibody that selectively interacts with

  17. CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVITY AT THE CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTOR IS REQUIRED FOR BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO NOXIOUS CHEMICAL STIMULATION OF TRPV1: ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIONS OF CB1 INVERSE AGONISTS

    PubMed Central

    Fioravanti, Beatriz; De Felice, Milena; Stucky, Cheryl L.; Medler, Karen A.; Luo, Miaw-Chyi; Gardell, Luis R.; Ibrahim, Mohab; Malan, T. Phil; Yamamura, Henry I.; Ossipov, Michael H.; King, Tamara; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.

    2009-01-01

    The potential modulation of TRPV1 nociceptive activity by the CB1 receptor was investigated here using CB1 wildtype (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice as well as selective CB1 inverse agonists. No significant differences were detected in baseline thermal thresholds of ICR, CB1WT or CB1KO mice. Intraplantar capsaicin produced dose- and time-related paw flinch responses in ICR and CB1WT mice and induced plasma extravasation yet minimal responses were seen in CB1KO animals with no apparent differences in TRPV1 channel expression. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from spinal cord tissue and capsaicin-evoked action potentials on isolated skin-nerve preparation were significantly decreased in CB1KO mice. Pretreatment with intraplantar galanin and bradykinin, compounds known to sensitize TRPV1 receptors, restored capsaicin-induced flinching in CB1KO mice. The possibility that constitutive activity at the CB1 receptor is required to maintain the TRPV1 receptor in a “sensitized” state was tested using CB1 inverse agonists. The CB1 inverse agonists elicited concentration-related inhibition of capsaicin-induced calcium influx in F-11 cells and produced dose-related inhibition of capsaicin-induced flinching in ICR mice. These data suggest that constitutive activity at the CB1 receptor maintains the TRPV1 channel in a sensitized state responsive to noxious chemical stimuli. Treatment with CB1 inverse agonists may promote desensitization of the channel resulting in antinociceptive actions against chemical stimulus modalities. These studies propose possible therapeutic exploitation of a novel mechanism providing pain relief by CB1 inverse agonists. PMID:18987195

  18. Isoproterenol Acts as a Biased Agonist of the Alpha-1A-Adrenoceptor that Selectively Activates the MAPK/ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Copik, Alicja. J.; Baldys, Aleksander; Nguyen, Khanh; Sahdeo, Sunil; Ho, Hoangdung; Kosaka, Alan; Dietrich, Paul J.; Fitch, Bill; Raymond, John R.; Ford, Anthony P. D. W.; Button, Donald; Milla, Marcos E.

    2015-01-01

    The ?1A-AR is thought to couple predominantly to the G?q/PLC pathway and lead to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, although certain agonists acting at this receptor have been reported to trigger activation of arachidonic acid formation and MAPK pathways. For several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) agonists can manifest a bias for activation of particular effector signaling output, i.e. not all agonists of a given GPCR generate responses through utilization of the same signaling cascade(s). Previous work with G?q coupling-defective variants of ?1A-AR, as well as a combination of Ca2+ channel blockers, uncovered cross-talk between ?1A-AR and ?2-AR that leads to potentiation of a G?q-independent signaling cascade in response to ?1A-AR activation. We hypothesized that molecules exist that act as biased agonists to selectively activate this pathway. In this report, isoproterenol (Iso), typically viewed as ?-AR-selective agonist, was examined with respect to activation of ?1A-AR. ?1A-AR selective antagonists were used to specifically block Iso evoked signaling in different cellular backgrounds and confirm its action at ?1A-AR. Iso induced signaling at ?1A-AR was further interrogated by probing steps along the G?q /PLC, G?s and MAPK/ERK pathways. In HEK-293/EBNA cells transiently transduced with ?1A-AR, and CHO_?1A-AR stable cells, Iso evoked low potency ERK activity as well as Ca2+ mobilization that could be blocked by ?1A-AR selective antagonists. The kinetics of Iso induced Ca2+ transients differed from typical G?q- mediated Ca2+ mobilization, lacking both the fast IP3R mediated response and the sustained phase of Ca2+ re-entry. Moreover, no inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation could be detected in either cell line after stimulation with Iso, but activation was accompanied by receptor internalization. Data are presented that indicate that Iso represents a novel type of ?1A-AR partial agonist with signaling bias toward MAPK/ERK signaling cascade that is likely independent of coupling to G?q. PMID:25606852

  19. The AMPK Agonist AICAR Inhibits TGF-?1 Induced Activation of Kidney Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yen, Tzu-Hai; Ko, Yi-Ching; Yang, Chih-Wei; Hung, Cheng-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Activation of interstitial myofibroblasts and excessive production of extracellular matrix proteins are common pathways that contribute to chronic kidney disease. In a number of tissues, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation has been shown to inhibit fibrosis. Here, we examined the inhibitory effect of the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), on renal fibrosis in vivo and TGF-?1-induced renal fibroblasts activation in vitro. A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model was induced in male BALB/c mice. Mice with UUO were administered AICAR (500 mg/Kg/day) or saline intraperitoneally 1 day before UUO surgery and daily thereafter. Both kidneys were harvested 7 days after surgery for further analysis. For the in vitro studies, NRK-49F rat fibroblasts were pre-incubated with AICAR before TGF-?1 stimulation. The inhibitory effects of AICAR on signaling pathways down-stream of TGF-?1 were analyzed. In UUO model mice, administration of AICAR attenuated extracellular matrix protein deposition and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), type I collagen and fibronectin. Pre-incubation of NRK-49F cells with AICAR inhibited TGF-?1-induced myofibroblast activation. Silencing of AMPK?1 by siRNA or by blocking AMPK activation with Compound C diminished the inhibitory effect of AICAR. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of AICAR on TGF-?1-mediated myofibroblast activation were associated with down-regulation of ERK 1/2 and STAT3. Our results suggest that AICAR reduces tubulointerstitial fibrosis in UUO mice and inhibits TGF-?1-induced kidney myofibroblast activation. AMPK activation by AICAR may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. PMID:25188319

  20. The Peroxisomal Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Agonist, Fenofibrate, Prevents Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Payne, Valerie; Peiffer, Ann M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Riddle, David R.; Zhao, Weiling; Chan, Michael D.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda; Robbins, Mike E.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that dietary administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist, fenofibrate, to young adult male rats would prevent the fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI)-induced reduction in cognitive function and neurogenesis and prevent the fWBI-induced increase in the total number of activated microglia. Eighty 12–14-week-old young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats received either: (1) sham irradiation, (2) 40 Gy of fWBI delivered as two 5 Gy fractions/week for 4 weeks, (3) sham irradiation + dietary fenofibrate (0.2% w/w) starting 7 days prior to irradiation, or (4) fWBI + fenofibrate. Cognitive function was measured 26–29 weeks after irradiation using: (1) the perirhinal cortex (PRh)-dependent novel object recognition task; (2) the hippocampal-dependent standard Morris water maze (MWM) task; (3) the hippocampal-dependent delayed match-to-place version of the MWM task; and (4) a cue strategy preference version of the MWM to distinguish hippocampal from striatal task performance. Neurogenesis was assessed 29 weeks after fWBI in the granular cell layer and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using a doublecortin antibody. Microglial activation was assessed using an ED1 antibody in the dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus. A significant impairment in perirhinal cortex-dependent cognitive function was measured after fWBI. In contrast, fWBI failed to alter hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, despite a significant reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis. Continuous administration of fenofibrate prevented the fWBI-induced reduction in perirhinal cortex-dependent cognitive function, but did not prevent the radiation-induced reduction in neurogenesis or the radiation-induced increase in activated microglia. These data suggest that fenofibrate may be a promising therapeutic for the prevention of some modalities of radiation-induced cognitive impairment in brain cancer patients. PMID:24397438

  1. Thrombin-receptor agonist peptides, in contrast to thrombin itself, are not full agonists for activation and signal transduction in human platelets in the absence of platelet-derived secondary mediators.

    PubMed

    Lau, L F; Pumiglia, K; Côté, Y P; Feinstein, M B

    1994-10-15

    Synthetic thrombin receptor peptides (TRPs), comprising the first 6-14 amino acids of the new N-terminus tethered ligand of the thrombin receptor that is generated by thrombin's proteolytic activity, were reported to activate platelets equally with thrombin itself and are considered to be full agonists [Vu et al. (1991) Cell 64, 1057-1068]. Using aspirin plus ADP-scavengers or the ADP-receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-[alpha-thio]triphosphate to prevent the secondary effects of the potent agonists that are normally released from stimulated platelets (i.e. ADP and thromboxane A2), we assessed the direct actions of thrombin and TRPs (i.e. TRP42-47 and TRP42-55). Compared with thrombin, under these conditions, TRPs: (1) failed to aggregate platelets completely; (2) produced less activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa; (3) did not cause association of GPIIb and pp60c-src with the cytoskeleton; and (4) caused less alpha-granule secretion, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, arachidonic acid release and phosphatidyl inositol (PtdOH) production. Furthermore, TRPs induced transient increases in protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas these same responses to thrombin were greater and more sustained. Hirudin added after thrombin accelerated protein dephosphorylation, thereby mimicking the rate of spontaneous dephosphorylation seen after stimulation by TRPs. Platelets totally desensitized to very high concentrations of TRPs, by prior exposure to maximally effective concentrations of the peptides, remained responsive to alpha- and gamma-thrombins. Thrombin-stimulated PtdOH production in permeabilized platelets desensitized to TRPs was abolished by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta S]), as in normal platelets. These results are discussed in terms of the allosteric Ternary Complex Model for G-protein linked receptors [Samama et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 4625-4636]. We conclude that: (1) TRPs are partial agonists for the thrombin receptor and produce incomplete receptor desensitization in keeping with their lower intrinsic activity; (2) thrombin's effects in platelets, even in TRP-desensitized platelets, are entirely mediated through the recently cloned G-protein linked receptor, and (3) thrombin's ability to produce sustained signals, compared with TRPs, may require the continued progressive proteolytic activation of naive thrombin receptors. PMID:7526841

  2. Epigenetic Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists Increases the Anticancer Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aouali, Nassera; Broukou, Angeliki; Bosseler, Manon; Keunen, Olivier; Schlesser, Vincent; Janji, Bassam; Palissot, Valerie; Stordeur, Philippe; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play a major role in the development of multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO) enhances, in-vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), valproic acid (VPA), on multiple myeloma cells. Here, we described the development of a new multiple myeloma mouse model using MOLP8 cells, in order to evaluate the effect of VPA/PIO combination on the progression of myeloma cells, by analyzing the proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. We showed that VPA/PIO delays the progression of the disease and the invasion of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that VPA/PIO increases the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and induces the acetylation of Histone 3 (H3). Furthermore, we provided evidence that PPAR? agonist is able to enhance the action of other HDACi such as Vorinostat or Mocetinostat. Using PPAR? antagonist or siPPAR?, we strongly suggest that, as described during adipogenesis, PIO behaves as an epigenetic regulator by improving the activity of HDACi. This study highlights the therapeutic benefit of PIO/VPA combination, compared to VPA treatment as a single-arm therapy on multiple myeloma and further highlights that such combination may constitute a new promising treatment strategy which should be supported by clinical trials. PMID:26091518

  3. Agonists of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 activate airway smooth muscle via mononuclear leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin E Morris; Moira K B Whyte; Gillian F Martin; Peter J Jose; Steven K Dower; Ian Sabroe

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, TLR4) enable cellular responsestobacteriallipoproteins,LPS,andendogenousmediators of cell damage. They have an established role in the activation of leukocytes, endothelial cells, and some smooth muscle cell types, but their roles in airway smooth muscle are uncertain. Objectives: To determine the roles of TLRs in activation of airway smooth muscle. Methods: Airway smooth muscle cells were

  4. TGF-?-activated Kinase 1 (Tak1) Mediates Agonist-induced Smad Activation and Linker Region Phosphorylation in Embryonic Craniofacial Neural Crest-derived Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yumoto, Kenji; Thomas, Penny S.; Lane, Jamie; Matsuzaki, Kouichi; Inagaki, Maiko; Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun; Scott, Gregory J.; Ray, Manas K.; Ishii, Mamoru; Maxson, Robert; Mishina, Yuji; Kaartinen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of TGF-? superfamily signaling in craniofacial growth and patterning is well established, the precise details of its signaling mechanisms are still poorly understood. This is in part because of the concentration of studies on the role of the Smad-dependent (so-called “canonical”) signaling pathways relative to the Smad-independent ones in many biological processes. Here, we have addressed the role of TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (Tak1, Map3k7), one of the key mediators of Smad-independent (noncanonical) TGF-? superfamily signaling in craniofacial development, by deleting Tak1 specifically in the neural crest lineage. Tak1-deficient mutants display a round skull, hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, and cleft palate resulting from a failure of palatal shelves to appropriately elevate and fuse. Our studies show that in neural crest-derived craniofacial ecto-mesenchymal cells, Tak1 is not only required for TGF-?- and bone morphogenetic protein-induced p38 Mapk activation but also plays a role in agonist-induced C-terminal and linker region phosphorylation of the receptor-mediated R-Smads. Specifically, we demonstrate that the agonist-induced linker region phosphorylation of Smad2 at Thr-220, which has been shown to be critical for full transcriptional activity of Smad2, is dependent on Tak1 activity and that in palatal mesenchymal cells TGF?RI and Tak1 kinases mediate both overlapping and distinct TGF-?2-induced transcriptional responses. To summarize, our results suggest that in neural crest-derived ecto-mesenchymal cells, Tak1 provides a critical point of intersection in a complex dialogue between the canonical and noncanonical arms of TGF-? superfamily signaling required for normal craniofacial development. PMID:23546880

  5. Vasculotide reduces endothelial permeability and tumor cell extravasation in the absence of binding to or agonistic activation of Tie2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence TH; Lee, Christina R; Bogdanovic, Elena; Prodeus, Aaron; Gariépy, Jean; Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) activation of Tie2 receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) reduces adhesion by tumor cells (TCs) and limits junctional permeability to TC diapedesis. We hypothesized that systemic therapy with Vasculotide (VT)—a purported Ang1 mimetic, Tie2 agonist—can reduce the extravasation of potentially metastatic circulating TCs by similarly stabilizing the host vasculature. In vitro, VT and Ang1 treatments impeded endothelial hypermeability and the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231•LM2-4 (breast), HT29 (colon), or SN12 (renal) cancer cells to varying degrees. In mice, VT treatment inhibited the transit of TCs through the pulmonary endothelium, but not the hepatic or lymphatic endothelium. In the in vivo LM2-4 model, VT monotherapy had no effect on primary tumors, but significantly delayed distant metastatic dissemination to the lungs. In the post-surgical adjuvant treatment setting, VT therapeutically complemented sunitinib therapy, an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor which limited the local growth of residual disease. Unexpectedly, detailed investigations into the putative mechanism of action of VT revealed no evidence of Tie2 agonism or Tie2 binding; alternative mechanisms have yet to be determined. PMID:25851538

  6. Dual bronchodilatory and pulmonary anti-inflammatory activity of RO5024118, a novel agonist at vasoactive intestinal peptide VPAC2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tannu, SA; Renzetti, LM; Tare, N; Ventre, JD; Lavelle, D; Lin, TA; Morschauser, A; Paciorek, J; Bolin, DR; Michel, H; Singer, L; Hargaden, M; Knowles, ID; Gardiner, P; Cazzola, M; Calzetta, L; Matera, MG; Hicks, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vasoactive intestinal peptide is expressed in the respiratory tract and induces its effects via its receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2. RO5024118 is a selective VPAC2 receptor agonist derived via chemical modification of an earlier VPAC2 agonist, RO0251553. In the present studies, we characterized the pharmacological activity of RO5024118. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Stability of RO5024118 to human neutrophil elastase was assessed. Bronchodilatory activity of RO5024118 was investigated in guinea pig and human isolated airway smooth muscle preparations and in a guinea pig bronchoconstriction model. Pulmonary anti-inflammatory activity of RO5024118 was investigated in a lipopolysaccharide mouse model and in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) rat model. KEY RESULTS RO5024118 demonstrated increased stability to neutrophil elastase compared with RO0251553. In human and guinea pig isolated airway preparations, RO5024118 induced bronchodilatory effects comparable with RO0251553 and the long-acting ?-agonist salmeterol and was significantly more potent than native vasoactive intestinal peptide and the short-acting ?-agonist salbutamol. In 5-HT-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, RO5024118 exhibited inhibitory activity with similar efficacy as, and longer duration than, RO0251553. In a lipopolysaccharide-mouse model, RO5024118 inhibited neutrophil and CD8+ cells and myeloperoxidase levels. In rats, intratracheal instillation of PPE induced airway neutrophilia that was resistant to dexamethasone. Pretreatment with RO5024118 significantly inhibited PPE-induced neutrophil accumulation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results demonstrate that RO5024118 induces dual bronchodilatory and pulmonary anti-inflammatory activity and may be beneficial in treating airway obstructive and inflammatory diseases. PMID:20735404

  7. Phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids are generated in agonist-activated human platelets and enhance tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher P; Morgan, Lloyd T; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Murphy, Robert C; Kühn, Hartmut; Hazen, Stanley L; Goodall, Alison H; Hamali, Hassan A; Collins, Peter W; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2010-03-01

    Here, a group of specific lipids, comprising phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)- or phosphatidylcholine (PC)-esterified 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), generated by 12-lipoxygenase was identified and characterized. 12S-HETE-PE/PCs were formed within 5 min of activation by thrombin, ionophore, or collagen. Esterified HETE levels generated in response to thrombin were 5.85 +/- 1.42 (PE) or 18.35 +/- 4.61 (PC), whereas free was 65.5 +/- 17.6 ng/4 x 10(7) cells (n = 5 separate donors, mean +/- S.E.). Their generation was stimulated by triggering protease-activated receptors-1 and -4 and signaling via Ca(2+) mobilization secretory phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase, src tyrosine kinases, and protein kinase C. Stable isotope labeling showed that they form predominantly by esterification that occurs on the same time scale as free acid generation. Unlike free 12S-HETE that is secreted, esterified HETEs remain cell-associated, with HETE-PEs migrating to the outside of the plasma membrane. 12-Lipoxygenase inhibition attenuated externalization of native PE and phosphatidylserine and HETE-PEs. Platelets from a patient with the bleeding disorder, Scott syndrome, did not externalize HETE-PEs, and liposomes supplemented with HETE-PC dose-dependently enhanced tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation in vitro. This suggests a role for these novel lipids in promoting coagulation. Thus, oxidized phospholipids form by receptor/agonist mechanisms, not merely as an undesirable consequence of vascular and inflammatory disease. PMID:20061396

  8. Dendritic cells and NK cells stimulate bystander T cell activation in response to TLR agonists through secretion of IFN-alpha beta and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Arun T; Sheasby, Christopher E; Tough, David F

    2005-01-15

    Recognition of conserved features of infectious agents by innate pathogen receptors plays an important role in initiating the adaptive immune response. We have investigated early changes occurring among T cells after injection of TLR agonists into mice. Widespread, transient phenotypic activation of both naive and memory T cells was observed rapidly after injection of molecules acting through TLR3, -4, -7, and -9, but not TLR2. T cell activation was shown to be mediated by a combination of IFN-alphabeta, secreted by dendritic cells (DCs), and IFN-gamma, secreted by NK cells; notably, IFN-gamma-secreting NK cells expressed CD11c and copurified with DCs. Production of IFN-gamma by NK cells could be stimulated by DCs from TLR agonist-injected mice, and although soluble factors secreted by LPS-stimulated DCs were sufficient to induce IFN-gamma, maximal IFN-gamma production required both direct contact of NK cells with DCs and DC-secreted cytokines. In vitro, IFN-alphabeta, IL-18, and IL-12 all contributed to DC stimulation of NK cell IFN-gamma, whereas IFN-alphabeta was shown to be important for induction of T cell bystander activation and NK cell IFN-gamma production in vivo. The results delineate a pathway involving innate immune mediators through which TLR agonists trigger bystander activation of T cells. PMID:15634897

  9. Retrodihydrochalcones and homoisoflavones isolated from Thai medicinal plant Dracaena loureiri and their estrogen agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, K; Kitaoka, M; Taki, M; Takaishi, S; Iijima, Y; Boriboon, M; Akiyama, T

    1997-12-01

    Biological evaluation of the extract prepared from the stem wood of Dracaena loureiri, a Thai folkloric medicine called "Chan-daeng", revealed a significant capacity to inhibit [3H]-estradiol binding to the estrogen receptor. During the course of separation, two novel (1 and 2) and two known retrodihydrochalcones (3 and 4), in addition to three known homoisoflavones (5, 6, and 7), were isolated. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by NMR and MS studies by correlating their spectroscopic properties with those of 3 and 4. Each isolate was assessed for its estrogenic activity. Compounds 1 and 6 exhibited activity comparable to that of genistein and daidzein. PMID:9434606

  10. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) ? and -? of rat brain astrocytes in the course of activation by toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, Dmitry V; Aleshin, Stepan E; Astakhova, Alina A; Sergeeva, Marina G; Reiser, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-? and -? in astrocytes play important roles in inflammatory brain pathologies. Understanding the regulation of both activity and expression levels of PPARs is an important neuroscience issue. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are inflammatory stimuli that could modulate PPAR, but the mechanisms of their control in astrocytes are poorly understood. In the present study, we report that lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, and flagellin, which are agonists of TLR4, TLR1/2, and TLR5, respectively, exert time- and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-dependent suppression of mRNA, protein and activity of PPAR? and PPAR?. In naïve astrocytes, PPAR? and PPAR? mRNA have short turnover time (half-life about 30 min for PPAR?, 75 min for PPAR?) with a nearly two-fold stabilization after TLR-activation. p38 inhibition abolished TLR-induced stabilization. The levels of PPAR? and PPAR? mRNA, and protein and DNA-binding activity could be modified using c-Jun N-terminal Kinase and p38 inhibitors. In addition, the expression levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? isotypes were induced after inhibition of protein synthesis. This induction signifies participation of additional regulatory proteins with short life-time. They are p38-sensitive for PPAR? and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-sensitive for PPAR?. Thus, PPAR? and PPAR? are regulated in astrocytes on mRNA and protein levels, mRNA stability, and DNA-binding activity during TLR-mediated responses. Astrocytes have the triad of PPAR?, PPAR?/?, and PPAR? in regulation of proinflammatory responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) leads to PPAR?/? overexpression, PPAR? and PPAR? suppression via TLR/NF-?B pathway on mRNA, protein and activity levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and JNK are involved in regulation of PPAR expression. p38 MAPK plays a special role in stabilization of PPAR mRNA. PMID:25818681

  11. Agonist and Antagonist Muscle EMG Activity Pattern Changes with Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhorn, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Using electromyography (EMG), researchers studied changes in the control of biceps and triceps brachii muscles that occurred as women college students learned two elbow flexion tasks. Data on EMG activity, angular kinematics, training, and angular displacement were analyzed. (Author/PP)

  12. Platelet activation by a novel solid-phase agonist: effects of VWF immobilized on polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M W; Etches, W S; Boshkov, L K; Mant, M J; Gordon, P A; Shaw, A R

    1997-05-01

    The interaction between platelets stirred in suspension and VWF immobilized on polystyrene beads was studied. Platelets aggregated and released ATP in response to stirring with VWF beads. Closer examination of the interaction using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the platelets did not simply aggregate with one another but initially adhered to the beads and spread. Platelets in suspension then bound to the bead-adherent platelets forming layers of platelets associated with each bead. The VWF bead-induced platelet activation was completely inhibited by addition of monoclonal antibody (mAb) to GPIb or GPIIb/IIIa. In addition, the activation response was inhibited in the presence of aspirin, indomethacin or the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM13.177, demonstrating a dependence on an intact cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Platelet function studies were carried out on 30 patients with a history of mild bleeding using conventional optical aggregation and VWF bead-induced platelet activation. 12 patients were abnormal by conventional optical aggregometry, whereas 27 patients showed depressed ATP release in response to VWF beads. The results suggest that easily-bruised patients may have a platelet function defect rather than a vascular-based abnormality and that VWF bead-induced platelet activation is a more sensitive test for detecting platelet dysfunction. PMID:9163596

  13. Distributed moment histogram: A neurophysiology based method of agonist and antagonist trunk muscle activity prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Raschke; Bernard J. Martin; Don B. Chaffin

    1996-01-01

    A neurocortical-based technique of muscle recruitment is presented to solve the muscle indeterminacy problem for lumbar torso modeling. Cortical recordings from behaving primates have established motor cortex cells that respond to a wide range of task directions, but are tuned to a preferred direction. A characteristic activity pattern of these neurons seems to be associated with effort direction. It was

  14. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist increases cell proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liqun; Duan, Zexing; Liu, Caiju; Zheng, Yanmin; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P<0.01), but not in the Val-Lys-Gly-Ile-Leu-Ser group (P>0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression. PMID:25452809

  15. Structural Link between ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Agonist Binding Site and Inner ?-Sheet Governs Channel Activation and Allosteric Drug Modulation*

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalan, Srinivasan P.; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Rapid opening and closing of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) regulate information flow throughout the brain. For pLGICs, it is postulated that neurotransmitter-induced movements in the extracellular inner ?-sheet trigger channel activation. Homology modeling reveals that the ?4-?5 linker physically connects the neurotransmitter binding site to the inner ?-sheet. Inserting 1, 2, 4, and 8 glycines in this region of the GABAA receptor ?-subunit progressively decreases GABA activation and converts the competitive antagonist SR-95531 into a partial agonist, demonstrating that this linker is a key element whose length and flexibility are optimized for efficient signal propagation. Insertions in the ?- and ?-subunits have little effect on GABA or SR-95531 actions, suggesting that asymmetric motions in the extracellular domain power pLGIC gating. The effects of insertions on allosteric modulator actions, pentobarbital, and benzodiazepines, have different subunit dependences, indicating that modulator-induced signaling is distinct from agonist gating. PMID:22219195

  16. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on LPS-induced neuronal death in mixed cortical neurons: associated with iNOS and COX2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Joo Kim; Kyoung Ja Kwon; Jee-Young Park; Soo Hwan Lee; Chang-Hyun Moon; Eun Joo Baik

    2002-01-01

    In neurodegenerative disease, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been regarded as beneficial. The NSAID, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX), has been also suggested as a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). In cortical neuron–glial co-cultures, we examined the effect of PPAR agonists on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced neuronal death, which has been known to be NO-dependent. LPS induced iNOS

  17. Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, decreases immunoreactivity of markers for cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong Hyun Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Ok Kyu Park; Joong Bum Moon; Youdong Sohn; Jun Hwi Cho; In Koo Hwang; Moo-Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the regulating effects of rosiglitazone (RSG), a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, treatment for 28days on the cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus by 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU), Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. These markers were detected in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in vehicle- and

  18. The Mechanism of Interferon Refractoriness During Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Its Reversal with a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Tay, Enoch S; Shahidi, Mahsa; McLauchlan, John; George, Jacob; Douglas, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    Patients who respond poorly to therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection display a characteristic phenotype with high basal hepatic interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, but limited induction following interferon (IFN) treatment. The molecular pathways that mediate this refractory state are not known. We examined whether the AMPK activator metformin, the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone, or the PPAR? agonist WY-14643 could potentiate IFN responses, reverse IFN refractoriness, and enhance viral eradication in hepatocytes. WY-14643 demonstrated the strongest antiviral synergy with IFN-? and so was tested in the context of chronic IFN activation. Cells rendered refractory to IFN by IFN-? pretreatment were resensitized by WY-14643, as demonstrated by improved STAT1 phosphorylation, promoter activation, and ISG expression. WY-14643 treatment reduced the expression of key negative regulators of IFN signaling: the AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and 3, which are upregulated in the IFN-refractory state. AXL is a novel regulator of IFN-? signaling that is induced by HCV infection in vitro and which may drive SOCS3 expression. Our data suggests that PPAR? agonists could be a useful adjunct treatment for chronic HCV infection by reducing the expression of AXL/SOCS and increasing the sensitivity to IFN. PMID:25734487

  19. Naringenin: A weakly estrogenic bioflavonoid that exhibits antiestrogenic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary F. Ruh; Timothy Zacharewski; Kevin Connor; James Howell; Ichen Chen; Stephen Safe

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of immature 21-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17?-estradiol (E2) (0.5 ?g\\/rat) caused a significant increase in uterine wet weight, DNA synthesis, progesterone receptor (PR) binding, and peroxidase activity. At doses as high as 40 mg\\/rat, the bioflavonoid naringenin did not cause a significant increase in any of these E2-induced responses. However, in rats cotreated with E2 (0.5 ?g\\/rat) plus

  20. Identification of a ?-? opioid receptor heteromer-biased agonist with antinociceptive activity

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ivone; Fujita, Wakako; Gupta, Achla; Saldanha, S. Adrian; Negri, Ana; Pinello, Christine E.; Eberhart, Christina; Roberts, Edward; Filizola, Marta; Hodder, Peter; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors play a pivotal role in many physiological signaling pathways. Mounting evidence suggests that G protein-coupled receptors, including opioid receptors, form dimers, and dimerization is necessary for receptor maturation, signaling, and trafficking. However, the physiological role of dimerization in vivo has not been well-explored because of the lack of tools to study these dimers in endogenous systems. To address this problem, we previously generated antibodies to ?-? opioid receptor (?OR-?OR) dimers and used them to study the pharmacology and signaling by this heteromer. We also showed that the heteromer exhibits restricted distribution in the brain and that its abundance is increased in response to chronic morphine administration. Thus, the ?OR-?OR heteromer represents a potentially unique target for the development of therapeutics to treat pain. Here, we report the identification of compounds targeting ?OR-?OR heteromers through high-throughput screening of a small-molecule library. These compounds exhibit activity in ?OR-?OR cells but not ?OR or ?OR cells alone. Among them, CYM51010 was found to be a ?OR-?OR–biased ligand, because its activity is blocked by the ?OR-?OR heteromer antibody. Notably, systemic administration of CYM51010 induced antinociceptive activity similar to morphine, and chronic administration of CYM51010 resulted in lesser antinociceptive tolerance compared with morphine. Taken together, these results suggest that CYM51010, a ?OR-?OR–biased ligand, could serve as a scaffold for the development of a unique type (heteromer-biased) of drug that is more potent and without the severe side effects associated with conventional clinical opioids. PMID:23818586

  1. BDCA-2 signaling inhibits TLR-9-agonist-induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Jähn, Peter S; Zänker, Kurt S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Dzionek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) express Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, which mediates recognition of microbial DNA during infection or self-DNA in autoimmune diseases. Triggering TLR-9 in PDC induces either maturation (lysosomal TLR-9 triggering) or type I interferon (IFN-I) production (endosomal TLR-9 triggering). PDCs also express BDCA-2 (CD303), a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) unique to these cells. CLRs appear to function in innate immunity and microbial recognition, and may cooperate with TLRs to fine-tune inflammatory responses. It has been shown that anti-BDCA-2 monoclonal antibody is internalized by PDC for antigen presentation and inhibits TLR-9 induced IFN-I expression. Here we investigated the cross-talk between BDCA-2 and TLR-9-signaling during PDC maturation and antigen presentation. We found that BDCA-2-induced signaling in PDCs inhibits up-regulation of CD86 and CD40 molecules in CpG-activated PDCs, but not in CD40L-activated PDCs. Furthermore, triggering of BDCA-2 diminished the ability of CpG- and CD40L-stimulated PDCs to process and present antigen to antigen-specific autologous memory T cells. This study demonstrates that BDCA-2 represents an attractive target for clinical immunotherapy of IFN-I dependent autoimmune diseases influencing both, IFN-I production and antigen-specific T-cell stimulation by PDC. PMID:20673884

  2. Cannabinoid receptor binding and agonist activity of amides and esters of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J C; Potié, F; Rice, K C; Boring, D; Johnson, M R; Evans, D M; Wilken, G H; Cantrell, C H; Howlett, A C

    1994-09-01

    The cannabinoid receptor in brain (CB1) specifically binds delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the predominant central nervous system-active component of marijuana. An eicosanoid found in brain, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide (anandamide), binds to CB1 with similar affinity. This report considers structure-activity requirements for a series of novel amides and rigid hairpin conformations typified by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)prostaglandin amides, assayed with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inactivation of esterases/amidases. Arachidonyl esters were 30-fold less potent than N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide, showing a rank order of potency of methyl = ethyl > propyl = isopropyl. Within the N-(hydroxyalkyl)arachidonylamide series, a one-carbon increase in chain length increased the potency 2-fold, but continued extension decreased affinity. Substituting the amide for the N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amide function produced a 4-fold loss of affinity. The N-(propyl)-, N-(butyl)-, and N-(benzyl)arachidonylamide derivatives exhibited a 3-fold increase, no change, and a 5-fold decrease, respectively, in affinity, compared with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide. Both the methoxy ether and the formamide derivatives suffered > 20-fold loss of potency, compared with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide. N-(2-Aminoethyl)arachidonylamide interacted poorly with CB1. At 100 microM, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amide analogs of prostaglandin E2, A2, B2, and B1 failed to alter [3H]CP55940 binding to CB1. N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide inhibited adenylate cyclase with lesser potency but with similar efficacy, compared with desacetyllevonantradol. Extending the length of the hydroxyalkyl moiety by one carbon increased the apparent potency by 1 order of magnitude. The N-(propyl) derivative exhibited a 5-fold greater potency than did the N-(2-hydroxyethyl) analog. It appears that the bulk and length of the moiety appended to arachidonic acid are more important determinants of affinity for CB1 than is hydrogen-bonding capability. PMID:7935333

  3. Satellite observations of the impact of weak volcanic activity on marine clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Gassó

    2008-01-01

    Because emissions from weak volcanic eruptions tend to remain in the low troposphere, they may have a significant radiative impact through the indirect effect on clouds. However, this type of volcanic activity is underreported and its global impact has been assessed only by model simulations constrained with very limited observations. First observations of the impact of high-latitude active volcanoes on

  4. Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [alpha/delta] Agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-03-15

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPAR{alpha} ligand-binding domain and PPAR{delta} ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPAR{alpha}/{delta} by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPAR{alpha} ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPAR{alpha}/{delta} interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  5. New 2-(aryloxy)-3-phenylpropanoic acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? dual agonists able to upregulate mitochondrial carnitine shuttle system gene expression.

    PubMed

    Laghezza, A; Pochetti, G; Lavecchia, A; Fracchiolla, G; Faliti, S; Piemontese, L; Di Giovanni, C; Iacobazzi, V; Infantino, V; Montanari, R; Capelli, D; Tortorella, P; Loiodice, F

    2013-01-10

    The preparation of a series of 2-(aryloxy)-3-phenylpropanoic acids, resulting from the introduction of different substituents into the biphenyl system of the previously reported peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) dual agonist 1, allowed the identification of new ligands with higher potency on PPAR? and fine-tuned moderate PPAR? activity. For the most promising stereoisomer (S)-16, X-ray and calorimetric studies in PPAR? revealed, at high ligand concentration, the presence of two molecules simultaneously bound to the receptor. On the basis of these results and docking experiments in both receptor subtypes, a molecular explanation was provided for its different behavior as a full and partial agonist of PPAR? and PPAR?, respectively. The effects of (S)-16 on mitochondrial acylcarnitine carrier and carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase 1 gene expression, two key components of the carnitine shuttle system, were also investigated, allowing the hypothesis of a more beneficial pharmacological profile of this compound compared to the less potent PPAR? agonist fibrates currently used in therapy. PMID:23171045

  6. Comparative analyses of downstream signal transduction targets modulated after activation of the AT1 receptor by two ?-arrestin-biased agonists

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Geisa A.; Duarte, Diego A.; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Teixeira, Felipe R.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Bouvier, Michel; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in essentially all physiological processes in mammals. The classical GPCR signal transduction mechanism occurs by coupling to G protein, but it has recently been demonstrated that interaction with ?-arrestins leads to activation of pathways that are independent of the G protein pathway. Also, it has been reported that some ligands can preferentially activate one of these signaling pathways; being therefore called biased agonists for G protein or ?-arrestin pathways. The angiotensin II (AngII) AT1 receptor is a prototype GPCR in the study of biased agonism due to the existence of well-known ?-arrestin-biased agonists, such as [Sar1, Ile4, Ile8]-AngII (SII), and [Sar1, D-Ala8]-AngII (TRV027). The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the two above mentioned ?-arrestin-biased agonists on downstream phosphorylation events and gene expression profiles. Our data reveal that activation of AT1 receptor by each ligand led to a diversity of activation profiles that is far broader than that expected from a simple dichotomy between “G protein-dependent” and “?-arrestin-dependent” signaling. We observed clusters of activation profiles common to AngII, SII, and TRV027, as well as downstream effector activation that are unique to AngII, SII, or TRV027. Analyses of ?-arrestin conformational changes after AT1 receptor stimulation with SII or TRV027 suggests that the observed differences could account, at least partially, for the diversity of modulated targets observed. Our data reveal that, although the categorization “G protein-dependent” vs. “?-arrestin-dependent” signaling can be of pharmacological relevance, broader analyses of signaling pathways and downstream targets are necessary to generate an accurate activation profile for a given ligand. This may bring relevant information for drug development, as it may allow more refined comparison of drugs with similar mechanism of action and effects, but with distinct side effects.

  7. Pharmacokinetic properties of MH84, a ?-secretase modulator with PPAR? agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Pellowska, M; Stein, C; Pohland, M; Merk, D; Klein, J; Eckert, G P; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Wurglics, M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Since no causative treatment is available, new therapeutic options are utmost needed. Several pirinixic acid derivatives, including MH84 (2-((4,6-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenethoxy)pyrimidin-2-yl)thio)hexanoic acid), have shown promising in vitro results as ?-secretase modulators as well as PPAR? activators as potential pharmacological compounds against AD. Using a newly developed and validated sensitive LC-MS (APCI-qTOF mass analyzer) method, the pharmacokinetic and long-term accumulating properties as well as the blood-brain-barrier permeability of MH84 were evaluated in a preclinical animal study. MH84 was administered to mice by oral gavage with a dose of 12 mg/kg. Nine time points from 0.5 to 48 h with 6 animals per point were investigated. Additionally 6 animals were fed daily, for 21 days with an identical dose to determine possible long-term accumulation in plasma and brain tissue. The sample preparation was performed by a liquid-liquid extraction on Extrelut(®) columns whereas the LC separation was operated on a MulthoHigh 100 RP 18-5 ? column (125 × 4 mm) using an isocratic mobile phase of formic acid (0.1% (v/v))-methanol mixture (11:89 (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The validation confirmed the new LC-MS method to be precise, accurate and reliable. After oral application, Cmax and Tmax of unmetabolized MH84 was determined to be 10.90 ?g/ml and 3h in plasma. In brain tissue a constant level of 300 to maximum 320.64 ng/g was found after 1.5-6h. Daily gavage for 21 days did not lead to a long-term drug accumulation in the brain. The efficacy of the obtained MH84 levels needs to be investigated in further preclinical pharmacodynamic animal studies. PMID:25459941

  8. Benzocyclobutane, benzocycloheptane and heptene derivatives as melatonin agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tsotinis, Andrew; Afroudakis, Pandelis A; Garratt, Peter J; Bocianowska-Zbrog, Alina; Sugden, David

    2014-10-01

    Two series of analogues were designed, synthesised and evaluated as potential human melatonin type?1 and?2 receptor (hMT1 and hMT2 ) ligands. Their biological effects were assessed by a well-established, specific model of melatonin action, the pigment response of Xenopus laevis melanophores. Compounds containing a benzocyclobutane scaffold and a methoxy group in the "melatonin" orientation were found to be potent agonists, with one of the analogues exhibiting activity comparable to melatonin. In contrast, analogues with a methoxy group in non-melatonin positions or with multiple methoxy groups showed either weaker agonist activity or were antagonists. Benzocycloheptene derivatives with one methoxy group are found to be weak agonists, whereas those with two methoxy groups were found to be antagonists, as were all of the benzocycloheptane derivatives evaluated. The most active compounds were assessed in a human receptor radio ligand binding assay but showed little discrimination between MT1 and MT2 . These results again show that the indole nitrogen of melatonin is not a necessary component for analogue activity and also illustrate that replacement of the indole ring with a 4-membered carbocycle can provide highly active compounds when the methoxy group is in the melatonin position. PMID:25044938

  9. 2,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidine carboxylates as potent, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent J. Colandrea; Irene E. Legiec; Pei Huo; Lin Yan; Jeffrey J. Hale; Sander G. Mills; James Bergstrom; Deborah Card; Gary Chebret; Richard Hajdu; Carol Ann Keohane; James A. Milligan; Mark J. Rosenbach; Gan-Ju Shei; Suzanne M. Mandala

    2006-01-01

    A series of 2,5-cis-disubstituted pyrrolidines were synthesized and evaluated as S1P receptor agonists. Compounds 15–21 were identified with good selectivity over S1P3 which lowered circulating lymphocytes after oral administration in mice.

  10. Evaluation of the insulin releasing and antihyperglycaemic activities of GPR55 lipid agonists using clonal beta-cells, isolated pancreatic islets and mice

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, A M; Moran, B M; Abdel-Wahab, Y H A; Flatt, P R

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose G-protein coupled receptor (GPR)55 is a novel lipid sensing receptor activated by both cannabinoid endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and other non-cannabinoid lipid transmitters. This study assessed the effects of various GPR55 agonists on glucose homeostasis. Experimental Approach Insulin secretion and changes in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP in response to glucose and a range of GPR55 agonists [endogenous ligands (OEA, PEA), chemically synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) analogues (Abn-CBD, 0–1602), an analogue of rimonabant (AM-251) and antagonist (CBD)] were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release, cellular localization by double-staining immunohistochemistry and in vivo effects assessed in mice. Key Results The most potent and selective GPR55 agonist was the synthetic CBD analogue, Abn-CBD (pEC50 10.33), maximum stimulation of 67% at 10?4?mol·L?1 (P < 0.001) in BRIN-BD11 cells. AM-251 (pEC50 7.0), OEA (pEC50 7.0), 0–1602 (pEC50 7.3) and PEA (pEC50 6.0) stimulated insulin secretion. Results were corroborated by islet studies, with no cytotoxic effects. Concentration-dependent insulin secretion by GPR55 agonists was glucose-sensitive and accompanied by elevations of [Ca2+]i (P < 0.01–P < 0.001) and cAMP (P < 0.05–P < 0.01). GPR55 agonists exhibited insulinotropic and glucose lowering activity in vivo. GPR55 was expressed on BRIN-BD11 cells and confined to islet beta cells with no distribution on alpha cells. Conclusion and Implications These results demonstrate GPR55 is distributed in pancreatic beta cells and is a strong activator of insulin secretion, with glucose-lowering effects in vivo. Development of agents agonizing the GPR55 receptor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23992544

  11. New quinolone- and 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides as selective CB2 receptor agonists with anticancer and immuno-modulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Manera, Clementina; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Parkkari, Teija; Lucchesi, Valentina; Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Bertini, Simone; Laezza, Chiara; Ligresti, Alessia; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Savinainen, Juha R; Ciaglia, Elena; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Nieri, Paola; Macchia, Marco; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Several recent studies suggest that selective CB2 receptor agonists may represent a valid pharmacological approach in the treatment of various diseases due to the absence of relevant psychoactive side effect. In this study, we synthesized and tested a series of new quinoline-2(1H)-one- and 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine derivatives characterized by a 4-methylcyclohexylamido substituent in position 3 of the heterocyclic nucleus with high CB2 receptor affinity and selectivity. Two compounds showing the best binding and selectivity profile behaved as a full agonist and a partial agonist at the CB2 receptor and induced a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability on LNCaP, a prostatic cancer cell line expressing CB2 receptor. Moreover considering that the CB2 receptor is mainly expressed in cells and organs of the immune system, the same compounds were studied for their potential immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in activated lymphocytes isolated from healthy controls and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. PMID:25935384

  12. Activation of GPR119 by fatty acid agonists augments insulin release from clonal ?-cells and isolated pancreatic islets and improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2014-04-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is emerging as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study assessed the insulin-secreting properties of various GPR119 agonists and the distribution of GPR119 in pancreatic islets. Endogenous ligands [oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamine (PEA)] and chemically synthetic analogues (AS-1269574, PSN-375963) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Secondary messenger assays such as intracellular Ca²? and cAMP in response to agonists at normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions were assessed. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release. AS-1269574 was the most potent and selective agonist tested in isolated islets, with an EC?? value of 9.7×10?? mol/l, enhancing insulin release maximally by 63.2%. Stimulation was also observed with GPR119 ligands; OEA (3.0×10?? mol/l; 37.5%), PSN-375963 (2.4×10?? mol/l; 28.7%) and PEA (1.2×10?? mol/l; 22.2%). Results were corroborated by studies using BRIN-BD11 cells, which revealed augmentation of intracellular Ca²? and cAMP. Both OEA and AS-1269574 enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance in vivo in NIH Swiss mice. These results demonstrate the cellular localisation of GPR119 on islet cells (? and pancreatic polypeptide cells), its activation of the ?-cell stimulus-secretion coupling pathway and glucose lowering effects in vivo. PMID:24323890

  13. A potential role for nuclear factor of activated T-cells in receptor tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor agonist-induced cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Yellaturu, Chandrahasa R; Ghosh, Salil K; Rao, R K; Jennings, Lisa K; Hassid, Aviv; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the role of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors in the induction of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and thrombin, the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, respectively. NFATc1 but not NFATc2 or NFATc3 was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon treatment of VSMCs with PDGF-BB or thrombin. Translocation of NFATc1 was followed by an increase in NFAT-DNA binding activity and NFAT-dependent reporter gene expression. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent and specific inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation and activation of NFATs, blocked NFAT-DNA binding activity and NFAT-dependent reporter gene expression induced by PDGF-BB and thrombin. CsA also completely inhibited PDGF-BB- and thrombin-induced VSMC growth, as measured by DNA synthesis and cell number. In addition, forced expression of the NFAT-competing peptide VIVIT for calcineurin binding significantly attenuated the DNA synthesis induced by PDGF-BB and thrombin in VSMCs. Together, these findings for the first time demonstrate a role for NFATs in RTK and GPCR agonist-induced growth in VSMCs. PMID:12188924

  14. Differential activation of the epithelial and smooth muscle NK1 receptors by synthetic tachykinin agonists in guinea-pig trachea

    PubMed Central

    Figini, Michela; Emanueli, Costanza; Bertrand, Claude; Sicuteri, Riccardo; Regoli, Domenico; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    1997-01-01

    The presence of tachykinin NK1 receptors have been shown in the epithelium and smooth muscle of guinea-pig airways. Previous data showed that substance P (SP), and the NK1 receptor agonist, [Sar9, Met (O2)11]-SP, relax guinea-pig tracheal tube preparations by stimulation of epithelial NK1 receptors and via nitric oxide (NO) release. However, the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor agonist, septide, was unable to produce this effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of a series of SP analogues to stimulate NK1 receptors of guinea-pig airway epithelium. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated tracheal tube preparations in which compounds were administered intraluminally in the presence of phosphoramidon, indomethacin (both 1??M) and the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48,968 ((S)-N-methyl N-(4-acetyl-amino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyl)benzamide) (0.1??M). Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained in preparations under resting tone or in preparations precontracted with acetylcholine (ACh, 10??M). Contractile responses to low concentrations (0.1–10?nM) of substance P (SP) and the selective agonist of NK1 receptors, [Pro9]-SP, in non precontracted tracheae were higher in preparations pretreated with the NO-synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA, 100??M) than in preparations pretreated with its inactive enantiomer D-NMMA (100??M). Tracheal tube preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with D-NMMA were relaxed by low concentrations of SP and [Pro9]-SP (0.1–10?nM). In contrast, after pretreatment with L-NMMA, SP and [Pro9]-SP contracted tracheae at all the concentrations tested. Concentration-response curves to the NK1 receptor agonists, SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11) obtained in non-precontracted tracheae were similar in the presence of either D-NMMA or L-NMMA. SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11) did not produce any relaxation, but instead, cause contractions in tracheal tube preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with D-NMMA. Concentration-response curves produced by all these agonists were similar in preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with L-NMMA or D-NMMA. In guinea-pig tracheal tube preparations two groups of NK1 receptor agonists can be distinguished: one group, including [Pro9]-SP, stimulator epithelial NK1 receptors, the other group, including SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11), does not. One possible explanation for these findings and for the existence of compounds with a peculiar ‘septide-like' pharmacological profile in the guinea-pig trachea could be the recently proposed phenomenon referred to as ‘agonist-directed receptor trafficking'. PMID:9208147

  15. Structural motifs of importance for the constitutive activity of the orphan 7TM receptor EBI2: analysis of receptor activation in the absence of an agonist.

    PubMed

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2008-10-01

    The Epstein-Barr induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a lymphocyte-expressed orphan seven transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptor that signals constitutively through Galphai, as shown, for instance by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate incorporation. Two regions of importance for the constitutive activity were identified by a systematic mutational analysis of 29 residues in EBI2. The cAMP response element-binding protein transcription factor was used as a measure of receptor activity and was correlated to the receptor surface expression. PheVI:13 (Phe257), and the neighboring CysVI:12 (Cys256), in the conserved CW/FxP motif in TM 6, acted as negative regulators as Ala substitutions at these positions increased the constitutive activity 5.7- and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with EBI2 wild type (wt). In contrast, ArgII:20 (Arg87) in TM-2 acted as a positive regulator, as substitution to Ala, but not to Lys, decreased the constitutive activity more than 7-fold compared with wt EBI2. IleIII:03 (Ile106) is located only 4 A from ArgII:20, and a favorable electrostatic interaction with ArgII:20 was created by introduction of Glu in III:03, given that the activity increased to 4.4-fold of that wt EBI2. It is noteworthy that swapping these charges by introduction of Glu in II:20 and Arg in III:03 resulted in a 2.7-fold increase compared with wt EBI2, thereby rescuing the two signaling-deficient single mutations, which exhibited a 3.8- to 4.5-fold decrease in constitutive activity. The uncovering of these molecular mechanisms for EBI2 activation is important from a drug development point of view, in that it may facilitate the rational design and development of small-molecule inverse agonists against EBI2 of putative importance as antiviral- or immune modulatory therapy. PMID:18628402

  16. Peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor?? agonist inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and has a protective effect in a rat model of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    San, Yong-Zhi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Lan

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor ? (PPAR??) has a protective role in several neurological diseases. The present study investigated the effect of the PPAR?? agonist, pioglitazone, on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in a rat model of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)?induced status epilepticus (SE). The investigation proceeded in two stages. First, the course of activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in PTZ?induced SE was examined to determine the time?point of peak activity, as reflected by phopshorylated (p)?mTOR/mTOR and p?S6/S6 ratios. Subsequently, pioglitazone was administrated intragastrically to investigate its effect on the mTOR signaling pathway, through western blot and immunochemical analyses. The levels of the interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?6 inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA, and neuronal loss was observed via Nissl staining. In the first stage of experimentation, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated, and the p?mTOR/mTOR and p?S6/S6 ratios peaked on the third day. Compared with the vehicle treated?SE group, pretreatment with pioglitazone was associated with the loss of fewer neurons, lower levels of IL?1? and IL?6, and inhibition of the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated in the PTZ?induced SE rat model, and the PPAR?? agonist, pioglitazone, had a neuroprotective effect, by inhibiting activation of the mTOR pathway and preventing the increase in the levels of IL?1? and IL?6. PMID:25891824

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and has a protective effect in a rat model of status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    SAN, YONG-ZHI; LIU, YU; ZHANG, YU; SHI, PING-PING; ZHU, YU-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) has a protective role in several neurological diseases. The present study investigated the effect of the PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone, on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in a rat model of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus (SE). The investigation proceeded in two stages. First, the course of activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in PTZ-induced SE was examined to determine the time-point of peak activity, as reflected by phopshorylated (p)-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios. Subsequently, pioglitazone was administrated intragastrically to investigate its effect on the mTOR signaling pathway, through western blot and immunochemical analyses. The levels of the interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA, and neuronal loss was observed via Nissl staining. In the first stage of experimentation, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated, and the p-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios peaked on the third day. Compared with the vehicle treated-SE group, pretreatment with pioglitazone was associated with the loss of fewer neurons, lower levels of IL-1? and IL-6, and inhibition of the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated in the PTZ-induced SE rat model, and the PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone, had a neuroprotective effect, by inhibiting activation of the mTOR pathway and preventing the increase in the levels of IL-1? and IL-6. PMID:25891824

  18. Enhancer elements activate the weak 3' splice site of alpha-tropomyosin exon 2.

    PubMed Central

    Dye, B T; Buvoli, M; Mayer, S A; Lin, C H; Patton, J G

    1998-01-01

    We have identified four purine-rich sequences that act as splicing enhancer elements to activate the weak 3' splice site of alpha-tropomyosin exon 2. These elements also activate the splicing of heterologous substrates containing weak 3' splice sites or mutated 5' splice sites. However, they are unique in that they can activate splicing whether they are placed in an upstream or downstream exon, and the two central elements can function regardless of their position relative to one another. The presence of excess RNAs containing these enhancers could effectively inhibit in vitro pre-mRNA splicing reactions in a substrate-dependent manner and, at lower concentrations of competitor RNA, the addition of SR proteins could relieve the inhibition. However, when extracts were depleted by incubation with biotinylated exon 2 RNAs followed by passage over streptavidin agarose, SR proteins were not sufficient to restore splicing. Instead, both SR proteins and fractions containing a 110-kD protein were necessary to rescue splicing. Using gel mobility shift assays, we show that formation of stable enhancer-specific complexes on alpha-tropomyosin exon 2 requires the presence of both SR proteins and the 110-kD protein. By analogy to the doublesex exon enhancer elements in Drosophila, our results suggest that assembly of mammalian exon enhancer complexes requires both SR and non-SR proteins to activate selection of weak splice sites. PMID:9848651

  19. Novel B subunit mutation causes a slow-channel syndrome by enhancing activation and decreasing the rate of agonist dissociation

    E-print Network

    Lasalde Dominicc, Jose A. - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico

    by muscular weakness and fatigability due to gain-in-function mutations in the subunits of the muscle (SCS) in a patient with progressive muscle weakness, repetitive compound muscle action potential) of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In vitro expression studies in Xenopus oocytes indicated

  20. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist FGF1 and the neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL activate FGFR substrate 2alpha differently.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongshuo; Li, Shizhong; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2010-07-01

    Activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) both by FGFs and by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is crucial in the development and function of the nervous system. We found that FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha), Src homologous and collagen A (ShcA), and phospholipase-Cgamma (PLCgamma) were all required for neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced by FGF1 and FGL (an NCAM-derived peptide agonist of FGFR1). Like FGF1, FGL induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FGFR1, FRS2alpha, ShcA, and PLCgamma in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the activation of FRS2alpha by FGL was significantly lower than the activation by FGF1, indicating a differential signaling profile induced by NCAM compared with the cognate growth factor. PMID:20175207

  1. Lignans isolated from valerian: identification and characterization of a new olivil derivative with partial agonistic activity at A(1) adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Britta; Scholle, Silke; Hölzl, Josef; Khudeir, Nasser; Hess, Sonja; Müller, Christa E

    2002-10-01

    A methanolic extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis (valerian) was investigated for its lignan content. In addition to the lignans 8'-hydroxypinoresinol (1) and pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), which had already been isolated from valerian in an earlier study, the 7,9'-monoepoxylignans massoniresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (3), 4'-O-beta-D-glucosyl-9-O-(6' '-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil (4), and berchemol-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (5) and the 7,9':7',9-diepoxylignans pinoresinol-4,4'-di-beta-O-D-glucoside (6), 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (7), and 8'-hydroxypinoresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (8) were identified. While lignans 3, 6, 7, and 8 had already been isolated from other plants, lignans 4 and 5 are new natural products. The lignans were investigated in radioligand binding assays at various receptors of the central nervous system, including GABA(A), benzodiazepine, 5-HT(1A), and adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors, to investigate their potential contribution to the pharmacological activity of valerian. The novel olivil derivative 4 proved to be a partial agonist at rat and human A(1) adenosine receptors exhibiting A(1) affinity and activity in low micromolar to submicromolar concentrations. Lignan 4 is the first nonnucleoside adenosine receptor agonist not structurally related to adenosine. PMID:12398547

  2. The retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (Targretin) synergistically enhances the growth inhibitory activity of cytotoxic drugs in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas W; Yen, Wan-Ching; Tooker, Patricia; Fan, Bingqi; Roegner, Karen; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Lamph, William W; Bissonnette, Reid P

    2005-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate, using preclinical models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the growth inhibitory effects of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) in combination with cytotoxic agents currently used as standard first-line therapy in advanced disease. Although single-agent bexarotene had modest growth inhibitory effects in several cell lines, efficacy was observed only in the micromolar range (>1muM), which approximates the plasma C(max) measured in pharmacokinetic studies in patients. However, when combined with paclitaxel or vinorelbine, bexarotene produced a concentration-dependent enhancement of the growth inhibitory activities of paclitaxel and vinorelbine. Formal synergy analysis using the Calu3 cell line demonstrated that the combination of bexarotene with either cytotoxic agent produced synergistic activity (combination index, CI<1). The in vitro observations were confirmed in vivo in a NSCLC xenograft tumor model (Calu3), where both bexarotene/paclitaxel and bexarotene/vinorelbine combinations produced significantly greater antitumor effects than the single agents. These results demonstrate that bexarotene can cooperate with widely used cytotoxic agents to decrease the growth of NSCLC tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and suggest the potential benefit of adding a RXR-selective agonist in combination with chemotherapy for NSCLC treatment. Furthermore, the data support the clinical observation from phase I/IIa trials suggesting that bexarotene has beneficial effects on survival when used in combination with cytotoxic agents in advanced NSCLC. PMID:15993980

  3. Evaluation of Computational Docking to Identify Pregnane X Receptor Agonists in the ToxCast Database

    PubMed Central

    Kortagere, Sandhya; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Reschly, Erica J.; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Mani, Sridhar; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Background The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key transcriptional regulator of many genes [e.g., cytochrome P450s (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2B6), MDR1] involved in xenobiotic metabolism and excretion. Objectives As part of an evaluation of different approaches to predict compound affinity for nuclear hormone receptors, we used the molecular docking program GOLD and a hybrid scoring scheme based on similarity weighted GoldScores to predict potential PXR agonists in the ToxCast database of pesticides and other industrial chemicals. We present some of the limitations of different in vitro systems, as well as docking and ligand-based computational models. Methods Each ToxCast compound was docked into the five published crystallographic structures of human PXR (hPXR), and 15 compounds were selected based on their consensus docking scores for testing. In addition, we used a Bayesian model to classify the ToxCast compounds into PXR agonists and nonagonists. hPXR activation was determined by luciferase-based reporter assays in the HepG2 and DPX-2 human liver cell lines. Results We tested 11 compounds, of which 6 were strong agonists and 2 had weak agonist activity. Docking results of additional compounds were compared with data reported in the literature. The prediction sensitivity of PXR agonists in our sample ToxCast data set (n = 28) using docking and the GoldScore was higher than with the hybrid score at 66.7%. The prediction sensitivity for PXR agonists using GoldScore for the entire ToxCast data set (n = 308) compared with data from the NIH (National Institutes of Health) Chemical Genomics Center data was 73.8%. Conclusions Docking and the GoldScore may be useful for prioritizing large data sets prior to in vitro testing with good sensitivity across the sample and entire ToxCast data set for hPXR agonists. PMID:20558333

  4. Neuroprotective Potential of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-? Agonist in Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Behavioral, Biochemical, and PBPK Profile

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nihar R.; Gangwal, Rahul P.; Damre, Mangesh V.; Sangamwar, Abhay T.; Sharma, Shyam S.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1% of the population by the age of 65 years and 4-5% of the population by the age of 85 years. PD affects functional capabilities of the patient by producing motor symptoms and nonmotor symptoms. Apart from this, it is also associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment that may lead to memory loss, confusion, and decreased attention span. In this study, we have investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a PPAR-? agonist in cognitive impairment model in PD. Bilateral intranigral administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (100?µg/1?µL/side) produced significant cognitive dysfunctions. Fenofibrate treatment at 10, 30, and 100?mg/kg for twenty-five days was found to be neuroprotective and improved cognitive impairment in MPTP-induced PD model as evident from behavioral, biochemical (MDA, GSH, TNF-?, and IL-6), immunohistochemistry (TH), and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive cells) studies. Further, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling study was performed using GastroPlus to characterize the kinetics of fenofibric acid in the brain. A good agreement was found between pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the actual and simulated plasma concentration-time profiles of fenofibric acid. Results of this study suggest that PPAR-? agonist (fenofibrate) is neuroprotective in PD-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:24693279

  5. Combination therapy of an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR ? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

  6. Structure Activity Relationship of Uridine 5?-Diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glucose) Analogues as Agonists of the Human P2Y14 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyojin; Fricks, Ingrid; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    UDP-glucose (UDPG) and derivatives are naturally-occurring agonists of the Gi protein-coupled P2Y14 receptor, which occurs in the immune system. We synthesized and characterized pharmacologically novel analogues of UDPG modified on the nucleobase, ribose, and glucose moieties, as the basis for designing novel ligands in conjunction with modeling. The recombinant human P2Y14 receptor expressed in COS-7 cells was coupled to phospholipase C through an engineered G?-q/i protein. Most modifications of the uracil or ribose moieties abolished activity; this is among the least permissive P2Y receptors. However, a 2-thiouracil modification in 15 (EC50 49 ± 2 nM) enhanced the potency of UDPG (but not UDP-glucuronic acid) by 7-fold. 4-Thio analogue 13 was equipotent to UDPG, but S-alkylation was detrimental. Compound 15 was docked in a rhodposin-based receptor homology model, which correctly predicted potent agonism of UDP-fructose, UDP-mannose, and UDP-inositol. The hexose moiety of UDPG interacts with multiple H-bonding and charged resides and provides a fertile region for agonist modification. PMID:17407275

  7. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P. [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Singh, Balwan [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States)] [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States); Price, Robert L. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)] [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: Prakash.Nagarkatti@uscmed.sc.edu [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-? expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ? JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ? JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and toxicity to colon by inducing T cell apoptosis. ? JWH-133 decreased mast cells, macrophages, NK cells, IFN-?{sup +} cells in the LPL. ? AM630, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 antagonist inverted the colitis defense of JWH-133. ? Cannnabinoid receptor-2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for IBD.

  8. Cannabinoids Receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10?/? mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptors induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10?/? mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10?/? mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells in the LP of colitis mice declined after JWH-133 treatment in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-? expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodopravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. PMID:22119709

  9. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo [Center for Metabolic Syndrome Therapeutics, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Je-Yong [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jiwon [Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang-Hyuk [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hong-In [Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Yoon [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: syukim@knu.ac.kr; Park, Eui Kyun [Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oral Pathology, IHBR, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: epark@knu.ac.kr

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  10. Intramolecular Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Sensors of the Orexin OX1 and OX2 Receptors Identify Slow Kinetics of Agonist Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tian-Rui; Ward, Richard J.; Pediani, John D.; Milligan, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors able to detect changes in distance or orientation between the 3rd intracellular loop and C-terminal tail of the human orexin OX1 and OX2 G protein-coupled receptors following binding of agonist ligands were produced and expressed stably. These were directed to the plasma membrane and, despite the substantial sequence alterations introduced, in each case were able to elevate [Ca2+]i, promote phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and become internalized effectively upon addition of the native orexin peptides. Detailed characterization of the OX1 sensor demonstrated that it was activated with rank order of potency orexin A > orexin B > orexin A 16–33, that it bound antagonist ligands with affinity similar to the wild-type receptor, and that mutation of a single residue, D203A, greatly reduced the binding and function of orexin A but not antagonist ligands. Addition of orexin A to individual cells expressing an OX1 sensor resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent reduction in FRET signal consistent with mass-action and potency/affinity estimates for the peptide. Compared with the response kinetics of a muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptor sensor upon addition of agonist, response of the OX1 and OX2 sensors to orexin A was slow, consistent with a multistep binding and activation process. Such sensors provide means to assess the kinetics of receptor activation and how this may be altered by mutation and sequence variation of the receptors. PMID:22389503

  11. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)? Agonist and PPAR? Antagonist, Z-551, Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Iwabu, Masato; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Nakayama, Ryo; Orikawa, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Tanaka, Koichiro; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) modulator, Z-551, having both PPAR? agonistic and PPAR? antagonistic activities, has been developed for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. We examined the effects of Z-551 on obesity and the metabolic disorders in wild-type mice on the high-fat diet (HFD). In mice on the HFD, Z-551 significantly suppressed body weight gain and ameliorated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolisms. Z-551 inhibited visceral fat mass gain and adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced molecules involved in fatty acid uptake and synthesis, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation in adipose tissue. Z-551 increased molecules involved in fatty acid combustion, while reduced molecules associated with gluconeogenesis in the liver. Furthermore, Z-551 significantly reduced fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and leptin. To elucidate the significance of the PPAR combination, we examined the effects of Z-551 in PPAR?-deficient mice and those of a synthetic PPAR? antagonist in wild-type mice on the HFD. Both drugs showed similar, but weaker effects on body weight, insulin resistance and specific events provoked in adipose tissue compared with those of Z-551 as described above, except for lack of effects on fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. These findings suggest that Z-551 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and impairment of glucose and lipid metabolisms by PPAR? agonistic and PPAR? antagonistic activities, and therefore, might be clinically useful for preventing or treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. PMID:25907553

  12. Effects of ST1936, a selective serotonin-6 agonist, on electrical activity of putative mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Borsini, Franco; Bordi, Fabio; Poggi, Andreina; Di Matteo, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    The serotonin-6 (5-HT6) receptor is the most recently discovered serotonin receptor, and it represents an increasingly promising target for improving cognition in both normal and disease states. Recently, a new selective 5-HT6 receptor agonist, 2-(5 chloro-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (ST1936), with nanomolar affinity for 5-HT6 receptors was described. We performed in-vivo electrophysiological studies to investigate the physiological role of 5-HT6 receptors in the control of the function of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed from putative dopamine-containing neurons in the SNc and VTA of anesthetised rats. In the SNc, acute systemic administration of ST1936 had no effects on basal firing activity of these dopamine neurons; however, in the VTA, ST1936 induced either dose-related increases (45% of cells) or decreases in basal activity of these dopaminergic neurons. Local application of ST1936 into the VTA caused excitation in all of the dopamine neurons, but had no effects on non-dopamine VTA neurons. Both effects of systemic and microiontophoretic ST1936 were completely reversed by the potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist 5-chloro-N-(4-methoxy-3-piperazin-1-ylphenyl)-3-methyl-2- benzothiophene-sulfonamide (SB271046). Systemic application of another 5-HT6 agonist, 2-(1-{6-chloroimidazo[2,1-b] [1,3]thiazole-5-sulfonyl}-1H-indol-3-yl)ethan-1-amine (WAY-181187), induced dose-dependent inhibition of these VTA dopaminergic neurons. ST1936 and WAY-181187 appear to have different effects on these VTA dopaminergic neurons, potentially due to different mechanisms of action or to the complexity of 5-HT6 receptor functions. Our data demonstrate the need for further investigations into the use of 5-HT6 receptor agonists to control cognitive disfunction, such as in schizophrenia and depression. PMID:25735994

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for weak acid respiratory uncouplers to Vibrio fisheri

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Coll. of Veterinary Medicine; Cronin, M.T.D. [Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Pharmacy and Chemistry

    1997-02-01

    Acute toxicity values of 16 organic compounds thought to elicit their response via the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action were secured from the literature. Regression analysis of toxicities revealed that a measured 5-min V. fisheri potency value can be used as a surrogate for the 30-min value. Regression analysis of toxicity versus hydrophobicity, measured as the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}), was used to formulate a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The equation log pT{sub 30}{sup {minus}1} = 0.489(log K{sub ow}) + 0.126 was found to be a highly predictive model. This V. fisheri QSAR is statistically similar to QSARs generated from weak acid uncoupler potency data for Pimephales promelas survivability and Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment. This work, therefore, suggests that the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action is present in V. fisheri, and as such is not restricted to mitochondria-containing organisms.

  14. Technique for fission measurements of highly active and weak cross-section actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Hoff, R.W.; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    The Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer (RINS) system provides an intense neutron source that is well suited for measuring the fission cross sections of microgram quantities of highly-active actinides and gram quantities of nuclei with very weak cross sections. The system consists of a 75-ton lead assembly driven by the RPI electron linac, and the neutron fluxes are three-to-four orders of magnitude more intense than those available in conventional time-of-flight measurements. Examples of measured cross sections of curium isotopes /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th are presented. 17 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Contribution of Hypothermia and CB1 Receptor Activation to Protective Effects of TAK-937, a Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, in Rat Transient MCAO Model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Noriko; Suzuki, Motohisa; Hamajo, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Koji; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Shimojo, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists are expected to alleviate ischemic brain damage by modulating neurotransmission and neuroinflammatory responses via CB1 and CB2 receptors, respectively. In a previous study, TAK-937, a novel potent and selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist, was shown to exert significant cerebroprotective effects accompanied by hypothermia after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Sustained hypothermia itself induces significant neuroprotective effects. In the present studies, we examined the relative contribution of hypothermia and CB1 receptor activation to the cerebroprotective effects of TAK-937. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multichannel brain temperature controlling system we developed, the brain temperature of freely moving rats was telemetrically monitored and maintained between 37 and 38°C during intravenous infusion of TAK-937 (100 µg/kg/h) or vehicle for 24 h after 2 h MCAO. AM251, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, was administered intraperitoneally at 30 mg/kg 30 min before starting intravenous infusion of TAK-937 (100 µg/kg/h) for 24 h. Rats were sacrificed and their brains were isolated 26 h after MCAO in both experiments. When the hypothermic effect of TAK-937 was completely reversed by a brain temperature controlling system, the infarct-reducing effect of TAK-937 was attenuated in part, but remained significant. On the other hand, concomitant AM251 treatment with TAK-937 completely abolished the hypothermic and infarct-reducing effects of TAK-937. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the cerebroprotective effects of TAK-937 were at least in part mediated by induction of hypothermia, and mainly mediated by CB1 receptor activation. PMID:22815855

  16. The relationship between the agonist-induced activation and desensitization of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, S; Gent, J P; Findlay, J B C; Donnelly, D

    1998-01-01

    Repeated applications of neurokinin?A (NKA) to oocytes injected with 25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA caused complete attenuation of second and subsequent NKA-induced responses while analogous experiments using repeated applications of GR64349 and [Nle10]NKA(4–10) resulted in no such desensitization. This behaviour has been previously attributed to the ability of the different ligands to stabilize different active conformations of the receptor that have differing susceptibilities to receptor kinases (Nemeth & Chollet, 1995).However, for Xenopus oocytes injected (into the nucleus) with 10?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cDNA, a single 100?nM concentration of any of the three ligands resulted in complete desensitization to further concentrations.On the other hand, none of the ligands caused any desensitization in oocytes injected with 0.25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA, even at concentrations up to 10??M.The two N-terminally truncated analogues of neurokinin?A have a lower efficacy than NKA and it is likely that it is this property which causes the observed differences in desensitization, rather than the formation of alternative active states of the receptor.The peak calcium-dependent chloride current is not a reliable measure of maximal receptor stimulation and efficacy is better measured in this system by studying agonist-induced desensitization.The specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 can enhance NKA and GR64349-mediated desensitization which suggests that agonist-induced desensitization involves the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and the subsequent down-regulation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, possibly by cross-talk to a second signalling pathway. PMID:9690859

  17. A Conserved Aspartic Acid Is Important for Agonist (VUAA1) and Odorant/Tuning Receptor-Dependent Activation of the Insect Odorant Co-Receptor (Orco)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Brijesh N.; Taylor, Robert W.; Pask, Gregory M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Christie, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco). An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ?2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels. PMID:23894621

  18. Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation

  19. CD47 Agonist Peptides Induce Programmed Cell Death in Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells via PLC?1 Activation: Evidence from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Attout, Tarik; Boullet, Heloïse; Herbi, Linda; Vela, Laura; Barbier, Sandrine; Chateau, Danielle; Chapiro, Elise; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Davi, Frédéric; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Moumné, Roba; Sarfati, Marika; Karoyan, Philippe; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Launay, Pierre; Susin, Santos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adulthood leukemia, is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal CD5+ B lymphocytes, which results in a progressive failure of the immune system. Despite intense research efforts, drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure in CLL, particularly in patients with dysfunctional TP53. The objective of our work was to identify potential approaches that might overcome CLL drug refractoriness by examining the pro-apoptotic potential of targeting the cell surface receptor CD47 with serum-stable agonist peptides. Methods and Findings In peripheral blood samples collected from 80 patients with CLL with positive and adverse prognostic features, we performed in vitro genetic and molecular analyses that demonstrate that the targeting of CD47 with peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 efficiently kills the malignant CLL B cells, including those from high-risk individuals with a dysfunctional TP53 gene, while sparing the normal T and B lymphocytes from the CLL patients. Further studies reveal that the differential response of normal B lymphocytes, collected from 20 healthy donors, and leukemic B cells to CD47 peptide targeting results from the sustained activation in CLL B cells of phospholipase C gamma-1 (PLC?1), a protein that is significantly over-expressed in CLL. Once phosphorylated at tyrosine 783, PLC?1 enables a Ca2+-mediated, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) pathway that is not down-modulated by the lymphocyte microenvironment. Accordingly, down-regulation of PLC?1 or pharmacological inhibition of PLC?1 phosphorylation abolishes CD47-mediated killing. Additionally, in a CLL-xenograft model developed in NOD/scid gamma mice, we demonstrate that the injection of CD47 agonist peptides reduces tumor burden without inducing anemia or toxicity in blood, liver, or kidney. The limitations of our study are mainly linked to the affinity of the peptides targeting CD47, which might be improved to reach the standard requirements in drug development, and the lack of a CLL animal model that fully mimics the human disease. Conclusions Our work provides substantial progress in (i) the development of serum-stable CD47 agonist peptides that are highly effective at inducing PCD in CLL, (ii) the understanding of the molecular events regulating a novel PCD pathway that overcomes CLL apoptotic avoidance, (iii) the identification of PLC?1 as an over-expressed protein in CLL B cells, and (iv) the description of a novel peptide-based strategy against CLL. PMID:25734483

  20. Cysteine 390 mutation of the TSH receptor modulates its ectodomain as an inverse agonist on the serpentine domain with decrease in basal constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chin; Goh, Sui-Sin; Su, Qing; Khoo, Daphne Hsu-Chin

    2005-12-21

    Mutations of individual cysteine residues at codon 301, 390, 398 and 408 of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) to serine resulted in cell surface expression of only C301S and C390S mutants. C390S mutation was a silencing mutation with decreased basal constitutive activity. Although the C301S and C390S mutants did not show any significant TSH binding, they generated cyclic AMP upon TSH stimulation. These mutants were also able to interact with stimulating and blocking anti-TSHr antibodies. In fact, C390S receptor is a more sensitive tool for blocking antibody detection than wild type receptor. Introduction of C390S to activating mutations in the ectodomain (S281N), exloop (I486F) and transmembrane (D633H) segments could not mute/nullify receptor activation. These data indicate that the C390S ectodomain behaves as a more effective inverse agonist on the noisy transmembrane segment and suggest that the basal and activated states of the receptor operate through two independent pathways. PMID:16364538

  1. Rescue of developing spinal motoneurons from programmed cell death by the GABA(A) agonist muscimol acts by blockade of neuromuscular activity and increased intramuscular nerve branching.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Ronald W; Calderó, Jordi; Cuitat, Dolors; Esquerda, Josep; Ayala, Victória; Prevette, David; Wang, Siwei

    2003-03-01

    Blockade of neuromuscular activity in the chick embryo during the period of programmed cell death of motoneurons results in a complete rescue of these cells. Understanding the cellular mechanisms that mediate this counterintuitive effect is of considerable interest with respect to the regulation of motoneuron survival during development as well as for understanding why motoneurons die pathologically. Although considerable evidence supports the role of a peripheral site of action at the neuromuscular junction in mediating the rescue of motoneurons following activity blockade, some evidence also supports a role for central nervous system (CNS) neurons. For example, the rescue of motoneurons by curare has been reported to be blocked by the GABA(A) agonist muscimol via its actions on CNS neurons. We have carried out a series of studies to further investigate this interesting observation. Surprisingly, we find that: (1) muscimol blocks activity and rescues MNs in a dose-dependent manner, similar to curare; (2) muscimol's effects on MN survival appear to be mediated by its action on intramuscular nerve branching, similar to curare; and (3) although muscimol acts centrally, the effects of muscimol on MN survival and axon branching are mediated peripherally at the neuromuscular junction, similar to curare. Because muscimol reduces MN depolarization these data also suggest that the depolarization of MNs by afferents is not required for promoting MN survival. Taken together, these data provide further evidence in support of a peripheral site of action of activity blockade in rescuing motoneurons from developmental cell death. PMID:12691735

  2. Spinal cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and induces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Russell P.; Martinez, Elena; DeLeo, Joyce A.; Romero-Sandoval, E. Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury generally results in spinal neuronal and glial plastic changes associated with chronic behavioral hypersensitivity. Spinal mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), are instrumental in the development of chronic allodynia in rodents, and new p38 inhibitors have shown potential in acute and neuropathic pain patients. We have previously shown that the cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist JWH015 inhibits ERK activity by inducing MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 and MKP-3 (the major regulators of MAPKs) in vitro in microglial cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of these phosphatases in the mechanisms of action of JWH015 in vivo using the rat L5 nerve transection model of neuropathic pain. We observed that peripheral nerve injury reduced spinal MKP-1/3 expression and activity and that intrathecal JWH015 reduced established L5 nerve-injury-induced allodynia, enhanced spinal MKP-1/3 expression and activity, and reduced the phosphorylated form of p38 and ERK-1/2. Triptolide, a pharmacological blocker of MKP-1 and MKP-3 expression, inhibited JWH015’s effects, suggesting that JWH015 exerts its antinociceptive effects by modulating MKP-1 and MKP-3. JWH015-induced antinociception and MKP-1 and MKP-3 expression were inhibited by the cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist AM630. Our data suggest that MKP-1 and MKP-3 are potential targets for novel analgesic drugs. PMID:22901764

  3. A precise method to determine the activity of a weak neutron source using a germanium detector

    E-print Network

    Duke, M J M; Krauss, C B; Mekarski, P; Sibley, L

    2015-01-01

    A standard high purity germanium detector (HPGe) was used to determine the neutron activity of a weak americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron source. Gamma rays were created through 27Al(n,n'), 27Al(n,gamma) and 1H(n,gamma) reactions induced by the neutrons on aluminum and acrylic disks. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the efficiency of the detector system. The activity of our neutron source was determined to be 305.6 +/- 4.9 n/s. The result is consistent for the different gamma rays and was verified using additional simulations and measurements of the 4483 keV gamma ray produced directly from the AmBe source.

  4. Innate Immune Receptors in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells: Activation by TLR1/2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and NOD1 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Månsson Kvarnhammar, Anne; Tengroth, Lotta; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Background Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), recognize microbial components and trigger a host defense response. Respiratory tract infections are common causes of asthma exacerbations, suggesting a role for PRRs in this process. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of PRRs on human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Methods Expression of TLR, NLR and RLR mRNA and proteins was determined using real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The functional responses to ligand stimulation were investigated in terms of cytokine and chemokine release, cell surface marker expression, proliferation and proteins regulating the contractile state. Results HASMCs expressed functional TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and NOD1. Stimulation with the corresponding agonists Pam3CSK4, poly(I:C), LPS, R-837 and iE-DAP, respectively, induced IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF release and up-regulation of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR, while poly(I:C) also affected the release of eotaxin and RANTES. The proliferative response was slightly increased by LPS. Stimulation, most prominently with poly(I:C), down-regulated myosin light chain kinase and cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor expression and up-regulated ?2-adrenoceptor expression. No effects were seen for agonist to TLR2/6, TLR5, TLR8, TLR9, NOD2 or RIG-I/MDA-5. Conclusion Activation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and NOD1 favors a synthetic phenotype, characterized by an increased ability to release inflammatory mediators, acquire immunomodulatory properties by recruiting and interacting with other cells, and reduce the contractile state. The PRRs might therefore be of therapeutic use in the management of asthma and infection-induced disease exacerbations. PMID:23861935

  5. Classification of active and weakly active ST inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase using a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aixia; Xuan, Shouyi; Hu, Xiaoying

    2012-12-01

    Using a support vector machine (SVM), two computational models were built to predict whether a compound is an active or weakly active strand transfer (ST) inhibitor based on a dataset of 1257 ST inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. The model built with MACCS fingerprints gave a prediction accuracy of 91.82% and a Matthews Correlation Coeffiient (MCC) of 0.73 on test set, and the model built with 40 MOE descriptors gave a prediction accuracy of 93.64% and an MCC of 0.79 on test set. Some molecular properties such as electrostatic properties, van der Waals surface area, hydrogen bond properties and the number of fluorine atoms are important factors influencing the interactions between the inhibitor and the integrase. Some scaffolds like ?-diketo acid and its derivatives, naphthyridine carboxamide or the isosteric of it and pyrimidionones may play crucial rule to the activity of the HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. PMID:22934952

  6. Structural requirements of transmembrane domain 3 for activation by the M1 muscarinic receptor agonists AC-42, AC-260584, clozapine, and N-desmethylclozapine: evidence for three distinct modes of receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Tracy A; Ma, Jian-Nong; Ott, Thomas R; Friberg, Mikael; Bajpai, Abhishek; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Davis, Robert E; Brann, Mark R; Burstein, Ethan S

    2006-12-01

    Transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) plays a crucial role mediating muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation by acetylcholine, carbachol, and other muscarinic agonists. We compared the effects of point mutations throughout TM3 on the interactions of carbachol, 4-n-butyl-1-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-1-butyl] piperidine hydrogen chloride (AC-42), a potent structural analog of AC-42 called 4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one (AC-260584), N-desmethylclozapine, and clozapine with the M(1) muscarinic receptor. The binding and activation profiles of these ligands fell into three distinct patterns; one exemplified by orthosteric compounds like carbachol, another by structural analogs of AC-42, and a third by structural analogs of N-desmethylclozapine. All mutations tested severely reduced carbachol binding and activation of M(1). In contrast, the agonist actions of AC-42 and AC-260584 were greatly potentiated by the W101A mutation, slightly reduced by Y106A, and slightly increased by S109A. Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine displayed substantially increased maximum responses at the Y106A and W101A mutants, slightly lower activity at S109A, but no substantial changes in potency. At L102A and N110A, agonist responses to AC-42, AC-260584, clozapine, and N-desmethylclozapine were all substantially reduced, but usually less than carbachol. D105A showed no functional responses to all ligands. Displacement and dissociation rate experiments demonstrated clear allosteric properties of AC-42 and AC-260584 but not for N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine, indicating that they may contact different residues than carbachol to activate M(1) but occupy substantially overlapping spaces, in contrast to AC-42 and AC-260584, which occupy separable spaces. These results show that M(1) receptors can be activated in at least three distinct ways and that there is no requirement for potent muscarinic agonists to mimic acetylcholine interactions with TM3. PMID:16959945

  7. Definition of the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Underlying the Tissue-selective Agonist\\/Antagonist Activities of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONALD P. MCDONNELL; C AROLINE E. CONNOR; A SHINI WIJAYARATNE; CHING-YI CHANG; JOHN D. NORRIS

    2002-01-01

    The term selective estrogen receptor modulators describes a group of pharmaceuticals that function as estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in some tissues but that oppose estrogen action in others. Although the name for this class of drugs has been adopted only recently, the concept is not new, as compounds exhibiting tissue-selective ER agonist\\/antagonist properties have been around for nearly 40 years.

  8. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hong Hoe, E-mail: hhkoo@skku.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Ki Woong, E-mail: kwsped@skku.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

  9. Agonist-like activity of antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop of the human cardiac serotonin 5-HT4(e) receptor in transfected COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bozon, V; Di Scala, E; Eftekhari, P; Hoebeke, J; Lezoualc'h, F; Fischmeister, R; Argibay, J

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported that antipeptide antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop of the cardiac h5-HT4 receptor could block the activation of the L-type Ca channel in human atrial cardiomyocytes. In this paper we investigate the immunological and physiological activity of these antibodies, in a cell system expressing a larger amount of receptors than the atrial cells. The recombinant receptor was expressed at the surface of COS-7 cells under an active form (serotonin, EC50 = 1.81 x 10(-7) M), at a high level (375 +/- 25 fmol receptor/mg total protein) and was able to bind a specific ligand (GR113808) with a high affinity (Kd = 0.28 +/- 0.05 nM). In this system, the same anti-peptide antibodies used for the cardiac cells induced an "agonist-like" effect on the recombinant h5-HT4 receptor. These results are in line with those shown for others G-protein coupled receptors, as adrenoreceptors. In addition, this work showed that the effect of the antibodies is not only dependent on the epitopic region recognised but also on the molecular density and/or the cellular environment of the target receptors. Finally, our results support the hypothesis that the h5-HT4 receptor could be a new target for autoantibodies in patients with atrial arrhythmia. PMID:12448792

  10. Enhanced spontaneous activity of the mu opioid receptor by cysteine mutations: characterization of a tool for inverse agonist screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Brillet; Brigitte L Kieffer; Dominique Massotte

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of spontaneous- or constitutive-activity has become widely accepted and verified for numerous G protein-coupled receptors and this ligand-independent activity is also acknowledged to play a role in some pathologies. Constitutive activity has been reported for the mu opioid receptor. In some cases the increase in receptor basal activity was induced by chronic morphine administration suggesting that constitutive

  11. Molecular Engineering of Organophosphate Hydrolysis Activity from a Weak Promiscuous Lactonase Template

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Monika M; Rajendran, Chitra; Malisi, Christoph; Fox, Nicholas G; Xu, Chengfu; Schlee, Sandra; Barondeau, David P; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard; Raushel, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Rapid evolution of enzymes provides unique molecular insights into the remarkable adaptability of proteins and helps to elucidate the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure and function. We interrogated the evolution of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta (PdPTE), which hydrolyzes synthetic organophosphates with remarkable catalytic efficiency. PTE is thought to be an evolutionarily “young” enzyme and it has been postulated that it has evolved from members of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) family that show promiscuous organophosphate degrading activity. Starting from a weakly promiscuous PLL scaffold (Dr0930 from Deinococcus radiodurans), we designed an extremely efficient organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) with broad substrate specificity using rational and random mutagenesis in combination with in vitro activity screening. The OPH activity for seven organophosphate substrates was simultaneously enhanced by up to five orders of magnitude, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiencies up to 106 M?1 s?1. Structural and computational analyses identified the molecular basis for the enhanced OPH activity of the engineered PLL variants and demonstrated that OPH catalysis in PdPTE and the engineered PLL differ significantly in the mode of substrate binding. PMID:23837603

  12. Molecular engineering of organophosphate hydrolysis activity from a weak promiscuous lactonase template.

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika M; Rajendran, Chitra; Malisi, Christoph; Fox, Nicholas G; Xu, Chengfu; Schlee, Sandra; Barondeau, David P; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard; Raushel, Frank M

    2013-08-01

    Rapid evolution of enzymes provides unique molecular insights into the remarkable adaptability of proteins and helps to elucidate the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We interrogated the evolution of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta (PdPTE), which hydrolyzes synthetic organophosphates with remarkable catalytic efficiency. PTE is thought to be an evolutionarily "young" enzyme, and it has been postulated that it has evolved from members of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) family that show promiscuous organophosphate-degrading activity. Starting from a weakly promiscuous PLL scaffold (Dr0930 from Deinococcus radiodurans ), we designed an extremely efficient organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) with broad substrate specificity using rational and random mutagenesis in combination with in vitro activity screening. The OPH activity for seven organophosphate substrates was simultaneously enhanced by up to 5 orders of magnitude, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiencies up to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Structural and computational analyses identified the molecular basis for the enhanced OPH activity of the engineered PLL variants and demonstrated that OPH catalysis in PdPTE and the engineered PLL differ significantly in the mode of substrate binding. PMID:23837603

  13. Effect of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) on external urethral sphincter activity in a rat model of pudendal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Cheng, Chen-Li; Fan, Wen-Jia; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Lai, Chien-Hung; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Although serotonergic agents have been used to treat patients with stress urinary incontinence, the characteristics of the external urethral sphincter (EUS) activity activated by 5-HT receptors have not been extensively studied. This study examined the effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), on the EUS-electromyography and resistance of the urethra in a rat model with bilateral pudendal nerve injury (BPNI). Two measurements were utilized to assess the effects of the drug on bladder and urethral functions: the simultaneous recordings of transvesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions [isovolumetric intravesical pressure (IVP)] and urethral perfusion pressure, and the simultaneous recordings of IVP during continuously isotonic transvesical infusion with an open urethra (isotonic IVP) and EUS-electromyography. This study also evaluated the urethral continence using leak point pressure testing. The urethral perfusion pressure and leak point pressure measurements of BPNI rats reveal that 8-OH-DPAT significantly increased urethral resistance during the bladder storage phase, yet decreased resistance during the voiding phase. The entire EUS burst period was significantly prolonged, within which the average silent period increased and the frequency of burst discharges decreased. 8-OH-DPAT also improved the voiding efficiency, as evidenced by the detection of decreases in the contraction amplitude and residual volume, with increases in contraction duration and voided volume. These findings suggest that 8-OH-DPAT not only improved continence function, but also elevated the voiding function in a BPNI rat model. PMID:21490366

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Alessandro, E-mail: a.antonelli@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia Martina, E-mail: sm.ferrari@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Frascerra, Silvia, E-mail: lafrasce@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Corrado, Alda, E-mail: dala_res@hotmail.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Pupilli, Cinzia, E-mail: c.pupilli@dfc.unifi.it [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi and University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, I-50134, Florence (Italy)] [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi and University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, I-50134, Florence (Italy); Bernini, Giampaolo, E-mail: g.bernini@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Benvenga, Salvatore, E-mail: s.benvenga@me.nettuno.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti 1, I-98122, Messina (Italy)] [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti 1, I-98122, Messina (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele, E-mail: eferrannini@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Fallahi, Poupak, E-mail: poupak@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  15. Olanzapine-activated AMPK signaling in the dorsal vagal complex is attenuated by histamine H1 receptor agonist in female rats.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Zhang, Qingsheng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-12-01

    Weight gain and its related metabolic disorders are major side effects associated with second generation antipsychotic drug treatment. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Blocking the histamine H1 receptor contributes to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The present study investigated the time-dependent effect of olanzapine treatment (8, 16, and 36 d) on DVC AMPK signaling in olanzapine-induced weight gain and whether these changes are associated with olanzapine-induced H1 receptor antagonism. During the 8-day olanzapine treatment, the rats were hyperphagic and rapidly gained weight. The phosphorylation of AMPK (pAMPK) (activated AMPK) as well as its directly downstream phospho-acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase was significantly increased. The pAMPK/AMPK ratio, an indicator of AMPK activity, was significantly positively correlated with feeding efficiency and weight gain. As treatment was prolonged (16 and 36 d of olanzapine treatment), the rats were no longer hyperphagic, and there were no longer any changes in DVC AMPK signaling. Although the DVC H1 receptor protein expression was not significantly altered by olanzapine, the pAMPK expression was significantly positively correlated with the H1 receptor level after the 8-, 16-, and 36-day olanzapine treatments. Moreover, we showed that an H1 receptor agonist, 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) histamine, significantly inhibited the olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and DVC AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a time-dependent role of DVC AMPK in olanzapine-induced obesity. Thus, olanzapine-induced DVC AMPK activation may be at least partially related to olanzapine's antagonistic effect on the H1 receptor. PMID:25264935

  16. Locomotor-activating effects of the D 2 agonist bromocriptine show environment-specific sensitization following repeated injections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane C. Hoffman; Roy A. Wise

    1992-01-01

    Biphasic effects of bromocriptine (2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg\\/kg IP) on locomotion were quantified in photocell activity boxes in rats. Following early suppression of activity, bromocriptine produced a clear, dose-dependent increase in locomotion that lasted several hours. When a low dose of bromocriptine (5.0 mg\\/kg) was administered daily over a 3-week period, the locomotor-activating effects of the drug showed

  17. Activation of the Liver X Receptor by Agonist TO901317 Improves Hepatic Insulin Resistance via Suppressing Reactive Oxygen Species and JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ying; Gao, Guirong; Fan, Hongyan; Li, Shengxian; Li, Xuhang; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Activation of Liver X receptors (LXRs), key transcriptional regulators of glucose metabolism, normalizes glycemia and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models with insulin resistance. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. This study is aimed to elucidate the mechanism of LXRs-mediated liver glucose metabolic regulation in vitro and in vivo. Db/db mice were used as an in vivo model of diabetes; palmitate (PA)-stimulated HepG2 cells were used as an in vitro cell model with impairment of insulin signaling. TO901317 (TO) was chosen as the LXRs agonist. We demonstrated that TO treatment for 14 days potently improved the hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice, including fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin level, and HOMA-IR. TO had no effect on the glucose metabolism in normal WT mice. TO-mediated activation of hepatic LXRs led to strong inhibition of ROS production accompanied by inactivation of JNK pathway and re-activation of Akt pathway. TO also suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes such as PEPCK and G-6-pase in db/db mice, but not in WT mice. In HepG2 cells, TO almost completely restored PA-induced Akt inactivation, and suppressed PA-stimulated ROS production and JNK activation. Interestingly, basal level of ROS was also inhibited by TO in HepG2 cells. TO significantly inhibited PA-stimulated expressions of gluconeogenic genes. Finally, we found that anti-oxidative genes, such as Nrf2, were up-regulated after LXRs activation by TO. These results strongly support the notion that activation of LXRs is critical in suppression of liver gluconeogenesis and improvement of insulin sensitivity in diabetic individuals. At molecular levels, the mode of action appears to be as fellows: under diabetic condition, ROS production is increased, JNK is activated, and Akt activity is inhibited; TO-mediated LXR activation potently inhibits ROS production, increases anti-oxidative gene expressions, suppresses JNK activation, and restores Akt activity. Our data provide new evidence to support LXRs as promising therapeutic targets for anti-diabetic drug development. PMID:25909991

  18. PD 158771, a potential antipsychotic agent with D2/D3 partial agonist and 5-HT(1A) agonist actions. II. Preclinical behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Corbin, A E; Meltzer, L T; Ninteman, F W; Wiley, J N; Christoffersen, C L; Wustrow, D J; Wise, L D; Pugsley, T A; Heffner, T G

    2000-04-27

    PD 158771 has been described in receptor binding and biochemical tests as a partial agonist at dopamine (DA) D2 and D3 receptors as well as an agonist at serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptors. The present studies describe the profile of PD 158771 in rodent and primate behavioral tests. PD 158771 reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in mice (ED(50)=0.38 mg/kg, i.p.) and rats (ED(50) = 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. and 0.16 mg/kg, s.c.), and reduced amphetamine-stimulated locomotion in mice (ED(50) = 0.13 mg/kg, i.p.). At relatively higher doses up to 3 mg/kg, s.c. in rats, PD 158771 did not produce locomotor stimulation or induce stereotypy, indicating a lack of postsynaptic DA agonist activity. PD 158771 reduced apomorphine stimulated locomotion in rats at a dose 4.6-fold greater than those that reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, indicating weak postsynaptic DA antagonist actions; results consistent with a partial agonist profile. PD 158771 produced anxiolytic-like effects in the water-lick (Vogel) conflict test, effects possibly due to the 5-HT(1A) activity. However, PD 158771 was inactive in the water wheel behavioral despair model in rats, indicating lack of antidepressant properties. Similar to known antipsychotics, PD 158771 produced a potent and long-lasting inhibition of conditioned avoidance responding in squirrel monkeys. In contrast to standard antipsychotics, and similar to clozapine, PD 158771 did not cause catalepsy in rats at a dose 20-fold higher than the ED(50) dose for locomotor inhibition. PD 158771 also had a somewhat lower liability than haloperidol to produce extrapyramidal dysfunction in squirrel and cebus monkeys sensitized to the dystonic effects of haloperidol. The data indicate that PD 158771 is a DA partial agonist with weak intrinsic activity that selectively activates brain DA autoreceptors. PD 158771 produced behavioral effects consistent with potential antipsychotic and anxiolytic efficacy, and has an improved profile in the extrapyramidal side effect model when compared to certain currently available antipsychotic agents. PMID:10760363

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has multiple binding points that accommodate ligands in various conformations: Structurally similar PPAR? partial agonists bind to PPAR? LBD in different conformations.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masao; Gamo, Kanae; Oyama, Takuji; Miyachi, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-15

    In the course of studies directed toward the creation of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR?) partial agonists, we designed and synthesized benzylsulfonylaminocarbonyl derivative (3) by structural modification of our reported hPPAR? partial agonist 2. Co-crystallization of 3 with the hPPAR? ligand-binding domain (LBD) afforded a homodimeric complex in which one of the LBDs adopts a fully active structure without bound 3, while the other LBD exhibits a non-fully active structure containing one molecule of bound 3. Interestingly, 2 and 3 are structurally similar, but bind to hPPAR? LBD in distinct conformations, that is, the sulfonylaminocarbonyl moiety of bound 3 is directed at 180° away from that of bound 2. These results support our previous proposal that the hPPAR? LBD has multiple binding points that can be utilized to accommodate structurally flexible hPPAR ligands. PMID:26025876

  20. NOD-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors in human eosinophils: activation by NOD1 and NOD2 agonists.

    PubMed

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Petterson, Terese; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2011-11-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are newly discovered pattern-recognition receptors. They detect substructures of bacterial peptidoglycan and viral RNA, respectively, thereby initiating an immune response. However, their role in eosinophil activation remains to be explored. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of a range of NLRs and RLRs in purified human eosinophils and assess their functional importance. Expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, RIG-I and MDA-5 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription PCR, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The effects of the corresponding agonists iE-DAP (NOD1), MDP (NOD2), alum (NLRP3) and poly(I:C)/LyoVec (RIG-I/MDA-5) were studied in terms of cytokine secretion, degranulation, survival, expression of adhesion molecules and activation markers, and chemotactic migration. Eosinophils expressed NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein. Low levels of RIG-I and MDA-5 were found, whereas expression of NLRP3 was completely absent. In accordance, stimulation with iE-DAP and MDP was found to induce secretion of interleukin-8, up-regulate expression of CD11b, conversely down-regulate CD62 ligand, increase expression of CD69 and induce migration. The MDP also promoted release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, whereas iE-DAP failed to do so. No effects were seen upon stimulation with alum or poly(I:C)/LyoVec. Moreover, the NOD1-induced and NOD2-induced activation was mediated via the nuclear factor-?B signalling pathway and augmented by interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but not interferon-?. Taken together, the NLR system represents a novel pathway for eosinophil activation. The responses are enhanced in the presence of cytokines that regulate T helper type 2 immunity, suggesting that the NLRs constitute a link between respiratory infections and exacerbations of allergic disease. PMID:21978001

  1. NOD-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors in human eosinophils: activation by NOD1 and NOD2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Petterson, Terese; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2011-01-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are newly discovered pattern-recognition receptors. They detect substructures of bacterial peptidoglycan and viral RNA, respectively, thereby initiating an immune response. However, their role in eosinophil activation remains to be explored. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of a range of NLRs and RLRs in purified human eosinophils and assess their functional importance. Expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, RIG-I and MDA-5 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription PCR, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The effects of the corresponding agonists iE-DAP (NOD1), MDP (NOD2), alum (NLRP3) and poly(I:C)/LyoVec (RIG-I/MDA-5) were studied in terms of cytokine secretion, degranulation, survival, expression of adhesion molecules and activation markers, and chemotactic migration. Eosinophils expressed NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein. Low levels of RIG-I and MDA-5 were found, whereas expression of NLRP3 was completely absent. In accordance, stimulation with iE-DAP and MDP was found to induce secretion of interleukin-8, up-regulate expression of CD11b, conversely down-regulate CD62 ligand, increase expression of CD69 and induce migration. The MDP also promoted release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, whereas iE-DAP failed to do so. No effects were seen upon stimulation with alum or poly(I:C)/LyoVec. Moreover, the NOD1-induced and NOD2-induced activation was mediated via the nuclear factor-?B signalling pathway and augmented by interleukin-5 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but not interferon-?. Taken together, the NLR system represents a novel pathway for eosinophil activation. The responses are enhanced in the presence of cytokines that regulate T helper type 2 immunity, suggesting that the NLRs constitute a link between respiratory infections and exacerbations of allergic disease. PMID:21978001

  2. Pharmacology of GPR55 in yeast and identification of GSK494581A as a mixed-activity glycine transporter subtype 1 inhibitor and GPR55 agonist.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew J; Daniels, Dion A; Kassim, Mumta; Brown, Sue; Haslam, Carl P; Terrell, Victoria R; Brown, Jason; Nichols, Paula L; Staton, Penny C; Wise, Alan; Dowell, Simon J

    2011-04-01

    GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by L-?-lysophosphatidylinositol and suggested to have roles in pain signaling, bone morphogenesis, and possibly in vascular endothelial cells. It has affinity for certain cannabinoids (molecules that interact with the cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors), but investigation of its functional role in cell-based systems and in tissue has been limited by a lack of selective pharmacological tools. Here, we present our characterization of GPR55 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We describe GSK494581A (1-{2-fluoro-4-[1-(methyloxy)ethyl]phenyl}-4-{[4'-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-biphenylyl]carbonyl}piperazine), a selective small-molecule ligand of GPR55 identified through diversity screening. GSK494581A is one of a series of benzoylpiperazines originally identified and patented as inhibitors of the glycine transporter subtype 1 (GlyT1). The structure-activity relationship between GPR55 and GlyT1 is divergent across this series. The most GPR55-selective example is GSK575594A (3-fluoro-4-(4-{[4'-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-biphenylyl]carbonyl}-1-piperazinyl)aniline), which is approximately 60-fold selective for GPR55 (pEC(50) = 6.8) over GlyT1 (pIC(50) = 5.0). Several exemplars with activity at GPR55 and GlyT1 have been profiled at a broad range of other molecular targets and are inactive at cannabinoid receptors and all other targets tested. The benzoylpiperazine agonists activate human GPR55 but not rodent GPR55, suggesting that the relatively low level of sequence identity between these orthologs (75%) translates to important functional differences in the ligand-binding site. PMID:21233197

  3. Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a dual agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ?/?

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, Mastura Abd; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee Jin [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chul; Lee, Myung Koo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: byhwang@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: junelee@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside is a dual ligand for PPAR? and ?/?. ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside reduces cellular lipid levels in multiple cell types. ? Cells stimulated with ombuine up-regulated target genes in cholesterol efflux. ? Cells stimulated with ombuine regulated target fatty acid ?-oxidation and synthesis. ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: We demonstrated that ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (ombuine), a flavonoid from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, is a dual agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) ? and ?/?. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses, and reporter gene assays, we showed that ombuine bound directly to PPAR? and ?/? but not to PPAR? or liver X receptors (LXRs). Cultured HepG2 hepatocytes stimulated with ombuine significantly reduced intracellular concentrations of triglyceride and cholesterol and downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), with activation of PPAR? and ?/?. Activation of LXRs by ombuine was confirmed by reporter gene assays, however, SPR and cell-based FRET assays showed no direct binding of ombuine to either of the LXRs suggesting LXR activation by ombuine may be operated via PPAR? stimulation. Ombuine-stimulated macrophages showed significantly induced transcription of ATP binding cassette cholesterol transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1), the key genes in reverse cholesterol transport, which led to reduced cellular cholesterol concentrations. These results suggest that ombuine is a dual PPAR ligand for PPAR? and ?/? with the ability to decrease lipid concentrations by reducing lipogenic gene expression in hepatocytes and inducing genes involved in cholesterol efflux in macrophages.

  4. Suppression of Noxious Stimulus-Evoked Activity in the Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus of the Thalamus by a Cannabinoid Agonist: Correlation between Electrophysiological and Antinociceptive Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Martin; Andrea G. Hohmann; J. Michael Walker

    The CNS contains a putative cannabinergic neurotransmitter and an abundance of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid recep- tors. However, little is known about the function of this novel neurochemical system. Cannabinoid agonists produce antino- ciception in behavioral tests, suggesting the possibility that this system serves in part to modulate pain sensitivity. To explore this possibility, the effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2

  5. Orally active opioid ?/? dual agonist MGM-16, a derivative of the indole alkaloid mitragynine, exhibits potent antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Narita, Minoru; Muramatsu, Naotaka; Nakayama, Terumi; Misawa, Kaori; Kitajima, Mariko; Tashima, Kimihito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2014-03-01

    (E)-Methyl 2-((2S,3S,7aS,12bS)-3-ethyl-7a-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,7a,12b-octahydroindolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-2-yl)-3-methoxyacrylate (7-hydroxymitragynine), a main active constituent of the traditional herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, is an indole alkaloid that is structurally different from morphine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine induces a potent antinociceptive effect on mouse acute pain through ?-opioid receptors. In this study, we developed dual-acting ?- and ?-opioid agonists MGM-15 and MGM-16 from 7-hydroxymitragynine for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. MGM-16 showed a higher potency than that of 7-hydroxymitragynine and MGM-15 in in vitro and in vivo assays. MGM-16 exhibited a high affinity for ?- and ?-opioid receptors, with K(i) values of 2.1 and 7.0 nM, respectively. MGM-16 showed ?- and ?-opioid full agonistic effects in a guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) binding assay and in a functional test using electrically elicited guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens contractions. Systemic administration of MGM-16 produced antinociceptive effects in a mouse acute pain model and antiallodynic effects in a chronic pain model. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was approximately 240 times more potent than that of morphine in a mouse tail-flick test, and its antiallodynic effect was approximately 100 times more potent than that of gabapentin in partial sciatic nerve-ligated mice, especially with oral administration. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was completely and partially blocked by the ?-selective antagonist ?-funaltrexamine hydrochloride (?-FNA) and by the ?-selective antagonist naltrindole, respectively, in a tail-flick test. The antiallodynic effect of MGM-16 was completely blocked by ?-FNA and naltrindole in a neuropathic pain model. These findings suggest that MGM-16 could become a class of a compound with potential therapeutic utility for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:24345467

  6. Effect of combination treatment of S–amlodipine with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance associated with dyslipidemia and hypertension. The available drugs are not sufficiently efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk and restoring normal glucose metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes as a mono- or a combination therapy. The present study examined the combined effects of an antihypertensive (S-Amlodipine) and an insulin-sensitizing agent, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists (Pioglitazone and Ragaglitazar), on cardiovascular risk factors in aged diabetic and insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rats. Methods Following combination treatment for 14 days, blood pressure (BP), serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Aortic ring study was conducted to determine the effect of combination treatments on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasorelaxation. Results In combination, S-Amlodipine and Pioglitazone significantly reduced blood glucose (115.1?±?6.6 vs. 81.7?±?4.2), BP (184.4?±?5.0 vs. 155.1?±?5.0), serum triglycerides (362.5?±?47.5 vs. 211.1?±?23.7) and glucose intolerance when compared with vehicle treated Zucker fa/fa rats. Similar results were observed with the combination of S-Amlodipine and Ragaglitazar (Triglycerides, 362.5?±?47.5 vs. 252.34?±?27.86; BP, 184.4?±?5.0 vs. 159.0?±?8.0) except for serum glucose. ACh-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings was also superior with both of the combinations compared to individual treatment. Furthermore, there was less body weight gain and food intake with S-Amlodipine and Pioglitazone combination in Zucker fa/fa rats. S-Amlodipine itself caused significant reduction in glucose (115.1?±?6.6 vs. 89.7?±?2.7) and BP (184.4?±?5.0 vs. 156.1?±?4.0) with improvement in insulin sensitivity observed through oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of PPAR agonists and S-Amlodipine has partial benefits in improving the cardiovascular risk factors such as reduction in triglyceride levels, associated with chronic type 2 diabetes, and therefore may be utilized as an approach for addressing some of these devastating metabolic syndrome complications. PMID:24673913

  7. Weak hydrogen bonding interactions influence slip system activity and compaction behavior of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-12-01

    Markedly different mechanical behavior of powders of polymorphs, cocrystals, hydrate/anhydrate pairs, or structurally similar molecules has been attributed to the presence of active slip planes system in their crystal structures. Presence of slip planes in the crystal lattice allows easier slip under the applied compaction pressure. This allows greater plastic deformation of the powder and results into increased interparticulate bonding area and greater tensile strength of the compacts. Thus, based on this crystallographic feature, tableting performance of the active pharmaceutical ingredients can be predicted. Recently, we encountered a case where larger numbers of C?H···O type interactions across the proposed slip planes hinder the slip and thus resist plastic deformation of the powder under the applied compaction pressure. Hence, attention must be given to these types of interactions while identifying slip planes by visualization method. Generally, slip planes are visualized as flat layers often strengthened by a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network within the layers or planes. No hydrogen bonding should exist between these layers to consider them as slip planes. Moreover, one should also check the presence of C?H···O type interactions across these planes. Mercury software provides an option for visualization of these weak hydrogen bonding interactions. Hence, caution must be exercised while selecting appropriate solid form based on this crystallographic feature. PMID:24136007

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-? Agonist Slows the Progression of Hypertension, Attenuates Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Renal Inflammatory Markers in Angiotensin II Infused Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin L.; Duan, Rong; El-Marakby, Ahmed; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Lee, Dexter L.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-? plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-? agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400?ng/kg/min). Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-? KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-? KO mice compared to WT (161 ± 4?mmHg versus 145 ± 4?mmHg) and fenofibrate (145?mg/kg/day) reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134 ± 7?mmHg). Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-? KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30 ± 4 versus 8 ± 2?pg/mL) and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10 ± 3?pg/mL). Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-? attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2. PMID:22848208

  9. Phase-shifting effect of 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor agonist, on locomotor activity in golden hamster in constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Cutrera, R A; Saboureau, M; Pévet, P

    1996-05-24

    The present results show that under constant darkness the endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei can be affected by administration of 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a well known 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor agonist. A single i.p. injection (0.1 ml) with 8-OH-DPAT (5 mg/kg) induced significant phase-advances of hamster locomotor activity at circadian time (CT) 6 and 8 and a significant phase-delay at CT11. Saline injections by themselves induced a significant phase-advance at CT10-11. The dose-response curve for 8-OH-DPAT showed a maximal phase-shifting effect for doses of at least 2.5 mg/kg at CT8. Thus, in golden hamsters. (1) 8-OH-DPAT has a chronobiological effect with sensitivity depending upon the circadian time of injection, and (2) a single saline injection is able to induce regular phase-advances at the end of the subjective day (CT10-11). PMID:8762177

  10. Role of Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis in Affective Disorders: Anti-depressant and Anxiolytic Activity of Partial 5-HT1A Agonist in Adrenalectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Bhatt, Shvetank; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a neurological disorder characterized by sad mood, loss of pleasure, agitation and retardation. Though most relevant neuronal pathophysiology is characterized by decrease in monoamine namely; serotonin (5-HT), dopamine, noradrenaline level in central areas regulating mood and behavior, it inadequately explains the exact mechanism involved. Buspirone (BUS), a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist has shown promising anti-depressant and anxiolytic properties in various pre-clinical and clinical studies, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate, in vivo, the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in pathophysiology of depression-related disorders and the anti-depressant like activity of BUS. To simulate HPA axis dysregulation, rats were subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX). Materials and Methods: We have analyzed effect of BUS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in ADX and sham rats using open field, sucrose consumption, elevated plus maze and hyper-emotionality tests. Results: In all animal models tested, ADX rats exhibited significant depressive and anxiogenic states while BUS was effective in reversing the psychological diseased condition developed. Conclusion: Taken together, these data showed a prominent role of HPA axis in depression and neuronal mechanism of BUS as anti-depressant and anxiolytic agent. Moreover, our findings suggest that BUS can be a better candidate for stress related depression and anxiety. PMID:24249933

  11. Inhibition of rotavirus ECwt infection in ICR suckling mice by N-acetylcysteine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos Arturo; Pardo, Paula; Rodriguez, Victor; Guerrero, Rafael; Acosta, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have recently been introduced for preventing rotavirus disease in children. However, alternative strategies for prevention and treatment of rotavirus infection are needed mainly in developing countries where low vaccine coverage occurs. In the present work, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid (AA), some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists were tested for their ability to interfere with rotavirus ECwt infectivity as detected by the percentage of viral antigen-positive cells of small intestinal villi isolated from ECwt-infected ICR mice. Administration of 6 mg NAC/kg every 8 h for three days following the first diarrhoeal episode reduced viral infectivity by about 90%. Administration of AA, ibuprofen, diclofenac, pioglitazone or rosiglitazone decreased viral infectivity by about 55%, 90%, 35%, 32% and 25%, respectively. ECwt infection of mice increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ERp57, Hsc70, NF-?B, Hsp70, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) and PPAR? in intestinal villus cells. NAC treatment of ECwt-infected mice reduced Hsc70 and PDI expression to levels similar to those observed in villi from uninfected control mice. The present results suggest that the drugs tested in the present work could be assayed in preventing or treating rotaviral diarrhoea in children and young animals. PMID:24037197

  12. Carcinogenicity study of CKD-501, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? agonist, following oral administration to Sprague Dawley rats for 94-101 weeks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Su; Chang, Minsun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Woojin; Hwang, In-Chang; Kim, Dal-Hyun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Jo, Woori; Cha, Shin-Woo; Son, Woo-Chan

    2014-07-01

    CKD-501 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. The current study was conducted in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for 94-101 weeks to investigate the carcinogenic potential of CKD-501. 60 males received 0, 0.03, 0.12, or 1.0mg/kg/day, which was changed after 66 weeks to 0.24 mg/kg/day due to increased mortality, while 60 females received 0, 0.03, 0.06, or 0.12 mg/kg/day throughout the study period. After switching the dosage, no significant changes in the survival rates were observed. Non-neoplastic lesions such as bladder transitional cell hyperplasia and a diminished corpus luteum were observed in females administered 0.12 mg/kg/day and the right chamber dilation and left ventricular hypertrophy were increased dose dependently in both males and females. Non-neoplastic lesions such as bone marrow hypoplasia and fat cell proliferation and neoplastic lesions such as lipomas and liposarcomas observed in males and/or females were considered expected pharmacological effects for this compound. Compared to rosiglitazone, CKD-501 had a 4.4-fold higher margin of safety for tumor induction and did not cause bladder carcinoma as was observed with pioglitazone. PMID:24747398

  13. Neuroprotective effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma agonists in model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Persike, Daniele Suzete; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Tonin, Fernanda S; da Cunha, Claudio; Lucio Boschen, Suelen; Lima, Marcelo M S; Vital, Maria A B F

    2014-11-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists may improve some of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the PPAR-? agonist fenofibrate (100mg/kg) and PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone (30mg/kg) in a rat model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP). Male Wistar rats were pretreated with both drugs for 5 days and received an infusion of MPTP. The experiments were divided into two parts. First, 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery, the animals were submitted to the open field test. On days 21 and 22, the rats were subjected to the forced swim test and two-way active avoidance task. In the second part of the study, 24h after neurotoxin administration, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence detection was used to assess caspase-3 activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Both fenofibrate as pioglitazone protected against hypolocomotion, depressive-like behavior, impairment of learning and memory, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by MPTP, with dopaminergic neuron loss of approximately 33%. Fenofibrate and pioglitazone also protected against the increased activation of caspase-3, an effector enzyme of the apoptosis cascade that is considered one of the pathological features of PD. Thus, PPAR agonists may contribute to therapeutic strategies in PD. PMID:25127682

  14. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Inatsuka, Carol; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Disis, Mary L.; Standish, Leanna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been shown to be partially dependent on functional NK cells. Novel agents that enhance NK cell function could potentially improve the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. We recently identified polysaccharide krestin (PSK), a natural product extracted from medicinal mushroom Trametes Versicolor, as a potent TLR2 agonist. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on human NK cells and the potential of using PSK to enhance HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Experimental Design Human PBMC were stimulated with PSK to evaluate the effect of PSK on NK cell activation, IFN-? production, cytotoxicity, and trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Whether the effect of PSK on NK cells is direct or indirect was also investigated. Then in vivo experiment in neu transgenic mice was carried out to determine the potential of using PSK to augment the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Results PSK activated human NK cells to produce IFN-? and to lyse K562 target cells. PSK also enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Both direct and IL-12-dependent indirect effects seem to be involved in the effect of PSK on NK cells. Oral administration of PSK significantly potentiated the anti-tumor effect of anti-HER2/neu mAb therapy in neu-transgenic mice. Conclusion These results demonstrated that PSK activates human NK cells and potentiates trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Concurrent treatment of PSK and trastuzumab may be a novel way to augment the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. PMID:21918170

  15. The Dectin 1 Agonist Curdlan Regulates Osteoclastogenesis by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells Cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) through Syk Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Toru; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Ryuji; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2014-01-01

    Several immune system cell surface receptors are reported to be associated with osteoclastogenesis. Dectin 1, a lectin receptor for ?-glucan, is found predominantly on cells of the myeloid lineage. In this study, we examined the effect of the dectin 1 agonist curdlan on osteoclastogenesis. In mouse bone marrow cells and dectin 1-overexpressing RAW 264.7 cells (d-RAWs), curdlan suppressed receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and actin ring formation in a dose-dependent manner. This was achieved within non-growth inhibitory concentrations at the early stage. Conversely, curdlan had no effect on macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced differentiation. Furthermore, curdlan inhibited RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) expression, thereby decreasing osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein, cathepsin K, and matrix metallopeptidase 9. Curdlan inhibited RANKL-induced c-fos expression, followed by suppression of NFATc1 autoamplification, without significantly affecting the NF-?B signaling pathway. We also observed that curdlan treatment decreased Syk protein in d-RAWs. Inhibition of the dectin 1-Syk kinase pathway by Syk-specific siRNA or chemical inhibitors suppressed osteoclast formation and NFATc1 expression stimulated by RANKL. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curdlan potentially inhibits osteoclast differentiation, especially NFATc1 expression, and that Syk kinase plays a crucial role in the transcriptional pathways. This suggests that the activation of dectin 1-Syk kinase interaction critically regulates the genes required for osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24821724

  16. Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Smith, Pauline; Ferguson, Alastair V; Richard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    The mechanism and route whereby glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4), access the central nervous system (CNS) to exert their metabolic effects have yet to be clarified. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of two circumventricular organs (CVOs), the area postrema (AP) and the subfornical organ (SFO), in mediating the metabolic and CNS-stimulating effects of Ex-4. We demonstrated that electrolytic ablation of the AP, SFO, or AP + SFO does not acutely prevent the anorectic effects of Ex-4. AP + SFO lesion chronically decreased food intake and body weight and also modulated the effect of Ex-4 on the neuronal activation of brain structures involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucose metabolism. The results of the study also showed that CVO lesions blunted Ex-4-induced expression of c-fos mRNA (a widely used neuronal activity marker) in 1) limbic structures (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala), 2) hypothalamus (paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus), and 3) hindbrain (lateral and lateral-external parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus of the solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla). In conclusion, although the present results do not support a role for the CVOs in the anorectic effect induced by a single injection of Ex-4, they suggest that the CVOs play important roles in mediating the actions of Ex-4 in the activation of CNS structures involved in homeostatic control. PMID:20106992

  17. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the Ki values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg?1, dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg?1) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg?1) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. PMID:26171224

  18. The Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist THC Attenuates Weight Loss in a Rodent Model of Activity-Based Anorexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron NA Verty; Megan J Evetts; Geraldine J Crouch; Iain S McGregor; Aneta Stefanidis; Brian J Oldfield; ANA Verty

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia (ABA). The effect of subchronic (6

  19. Immunosuppressive activity in human embryo growth media is associated with successful pregnancy: Effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratna Bose; Maha M. Mahadevan

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the secretion of embryo-associated immunosuppressor factor (EASF) by preimplantation embryo correlates with pregnancy outcome and whether this relationship is influenced by pretreatment of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in patients undergoingin vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). EASF activity was measured using concanavalin A-induced human lymphocyte proliferation assay in 256

  20. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Potent cAMP Signaling Agonist (-)-Alotaketal A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhua; Yang, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed account of the first total synthesis of alotaketal A, a tricyclic spiroketal sesterterpenoid that potently activates the cAMP signaling pathway, is provided. The synthesis employs both intra- and intermolecular reductive allylation of esters for assembling one of the fragments and their coupling. A Hg(OAc)2-mediated allylic mercuration is used to introduce the C22-hydroxyl group. The subtle influence of substituents over the course of the spiroketalization process is revealed. The synthesis confirms the relative and absolute stereochemistry of (-)-alotaketal A and allows verification of alotaketal A’s effect over cAMP signaling using reporter-based FRET imaging assays with HEK 293T cells. Our studies also revealed alotaketal A’s unique activity in selectively targeting nuclear PKA signaling in living cells. PMID:23584129

  1. Low molecular weight, non-peptidic agonists of TrkA receptor with NGF-mimetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Scarpi, D; Cirelli, D; Matrone, C; Castronovo, G; Rosini, P; Occhiato, E G; Romano, F; Bartali, L; Clemente, A M; Bottegoni, G; Cavalli, A; De Chiara, G; Bonini, P; Calissano, P; Palamara, A T; Garaci, E; Torcia, M G; Guarna, A; Cozzolino, F

    2012-01-01

    Exploitation of the biologic activity of neurotrophins is desirable for medical purposes, but their protein nature intrinsically bears adverse pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we report synthesis and biologic characterization of a novel class of low molecular weight, non-peptidic compounds with NGF (nerve growth factor)-mimetic properties. MT2, a representative compound, bound to Trk (tropomyosin kinase receptor)A chain on NGF-sensitive cells, as well as in cell-free assays, at nanomolar concentrations and induced TrkA autophosphorylation and receptor-mediated internalization. MT2 binding involved at least two amino-acid residues within TrkA molecule. Like NGF, MT2 increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and Akt proteins and production of MKP-1 phosphatase (dual specificity phosphatase 1), modulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, sustained survival of serum-starved PC12 or RDG cells, and promoted their differentiation. However, the intensity of such responses was heterogenous, as the ability of maintaining survival was equally possessed by NGF and MT2, whereas the induction of differentiation was expressed at definitely lower levels by the mimetic. Analysis of TrkA autophosphorylation patterns induced by MT2 revealed a strong tyrosine (Tyr)490 and a limited Tyr785 and Tyr674/675 activation, findings coherent with the observed functional divarication. Consistently, in an NGF-deprived rat hippocampal neuronal model of Alzheimer Disease, MT2 could correct the biochemical abnormalities and sustain cell survival. Thus, NGF mimetics may reveal interesting investigational tools in neurobiology, as well as promising drug candidates. PMID:22764098

  2. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in human testicular cancer and growth inhibition by its agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Hase; Rikio Yoshimura; Makoto Mitsuhashi; Yoshihiro Segawa; Yutaka Kawahito; Seiji Wada; Tatsuya Nakatani; Hajime Sano

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR)-alpha, beta, and gamma in human testicular cancer (TC) and normal testicular (NT) tissues, as well as the effects of the PPAR-gamma ligand. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPAR-gamma is expressed in various cancer tissues and its ligand induces growth arrest of these cancer cells through apoptosis. However, the expression of

  3. APC-independent activation of NK cells by the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin N; Leung, Beatrice; Kwong, Mandy; Zarember, Kol A; Satyal, Sanjeev; Navas, Tony A; Wang, Fay; Godowski, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in the recognition of bacteria and viruses. TLR3 is activated by viral dsRNA and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic mimetic of viral RNA. We show that NK cells, known for their capacity to eliminate virally infected cells, express TLR3 and up-regulate TLR3 mRNA upon poly(I:C) stimulation. Treatment of highly purified NK cells with poly(I:C) significantly augments NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Poly(I:C) stimulation also leads to up-regulation of activation marker CD69 on NK cells. Furthermore, NK cells respond to poly(I:C) by producing proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the antiviral cytokine IFN-gamma. The induction of cytokine production by NK cells was preceded by activation of NF-kappaB. We conclude that the ability of NK cells to directly recognize and respond to viral products is important in mounting effective antiviral responses. PMID:14688319

  4. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-agonist, blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory pathways in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims During the acute phase response, cytokines induce marked alterations in lipid metabolism including an increase in serum triglyceride levels and a decrease in hepatic fatty acid oxidation, in bile acid synthesis, and in high-density lipoprotein levels. Methods Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs: PPAR?, ?/?, and ?) regulate fatty acid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. Proinflammatory profiles including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the important pathological factors in inflammatory responses during the pathological progression of the acute phase response. Lipopolysaccarides (LPS) induced the expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6. LPS-induced inflammation decrease the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), PPAR?/?, PPAR?, and coactivators PPAR? co-activator 1 ? (PGC-1?), PGC-1? messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver of Balb/c mouse. In addition, LPS-induced inflammation diminishes the protein level of PPAR?, PPAR?/?, and PPAR?. Proinflammatory cytokines including TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-6 are the principal reducer of PPARs. However, the knockout mouse model against TNF? and IL-6 does not block decrease of PPARs in serum and liver. The mice were pretreated with fenofibrate at 100 mg/kg for 2 days. Results These treatment protocols increased the amount of PPARs mRNA in the liver. Fenofibrate inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production in the serum and liver. Similar results were obtained when human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to LPS were co-incubated with fenofibrate. LPS-treated HepG2 cells decreased expression of I?B. Moreover, activation of PPARs abrogated LPS-induced degradation of I?B, thus suppressing LPS-induced NF-?B activities. Conclusions Therefore, fenofibrate decreases the expression and secretion of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 via the NF-?B signaling pathway, thus serving as therapeutic targets to attenuate inflammation that is involved in hepatic pathological progression.

  5. [Melatonin receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland and is involved in the regulation of human sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. The melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the sleep-wake regulation. Based on the fact that MT1 receptors are involved in human sleep onset process, melatonin receptor agonists have been developed to treat insomnia. In this article, we first reviewed functions of melatonin receptors with special reference to MT1 and MT2, and properties and clinical application of melatonin receptor agonists as hypnotics. PMID:26065135

  6. In vivo anti-lymphoma activity of an agonistic human recombinant anti-TRAIL-R2 minibody.

    PubMed

    Zauli, Giorgio; Corallini, Federica; Zorzet, Sonia; Grill, Vittorio; Marzari, Roberto; Secchiero, Paola

    2012-02-01

    A new single-chain fragment variable (scFv) to TRAIL-R2 receptor produced as minibody (MB2.23) was characterized for anti-lymphoma activity in vivo. For this purpose, a disseminated lymphoma model was generated by intraperitoneal inoculation of BJAB cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Two weekly injections with MB2.23 (10 mg/kg) were able to significantly increase the median survival time of lymphoma-bearing animals with respect to the vehicle-treated control mice, providing a rationale for further investigating the use of MB2.23 in anticancer therapy. PMID:20714918

  7. Unique In Vitro and In Vivo Thrombopoietic Activities of Ingenol 3,20 Dibenzoate, A Ca++-Independent Protein Kinase C Isoform Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Racke, Frederick K.; Baird, Maureen; Barth, Rolf F.; Huo, Tianyao; Yang, Weilian; Gupta, Nilendu; Weldon, Michael; Rutledge, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Thrombopoiesis following severe bone marrow injury frequently is delayed, thereby resulting in life-threatening thrombocytopenia for which there are limited treatment options. The reasons for these delays in recovery are not well understood. Protein kinase C (PKC) agonists promote megakaryocyte differentiation in leukemia cell lines and primary cells. However, little is known about the megakaryopoietic effects of PKC agonists on primary CD34+ cells grown in culture or in vivo. Here we present evidence that the novel PKC isoform-selective agonist 3,20 ingenol dibenzoate (IDB) potently stimulates early megakaryopoiesis of human CD34+ cells. In contrast, broad spectrum PKC agonists failed to do so. In vivo, a single intraperitoneal injection of IDB selectively increased platelets in mice without affecting hemoglobin or white counts. Finally, IDB strongly mitigated radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, even when administered 24 hours after irradiation. Our data demonstrate that novel PKC isoform agonists such as IDB may represent a unique therapeutic strategy for accelerating the recovery of platelet counts following severe marrow injury. PMID:23284657

  8. Rational Drug Design Leading to the Identification of a Potent 5-HT2C Agonist Lacking 5-HT2B Activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor is an attractive drug target in the quest for new therapeutics to treat a variety of human disorders. We have previously undertaken a structural optimization campaign that has led to some potent and moderately selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists. After expanding our structure–function library, we were able to combine our data sets so as to allow the design of compounds of improved selectivity and potency. We disclose herein the structural optimization of our previously reported 5-HT2B/5-HT2C agonists, which has led to the identification of a highly selective 5-HT2C agonist, (+)-trans-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenyl)cyclopropyl]methylamine hydrochloride, with an EC50 of 55 nM and no detectable agonism at the 5-HT2B receptor. PMID:22778800

  9. Generation, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human anti-human NKG2D monoclonal antibody with dual antagonistic and agonistic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Ka Yin; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Zhang, Hua; Mackall, Crystal L.; Rader, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Summary In humans, NKG2D is an activating receptor on NK cells and a costimulatory receptor on certain T cells and plays a central role in mediating immune responses in autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer. Monoclonal antibodies that antagonize or agonize immune responses mediated by human NKG2D are considered to be of broad and potent therapeutic utility. Nonetheless, monoclonal antibodies to NKG2D that are suitable for clinical investigations have not been published yet. Here we describe the generation, affinity maturation, and characterization of a fully human monoclonal antibody to human NKG2D. Using phage display technology based on a newly generated naïve human Fab library in phage display vector pC3C followed by a tandem chain shuffling process designed for minimal deviation from natural human antibody sequences, we selected a human Fab, designated KYK-2.0, with high specificity and affinity to human NKG2D. KYK-2.0 Fab blocked the binding of the natural human NKG2D ligands MICA, MICB, and ULBP2 as potently as a commercially available mouse anti-human NKG2D monoclonal antibody in IgG format. Conversion of KYK-2.0 Fab to IgG1 resulted in subnanomolar avidity for human NKG2D. KYK-2.0 IgG1 was found to selectively recognize defined subpopulations of human lymphocytes known to express NKG2D, i.e. the majority of human CD8+, CD16+, and CD56+ cells as well as a small fraction of human CD4+ cells. In solution, KYK-2.0 IgG1 interfered with the cytolytic activity of ex vivo expanded human NK cells. By contrast, immobilized KYK-2.0 IgG1 was found to strongly induce human NK cell activation. The dual antagonistic and agonistic activity promises a wide range of therapeutic applications for KYK-2.0 IgG1 and its derivatives. PMID:18809410

  10. GILA WOODPECKER AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GENE L. BRENOWITZ

    ABSTRCT.--Agonistic behavior of Gila Woodpeckers, including vocalizations, visual displays, and other related behaviors, is described. Interactions with both con- and heterospecifics were analyzed by stochastic processes, and it is shown that the timing of aggression toward a species coincided with the time during which that species was searching for nest sites or cavities. The behavior shown toward Flickers and Starlings

  11. Differential Healing After Sirolimus, Paclitaxel and Bare Metal Stent Placement in Combination with PPAR? Agonists: Requirement for mTOR/Akt2 in PPAR? Activation

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Aloke V.; John, Michael; Nakazawa, Gaku; Polavarapu, Rohini; Karmali, Vinit; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Qi; Davis, Talina; Raghunathan, Chitra; Acampado, Eduardo; Ezell, Tucker; Lajoie, Scott; Eppihimer, Michael; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Gold, Herman Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Sirolimus- (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting coronary stents (PES) are used to reduce restenosis, but have different sites of action. The molecular targets of sirolimus (SRL) overlap with those of the PPAR? agonist, rosiglitazone (RSG), but the consequence of this interaction on endothelialization is unknown. Objective Using the New Zealand White rabbit iliac model of stenting, we examined the effects of RSG on SES, PES and bare metal stent (BMS) endothelialization (ENDO). Methods and Results Animals receiving SES, PES, or BMS, and either RSG (3mg/kg/day) or placebo, were sacrificed at 28 days, and arteries evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourteen-day organ culture (OC) and western blotting (WB) of iliac arteries, and tissue culture experiments were conducted. ENDO was significantly reduced by RSG in SES, but not in PES or BMS. OC revealed reduced VEGF in SES receiving RSG compared to RSG animals receiving BMS or PES. Quantitative PCR in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) revealed that SRL (but not paclitaxel) inhibited RSG-induced VEGF transcription. WB demonstrated that inhibition of molecular signaling in SES+RSG treated arteries was similar to findings in HAECs treated with RSG and siRNA to PPAR?, suggesting that SRL inhibits PPAR?. Transfection of HAECs with mTOR shRNA and with Akt2 siRNA significantly inhibited RSG mediated transcriptional upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a PPAR? target gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated SRL interferes with binding of PPAR? to its response elements in HO-1 promoter. Conclusions mTOR/Akt2 is required for optimal PPAR? activation. Patients who receive SES during concomitant RSG treatment may be at risk for delayed stent healing. PMID:19797172

  12. Pepducin targeting the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 acts as a biased agonist favoring activation of the inhibitory G protein

    PubMed Central

    Quoyer, Julie; Janz, Jay M.; Luo, Jiansong; Ren, Yong; Armando, Sylvain; Lukashova, Viktoria; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Carlson, Kenneth E.; Hunt, Stephen W.; Bouvier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Short lipidated peptide sequences derived from various intracellular loop regions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are named pepducins and act as allosteric modulators of a number of GPCRs. Recently, a pepducin selectively targeting the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) was found to be an allosteric agonist, active in both cell-based assays and in vivo. However, the precise mechanism of action of this class of ligands remains poorly understood. In particular, given the diversity of signaling effectors that can be engaged by a given receptor, it is not clear whether pepducins can show biased signaling leading to functional selectivity. To explore the ligand-biased potential of pepducins, we assessed the effect of the CXCR4 selective pepducin, ATI-2341, on the ability of the receptor to engage the inhibitory G proteins (Gi1, Gi2 and Gi3), G13, and ?-arrestins. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors, we found that, in contrast to the natural CXCR4 ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1?, which promotes the engagement of the three Gi subtypes, G13 and the two ?-arrestins, ATI-2341 leads to the engagement of the Gi subtypes but not G13 or the ?-arrestins. Calculation of the transduction ratio for each pathway revealed a strong negative bias of ATI-2341 toward G13 and ?-arrestins, revealing functional selectivity for the Gi pathways. The negative bias toward ?-arrestins results from the reduced ability of the pepducin to promote GPCR kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor. In addition to revealing ligand-biased signaling of pepducins, these findings shed some light on the mechanism of action of a unique class of allosteric regulators. PMID:24309376

  13. The Contribution of Alpha1 and Alpha2 Adrenoceptors in Peripheral Imidazoline and Adrenoceptor Agonist-Induced Nociception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Dogrul; Tayfun Uzbay

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of activation of peripheral adrenoceptors (AR) and imidazoline receptors on nociception and the contribution of -1 and -2 AR receptors in agonist-induced nociception by using the tail-flick test in mice. Clonidine (-2 AR agonist), agmatine (imidazoline receptor and -2 AR agonist), noradrenaline (mixed -1 and -2 AR agonist), phenylephrine (-1 AR agonist), or 0.9% saline was

  14. Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors related to the Drosophila Toll protein. TLR activation alerts the immune system to microbial products and initiates innate and adaptive immune responses. The naturally powerful immunostimulatory property of TLR agonists can be exploited for active immunotherapy against cancer. Antitumor activity has been demonstrated in several cancers, and TLR agonists are now undergoing extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses recent advances in the field and highlights potential opportunities for the clinical development of TLR agonists as single agent immunomodulators, vaccine adjuvants and in combination with conventional cancer therapies. PMID:20563267

  15. BIMT 17, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist, directly activates postsynaptic 5-HT inhibitory responses in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Borsini, F; Ceci, A; Bietti, G; Donetti, A

    1995-09-01

    BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) piperazin-1-yl] ethyl] benzimidazol- [1H]-2-one), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist (see Borsini et al., accompanying paper), in a dose range of 1-10 mg/kg i.v., dose-dependently inhibited the electrical activity of rat medial prefronto-cortical neurons, whereas buspirone, in a dose range of 0.1-1000 micrograms/kg, increased it. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and 1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4-[1-(7-methoxynaphthyl)] piperazine (S 14671) presented biphasic patterns of response; they increased electrical activity at doses in the range of 0.1-10 micrograms/kg and 0.1-3 micrograms/kg i.v. respectively, and reduced it at high doses, 30-300 micrograms/kg and 10-30 micrograms/kg i.v., respectively. The inhibitory effect of BIMT 17 on the firing rate of neurons in the frontal cortex was antagonized by the 5-HT1A antagonists tertatolol and WAY 100135, and was still present after destruction of serotonin (5-HT) containing neuronal endings by the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 150 micrograms/rat, given intraventricularly), which reduced the cortical 5-HT content by 85%. This destruction of 5-HT neurons, while suppressing the ability of 8-OH-DPAT to inhibit the firing rate at high doses, did not change the excitatory action of this compound at low doses. The addition of ritanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, potentiated both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of 8-OH-DPAT on neuronal electrical activity. Direct microiontophoretic application (100 nA/20 s) of 5-HT and BIMT 17, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT, onto medial prefronto-cortical neurons, decreased the firing rate of these neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8584043

  16. Activating persulfate by Fe? coupling with weak magnetic field: performance and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. PMID:24934323

  17. Nociceptive and antinociceptive responses to intrathecally administered nicotinic agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran M. Khan; Hartmut Buerkle; Palmer Taylor; Tony L. Yaksh

    1998-01-01

    Activation of spinal nicotinic receptors evokes a prominent algogenic response. Recently, epibatidine, a potent nicotinic agonist, was found to display an antinociceptive response after systemic administration. To examine the spinal component of this action, effects of three nicotinic agonists—epibatidine, cytisine and nicotine—were given intrathecally (IT) and their antinociceptive activity was subsequently assessed. All agents elicited dose-dependent algogenic activity, characterized at

  18. Knocking on FXR's door: the "hammerhead"-structure series of FXR agonists - amphiphilic isoxazoles with potent in vitro and in vivo activities.

    PubMed

    Gege, Christian; Kinzel, Olaf; Steeneck, Christoph; Schulz, Andreas; Kremoser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) was recently validated in clinical studies using the bile acid analogue Obeticholic Acid (OCA) as an attractive drug target for liver diseases such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) or Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). OCA, however, turned out to induce cholesterol- related side effects upon prolonged treatment and it shows bile acid like pharmacokinetics. The quest for synthetic non-steroidal FXR agonists with general drug likeliness and improved pharmacokinetic and - dynamic properties has started more than a decade ago: The first non-steroidal and selective FXR agonist with decent submicromolar potency, GW4064, was patented in 1998 and published in 2000. Since then, many pharmaceutical companies have taken GW4064 as a structural template for their efforts in identifying novel patentable FXR agonists with the GW-derived trisubstituted isoxazole general structure. However, so far only one compound out of these different series has made it into the early stages of clinical development: The Px-102/Px-104 from Phenex is currently tested in a phase IIa study in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). In this review we try to summarize from the patent and scientific literature the attempts to improve the GW4064 structure into different directions. Furthermore, we suggest directions for further improvements of this special class of synthetic FXR agonists which all display the typical "hammerhead"-conformation in the FXR ligand binding pocket that provides the basis for their impressive in vitro and in vivo potencies. PMID:25388536

  19. Antitumor activity of liposomal ErbB2\\/HER2 epitope peptide-based vaccine constructs incorporating TLR agonists and mannose receptor targeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Sébastien Thomann; Béatrice Heurtault; Steffen Weidner; Mélanie Brayé; Julien Beyrath; Sylvie Fournel; Francis Schuber; Benoît Frisch

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic and molecularly defined constructs containing the minimal components to mimic and amplify the physiological immune response are able to induce an efficient cytotoxic response. In the current study this approach was applied to the development of highly versatile liposomal constructs to co-deliver peptide epitopes in combination with TLR agonists in order to induce a specific anti-tumor cellular immune response

  20. Comparison of the structure-activity relationships of melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists: lengthening the N-acyl side-chain has differing effects on potency on Xenopus melanophores.

    PubMed

    Teh, M T; Sugden, D

    1998-11-01

    The potency and affinity of two series of melatonin receptor ligands were examined using the pigment aggregation response in a clonal line of Xenopus laevis melanophores and radioligand binding assays on native receptors in chicken brain, recombinant human mt1 and MT2 and Xenopus laevis mel1c receptor subtypes. One series was based on melatonin and had a methoxy group at the 5-position of the indole ring, while the other was based on luzindole and lacked this substituent but did have a 2-benzyl moiety; the N-acyl group of each series of analogues was varied from one to five carbon atoms. All analogues in the melatonin series were full agonists in melanophores (pEC50 7.76-10.24), while all compounds in the luzindole series were competitive melatonin antagonists (pA2 5.47-6.60). With the agonist series, increasing the N-acyl side-chain from one to three carbon atoms was well tolerated in both the functional and binding assays, but further lengthening of the side-chain progressively and dramatically reduced potency and affinity. In contrast, for the antagonist series neither potency nor binding affinity changed substantially with the length of the N-acyl chain, except at the recombinant MT2 subtype where two of the analogues had a lower affinity. In binding assays, three of the five antagonists were MT2-selective; the most selective analogue (N-pentanoyl 2-benzyltryptamine, MT2 pKi 8.03) having 89- and 229-fold higher affinity than at mt1 or mel1c receptor subtypes. The different structure-activity relationships of these receptor agonists and antagonists is discussed with regard to the possible binding sites of agonists and antagonists within the receptor protein. PMID:9840420

  1. Anti-nociception mediated by a ? opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a ? receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the ? (MOP), ? (DOP), ? (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. KEY RESULTS Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg?1), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg?1) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg?1) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg?1) and diazepam (1 mg·kg?1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24923251

  2. Activation of monocytes by interferon-gamma has no effect on the level or affinity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-phosphate oxidase and on agonist-dependent superoxide formation.

    PubMed Central

    Thelen, M; Wolf, M; Baggiolini, M

    1988-01-01

    Human monocytes purified by elutriation were cultured for 3 d in Teflon bags with or without human recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN gamma). The cells were then collected and used in suspension to determine the rate of stimulus-dependent superoxide or hydrogen peroxide formation as a measure of the NADPH-oxidase. The treatment with IFN gamma increased this rate two- to threefold when phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was used as the stimulus. By contrast, no IFN gamma-dependent increase in superoxide production was observed when the cells were stimulated with different concentrations of the receptor agonist N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe) alone or in combination with another receptor agonist, platelet-activating factor (PAF). At optimum concentrations, f-Met-Leu-Phe elicited rates of superoxide formation that could not be exceeded under other stimulatory conditions including PMA after treatment with IFN gamma. It thus appears that f-Met-Leu-Phe can lead to maximum activation of the NADPH-oxidase, and that this response is not influenced by IFN gamma. Treatment with IFN gamma also failed to affect the affinity of PMA- or f-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated oxidase for NADPH, the Km values being 30 to 40 microM under all conditions. IFN gamma did not alter the cellular levels of cytochrome b558, as measured by low-temperature spectroscopy, and protein kinase C, as measured by [3H]phorbol dibutyrate binding, and did not appreciably influence the stimulus-dependent increase of cytosolic free calcium. These results indicate that activation of human mononuclear phagocytes by IFN gamma does not affect the level and the kinetic properties of NADPH-oxidase or its activation by receptor agonists. They confirm, however, that IFN gamma enhances the respiratory burst response to PMA. PMID:2838524

  3. New 9- or 10-arylpiperazinoalkyl substituted pyrimido- or diazepino[2,1- f ]purines with partial or full 5HT 1A agonistic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Pawlowski; Jacek Katlabi; Anna Drabczynska; Beata Duszynska; Sijka Charakchieva-Minol; Anna Deren-Wesolek; Ewa Tatarczynska; Ewa Chojnacka-Wójcik; Maria J Mokrosz; Andrzej J Bojarski

    1999-01-01

    5HT1A and 5HT2A receptor affinities of several ?-(3'-chloro- or 2'-methoxyphenyl)-piperazinopropyl derivatives of pyrimido[2,1-f]purines or 1,3-diazepino[2,1-f]purines are reported. Some behavioral models demonstrated that 1,3-dimethyl-9-{3-[4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl}-2,4-dioxo-1,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydropyrimido[2,1-f]purine 5b and 1,3-dimethyl-9-{3-[4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl}-2,4,8-trioxo-1,3-dihydro-9H-pyrimido[2,1-f]purine 8b, may be classified as partial agonist and a full agonist, respectively of pre- and post-synaptic 5HT1A receptors.

  4. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy on Brain Activation Pattern in a Man With Pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginie Moulier; Véronique Fonteille; Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac; Bernard Cordier; Sophie Baron-Laforêt; Emeline Boriasse; Emmanuel Durand; Serge Stoléru

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, such as leuprorelin, are recommended in the patients with pedophilia at highest risk of offending. However, the cerebral mechanisms of the effects of these testosterone-decreasing drugs are poorly known. This study aimed to identify changes caused by leuprorelin in a pedophilic patient’s brain responses to pictures representing children. Clinical, endocrine, and fMRI investigations were done of

  5. A continued saga of Boc5, the first non-peptidic glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with in vivo activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min He; Ni Guan; Wei-wei Gao; Qing Liu; Xiao-yan Wu; Da-wei Ma; Da-fang Zhong; Guang-bo Ge; Chuan Li; Xiao-yan Chen; Ling Yang; Jia-yu Liao; Ming-wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy presents a promising option for treating type 2 diabetes. However, there are several limitations relative to the peptidic GLP-1 mimetics currently on the market or under development. This concern has led to a continued interest in the search for non-peptidic agonists for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Here, we briefly review the discovery, characterization and current status of

  6. SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, prevents cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death via suppression of MAPK pathway activation and glutamate receptor expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuerhong Tuerxun; Tadahiro Numakawa; Naoki Adachi; Emi Kumamaru; Hiromi Kitazawa; Motoshige Kudo; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2010-01-01

    Many studies suggest that antidepressants act as neuroprotective agents in the central nervous system (CNS), though the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of SA4503, which is a sigma-1 receptor agonist and a novel antidepressant candidate, on oxidative stress-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons. Exposure of the neurons to H2O2

  7. Modification of TLR-induced activation of human dendritic cells by type I IFN: synergistic interaction with TLR4 but not TLR3 agonists.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josef; Tough, David F

    2006-07-01

    Upon detection of direct and indirect signs of infection, dendritic cells (DC) undergo functional changes that modify their ability to elicit immune responses. Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta), which includes a large family of closely related infection-inducible cytokines, represents one indirect signal that can act as a DC stimulus. We have investigated the ability of IFN-alpha/beta subtypes to affect DC function and to influence DC responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (i.e., direct infection-associated signals). Subtle differences were observed among 15 subtypes of IFN-alpha/beta in the ability to stimulate expression of maturation markers and chemokines by human monocyte-derived DC, with IFN-omega being the most unique in its effects. Pre-treatment with IFN-alpha/beta did not alter the ability of DC to mature in response to subsequent contact with TLR agonists, but did modulate their secretion of chemokines. Conversely, IFN-alpha/beta was shown to act synergistically with TLR4 but not TLR3 agonists for the induction of maturation and chemokine production when DC were exposed to IFN-alpha/beta and TLR ligands simultaneously. Taken together, these results indicate a complex role for IFN-alpha/beta in regulating DC function during the course an infection, which varies according to IFN-alpha/beta subtype and the timing of exposure to other stimuli. PMID:16783851

  8. Activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of the mGlu5 antagonist MTEP and the mGlu7 agonist AMN082 in the FST in rats.

    PubMed

    Pa?ucha-Poniewiera, Agnieszka; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Pilc, Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressive patients. It has been proposed that these effects are related to changes in synaptogenesis in the mechanism involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Similar mechanisms have been proposed for a group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor antagonist, LY341495. We aimed to investigate whether other mGlu receptor ligands that produce antidepressant-like effects, namely, the mGlu5 antagonist MTEP and the mGlu7 agonist AMN082, induce the activation of mTOR signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats. AMN082 administered 60 min before the test increased the levels of pmTOR and pp70S6K, and the mTORC1 antagonist rapamycin reversed AMN082-induced changes in the forced swim test (FST) in rats. Furthermore, AMN082 administered 23 h before the decapitation of the rats increased the levels of synapsin I and GluR1, although it did not produce any effect in the FST at the same time point. However, MTEP induced a rapid but unsustained antidepressant-like effect, which was not related to the activation of the mTOR cascade. Finally, the antidepressant-like effects of MTEP or AMN082 were not antagonized by NBQX. In summary, the antidepressant-like activity of MTEP did not depend on the activation of mTOR signaling. However, we observed a unique feature of the mechanism of AMN082. The drug stimulated the mTOR signaling pathway and synaptic protein levels (like ketamine), while it did not induce a sustained antidepressant effect and its action was not directly dependent on AMPA receptor activation (as in classic antidepressants (ADs)). PMID:24631968

  9. Detection of weak forces based on noise-activated switching in bistable optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, Samuel; Bruder, Christoph; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    We propose to use cavity optomechanical systems in the regime of optical bistability for the detection of weak harmonic forces. Due to the optomechanical coupling an external force on the mechanical oscillator modulates the resonance frequency of the cavity and consequently the switching rates between the two bistable branches. A large difference in the cavity output fields then leads to a strongly amplified homodyne signal. We determine the switching rates as a function of the cavity detuning from extensive numerical simulations of the stochastic master equation as appropriate for continuous homodyne detection. We develop a two-state rate equation model that quantitatively describes the slow switching dynamics. This model is solved analytically in the presence of a weak harmonic force to obtain approximate expressions for the power gain and signal-to-noise ratio that we then compare to force detection with an optomechanical system in the linear regime.

  10. Thermotolerant Campylobacter with no or weak catalase activity isolated from dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Sandstedt; Jan Ursing; Mats Walder

    1983-01-01

    ThermotolerantCampylobacter strains isolated from dog feces were characterized by phenotypical tests, DNA base composition, and DNA-DNA-hybridization. Out of 98 strains, 63 were catalase negative or weakly reacting (CNW); they were found in diarrheic as well as in healthy dogs. The CNW strains were all nalidixic-acid sensitive, hippurate negative, and grew at 42°C but not at 25°C. Seven strains were further

  11. Agonist and antagonist effects of cytisine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Radchenko, Elena V; Dravolina, Olga A; Bespalov, Anton Y

    2015-08-01

    Varenicline, the most successful smoking cessation aid, is a selective partial agonists at ?4?2* nicotinic receptors. Its efficacy is likely to be shared by other drugs with similar receptor action, including cytisine. The present study aimed to characterize behavioral effects of cytisine compared with nicotine using locomotor activity tests, intracranial self-stimulation of ventral tegmental area (discrete-trial threshold current intensity titration procedure), drug discrimination (0.6 mg/kg nicotine from vehicle), physical dependence (osmotic minipumps delivering 6 mg/kg/day of nicotine) and intravenous nicotine self-administration (0.01 mg/kg per infusion) in adult Wistar rats. Cytisine (1-3 mg/kg) partially substituted for nicotine and at the highest dose tended to antagonize nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects. Nicotine (0.05-0.4 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), lowered ICSS thresholds and cytisine dose-dependently reversed effects of nicotine. Nicotine (0.15-0.6 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), stimulated locomotor activity and cytisine (3 mg/kg) fully reversed these effects of nicotine. Acute pretreatment with nicotine (0.15-0.6 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), reinstated extinguished nicotine self-administration. Continuous infusion of nicotine induced physical dependence, as indicated by reduced rates of food-reinforced responding induced by a challenge dose of mecamylamine. At the highest tested dose (3 mg/kg), cytisine tended to reduce response rates irrespective of whether the rats were continuously exposed to nicotine or saline. Cytisine behaves like a weak partial agonist, mimicking effects of nicotine to a limited degree. Although cytisine reversed several effects of nicotine, it seemed to have a reduced potential to produce withdrawal signs in nicotine-dependent subjects. PMID:25839895

  12. The sigma-1 receptor agonist 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects against newborn excitotoxic brain injury by stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro and inhibiting microglial activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wegleiter, Karina; Hermann, Martin; Posod, Anna; Wechselberger, Karina; Stanika, Ruslan I; Obermair, Gerald J; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Urbanek, Martina; Griesmaier, Elke

    2014-11-01

    Premature birth represents a clinical situation of risk for brain injury. The diversity of pathophysiological processes complicates efforts to find effective therapeutic strategies. Excitotoxicity is one important factor in the pathogenesis of preterm brain injury. The observation that sigma-1 receptor agonists possess neuroprotective potential, at least partly mediated by a variety of anti-excitotoxic mechanisms, has generated great interest in targeting those receptors to counteract brain injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the highly specific sigma-1 receptor agonist, 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) to protect against excitotoxic developmental brain injury in vivo and in vitro. Primary hippocampal neurons were pre-treated with PPBP before glutamate was applied and subsequently analyzed for cell death (PI/calcein AM), mitochondrial activity (TMRM) and morphology of the neuronal network (WGA) using confocal microscopy. Using an established neonatal mouse model we also determined whether systemic injection of PPBP significantly attenuates excitotoxic brain injury. PPBP significantly reduced neuronal cell death in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to glutamate. Neurons treated with PPBP showed a less pronounced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and fewer morphological changes after glutamate exposure. A single intraperitoneal injection of PPBP given one hour after the excitotoxic insult significantly reduced microglial cell activation and lesion size in cortical gray and white matter. The present study provides strong support for the consideration of sigma-1 receptor agonists as a candidate therapy for the reduction of neonatal excitotoxic brain lesions and might offer a novel target to counteract developmental brain injury. PMID:25111531

  13. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by benzazepine D-1 dopamine agonists with varying efficacies in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat—relationship to circling behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanna K. Gnanalingham; A. Jackie Hunter; Peter Jenner; C. David Marsden

    1995-01-01

    The ability of benzazepine D-1 dopamine agonists with varying efficacies in stimulating adenylate cyclase and to induce contralateral circling was investigated in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. In the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats, the benzazepines SKF 38393 (7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine), SKF 75670 (3-CH3 analogue), SKF 80723 (6-Br analogue), SKF 83959 (6-Cl, 3-CH3, 3?-CH3 analogue), SKF 83565 (6-Cl, 3-CH3,

  14. Topical Application of a Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Agonist Suppresses Phorbol Ester-Induced Acute and Chronic Inflammation and Has Cancer Chemopreventive Activity in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Jesus A.; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C.; Bradish, Joshua R.; Richey, Justin D.; Warren, Simon J.; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Konger, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development. PMID:25375862

  15. Indole alkaloids of a Thai medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, that has opioid agonistic effect in guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Horie, Syunji; Koyama, Fumi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Ishikawa, Hayato; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2005-03-01

    Recently, we found that mitragynine, a major constituent of Mitragyna speciosa, has an opioid agonistic activity, but its weak potency could not explain the opium-like effect of this plant. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract of the leaves of M. speciosa was carried out to search for potent opioid agonists other than mitragynine. Opioid agonistic activities were evaluated using twitch contraction induced by electrical stimulation in guinea-pig ileum. The crude extract of M. speciosa inhibited the twitch contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was reversed by naloxone. The opioid effect was detected only in the crude base fraction, which was followed by the isolation of five indole alkaloids. Among these alkaloids, 7-hydroxymitragynine showed the most potent opioid effect on the electrically-stimulated contraction (pD (2) = 8.38 +/- 0.12). The potency, calculated using pD (2) values, was 30- and 17-fold higher than that of mitragynine and morphine, respectively. Antagonism of naloxone on concentration-response curves for 7-hydroxymitragynine confirmed its opioid effect. These results suggest that the opioid effect of M. speciosa is mostly based on the activity of 7-hydroxymitragynine. PMID:15770543

  16. Agonistic Properties of Cannabidiol at 5HT1a Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan B. Russo; Andrea Burnett; Brian Hall; Keith K. Parker

    2005-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, biologically active, but psycho-inactive component of cannabis. In this cell culture-based report, CBD is shown to displace the agonist, [3H]8-OH-DPAT from the cloned human 5-HT1a receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the major psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not displace agonist from the receptor in the same micromolar concentration range. In signal

  17. TARP Auxiliary Subunits Switch AMPA Receptor Antagonists into Partial Agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Menuz; Robert M. Stroud; Roger A. Nicoll; Franklin A. Hays

    2008-01-01

    Quinoxalinedione compounds such as 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) are the most commonly used a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists. However, we find that in the presence of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which are AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits, CNQX acts as a partial agonist. CNQX induced small depolarizing currents in neurons of the central nervous system, and reconstitution of this agonist activity

  18. TARP Auxiliary Subunits Switch AMPA Receptor Antagonists into Partial Agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Menuz; Robert M. Stroud; Roger A. Nicoll; Franklin A. Hays

    2007-01-01

    Quinoxalinedione compounds such as 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) are the most commonly used alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists. However, we find that in the presence of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which are AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits, CNQX acts as a partial agonist. CNQX induced small depolarizing currents in neurons of the central nervous system, and reconstitution of this agonist activity

  19. Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ivone; Grushko, Julia S.; Golebiewska, Urszula; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; Gupta, Achla; Heimann, Andrea S.; Ferro, Emer S.; Scarlata, Suzanne; Fricker, Lloyd D.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2009-01-01

    Hemopressin (Hp), a 9-residue ?-hemoglobin-derived peptide, was previously reported to function as a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist (1). In this study, we report that mass spectrometry (MS) data from peptidomics analyses of mouse brain extracts identified N-terminally extended forms of Hp containing either three (RVD-Hp?) or two (VD-Hp?) additional amino acids, as well as a ?-hemoglobin-derived peptide with sequence similarity to that of hemopressin (VD-Hp?). Characterization of the ?-hemoglobin-derived peptides using binding and functional assays shows that in contrast to Hp, which functions as a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, both RVD-Hp? and VD-Hp? function as agonists. Studies examining the increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 levels or release of intracellular Ca2+ indicate that these peptides activate a signal transduction pathway distinct from that activated by the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, or the classic CB1 agonist, Hu-210. This finding suggests an additional mode of regulation of endogenous cannabinoid receptor activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the CB1 receptor is involved in the integration of signals from both lipid- and peptide-derived signaling molecules.—Gomes, I., Grushko, J. S., Golebiewska, U., Hoogendoorn, S., Gupta, A., Heimann, A. S., Ferro, E. S., Scarlata, S., Fricker, L. D., Devi, L. A. Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors. PMID:19380512

  20. Discovery of potent ?1L-adrenoceptor agonists: Design and synthesis of bicyclic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Okano, Tsubasa; Horiuchi, Rie; Hareyama, Nana; Amikura, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Yoshitaka; Yagi, Mai; Serizawa, Kanako; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to create a novel and potent ?1L-adrenoceptor agonist because such agonists are possible drug candidates for stress urinary incontinence. We used ligand-based drug design and evaluated the ?1L-adrenoceptor agonist activity of the designed compounds. Among them, tetrahydroquinoline derivative 50 showed the most potent activity (ratio of noradrenaline half maximal effective concentration, 0.0028) and effectively induced contraction of rat bladder neck. PMID:26087939

  1. Important pharmacophoric features of pan PPAR agonists: Common chemical feature analysis and virtual screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep Sundriyal; Prasad V. Bharatam

    2009-01-01

    HipHop program was used to generate a common chemical feature hypothesis for pan Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists. The top scoring hypothesis (hypo-1) was found to differentiate the pan agonists (actives) from subtype-specific and dual PPAR agonists (inactives). The importance of individual features in hypo-1 was assessed by deleting a particular feature to generate a new hypothesis and observing its

  2. Induction of hypothermia as a model of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-mediated activity in the rat: a pharmacological characterization of the actions of novel agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Rivet, J M; Canton, H; Le Marouille-Girardon, S; Gobert, A

    1993-03-01

    In this study, we examined the localization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors mediating hypothermia in the rat, evaluated the pharmacological specificity of this response and examined the influence of a series of novel 5-HT1A receptor ligands upon core temperature. Administered s.c., 8-hydroxy-(2-di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), an agonist at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, elicited pronounced hypothermia. In contrast, BMY 7378, which shows low efficacy at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors but high efficacy at presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, elicited only mild hypothermia. Similarly, 8-OH-DPAT was more efficacious than BMY 7378 in eliciting corticosterone secretion, a response mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, whereas BMY 7378 was as efficacious as 8-OH-DPAT in inhibiting striatal accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan, a response mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. These data suggest, by analogy, that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors mediate hypothermia, an interpretation supported by the observation that destruction of central 5-HT neurons with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine failed to reduce 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia (DIH). Agonists at 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT2 and/or 5-HT3 receptors did not elicit hypothermia, and drugs releasing 5-HT elicited hyperthermia. In contrast, DIH was fully mimicked by the novel 5-HT1A receptors agonists, eltoprazine, WY 48,723, MDL 72832, tandospirone, S 14671, S 14506 and WY 50,324, whereas the novel partial agonist, zalospirone, was less efficacious. DIH was blocked by (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-pindolol and the novel beta-blocker, (-)-tertatolol, which also has high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors; in distinction, betaxolol and ICI 118,551, antagonists at beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors, respectively, were inactive. Spiperone, NAN-190 and BMY 7378 also inhibited DIH whereas ritanserin, SCH 39166, raclopride and prazosin, antagonists at 5-HT2 receptors, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and alpha-1 adrenoceptors, respectively, were inactive. The novel 5-HT1A antagonists, WAY 100,135, MDL 73005 EF and (very potently) SDZ 216-525 all blocked DIH. Potency for induction of hypothermia and inhibition of DIH correlated well with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites. In conclusion, hypothermia is a highly specific and sensitive response to activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Furthermore, DIH is inhibited by their selective blockade. At postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors mediating hypothermia, eltoprazine, WY 48,723, MDL 72832 and tandospirone are agonists, zalospirone is a partial agonist and (-)-tertatolol, WAY 100,135, MDL 73005 EF and SDZ 216-525 are antagonists. PMID:8450471

  3. Immunity, Vol. 13, 475484, October, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Conversion of a T Cell Antagonist into an Agonist

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Signaling This view is supported by the data of Lyons et al. (1996), in which the binding of the mouse TCR 2B4 to the mouse class II MHC I-Ek complexed with six altered peptides (one agonist, two weak ligand disso-alanine (P6A), an antagonist, is nearly identical to the ciating the fastest and the agonist

  4. In pursuit of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation: Carbon analogs of (?)-cytisine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jotham W. Coe; Michael G. Vetelino; Crystal G. Bashore; Michael C. Wirtz; Paige R. Brooks; Eric P. Arnold; Lorraine A. Lebel; Carol B. Fox; Steven B. Sands; Thomas I. Davis; David W. Schulz; Hans Rollema; F. David Tingley; Brian T. O’Neill

    2005-01-01

    The preparation and biological activity of analogs of (?)-cytisine, an ?4?2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, are discussed. All-carbon-containing phenyl ring replacements of the pyridone ring system, generated via Heck cyclization protocols, exhibited weaker affinity and lower efficacy partial agonist profiles relative to (?)-cytisine. In vivo, selected compounds exhibit lower efficacy partial agonist profiles than that of (?)-cytisine.

  5. Effects of the PPAR? agonist WY-14,643 on plasma lipids, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes in a marine flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2015-07-01

    Fibrates and other lipid regulator drugs are widespread in the aquatic environment including estuaries and coastal zones, but little is known on their chronic effects on non-target organisms as marine fish. In the present study, turbot juveniles were exposed to the PPAR? model agonist WY-14,643 for 21 days by repeated injections at the concentrations of 5mg/kg (lo-WY) and 50mg/kg (hi-WY), and samples taken after 7 and 21 days. Enzyme activity and mRNA expression of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase in the liver were analyzed as first response, which validated the experiment by demonstrating interactions with the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress pathways in the hi-WY treatment. In order to get mechanistic insights, alterations of plasma lipids (free cholesterol, FC; HDL associated cholesterol, C-HDL; triglycerides, TG; non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA) and hepatic mRNA expression of 17 genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were studied. The exposure to hi-WY reduced the quantity of plasma FC, C-HDL, and NEFA. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression were higher in hi-WY, and indicated an increased formation of VLDL particles and energy mobilization from liver. It is speculated that energy depletion by PPAR? agonists may contribute to a higher susceptibility to environmental stressors. PMID:25974001

  6. TARP auxiliary subunits switch AMPA receptor antagonists into partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Menuz, Karen; Stroud, Robert M; Nicoll, Roger A; Hays, Franklin A

    2007-11-01

    Quinoxalinedione compounds such as 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) are the most commonly used alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists. However, we find that in the presence of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which are AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits, CNQX acts as a partial agonist. CNQX induced small depolarizing currents in neurons of the central nervous system, and reconstitution of this agonist activity required coexpression of TARPs. A crystal structure of CNQX bound to the TARP-less AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain showed that, although CNQX induces partial domain closure, this movement is not transduced into linker separation, suggesting that TARPs may increase agonist efficacy by strengthening the coupling between domain closure and channel opening. Our results demonstrate that the presence of an auxiliary subunit can determine whether a compound functions as an agonist or antagonist. PMID:17975069

  7. Weakly cytokinin-active diphenylurea derivatives influence adventitious rooting in M26 Malus pumila microcuttings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ricci; A. Carra; C. A. Maggiali; M. Incerti; C. Branca

    2003-01-01

    The cytokinin activity of 8 previously unstudied diphenylurea (DPU)derivatives, differing in either type or position of the substituents of thephenyl rings, was investigated. Cytokinin activity was assessed using thebetacyanin (so-called amaranthin) accumulation test and the tomato regenerationtest. We also assayed their capacity to enhance adventitious root formation inmicrocuttings of apple rootstock M26 and in a tomato cotyledon rooting test,while their

  8. Antifertility effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists.

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Bélanger, A; Kelly, P A; Séguin, C; Cusan, L; Lefebvre, F A; Reeves, J J; Lemay, A; Faure, N; Gourdeau, Y; Raynaud, J P

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms responsible for the antifertility effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. Large doses of the LHRH agonist LHRH-EA lead to a marked reduction of testicular and secondary sex organ weight, LH receptor levels, and plasma testosterone concentration. A marked inhibition of basal testicular and testosterone concentrations is obtained after daily administration of the LHRH agonists at doses greater than 10 ng. Treatment with low doses of the LHRH agonist can lead to an increased steroidogenic response to LH. Treatment with low doses of LHRH agonists could stimulate Leydig cell function while high doses are history. A study of the effects of longterm treatment with an LHRH agonsist on spermatogenesis revelaed that testis, prostate, and seminal vesicle weight decreased and plasma LH and FSH levels increased over 12 weeks. Comparison of the effects of increasing doses of LHRH agonist on testicular and ovarian gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in male rats indicates that single or repeated administration of LHRH agonists can lead to loss of testicular LH receptors in the absence of the pituitary gland. The loss of ovarian gonadotropin receptors in female rats is also investigated. Antifertility effects of LHRH ethylamide are accompanied by a marked loss of LH/hCG and FSH receptors in ovarian tissue. The injection of 1,3, or 10 ng LHRH-EA in intact rats has no significant effect on ovarian LH receptor levels. A study of the direct action of LHRH agonists at the ovarian level demonstrates a close relationship between the binding activity of a large series of LHRH agonists and antagonists in the anterior pituitary gland and the ovary. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis in man by treatment with a potent LHRH agonist is also demonstrated. Intranasal administration of LHRH ethylamide has luteolytic effects in normal women. Daily administration of LHRH-EA inhibited ovulation in all but 2 of 89 treatment cycles in the normal women studied. These studies demonstrate a luteolytic action of LHRH and its agonists in women. LRHR agonists may be used as a new and near-physiological approach to contraception as inhibitors of ovulation or for the induction of menses and as an alternative to the postcoital estrogenic pill. PMID:6275404

  9. QSAR and mode of action studies of insecticidal ecdysone agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fujita; Y. Nakagawa

    2007-01-01

    A series of our SAR and QSAR studies of synthetic moulting hormone agonists, dibenzoylhydrazines (DBH), exhibiting insecticidal\\/larvicidal activity are reviewed in this article. We prepared a number of analogues where various substituents are introduced into the two benzene rings of DBH and measured their biological activity using various biological systems. Larvicidal activity was against larvae of the rice stem borer

  10. Modulation of PPAR subtype selectivity. Part 2: Transforming PPAR?/? dual agonist into ? selective PPAR agonist through bioisosteric modification.

    PubMed

    Zaware, Pandurang; Shah, Shailesh R; Pingali, Harikishore; Makadia, Pankaj; Thube, Baban; Pola, Suresh; Patel, Darshit; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Suthar, Dinesh; Shah, Maanan; Jamili, Jeevankumar; Sairam, Kalapatapu V V M; Giri, Suresh; Patel, Lala; Patel, Harilal; Sudani, Hareshkumar; Patel, Hiren; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj; Bahekar, Rajesh

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of oxime containing benzyl-1,3-dioxane-r-2-carboxylic acid derivatives (6a-k) were designed as selective PPAR? agonists, through bioisosteric modification in the lipophilic tail region of PPAR?/? dual agonist. Some of the test compounds (6a, 6b, 6c and 6f) showed high selectivity towards PPAR? over PPAR? in vitro. Further, highly potent and selective PPAR? agonist 6c exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in vivo, along with its improved pharmacokinetic profile. Favorable in-silico interaction of 6c with PPAR? binding pocket correlate its in vitro selectivity profile toward PPAR? over PPAR?. Together, these results confirm discovery of novel series of oxime based selective PPAR? agonists for the safe and effective treatment of various metabolic disorders. PMID:21195611

  11. Activity of dietary fatty acids on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterisation of pinolenic acid as a dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist with potential effect against metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Watterson, Kenneth R; Stocker, Claire J; Sokol, Elena; Jenkins, Laura; Simon, Katharina; Grundmann, Manuel; Petersen, Rasmus K; Wargent, Edward T; Hudson, Brian D; Kostenis, Evi; Ejsing, Christer S; Cawthorne, Michael A; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2015-06-01

    Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration-response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases. PMID:25916176

  12. Stimulation of the Weak ATPase Activity of Human Hsp90 by a Client Protein

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    , Hip and Hop (Hsp-interacting and Hsp-organising proteins, respectively), as well as high molecular protein; Hip, Hsp-interacting protein; Hop, Hsp70-organising protein; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator of the co-chaperones Hop, FKBP59 and p23 on the basal ATPase activity as well as the client protein

  13. Discriminative stimulus properties of the muscarinic receptor agonists Lu 26-046 and O-Me-THPO in rats: evidence for involvement of different muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Arnt, J; Lembøl, H L; Meier, E; Pedersen, H

    1992-07-21

    The discriminative cues induced by the muscarinic receptor agonists Lu 26-046 ((-)-7-methyl-3(2-propynyloxy)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo [4,5-c]pyridine ) and O-Me-THPO (3-methoxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine) were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for the binding profiles of these agonists at central muscarinic receptors and with results concerning their functional effects at peripheral muscarinic receptors in vitro. Lu 26-046 had preferential affinity for M1 versus M2 receptors (Ki index [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB/[3H]pirenzepine 4.2) and had partial agonistic activity at M1 and M2 receptors in rat superior cervical ganglion and guinea pig left atrim, respectively. A weak antagonistic effect at M3 receptors in guinea pig ileum was observed. O-Me-THPO had non-selective agonistic effects at peripheral M1, M2 and M3 receptors and had a slight preference for central M2 receptors in binding experiments (M2/M1 index 0.31). Lu 26-046 dose dependently substituted for Lu 26-046 and partially substituted for O-Me-THPO in rats trained to discriminate Lu 26-046 and O-Me-THPO from saline, respectively. The (+)-enantiomer of Lu 26-046, Lu 26-047, had weak partial M1 agonistic activity and M2/M3 antagonistic effects at peripheral receptors. Lu 26-047 also had a high M2/M1 index (9.3) in binding experiments. Lu 26-047 substituted for Lu 26-046, but preferentially inhibited the effect of O-Me-THPO. Pilocarpine had a preferential effect in Lu 26-046-trained rats, while oxotremorine and arecoline had preferential effects in O-Me-THPO-trained rats. Large increases in latency times or a disruption of responding was generally observed. These compounds were full agonists at peripheral M1, M2 and M3 receptors. The muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine antagonized the effect of O-Me-THPO and partially inhibited the effect of Lu 26-046. Scopolamine partially substituted for Lu 26-046. The quaternary muscarinic receptor agonist N-methyl atropine had no effect, indicating that the cues are mediated by central muscarinic receptors. It is suggested that the discriminative cues of Lu 26-046 and O-Me-THPO are preferentially mediated by central M1 (partial) and M2 receptor stimulation, respectively. The role of central M3 receptors is not known. PMID:1397027

  14. Weakly polarized microwave sources in active regions prior to large X-ray flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Uralov; R. A. Sych; V. L. Shchepkina; G. N. Zubkova; G. Ya. Smolkov

    1998-01-01

    The data set archive of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope was used to synthesize two-dimensional images of more than 50 active solar regions where X-ray flares occurred. Reasonably bright microwave sources with a relatively low level of circular polarization were found to be present in 2\\/3 of cases prior (days, hours) to the flare. Such characteristics are normally inherent in sources

  15. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of amide derivatives of (4,4-difluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-1-benzazepin-5-ylidene)acetic acid as selective arginine vasopressin V2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Issei; Koshio, Hiroyuki; Kuramochi, Takahiro; Saitoh, Chikashi; Yanai-Inamura, Hiroko; Kitada-Nozawa, Chika; Yamamoto, Eisaku; Yatsu, Takeyuki; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi

    2009-04-15

    A series of (4,4-difluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-1-benzazepin-5-ylidene)acetamide derivatives was synthesized, and their structure-activity relationships were examined in order to identify potent and selective arginine vasopressin V(2) receptor agonists. Attempts to substitute other chemical groups in place of the 2-pyridilmethyl moiety of 1a led to the discovery that potent V(2) binding affinity could be obtained with a wide range of functional groups. This structural tolerance allowed for the manipulation of other attributes, such as selectivity against V(1a) receptor affinity or avoidance of the undesirable inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP), without losing potent affinity for the V(2) receptor. Some representative compounds obtained in this study were also found to decrease urine volume in awake rats. PMID:19321349

  16. ADRP\\/ADFP and Mal1 expression are increased in macrophages treated with TLR agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Feingold; Mahmood R. Kazemi; Amy L. Magra; Carol M. McDonald; Lisa G. Chui; Judy K. Shigenaga; Sophie M. Patzek; Zoe W. Chan; Constantine Londos; Carl Grunfeld

    2010-01-01

    Activation of macrophages by TLR agonists enhances foam cell formation, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We examined the effects of TLR agonists on ADRP\\/ADFP, a protein associated with forming lipid droplets, and Mal1 a fatty acid-binding protein, in two mouse macrophage cell lines and human monocytes. Low doses of LPS, a TLR4 agonist increased both mRNA and protein

  17. Effects of salvinorin A on locomotor sensitization to D2\\/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Beerepoot; Vincent Lam; Alice Luu; Bernice Tsoi; Daniel Siebert; Henry Szechtman

    2008-01-01

    Locomotor sensitization induced by the dopamine agonist quinpirole can be potentiated by co-treatment with the synthetic kappa opioid agonist U69593. The identification of salvinorin A, an active component of the psychotropic sage Salvia divinorum, as a structurally different agonist of kappa-opioid receptors raised the question of whether this compound would similarly potentiate sensitization to quinpirole. Rats were co-treated with 0.5mg\\/kg

  18. Agonistic behaviour and electric signalling in a mormyrid fish, Gnathonemus petersii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Kramer; Richard Bauer

    1976-01-01

    1.Agonistic motor behaviour and concurrent electric signalling were studied in individually held, residential Gnathonemus petersii. Aggressive behaviour was elicited by presenting a specimen of a closely related species, Mormyrus rume, for 3 min a day.2.The principal agonistic motor patterns are described (Fig. 2). Among them head butt, approach and lateral display were further analysed.3.The electrical activity displayed during agonistic behaviour

  19. Synergistic Anti-Tumor Activity of EZH2 Inhibitors and Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists in Models of Germinal Center Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christine R.; Wigle, Tim J.; Iwanowicz, Dorothy; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Porter-Scott, Margaret; Smith, Jesse J.; Moyer, Mikel P.; Copeland, Robert A.; Pollock, Roy M.; Kuntz, Kevin W.; Raimondi, Alejandra; Keilhack, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are treated today with a cocktail of drugs referred to as CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxyldaunorubicin, Oncovin, and Prednisone). Subsets of patients with NHL of germinal center origin bear oncogenic mutations in the EZH2 histone methyltransferase. Clinical testing of the EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438 has recently begun in patients. We report here that combining EPZ-6438 with CHOP in preclinical cell culture and mouse models results in dramatic synergy for cell killing in EZH2 mutant germinal center NHL cells. Surprisingly, we observe that much of this synergy is due to Prednisolone – a glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GRag) component of CHOP. Dramatic synergy was observed when EPZ-6438 is combined with Prednisolone alone, and a similar effect was observed with Dexamethasone, another GRag. Remarkably, the anti-proliferative effect of the EPZ-6438+GRag combination extends beyond EZH2 mutant-bearing cells to more generally impact germinal center NHL. These preclinical data reveal an unanticipated biological intersection between GR-mediated gene regulation and EZH2-mediated chromatin remodeling. The data also suggest the possibility of a significant and practical benefit of combining EZH2 inhibitors and GRag that warrants further investigation in a clinical setting. PMID:25493630

  20. A step ahead of PPAR? full agonists to PPAR? partial agonists: therapeutic perspectives in the management of diabetic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Chigurupati, Sridevi; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam A; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2015-05-15

    Described since long as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate the gene expression of proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARs indeed regulate several physiologic processes, including lipid homeostasis, adipogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. PPARs bind natural or synthetic PPAR ligands can function as cellular sensors to regulate the gene transcription. Dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance are treated using agonists of PPAR? and PPAR?, respectively. The PPAR? is a key regulator of insulin sensitization and glucose metabolism, and therefore is considered as an imperative pharmacological target to combat diabetic metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Of note, currently available PPAR? full agonists like rosiglitazone display serious adverse effects such as fluid retention/oedema, weight gain, and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, PPAR? partial agonists are being suggested to devoid or having less incidence of these undesirable events, and are under developmental stages. Current research is on the way for the development of novel PPAR? partial agonists with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. This review sheds lights on the current status of development of PPAR? partial agonists, for the management of T2DM, having comparatively less or no adverse effects to that of PPAR? full agonists. PMID:25748601

  1. Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPAR? agonist from nature?

    PubMed Central

    Atanasov, Atanas G.; Wang, Jian N.; Gu, Shi P.; Bu, Jing; Kramer, Matthias P.; Baumgartner, Lisa; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Ladurner, Angela; Malainer, Clemens; Vuorinen, Anna; Noha, Stefan M.; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists are clinically used to counteract hyperglycemia. However, so far experienced unwanted side effects, such as weight gain, promote the search for new PPAR? activators. Methods We used a combination of in silico, in vitro, cell-based and in vivo models to identify and validate natural products as promising leads for partial novel PPAR? agonists. Results The natural product honokiol from the traditional Chinese herbal drug Magnolia bark was in silico predicted to bind into the PPAR? ligand binding pocket as dimer. Honokiol indeed directly bound to purified PPAR? ligand-binding domain (LBD) and acted as partial agonist in a PPAR?-mediated luciferase reporter assay. Honokiol was then directly compared to the clinically used full agonist pioglitazone with regard to stimulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes as well as adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. While honokiol stimulated basal glucose uptake to a similar extent as pioglitazone, it did not induce adipogenesis in contrast to pioglitazone. In diabetic KKAy mice oral application of honokiol prevented hyperglycemia and suppressed weight gain. Conclusion We identified honokiol as a partial non-adipogenic PPAR? agonist in vitro which prevented hyperglycemia and weight gain in vivo. General significance This observed activity profile suggests honokiol as promising new pharmaceutical lead or dietary supplement to combat metabolic disease, and provides a molecular explanation for the use of Magnolia in traditional medicine. PMID:23811337

  2. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPAR? + ? Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Southgate, Jennifer; Iversen, Lars; Egerod, Frederikke L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPAR? and ? (here termed PPAR?+? agonists) have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPAR? as well as PPAR?, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPAR?+? agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology). Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPAR?+? agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPAR? and ? in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPAR?+? agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds. PMID:19197366

  3. 3D-Pharmacophore Identification for ?-Opioid Agonists Using Ligand-Based Drug-Design Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    A selective ?-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist might act as a powerful analgesic without the side effects of ?-opioid receptor-selective drugs such as morphine. The eight classes of known KOR agonists have different chemical structures, making it difficult to construct a pharmacophore model that takes them all into account. Here, we summarize previous efforts to identify the pharmacophore for ?-opioid agonists and propose a new three-dimensional pharmacophore model that encompasses the ?-activities of all classes. This utilizes conformational sampling of agonists by high-temperature molecular dynamics and pharmacophore extraction through a series of molecular superpositions.

  4. Active-to-absorbing-state phase transition in the presence of fluctuating environments: Weak and strong dynamic scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of phase transitions between survival and extinction (active-to-absorbing-state phase transition, AAPT) in a model that by itself belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class, interacting with a spatiotemporally fluctuating environment having its own nontrivial dynamics. We model the environment by (i) a randomly stirred fluid, governed by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equation, and (ii) a fluctuating surface, described either by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) or the Edward-Wilkinson (EW) equations. We show, by using a one-loop perturbative field theoretic setup that, depending upon the spatial scaling of the variance of the external forces that drive the environment (i.e., the NS, KPZ, or EW equations), the system may show weak or strong dynamic scaling at the critical point of active-to-absorbing-state phase transitions. In the former case AAPT displays scaling belonging to the DP universality class, whereas in the latter case the universal behavior is different.

  5. Acute, chronic and withdrawal effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on the sequential activation of MAPK/Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in the rat cerebral frontal cortex: short-term regulation by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

    PubMed

    Moranta, David; Esteban, Susana; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2007-02-15

    The cannabinoids (CB) modulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), leading to various forms of plasticity in the brain. Little is known, however, on the in vivo short- and long-term activation and regulation of the components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling by CB. The CB agonist WIN55212-2 (8 mg/kg) increased the immunodensities of phosphorylated c-Raf-1 (42%), MEK1/2 (63%), ERK1 (24%), and ERK2 (28%) in the rat cerebral frontal cortex. These effects were antagonized by SR141716A (rimonabant, 10 mg/kg), a selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Repeated WIN55212-2 treatment (2-8 mg/kg for 5 days) resulted in tachyphylaxis to the acute activation of Raf-MEK-ERK signaling. Acute WIN55212-2 also induced a hypothermic effect in rats, which was reduced after repeated administration (tolerance). Treatment with SR141716A after chronic WIN55212-2 resulted in the expected cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome, without concomitant alterations in the phosphorylation state of c-Raf-1, MEK1/2, or ERK1/2. Pretreatment with SL327 (20 mg/kg, a MEK1/2 inhibitor) increased the basal phosphorylation of c-Raf-1 (40%) and MEK1/2 (74%; feedback regulation) and fully prevented the up-regulation of ERK1/2 (23-31%) induced by WIN55212-2. Pretreatment with MK801 (1 mg/kg, a NMDA receptor antagonist) effectively blocked the up-regulation c-Raf-1 (41%), MEK1/2 (57%) and ERK1/2 (25-30%) induced by the CB agonist. The main findings demonstrate that the acute stimulation of CB(1) receptors in the frontal cortex results in the sequential phosphorylation of Raf-MEK-ERK cascade, in which c-Raf-1 activation (rate-limiting process) plays a crucial role. Moreover, the in vivo stimulating effect of WIN55212-2 on Raf-MEK-ERK signaling is under the extrinsic regulation of an excitatory glutamatergic mechanism. PMID:17139682

  6. Sigma-1R agonist improves motor function and motoneuron survival in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Renzo; Oliván, Sara; Rando, Amaya; Casas, Caty; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive weakness, muscle atrophy, and paralysis due to the loss of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). Sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R) activation promotes neuroprotection after ischemic and traumatic injuries to the central nervous system. We recently reported that sigma-1R agonist (PRE-084) improves the survival of MNs after root avulsion injury in rats. Moreover, a mutation of the sigma-1R leading to frontotemporal lobar degeneration/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was recently described in human patients. In the present study, we analyzed the potential therapeutic effect of the sigma-1R agonist (PRE-084) in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS. Mice were daily administered with PRE-084 (0.25 mg/kg) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Functional outcome was assessed by electrophysiological tests and computerized analysis of locomotion. Histological, immunohistochemical analyses and Western blot of the spinal cord were performed. PRE-084 administration from 8 weeks of age improved the function of MNs, which was manifested by maintenance of the amplitude of muscle action potentials and locomotor behavior, and preserved neuromuscular connections and MNs in the spinal cord. Moreover, it extended survival in both female and male mice by more than 15 %. Delayed administration of PRE-084 from 12 weeks of age also significantly improved functional outcome and preservation of the MNs. There was an induction of protein kinase C-specific phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in SOD1(G93A) animals, and a reduction of the microglial reactivity compared with untreated mice. PRE-084 exerts a dual therapeutic contribution, modulating NMDA Ca(2+) influx to protect MNs, and the microglial reactivity to ameliorate the MN environment. In conclusion, sigma-1R agonists, such as PRE-084, may be promising candidates for a therapeutical strategy of ALS. PMID:22935988

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Weakly Activates M1 and M2 Polarized Mouse Macrophages but Induces Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Holden, James A.; Attard, Troy J.; Laughton, Katrina M.; Mansell, Ashley; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth's supporting tissues. Macrophages are important in chronic inflammatory conditions, infiltrating tissue and becoming polarized to an M1 or M2 phenotype. As responses to stimuli differ between these phenotypes, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 polarized macrophages were produced from murine bone marrow macrophages (BMM?) primed with gamma interferon (IFN-?) or interleukin-4 (IL-4), respectively, and incubated with a low or high dose of P. gingivalis LPS or control TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. In M1-M?, the high dose of P. gingivalis LPS (10 ?g/ml) significantly increased the expression of CD40, CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide secretion. The low dose of P. gingivalis LPS (10 ng/ml) did not induce costimulatory or antibacterial molecules but did increase the secretion of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). P. gingivalis LPS marginally increased the expression of CD206 and YM-1, but it did enhance arginase expression by M2-M?. Furthermore, the secretion of the chemokines KC, RANTES, eotaxin, and MCP-1 from M1, M2, and nonpolarized M? was enhanced by P. gingivalis LPS. TLR2/4 knockout macrophages combined with the TLR activation assays indicated that TLR2 is the main activating receptor for P. gingivalis LPS and whole cells. In conclusion, although P. gingivalis LPS weakly activated M1-M? or M2-M? compared to control TLR ligands, it induced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-? from M1-M? and IL-10 from M2-M?, as well as chemotactic chemokines from polarized macrophages. PMID:25047849

  8. Chemistry & Biology Amitriptyline is a TrkA and TrkB Receptor Agonist

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    Chemistry & Biology Article Amitriptyline is a TrkA and TrkB Receptor Agonist that Promotes Trk as a TrkA and TrkB agonist and possesses marked neurotrophic activity. INTRODUCTION Neurotrophins, which. Neurotrophins exert their phys- iological actions through two classes of receptors: Trk tyrosine kinase

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of the PPAR-alpha Agonist Ciprofibrate in the Cynomolgus Monkey Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal F. Cariello; Elizabeth H. Romach; Heidi M. Colton; Hong Ni; Lawrence Yoon; J. Greg Falls; Warren Casey; Donald Creech; Steven P. Anderson; Gina R. Benavides; Debie J. Hoivik; Roger Brown; Richard T. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Fibrates, such as ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, and clofibrate, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa) agonists that have been in clinical use for many decades for treatment of dyslipidemia. When mice and rats are given PPARa agonists, these drugs cause hepatic peroxisome proliferation, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and eventually hepatocarcinogenesis. Importantly, primates are relatively refractory to these effects; however, the mechanisms for the species differences

  10. Advances in the understanding of skeletal muscle weakness in murine models of diseases affecting nerve-evoked muscle activity, motor neurons, synapses and myofibers.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Arnaud; Joanne, Pierre; Hadj-Said, Wahiba; Vignaud, Alban; Lilienbaum, Alain; Hourdé, Christophe; Medja, Fadia; Noirez, Philippe; Charbonnier, Frederic; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Chevessier, Frederic; Nicole, Sophie; Agbulut, Onnik; Butler-Browne, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    Disease processes and trauma affecting nerve-evoked muscle activity, motor neurons, synapses and myofibers cause different levels of muscle weakness, i.e., reduced maximal force production in response to voluntary activation or nerve stimulation. However, the mechanisms of muscle weakness are not well known. Using murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice), congenital myasthenic syndrome (AChE knockout mice and Musk(V789M/-) mutant mice), Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (Hspg2(C1532YNEO/C1532YNEO) mutant mice) and traumatic nerve injury (Neurotomized wild-type mice), we show that the reduced maximal activation capacity (the ability of the nerve to maximally activate the muscle) explains 52%, 58% and 100% of severe weakness in respectively SOD1(G93A), Neurotomized and Musk mice, whereas muscle atrophy only explains 37%, 27% and 0%. We also demonstrate that the impaired maximal activation capacity observed in SOD1, Neurotomized, and Musk mice is not highly related to Hdac4 gene upregulation. Moreover, in SOD1 and Neurotomized mice our results suggest LC3, Fn14, Bcl3 and Gadd45a as candidate genes involved in the maintenance of the severe atrophic state. In conclusion, our study indicates that muscle weakness can result from the triggering of different signaling pathways. This knowledge may be helpful in designing therapeutic strategies and finding new drug targets for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, congenital myasthenic syndrome, Schwartz-Jampel syndrome and nerve injury. PMID:25042397

  11. Cytisine-Based Nicotinic Partial Agonists as Novel Antidepressant Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mineur, Yann S.; Eibl, Christoph; Young, Grace; Kochevar, Christopher; Papke, Roger L.; Gündisch, Daniela; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and other nicotinic agents are thought to regulate mood in human subjects and have antidepressant-like properties in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) including those containing the ?2 subunit (?2*), results in antidepressant-like effects. Previous studies have shown that cytisine, a partial agonist at ?4/?2* nAChRs, and a full agonist at ?3/?4* and ?7 nAChRs, has antidepressant-like properties in several rodent models of antidepressant efficacy; however, it is not clear whether more selective partial agonists will also be effective in these models. We tested cytisine and two derivatives, 5-bromo-cytisine (5-Br-Cyt) and 3-(pyridin-3?-yl)-cytisine (3-pyr-Cyt) for their ability to act as a partial agonist of different nAChR subtypes and to show antidepressant-like activity in C57/BL6 mice in the tail suspension, the forced-swim, and the novelty-suppressed feeding tests. 3-pyr-Cyt was a partial agonist with very low efficacy at ?4/?2* nAChRS but had no agonist effects at other nAChRs normally targeted by cytisine, and it was effective in mouse models of antidepressant efficacy. Animals showed dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects in all three behavioral paradigms. 5-Br-Cyt was not effective in behavioral tests when administered peripherally, probably because of its inability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, because it efficiently reduced immobility in the tail suspension test when administered intraventricularly. These results suggest that novel nicotinic partial agonists may provide new possibilities for development of drugs to treat mood disorders. PMID:19164465

  12. Quantitative image analysis in adipose tissue using an automated image analysis system: differential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma agonist on white and brown adipose tissue morphology in AKR obese and db/db diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuji; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Mine; Asano, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of adipocytes is widely used to demonstrate the effects of antiobesity drugs or anti-diabetic drugs on adipose tissues. However, adipocyte morphometry has been quantitatively performed by manual object extraction using conventional image analysis systems. The authors have developed an automated quantitative image analysis method for adipose tissues using an innovative object-based quantitative image analysis system (eCognition). Using this system, it has been shown quantitatively that morphological features of adipose tissues of mice treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists differ dramatically depending on the type of PPAR agonist. Marked alteration of morphological characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT) treated with GI259578A, a PPAR-alpha agonist, was observed in AKR/J (AKR) obese mice. Furthermore, there was a 22.8% decrease in the mean size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) compared with vehicle. In diabetic db/db mice, the PPAR-gamma agonist GW347845X decreased the mean size of adipocytes in WAT by 15.4% compared with vehicle. In contrast to changes in WAT, GW347845X increased the mean size of adipocytes in BAT greatly by 96.1% compared with vehicle. These findings suggest that GI259578A may activate fatty acid oxidation in BAT and that GW347845X may cause adipocyte differentiation in WAT and enhancement of lipid storage in BAT. PMID:17539968

  13. Chemotype-selective modes of action of ?-opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Vardy, Eyal; Mosier, Philip D; Frankowski, Kevin J; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Westkaemper, Richard B; Aubé, Jeffrey; Stevens, Raymond C; Roth, Bryan L

    2013-11-29

    The crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a novel platform for inquiry into opioid receptor function. The molecular determinants for activation of the ?-opioid receptor (KOR) were studied using a combination of agonist docking, functional assays, and site-directed mutagenesis. Eighteen positions in the putative agonist binding site of KOR were selected and evaluated for their effects on receptor binding and activation by ligands representing four distinct chemotypes: the peptide dynorphin A(1-17), the arylacetamide U-69593, and the non-charged ligands salvinorin A and the octahydroisoquinolinone carboxamide 1xx. Minimally biased docking of the tested ligands into the antagonist-bound KOR structure generated distinct binding modes, which were then evaluated biochemically and pharmacologically. Our analysis identified two types of mutations: those that affect receptor function primarily via ligand binding and those that primarily affect function. The shared and differential mechanisms of agonist binding and activation in KOR are further discussed. Usually, mutations affecting function more than binding were located at the periphery of the binding site and did not interact strongly with the various ligands. Analysis of the crystal structure along with the present results provide fundamental insights into the activation mechanism of the KOR and suggest that "functional" residues, along with water molecules detected in the crystal structure, may be directly involved in transduction of the agonist binding event into structural changes at the conserved rotamer switches, thus leading to receptor activation. PMID:24121503

  14. Chemotype-selective Modes of Action of ?-Opioid Receptor Agonists*

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, Eyal; Mosier, Philip D.; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Stevens, Raymond C.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a novel platform for inquiry into opioid receptor function. The molecular determinants for activation of the ?-opioid receptor (KOR) were studied using a combination of agonist docking, functional assays, and site-directed mutagenesis. Eighteen positions in the putative agonist binding site of KOR were selected and evaluated for their effects on receptor binding and activation by ligands representing four distinct chemotypes: the peptide dynorphin A(1–17), the arylacetamide U-69593, and the non-charged ligands salvinorin A and the octahydroisoquinolinone carboxamide 1xx. Minimally biased docking of the tested ligands into the antagonist-bound KOR structure generated distinct binding modes, which were then evaluated biochemically and pharmacologically. Our analysis identified two types of mutations: those that affect receptor function primarily via ligand binding and those that primarily affect function. The shared and differential mechanisms of agonist binding and activation in KOR are further discussed. Usually, mutations affecting function more than binding were located at the periphery of the binding site and did not interact strongly with the various ligands. Analysis of the crystal structure along with the present results provide fundamental insights into the activation mechanism of the KOR and suggest that “functional” residues, along with water molecules detected in the crystal structure, may be directly involved in transduction of the agonist binding event into structural changes at the conserved rotamer switches, thus leading to receptor activation. PMID:24121503

  15. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 (a synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various novel antiepileptic drugs against 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Zagaja, Miros?aw; Andres-Mach, Marta; Kondrat-Wrobel, Maria W; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN-a non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and tiagabine) in the mouse 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure model. Psychomotor seizures were evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Additionally, total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations were measured. Results indicate that WIN (5 mg/kg, administered i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin (P < 0.05) and levetiracetam (P < 0.01), but not that of lacosamide, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin or tiagabine in the mouse psychomotor seizure model. Moreover, WIN (2.5 mg/kg) had no significant effect on the anticonvulsant activity of all tested antiepileptic drugs in the 6 Hz test in mice. Measurement of total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations revealed that WIN (5 mg/kg) had no impact on gabapentin or levetiracetam total brain concentrations, indicating the pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6Hz model. In conclusion, WIN in combination with gabapentin and levetiracetam exerts beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the mouse psychomotor seizure model. PMID:25592741

  16. Effects of Mitemcinal (GM611), an Acid-Resistant Nonpeptide Motilin Receptor Agonist, on the Gastrointestinal Contractile Activity in Conscious Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Ozaki; Kenji Yogo; Hirokazu Sudo; Mitsu Onoma; Kenshi Kamei; Michitaka Akima; Hiroshi Koga; Zen Itoh; Hisanori Takanashi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mitemcinal (GM-611) on the gastrointestinal contractile activity were investigated using chronically implanted force transducers in conscious dogs and were compared with the effects of porcine motilin (pMTL), EM-523 and EM-574. In the interdigestive state, intravenous and oral administration of mitemcinal, EM-523 and EM-574 induced the gastrointestinal contractile activity in a manner similar to pMTL. The contractile activity

  17. TLR AGONISTS: Are They Good Adjuvants?

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Nina; Gnjatic, Sacha; Sawhney, Nikhil B.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic immunization leading to cancer regression remains a significant challenge. Successful immunization requires activation of adaptive immunity, including tumor specific CD4 + T cells and CD8+ T cells. Generally speaking, the activation of T cells is compromised in patients with cancer due to immune suppression, loss of tumor antigen expression, and dysfunction of antigen presenting cells (APC). APC such as dendritic cells (DC) are key for the induction of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. Recently, attention has focused on novel adjuvants that enhance DC function and their ability to prime T cells. Agonists that target toll-like receptors (TLR) are being used clinically either alone or in combination with tumor antigens and showing initial success both in terms of enhancing immune responses and eliciting anti-tumor activity. This review summarizes the application of these adjuvants to treat cancer and the potential for boosting responses in vivo. PMID:20693851

  18. Small Molecule Bax Agonists for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Meiguo; Li, Rui; Xie, Maohua; Park, Dongkyoo; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Corsino, Patrick E.; Zhou, Jia; Ding, Chunyong; White, Mark A.; Magis, Andrew T.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Curran, Walter J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    Bax, a central death regulator, is required at the decisional stage of apoptosis. We recently identified serine 184 (S184) of Bax as a critical functional switch controlling its proapoptotic activity. Here, we employed the structural pocket around S184 as a docking site to screen the NCI library of small molecules using the UCSF-DOCK program suite. Three compounds, small molecule Bax agonists SMBA1, SMBA2 and SMBA3, induce conformational changes in Bax by blocking S184 phosphorylation, facilitating Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes and forming Bax oligomers. The latter leads to cytochrome c release and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells, which occurs in a Bax- but not Bak-dependent fashion. SMBA1 potently suppresses lung tumor growth via apoptosis by selectively activating Bax in vivo without significant normal tissue toxicity. Development of Bax agonists as a new class of anti-cancer drugs offers a strategy for the treatment of lung cancer and other Bax-expressing malignancies. PMID:25230299

  19. Naltrindole derivatives with fluorinated ethyl substituents on the 17-nitrogen as ? opioid receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Toru; Iihara, Yusuke; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Higashi, Eika; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    We synthesized derivatives of the ? opioid receptor (DOR) antagonists naltrindole (NTI) and compound 1 that were modified with small alkyl or fluorinated ethyl substituents on the 17-nitrogen. Although the derivatives showed decreased binding affinities for the opioid receptors, their selectivities for the DOR were higher than the parent compounds NTI and compound 1. Surprisingly, 17-fluoroethyl NTI derivatives exerted DOR inverse agonistic activities. The DOR inverse agonism of compounds 4c-e was less efficacious but significant, as compared with a standard DOR inverse agonist ICI-174864. On the other hand, compound 1 and its derivatives with small alkyl or monofluoroethyl substituents were partial agonists, but the derivatives having di- or trifluoroethyl group showed neither agonistic nor inverse agonistic activities. PMID:26048798

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Apical Surface Fluid from the Human Airway Cell Line Calu-3 Pharmacologic Alteration by Corticosteroids and ? 2 -Agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhang; William W. Reenstra; Aaron Chidekel

    Calu-3 cells, a human lung carcinoma cell line with properties like serous cells of the upper airway, were used to develop an in vitro model for airway antibacterial activity. Calu-3 cell mono- layers were cultured on permeable supports at an air-liquid in- terface. Apical surface fluid (ASF) was collected by washing; an- tibacterial activity was assayed by incubating ASF washings

  1. Novel Delta Opioid Receptor Agonists with Oxazatricyclodecane Structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized compounds 4a,c–f,h,i containing the oxazatricyclodecane structure from a novel rearrangement reaction product 2a. All the prepared compounds 4a,c–f,h,i exhibited full agonistic activities for the ? opioid receptor (DOR). Among them, the N-methyl derivative 4c was highly selective, and the most effective DOR agonist in functional assays. Subcutaneous administration of 4c produced dose-dependent and NTI (selective DOR antagonist)-reversible antinociception lacking any convulsive behaviors in the mice acetic acid writhing tests. The N-methyl derivative 4c is expected to be a promising lead compound for selective DOR agonists with a novel chemotype. PMID:24900842

  2. Discovery of biaryl carboxylamides as potent ROR? inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jianhua; Enyedy, Istvan; Van Vloten, Kurt; Marcotte, Douglas; Guertin, Kevin; Hutchings, Richard; Powell, Noel; Jones, Howard; Bohnert, Tonika; Peng, Chi-Chi; Silvian, Laura; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Little, Kevin; Banerjee, Daliya; Peng, Liaomin; Taveras, Arthur; Viney, Joanne L; Fontenot, Jason

    2015-08-01

    ROR?t is a pivotal regulator of a pro-inflammatory gene expression program implicated in the pathology of several major human immune-mediated diseases. Evidence from mouse models demonstrates that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ROR? activity can block the production of pathogenic cytokines, including IL-17, and convey therapeutic benefit. We have identified and developed a biaryl-carboxylamide series of ROR? inverse agonists via a structure based design approach. Co-crystal structures of compounds 16 and 48 supported the design approach and confirmed the key interactions with ROR? protein; the hydrogen bonding with His479 was key to the significant improvement in inverse agonist effect. The results have shown this is a class of potent and selective ROR? inverse agonists, with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rodents. PMID:26048806

  3. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Oberfield, J L; Collins, J L; Holmes, C P; Goreham, D M; Cooper, J P; Cobb, J E; Lenhard, J M; Hull-Ryde, E A; Mohr, C P; Blanchard, S G; Parks, D J; Moore, L B; Lehmann, J M; Plunket, K; Miller, A B; Milburn, M V; Kliewer, S A; Willson, T M

    1999-05-25

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. The PPARgamma subtype plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the 2, 4-thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Structural studies have revealed that agonist ligands activate the PPARs through direct interactions with the C-terminal region of the ligand-binding domain, which includes the activation function 2 helix. GW0072 was identified as a high-affinity PPARgamma ligand that was a weak partial agonist of PPARgamma transactivation. X-ray crystallography revealed that GW0072 occupied the ligand-binding pocket by using different epitopes than the known PPAR agonists and did not interact with the activation function 2 helix. In cell culture, GW0072 was a potent antagonist of adipocyte differentiation. These results establish an approach to the design of PPAR ligands with modified biological activities. PMID:10339548

  4. Investigation of ? receptors agonist/antagonist activity through N-(6-methoxytetralin-1-yl)- and N-(6-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)alkyl derivatives of polymethylpiperidines.

    PubMed

    Niso, Mauro; Abate, Carmen; Ferorelli, Savina; Cassano, Giuseppe; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    A series of polymethyl-substituted piperidines linked to either a 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl or a 6-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl moiety was generated with the aim of verifying a previously generated hypothesis: tetralin and naphthalene nuclei confer opposite activity at the ?1 receptor. Compounds 6, 9 and 10 displayed appreciable affinity at both ? subtypes, but none of the novel compounds displayed significant antiproliferative activity in MCF7wt and MCF7?1 cell lines. The effect on bradikynin-triggered Ca(2+) mobilization was studied as a methodology to suggest ? receptors mediated activity. PMID:23415062

  5. Different Toll-like receptor agonists induce distinct macrophage responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan W. Jones; Terry K. Means; Kurt A. Heldwein; Marc A. Keen; Preston J. Hill; John T. Belisle; Matthew J. Fenton

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that gram-neg- ative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, whereas the mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid lipoarabinoman- nan (LAM) activates cells via TLR2. We also iden- tified a secreted TLR2 agonist activity in short- term culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculo- sis bacilli, termed soluble tuberculosis factor (STF). Here we show that STF contains mannosy-

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPARa ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  7. Discovery of Highly Potent and Selective ?4?2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Partial Agonists Containing an Isoxazolylpyridine Ether Scaffold that Demonstrate Antidepressant-like Activity. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Eaton, J. Brek; Fedolak, Allison; Zhang, Han-Kun; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    In our continued efforts to develop ?4?2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists as novel antidepressants having a unique mechanism of action, structure activity relationship (SAR) exploration of certain isoxazolylpyridine ethers is presented. In particular, modifications to both the azetidine ring present in the starting structure 4 and its metabolically liable hydroxyl side chain substituent have been explored to improve compound druggability. The pharmacological characterization of all new compounds has been carried out using [3H]epibatidine binding studies together with functional assays based on 86Rb+ ion flux measurements. We found that the deletion of the metabolically liable hydroxyl group or its replacement by a fluoromethyl group not only maintained potency and selectivity, but also resulted in compounds showing antidepressant-like properties in the mouse forced swim test. These isoxazolylpyridine ethers appear to represent promising lead candidates in the design of innovative chemical tools containing reporter groups for imaging purposes and of possible therapeutics. PMID:23092294

  8. The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor  \\/  Agonist, GW501516, Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Catabolism and Energy Uncoupling in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UWE DRESSEL; TAMARA L. ALLEN; JYOTSNA B. PIPPAL; PAUL R. ROHDE; PATRICK LAU

    2003-01-01

    Lipid homeostasis is controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR ,- \\/, and -) that function as fatty acid-dependent DNA- binding proteins that regulate lipid metabolism. In vitro and in vivo genetic and pharmacological stud- ies have demonstrated PPAR regulates lipid ca- tabolism. In contrast, PPAR regulates the con- flicting process of lipid storage. However, relatively little is known about

  9. Three-Dimensional common-Feature hypotheses for octopamine agonist 2-(arylimino)imidazolidines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Hirashima; Masako Morimoto; Eiichi Kuwano; Eiji Taniguchi; Morifusa Eto

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 10 octopamine (OA) agonist 2-(Arylimino)imidazolidines (AIIs), 2-(Arylimino)thiazolidines (AITs) and 2-(Arylimino)oxazolidines (AIOs). Among the 10 common-featured models generated by program Catalyst\\/HipHop, a hypothesis including a ring aromatic (RA), a positive ionizable (PI) and three hydrophobic aliphatic (HpAl) features was considered to be important in evaluating the OA-agonist activity. Active OA agonist 2,6-Et2

  10. Organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN3 is present in astrocytes and is up-regulated by peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Januszewicz, Elzbieta; Pajak, Beata; Gajkowska, Barbara; Samluk, Lukasz; Djavadian, Rouzanna L; Hinton, Barry T; Na?ecz, Katarzyna A

    2009-12-01

    In the brain beta-oxidation, which takes place in astrocytes, is not a major process of energy supply. Astrocytes synthesize important lipid metabolites, mainly due to the processes taking place in peroxisomes. One of the compounds necessary in the process of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and export of acyl moieties from peroxisomes is l-carnitine. Two Na-dependent plasma membrane carnitine transporters were shown previously to be present in astrocytes: a low affinity amino acid transporter B(0,+) and a high affinity cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2. The expression of OCTN2 is known to increase in peripheral tissues upon the stimulation of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a nuclear receptor known to up-regulate several enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. The present study was focused on another high affinity carnitine transporter-OCTN3, its presence, regulation and activity in astrocytes. Experiments using the techniques of real-time PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis demonstrated the expression of octn3 in rat astrocytes and, out of two rat sequences ascribed as similar to mouse OCTN3, XM_001073573 was found in these cells. PPARalpha activator-2-[4-chloro-6-[(2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]thio]acetic acid (WY-14,643) stimulated by 50% expression of octn3, while, on the contrary to peripheral tissues, it did not change the expression of octn2. This observation was correlated with an increased Na-independent activity of carnitine transport. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed an augmented intracellular localization of OCTN3 upon PPARalpha stimulation, mainly in peroxisomes, indicating a physiological role of OCTN3 as peroxisomal membrane transporter. These observations point to an important role of OCTN3 in peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism in astrocytes. PMID:19735737

  11. Effects of chronic in-vivo treatments with protease-activated receptor 2 agonist on endothelium function and blood pressures in mice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Keon H; Wijekoon, Enoka P; Valcour, James E; Chia, Elizabeth W; McGuire, John J

    2013-04-01

    Short-term treatments with protease-activated receptor 2-activating peptides (PAR2-AP) induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation and decrease blood pressure. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic in-vivo treatment with PAR2-AP on the blood pressure and endothelium function of mice. Male PAR2 wild-type (WT) and par2-deficient (KO) mice received subcutaneous infusions of either saline, low (PAR2-LD), or high (PAR2-HD) doses of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide for 1 or 2 weeks. In each treatment group, endothelium function was assessed in isolated arteries. Blood pressure, heart rate, and locomotor activity were recorded by radiotelemetry, and levels of tumour nercrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interkeukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured in plasma samples by ELISA. The relaxation of WT aortas and mesenteric arteries induced by PAR2-AP was decreased by PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD. In mesenteric arteries, PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD decreased the relaxation induced by acetylcholine, but not by nitroprusside; in aortas, PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD caused differential decreases in the relaxations induced by acetylcholine and nitroprusside. Only PAR2-HD lowered systolic arterial pressures in WT, when compared with all of the other groups. TNF-? and IL-1? plasma concentrations were not different among the groups. We conclude that the systolic blood pressure of unrestrained mice can be lowered by chronic in-vivo activation of PAR2; however, this effect is countered by receptor desensitization and the concomitant development of endothelium and vascular dysfunction. PMID:23627841

  12. Activation of bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerves with bradykinin, acid and vanilloid receptor agonists in wild-type and TRPV1-\\/- mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kollarik; B. J. Undem

    2003-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (formerly VR1) has been implicated in the activation of nociceptive sensory nerves by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons, bradykinin, cannabinoids such as anandamide, and certain metabolites of arachidonic acid. Using TRPV1 knockout mouse (TRPV1-\\/-) we address the question of whether TRPV1 is obligatory for action potential discharge in vagal C-fibre terminals evoked by capsaicin, anandamide, acid and

  13. Potent achiral agonists of the ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue) receptor. Part I: Lead identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom D. Heightman; Jackie S. Scott; Mark Longley; Vincent Bordas; David K. Dean; Richard Elliott; Gail Hutley; Jason Witherington; Lee Abberley; Barry Passingham; Manuela Berlanga; Maite de los Frailes; Alan Wise; Ben Powney; Alison Muir; Fiona McKay; Sharon Butler; Kim Winborn; Christopher Gardner; Jill Darton; Colin Campbell; Gareth Sanger

    2007-01-01

    High throughput screening combined with efficient datamining and parallel synthesis led to the discovery of a novel series of indolines showing potent in vitro ghrelin receptor agonist activity and acceleration of gastric emptying in rats.

  14. Alkaloid delta agonist BW373U86 increases hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bofetiado, D M; Mayfield, K P; D'Alecy, L G

    1996-06-01

    Activation of delta opioid receptors increases survival time during acute, lethal hypoxia in mice. delta Agonists therefore present a promising avenue for therapeutic application to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with clinical hypoxia in settings such as drowning, head injury apnea, and complicated childbirths. However, most delta agonists now available are peptides, and may have limited clinical utility. In the present study, we evaluate the neuroprotective ability of an alkaloid delta agonist, BW373U86. Alkaloid compounds, due to increased stability and increased systemic distribution, may be more favorable for clinical use. We found that BW373U86, like the peptide delta agonist, DPDPE ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin), increases survival time of mice during lethal hypoxia. The mechanism of neuroprotection induced by delta receptor activation appears to involve decreasing body temperature. Further, using selective opioid receptor antagonists, it appears that BW373U86 exerts these neuroprotective effects by acting at delta-opioid receptors. PMID:8638797

  15. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype. PMID:25801116

  16. Enhanced down regulation of cortical +-propranolol sensitive ( sup 3 H)-DHA binding sites by co-administration of DMI and 5-HT sub 1A partial agonist gepirone

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, M.A.; Yocca, F.D. (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Wallingford, CT (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The putative interrelationship between the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems has been supported by numerous studies. Recently, Dudley et al. (1989) demonstrated significant down regulation of cortical {beta}-adrenergic receptors by co-administration of desipramine (DMI), a norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, and the full 5-HT{sub 1A} agonist 8-OH-DPAT. To this end, the effects of acute and chronic (4 and 14 day) administration of DMI, gepirone, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} post-synaptic partial agonist, as well as a combination of the two, on cortical ({plus minus})-propranolol sensitive ({sup 3}H)-DHA binding sites were examined in rats. Down regulation was apparent after 4 and 14 day treatment with DMI. However, this was not the case with gepirone. Of particular importance is the demonstration of a greater magnitude of down regulation with co-administration of a greater magnitude of down regulation with co-administration of DMI and gepirone. These results suggests that alteration in rat cortical ({plus minus})-propranolol sensitive ({sup 3}H)-DHA binding sites by noradrenergic uptake inhibitors can be further modulated by selective partial agonist activity at central 5-HT{sub 1A} postsynaptic receptors. Further data on the co-administration of DMI and BMY 7378 (7,9-dioxo-8-(2-(4-{und o}-methoxyphenylpiperazinyl)ethyl)-8-azaspiro(4,5)decane dihydrochloride), a weak partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, are also presented.

  17. Sex differences in opioid antinociception: kappa and 'mixed action' agonists.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Bernal, S A

    2001-08-01

    A number of investigators have shown that male animals are more sensitive than females to the antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid agonists. The present study was conducted to examine sex differences in opioid antinociception in the rat using agonists known to differ in selectivity for and efficacy at kappa- versus mu-receptors. Dose- and time-effect curves were obtained for s.c. U69593, U50488, ethylketazocine, (-)-bremazocine, (-)-pentazocine, butorphanol and nalbuphine on the 50 or 54 degrees C hotplate and warm water tail withdrawal assays; spontaneous locomotor activity was measured 32-52 min post-injection in the same rats. On the hotplate assay, only butorphanol (54 degrees C) and nalbuphine (50 degrees C) were significantly more potent in males than females. On the tail withdrawal assay, all agonists were significantly more potent or efficacious in males than females at one or both temperatures. In contrast, no agonist was consistently more potent in one sex or the other in decreasing locomotor activity. Estrous stage in female rats only slightly influenced opioid effects, accounting for an average of 2.6% of the variance in females' antinociceptive and locomotor responses to drug (50 degrees C experiment). These results suggest that (1) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioids are not mu-receptor-dependent, as they may occur with opioids known to have significant kappa-receptor-mediated activity; (2) the mechanisms underlying sex differences in kappa-opioid antinociception may be primarily spinal rather than supraspinal; (3) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioid agonists are not secondary to sex differences in their sedative effects. PMID:11418226

  18. The ?2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Beeson, Gyda C; Lindsey, Christopher C; Peterson, Yuri K; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common mediator of disease and organ injury. Although recent studies show that inducing mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) stimulates cell repair and regeneration, only a limited number of chemicals are known to induce MB. To examine the impact of the ?-adrenoceptor (?-AR) signaling pathway on MB, primary renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) and adult feline cardiomyocytes were exposed for 24 h to multiple ?-AR agonists: isoproterenol (nonselective ?-AR agonist), (±)-(R*,R*)-[4-[2-[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]propyl]phenoxy] acetic acid sodium hydrate (BRL 37344) (selective ?(3)-AR agonist), and formoterol (selective ?(2)-AR agonist). The Seahorse Biosciences (North Billerica, MA) extracellular flux analyzer was used to quantify carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP)-uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a marker of maximal electron transport chain activity. Isoproterenol and BRL 37244 did not alter mitochondrial respiration at any of the concentrations examined. Formoterol exposure resulted in increases in both FCCP-uncoupled OCR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. The effect of formoterol on OCR in RPTC was inhibited by the ?-AR antagonist propranolol and the ?(2)-AR inverse agonist 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol hydrochloride (ICI-118,551). Mice exposed to formoterol for 24 or 72 h exhibited increases in kidney and heart mtDNA copy number, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1?, and multiple genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (F0 subunit 6 of transmembrane F-type ATP synthase, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1? subcomplex subunit 8). Cheminformatic modeling, virtual chemical library screening, and experimental validation identified nisoxetine from the Sigma Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and two compounds from the ChemBridge DIVERSet that increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. These data provide compelling evidence for the use and development of ?(2)-AR ligands for therapeutic MB. PMID:22490378

  19. Identification of Novel ?4?2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Agonists Based on an Isoxazole Ether Scaffold that Demonstrate Antidepressant-like Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Tückmantel, Werner; Eaton, J. Brek; Caldarone, Barbara; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that the blockade of nAChR is responsible for the antidepressant action of nicotinic ligands. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, mecamylamine, has been shown to be an effective add-on in patients that do not respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This suggests that nAChR ligands may address an unmet clinical need by providing relief from depressive symptoms in refractory patients. In this study, a new series of nAChR ligands based on an isoxazole-ether scaffold have been designed and synthesized for binding and functional assays. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) efforts identified a lead compound 43, which possesses potent antidepressant-like activity (1 mg/kg, IP; 5 mg/kg, PO) in the classical mouse forced swim test. Early stage absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME-Tox) studies also suggested favorable drug-like properties, and broad screening towards other common neurotransmitter receptors indicated that compound 43 is highly selective for nAChRs over the other 45 neurotransmitter receptors and transporters tested. PMID:22148173

  20. Investigating Activity Patterns In Prehispanic Plazas: Weak Acid-Extraction ICP-AES Analysis of Anthrosols at Classic Period El Coyote, Northwestern Honduras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Wells

    2004-01-01

    Weak acid-extraction ICP-AES analysis was performed to obtain multi-elemental charac- terizations of anthropogenic sediments from plaza spaces that no longer contain artefacts and adjacent trash deposits at the prehispanic site of El Coyote in northwestern Honduras. Multivariate quantitative assessments of the anthrosol chemical data, along with associated inventories of midden materials, are examined to derive signatures for activity areas and

  1. Discovery of Azetidinone Acids as Conformationally-Constrained Dual PPARalpha/gamma Agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Devasthale, P; Farrelly, D; Gu, L; Harrity, T; Cap, M; Chu, C; Kunselman, L; Morgan, N; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    A novel class of azetidinone acid-derived dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists has been synthesized for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The preferred stereochemistry in this series for binding and functional agonist activity against both PPARa and PPAR? receptors was shown to be 3S,4S. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities of compounds in this series are described. A high-yielding method for N-arylation of azetidinone esters is also described.

  2. A comparison of current-voltage relations for full and partial agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, P R; Sakmann, B

    1978-01-01

    1. Local conductance changes produced by various bath-applied agonists at frog end-plate membrane were measured using focal recording of extracellular potential in voltage-clamped muscle fibres. The potential difference between a focal micropipette placed on the nerve terminal and another micro-pipette placed on or near inactive membrane was taken as proportional to the agonist-induced current through a small patch of an end-plate membrane. 2. The current-voltage (I--V) relation of active membrane was obtained directly by increasing the membrane potential in a ramp fashion. The change in membrane potential was slow enough for post-synaptic gating processes to reach equilibrium during the ramp. 3. During application of sufficiently low concentrations of full agonists (carbachol, (ACh) and partial agonists (choline and decamethonium) the I--V relation of end-plate membrane showed strong curvature in the range of -60 to -130 mV. The slope of I--V relations increased exponentially with membrane hyperpolarization, an e-fold change in conductance occurring for about 50 mV potential shift. 4. The curvature of the I--V relation of end-plate-membrane activated by the partial agonists choline and decamethonium became less as the agonist concentration was increased, and with high concentrations (choline 15 mM; decamethonium 250 micrometer) the I--V relation became almost straight. 5. When end-plate currents produced by high concentrations of partial agonists were matched by application of equi-active concentrations of carbachol, the carbachol-activated membrane still showed as much curvature in its I--V relation as when low concentrations of carbachol were used. 6. Choline and decamethonium concentrations for which the I--V relation was straight produced much greater depression of miniature end-plate currents than did carbachol concentrations which produced the same membrane current at the holding potential. 7. I--V relations for full agonists at high concentrations were obtained after alpha-bungarotoxin pre-treatment. During application of carbachol (400--500 micrometer) and ACh (30--40 micrometer; after complete inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity) the I--V relation of end-plate membrane is much less curved than during application of low concentrations. 8. It is concluded that either the voltage sensitivity of agonist-induced end-plate conductance reflects voltage sensitivity of agonist binding, or the partial agonists used can exert a voltage-dependent 'local anaesthetic' action in addition to their agonist activity. PMID:309943

  3. Functional effects of systemically administered agonists and antagonists of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor subtypes on body temperature in mice.

    PubMed

    Baker, Alexis K; Meert, Theo F

    2002-09-01

    We have investigated the roles of peripheral and central mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors and their subtypes in opioid-induced hypothermia in mice. Measuring rectal temperature after i.p. injection, opioid agonists [morphine, fentanyl, SNC80 ((+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)3-methoybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide), U50,488H ((trans-(dl)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]-benzeneacetamide), and loperamide)] were tested alone or with opioid antagonists [naloxone, beta-funaltrexamine, naloxonazine, naltrindole, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX), naltriben, nor-binaltorphimine, 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-(3-isothiocyanatophenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]acetamide (DIPPA), and methyl-naltrexone] given 15 min after the agonist. All agonists produced dose-related hypothermia, although at low doses, morphine and U50,488H produced hyperthermia. The effects of morphine and fentanyl were antagonized by naloxone and by the mu(1) antagonist naloxonazine. The delta(2) antagonist naltriben potentiated the hypothermic effect of mu agonists. SNC80-induced hypothermia was blocked by the delta antagonist naltrindole but not by the delta(1) antagonist BNTX. Depending on the dose, the delta(2) antagonist naltriben produced either a potentiation or an attenuation of the effect of SNC80. U50,488H-induced hypothermia was antagonized by the kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine but not by acute treatment with the irreversible kappa antagonist DIPPA. The peripherally acting opioid loperamide produced hypothermia that could be blocked by several mu-, delta-, or kappa-selective antagonists as well as the peripherally acting antagonist methyl-naltrexone. Methyl-naltrexone produced a weak potentiation of morphine-, fentanyl-, and U50,488H-induced hypothermia, whereas a significant attenuation of SNC80-induced hypothermia was observed. In conclusion, at high doses, morphine- and fentanyl-induced hypothermia may involve composite action on mu, kappa, and possibly delta opioid receptors after initial activation. In the mediation of delta opioid-induced hypothermia, no clear selectivity between the delta(1) and delta(2) subtypes was defined. The studies provide new evidence that maintenance of the initial effects of agonist/receptor activation vary with the agonist and the receptor. The existence of both central and peripheral components of opioid-induced hypothermia is also emphasized. PMID:12183687

  4. Adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein as inter-compartmental shuttle for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists in cultured cell.

    PubMed

    Adida, Anne; Spener, Friedrich

    2006-02-01

    We and others showed earlier that liver-type, epidermal-type and adipocyte-type (A-) fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) mediate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) dependent gene expression by channelling their ligand (fatty acid or drug) to the nuclear receptors via direct protein/protein interaction. To clarify mechanistic details of this signaling path, we address here A-FABP import into the nucleus and its interaction with PPARgamma. Making use of COS cells transfected with wild-type or mutant A-FABPs, we exclude posttranslational modification of A-FABP as import signal and provide evidence for both, ligand-dependent and ligand-independent nuclear translocation. With the aid of in vitro pull down assay we demonstrate that specific interaction of A-FABP with PPARgamma isoforms does not require ligand. Moreover, A-FABP binds not only to the ligand-binding domain including hinge domain (domains DEF), but also to the DNA-binding domain including AB domains (domains ABC) of PPARgamma. PMID:16574478

  5. Structure-based Ligand Design of Novel Human Toll-like Receptor 8 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kokatla, Hari Prasad; Sil, Diptesh; Tanji, Hiromi; Ohto, Umeharu; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Fox, Lauren M.; Shimizu, Toshiyoki; David, Sunil A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-8 agonists activate adaptive immune responses by inducing robust production of T helper 1-polarizing cytokines, suggesting that TLR8-active compounds may be promising candidate adjuvants. We recently reported pure TLR8 agonistic activity in a C2-butyl furo[2,3-c]quinoline. We have obtained the structure of human TLR8 ectodomain co-crystallized with the furoquinoline compound, which indicates ligand-induced reorganization of the binding pocket of TLR8. The loss of a key H-bond between the oxygen atom of the furanyl ring of the agonist and Thr574 in TLR8 suggested that the furan ring was dispensable. We employed a disconnection strategy and examined 3- and 4-substituted aminoquinolines. Focused structure-based ligand design studies led to the identification of 3-pentyl-quinoline-2-amine as a novel, structurally simple, and highly potent human TLR8-specific agonist. PMID:24474703

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Selective N- and P/Q-Type Calcium Channel Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The acute effect of the potent cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor (R)-roscovitine on Ca2+ channels inspired the development of structural analogues as a potential treatment for motor nerve terminal dysfunction. On the basis of a versatile chlorinated purine scaffold, we have synthesized ca. 20 derivatives and characterized their N-type Ca2+ channel agonist action. Agents that showed strong agonist effects were also characterized in a kinase panel for their off-target effects. Among several novel compounds with diminished cdk activity, we identified a new lead structure with a 4-fold improved N-type Ca2+ channel agonist effect and a 22-fold decreased cdk2 activity as compared to (R)-roscovitine. This compound was selective for agonist activity on N- and P/Q-type over L-type calcium channels. PMID:24936234

  7. Identification of novel multitargeted PPAR?/?/? pan agonists by core hopping of rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shu-Qing; Xu, Wei-Ren; Cheng, Xian-Chao; Wang, Run-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione class peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists are restricted in clinical use as antidiabetic agents because of side effects such as edema, weight gain, and heart failure. The single and selective agonism of PPAR? is the main cause of these side effects. Multitargeted PPAR?/?/? pan agonist development is the hot topic in the antidiabetic drug research field. In order to identify PPAR?/?/? pan agonists, a compound database was established by core hopping of rosiglitazone, which was then docked into a PPAR?/?/? active site to screen out a number of candidate compounds with a higher docking score and better interaction with the active site. Further, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity prediction was done to give eight compounds. Molecular dynamics simulation of the representative Cpd#1 showed more favorable binding conformation for PPARs receptor than the original ligand. Cpd#1 could act as a PPAR?/?/? pan agonist for novel antidiabetic drug research. PMID:25422585

  8. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-01-12

    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated. PMID:25394284

  9. Stimulatory action of mitemcinal (GM-611), an acid-resistant non-peptide motilin receptor agonist, on colonic motor activity and defecation: spontaneous and mitemcinal-induced giant migrating contractions during defecation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, T; Morikawa, Y; Matsufuji, H; Hoshino, K; Hagane, K; Ozaki, K

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize giant migrating contractions (GMCs) during spontaneous defecation in dogs and to investigate the effect of mitemcinal (an orally active and highly acid-resistant motilin receptor agonist) on colonic motility to assess the possibility of using it for the treatment of colonic motility disorders. To assess colonic motility, strain-gauge force transducers were implanted on the gastrointestinal tract of five dogs, and the behaviour of the dogs was monitored with a noctovision-video camera system. The effect of mitemcinal (0, 3, 10 or 30 mg per dog) and sennoside (300 mg per dog) on colonic motility was assessed 24 h after oral administration. During a 39-day period, the starting point of most of the 140 GMCs was between the transverse colon and the descending colon, but some variation was observed. In the daytime, the GMCs originated from somewhat more proximal positions than at night. Mitemcinal caused an increase in the GMC-index (integration of contractile amplitude and duration) and proximal translocation of the GMC starting point, but did not cause an increase in the number of defecations 12 h after administration. Sennoside, however, caused a significant increase in the number of defecations, an increase in the GMC-index, and prolongation of the duration of GMCs. The GMC starting point in the canine colon varied during spontaneous defecation. Mitemcinal was a potent prokinetic drug to mimic a spontaneous defecation compared with sennoside. Mitemcinal evacuates more intestinal luminal contents during the defecation than does sennoside. PMID:19508333

  10. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  11. Evaluation of muscarinic agonist-induced analgesia in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Duttaroy, Alokesh; Gomeza, Jesus; Gan, Jai-Wei; Siddiqui, Nasir; Basile, Anthony S; Harman, W Dean; Smith, Philip L; Felder, Christian C; Levey, Allan I; Wess, Jürgen

    2002-11-01

    Centrally active muscarinic agonists display pronounced analgesic effects. Identification of the specific muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype(s) mediating this activity is of considerable therapeutic interest. To examine the roles of the M(2) and M(4) receptor subtypes, the two G(i)/G(o)-coupled mAChRs, in mediating agonist-dependent antinociception, we generated a mutant mouse line deficient in both M(2) and M(4) mAChRs [M(2)/M(4) double-knockout (KO) mice]. In wild-type mice, systemic, intrathecal, or intracerebroventricular administration of centrally active muscarinic agonists resulted in robust analgesic effects, indicating that muscarinic analgesia can be mediated by both spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Strikingly, muscarinic agonist-induced antinociception was totally abolished in M(2)/M(4) double-KO mice, independent of the route of application. The nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine showed reduced analgesic potency in M(2) receptor single-KO mice, but retained full analgesic activity in M(4) receptor single-KO mice. In contrast, two novel muscarinic agonists chemically derived from epibatidine, CMI-936 and CMI-1145, displayed reduced analgesic activity in both M(2) and M(4) receptor single-KO mice, independent of the route of application. Radioligand binding studies indicated that the two CMI compounds, in contrast to oxotremorine, showed >6-fold higher affinity for M(4) than for M(2) receptors, providing a molecular basis for the observed differences in agonist activity profiles. These data provide unambiguous evidence that muscarinic analgesia is exclusively mediated by a combination of M(2) and M(4) mAChRs at both spinal and supraspinal sites. These findings should be of considerable relevance for the development of receptor subtype-selective muscarinic agonists as novel analgesic drugs. PMID:12391271

  12. Molecular docking screening using agonist-bound GPCR structures: probing the A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, David; Gao, Zhang-Guo; Moss, Steven M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Carlsson, Jens

    2015-03-23

    Crystal structures of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have recently revealed the molecular basis of ligand binding and activation, which has provided exciting opportunities for structure-based drug design. The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) is a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases, but progress in this area is limited by the lack of novel agonist scaffolds. We carried out docking screens of 6.7 million commercially available molecules against active-like conformations of the A2AAR to investigate whether these structures could guide the discovery of agonists. Nine out of the 20 predicted agonists were confirmed to be A2AAR ligands, but none of these activated the ARs. The difficulties in discovering AR agonists using structure-based methods originated from limited atomic-level understanding of the activation mechanism and a chemical bias toward antagonists in the screened library. In particular, the composition of the screened library was found to strongly reduce the likelihood of identifying AR agonists, which reflected the high ligand complexity required for receptor activation. Extension of this analysis to other pharmaceutically relevant GPCRs suggested that library screening may not be suitable for targets requiring a complex receptor-ligand interaction network. Our results provide specific directions for the future development of novel A2AAR agonists and general strategies for structure-based drug discovery. PMID:25625646

  13. Three-dimensional common-feature hypotheses for octopamine agonist 2-(arylimino)imidazolidines.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Taniguchi, Eiji; Eto, Morifusa

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 10 octopamine (OA) agonist 2-(Arylimino)imidazolidines (AIIs), 2-(Arylimino)thiazolidines (AITs) and 2-(Arylimino)oxazolidines (AIOs). Among the 10 common-featured models generated by program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a ring aromatic (RA), a positive ionizable (PI) and three hydrophobic aliphatic (HpAl) features was considered to be important in evaluating the OA-agonist activity. Active OA agonist 2,6-Et2 AII mapped well onto all the RA, PI and HpAl features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown to be difficult to achieve the energetically favorable conformation which is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3-D common-feature pharmacophore models. Taken together, 2,6-Et2-Ph and foramidine structures are important as OA agonists. The present studies on OA agonists demonstrate that a RA, a PI and three HpAl sites located on the molecule seem to be essential for OA-agonist activity. PMID:11738614

  14. Cannabinoid agonist rescues learning and memory after a traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Marium; Khan, Maida; Craig, Laura; Nakanishi, Stan T

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury can cause persistent challenges including problems with learning and memory. Previous studies suggest that the activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor after a traumatic brain injury could be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that posttraumatic brain injury administration of a cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist can rescue deficits in learning and memory. Young adult male rats were subjected to a moderately severe controlled cortical impact brain injury, with a subset given postinjury i.p. injections of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Utilizing novel object recognition and the morris water task, we found that the brain-injured animals treated with the agonist showed a marked recovery. PMID:25815355

  15. Differential sensitivities of the vascular K(ATP) channel to various PPAR activators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingji; Yu, Lei; Cui, Ningren; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Daling; Jiang, Chun

    2013-05-15

    Several agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are currently used for the treatment of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We have recently shown that one of them, Rosiglitazone, inhibits the vascular ATP-sensitive K? (K(ATP)) channel and compromises the coronary vasodilation by the ?-adrenoceptor agonist. Here, we show evidence for the channel inhibition by various PPAR agonists, information that may be useful for finding new therapeutical agents with less cardiovascular side-effects and more selective K(ATP) channel blockers targeting at the K(ir)6.1 subunit. Structural comparison of these PPAR agonists may shed insight into the critical chemical groups for the channel inhibition. K(ir)6.1/SUR2B channel was expressed in HEK293 cells and studied in whole-cell voltage clamp. The K(ir)6.1/SUR2B channel was strongly inhibited by several PPAR(?) agonists with potencies similar to, or higher than, that of Rosiglitazone, while other PPAR(?) agonists barely inhibited the channel. The K(ir)6.1/SUR2B channel was also inhibited by PPAR(?) and PPAR(?/?) agonists with intermediate potencies. The structure necessary for the channel inhibition appears to include the thiazole linked to an aromatic or furan ring. Additions of side groups such as small aliphatic chain increased the potency for channel inhibition, while additions of aromatic rings reduced it. These results indicate that the PPAR(?) agonists with weak K(ATP) channel inhibition may be potential candidates as therapeutical agents, and those with strong channel inhibition may be used as selective K(ATP) channel blockers. The structural information of the PPAR agonists may be useful for the development of new therapeutical modalities with less cardiovascular side-effects. PMID:23500542

  16. Regional- and agonist-dependent facilitation of human neurogastrointestinal functions by motilin receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Broad, J; Mukherjee, S; Samadi, M; Martin, JE; Dukes, GE; Sanger, GJ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Delayed gastric emptying is poorly managed. Motilin agonists are potential treatments but inadequate understanding into how enteric nerve functions are stimulated compromises drug/dose selection. Resolution is hampered by extreme species dependency so methods were developed to study human gastrointestinal neuromuscular activities and the neurobiology of motilin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Protocols to study neuromuscular activities were developed for different regions of human stomach and intestine (71 patients) using circular muscle preparations and electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nerves. Other tissues were fixed for immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS EFS evoked contractions and/or relaxations via cholinergic and nitrergic neurons, with additional tachykinergic activity in colon; these were consistent after 154 min (longer if stored overnight). Motilin 1–300 nM and the selective motilin agonist GSK962040 0.1–30 µM acted pre-junctionally to strongly facilitate cholinergic contractions of the antrum (Emax? 1000% for motilin), with smaller increases in fundus, duodenum and ileum; high concentrations increased baseline muscle tension in fundus and small intestine. There were minimal effects in the colon. In the antrum, cholinergic facilitation by motilin faded irregularly, even with peptidase inhibitors, whereas facilitation by GSK962040 was long lasting. Motilin receptor immunoreactivity was identified in muscle and myenteric plexus predominantly in the upper gut, co-expressed with choline acetyltransferase in neurons. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Motilin and GSK962040 strongly facilitated cholinergic activity in the antrum, with lower activity in fundus and small intestine only. Facilitation by motilin was short lived, consistent with participation in migrating motor complexes. Long-lasting facilitation by GSK962040 suggests different receptor interactions and potential for clinical evaluation. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Depoortere, pp. 760–762 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02046.x PMID:22537158

  17. PHOTOLABILE A1-ADENOSINE RECEPTOR AGONISTS AS “CAGED” ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROBES+

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, Michel C.; Arlinghaus, Lauren; Glashofer, Marc; Lee, Kevin S.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    5'-Ether derivatives of the potent adenosine agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) were designed as “caged” ligands for the activation of A1-adenosine receptors following in situ photolysis. The synthesis involved a 2',3'-diol protection scheme using the acid labile ethoxymethynyl group. Generation of CPA was demonstrated chromatographically and in a bioassay measuring the inhibition of synaptic potentials in the rat hippocampus.

  18. In search of potent 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Greg; Dunn, Derek; McKenna, Beth Ann; Kopec, Karla; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2014-06-01

    A series of non-sulfonamide/non-sulfone derived potent 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonists has been disclosed. Representative compound 9 (Ki  = 14 nm) displayed selectivity against a set of family members as well as brain permeability 6 h post-oral administration. In addition, the separated enantiomers of compound 9 displayed difference in activity indicating the influence of chirality on potency. PMID:24406060

  19. Amplifying TLR-MyD88 signals within tumor-specific T-cells enhances antitumor activity to suboptimal levels of weakly-immunogenic tumor-antigens

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Degui; Zheng, Liqin; Srivastava, Ratika; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Riker, Adam; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Davila, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of T-cell–based immunotherapy to treat cancer patients remains a challenge partly because of the weak activity toward subdominant tumor-antigens (TAg) and to tumors expressing suboptimal TAg levels. Recent reports indicate that Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation on T-cells can lower the activation threshold. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor activity and survival of TLR2-MyD88–stimulated CD8 T-cells derived from melanoma patients and T-cell receptor transgenic pmel mice. TLR2-stimulated pmel CD8 T-cells but not TLR2?/?pmel or MyD88?/?pmel T-cells responded to significantly lower TAg levels and resulted in increased production of effector molecules and cytotoxicity. Wild-type or MyD88?/? mice treated with TLR2 ligand and pmel T-cells, but not TLR2?/?pmel or MyD88?/?pmel T-cells, showed tumor regression of an established melanoma tumor. Over-expressing TLR2 in TA-specific T-cells eradicated tumors; four-times fewer cells were needed to generate anti-tumor responses. The enhanced anti-tumor activity of TLR2-MyD88–stimulated T-cells was associated with increased effector function but perhaps more importantly with improved survival of T-cells. Activating TLR-MyD88 signals in patient-derived T-cells also reduced the activation threshold to several weakly immunogenic TAgs, resulting in increased cytokine production, expansion and cytotoxicity. These data highlight a previously unappreciated role for activating TLR-MyD88 signals in tumor-reactive T-lymphocytes. PMID:20807806

  20. PPAR? agonists prevent TGF?1\\/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caiyan Zhao; Wei Chen; Liu Yang; Lihong Chen; Stephen A. Stimpson; Anna Mae. Diehl

    2006-01-01

    PPAR? agonists inhibit liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We hypothesized that PPAR? agonists inhibit transforming growth factor (TGF)?1-activation of TGF? receptor (TGF?R)-1 signaling in quiescent stellate cells, thereby abrogating Smad3-dependent induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, such as PAI-1 and collagen-1?I. To test this, human HSC were cultured to induce a quiescent phenotype, characterized by lipid accumulation

  1. [Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid, its agonists and antagonists on uterine smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Sizov, P I; Iasnetsov, V S

    1985-11-01

    Experiments on isolated strips of the rabbit uterus showed the ability of GABA, GABAA-receptor agonist (diazepam) and GABAB-receptor antagonist (phenibut) to inhibit uterine contractility. GABAA-receptor antagonist (bicuculline) had a stimulating effect on contractility. It is assumed that GABA-ergic system plays an important role in the regulation of functional inhibition of contractile activity in the rabbit uterus, with GABA agonists regarded as potential gravidoprotectors in uterine hyperactivity or threatening miscarriage. PMID:2998506

  2. Structure-based design of indole propionic acids as novel PPAR?\\/? co-agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Kuhn; Hans Hilpert; Jörg Benz; Alfred Binggeli; Uwe Grether; Roland Humm; Hans Peter Märki; Markus Meyer; Peter Mohr

    2006-01-01

    In the quest for novel PPAR?\\/? co-agonists as putative drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, we have used a structure-based design approach to identify propionic acids with a 1,5-disubstituted indole scaffold as potent PPAR?\\/? activators. Compounds 13, 24, and 28 are examples of submicromolar dual agonists with different ?\\/? EC50 ratios that are selective against the

  3. Potent Adjuvanticity of a Pure TLR7-Agonistic Imidazoquinoline Dendrimer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Salunke, Deepak B.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Mutz, Cole A.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2012-01-01

    Engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve to link innate immune responses with adaptive immunity and can be exploited as powerful vaccine adjuvants for eliciting both primary and anamnestic immune responses. TLR7 agonists are highly immunostimulatory without inducing dominant proinflammatory cytokine responses. We synthesized a dendrimeric molecule bearing six units of a potent TLR7/TLR8 dual-agonistic imidazoquinoline to explore if multimerization of TLR7/8 would result in altered activity profiles. A complete loss of TLR8-stimulatory activity with selective retention of the TLR7-agonistic activity was observed in the dendrimer. This was reflected by a complete absence of TLR8-driven proinflammatory cytokine and interferon (IFN)-? induction in human PBMCs, with preservation of TLR7-driven IFN-? induction. The dendrimer was found to be superior to the imidazoquinoline monomer in inducing high titers of high-affinity antibodies to bovine ?-lactalbumin. Additionally, epitope mapping experiments showed that the dendrimer induced immunoreactivity to more contiguous peptide epitopes along the amino acid sequence of the model antigen. PMID:22952720

  4. Discovery of 4-(4-(2-((5-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)(propyl)amino)-ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-8-ol and its analogues as highly potent dopamine D2/D3 agonists and as iron chelator: In vivo activity indicates potential application in symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been implicated strongly due to generation of oxidative stress leading to dopamine cell death. In our overall goal to develop bifunctional/multifunctional drugs, we designed dopamine D2/D3 agonist molecules with a capacity to bind to iron. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptors with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (Ki). Functional activity of selected compounds was carried out with GTP?S binding assay. SAR results identified compounds (+)-19a and (?)-19b as two potent agonists for both D2 and D3 receptors (EC50 (GTP?S); D2 = 4.51 and 1.69 nM and D3 = 1.58 and 0.74 nM for (?)-19b and (+)-19a, respectively). In vitro complexation studies with 19b demonstrated efficient chelation with iron. Furthermore, the deoxyribose assay with 19b demonstrated potent antioxidant activity. In PD animal model study, (?)-19b exhibited potent in vivo activity in reversing locomotor activity in reserpinized rats and also in producing potent rotational activity in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. This reports initial development of unique lead molecules which might find potential use in symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment of PD. PMID:20146482

  5. Discovery of 4-(4-(2-((5-Hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)(propyl)amino)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-8-ol and its analogues as highly potent dopamine D2/D3 agonists and as iron chelator: in vivo activity indicates potential application in symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2010-03-11

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been implicated strongly because of generation of oxidative stress leading to dopamine cell death. In our overall goal to develop bifunctional/multifunctional drugs, we designed dopamine D2/D3 agonist molecules with a capacity to bind to iron. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptor with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (K(i)). Functional activity of selected compounds was carried out with GTPgammaS binding assay. SAR results identified compounds (+)-19a and (-)-19b as two potent agonists for both D2 and D3 receptors (EC(50) (GTPgammaS); D2 = 4.51 and 1.69 nM and D3 = 1.58 and 0.74 nM for (-)-19b and (+)-19a, respectively). In vitro complexation studies with 19b demonstrated efficient chelation with iron. Furthermore, the deoxyribose assay with 19b demonstrated potent antioxidant activity. In PD animal model study, (-)-19b exhibited potent in vivo activity in reversing locomotor activity in reserpinized rats and also in producing potent rotational activity in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. This reports initial development of unique lead molecules that might find potential use in symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment of PD. PMID:20146482

  6. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I Suhr; P. V Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition of spoilage organisms from bakery products by weak acid preservatives in concentrations of 0%, 0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3% (w\\/v) was investigated experimentally on a substrate media with water activity (aw) and pH ranging from sourdough-fermented acidic rye bread to alkaline intermediate moisture sponge cake types (aw 0.80–0.95, pH 4.7–7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (aw 0.94–0.97 and pH 4.4–4.8) in

  7. Perception of specific trigeminal chemosensory agonists

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, J; Albrecht, J; Bryant, B; Lundström, JN

    2011-01-01

    The intranasal trigeminal system is a third chemical sense in addition to olfaction and gustation. As opposed to smell and taste, we still lack knowledge on the relationship between receptor binding and perception for the trigeminal system. We therefore investigated the sensitivity of the intranasal trigeminal system towards agonists of the trigeminal receptors TRPM8 and TRPA1 by assessing subjects’ ability to identify which nostril has been stimulated in a monorhinal stimulation design. We summed the number of correct identifications resulting in a lateralization score. Stimuli were menthol (activating TRPM8 receptors), eucalyptol (TRPM8), mustard oil (TRPA1) and two mixtures thereof (menthol/eucalyptol and menthol/mustard oil). In addition, we examined the relationship between intensity and lateralization scores and investigated whether intensity evaluation and lateralization scores of the mixtures show additive effects. All stimuli were correctly lateralized significantly above chance. Across subjects the lateralization scores for single compounds activating the same receptor showed a stronger correlation than stimuli activating different receptors. Although single compounds were isointense, the mixture of menthol and eucalyptol (activating only TRPM8) was perceived as weaker and was lateralized less accurately than the mixture of menthol and mustard oil (activating both TRPM8 and TRPA1) suggesting suppression effects in the former mixture. In conclusion, sensitivity of different subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons seems to be related, but only to a certain degree. The large coherence in sensitivity between various intranasal trigeminal stimuli suggests that measuring sensitivity to one single trigeminal chemical stimulus may be sufficient to generally assess the trigeminal system’s chemosensitivity. Further, for stimuli activating the same receptor a mixture suppression effect appears to occur similar to that observed in the other chemosensory systems. PMID:21575683

  8. In vitro screening for aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using a highly sensitive reporter cell line, DR-EcoScreen cells, and in vivo mouse liver cytochrome P450-1A induction by propanil, diuron and linuron.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Iida, Mitsuru; Yabushita, Hisatoshi; Matsuda, Tadashi; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    2008-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cellular proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have developed a highly sensitive AhR-mediated reporter cell line, DR-EcoScreen cells, which are mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells stably transfected with a reporter plasmid containing seven copies of dioxin-responsive element. Using these DR-EcoScreen cells, we performed the reporter gene assay and characterized the AhR agonistic activities of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 12 acid amides, 7 triazines, 6 ureas, and 45 others). Eleven of the 200 pesticides (acifluorfen-methyl, bifenox, chlorpyrifos, isoxathion, quinalphos, chlorpropham, diethofencarb, propanil, diuron, linuron, and prochloraz) showed AhR-mediated transcriptional activity. In particular, three herbicides (propanil, diuron, and linuron) have a common chemical structure and showed more potent agonistic activity than other pesticides. To investigate the in vivo effects, we examined the gene expression of AhR-inducible cytochrome P450 1As (CYP1As) in the liver of female C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally injected with these three herbicides (300 mg kg(-1)) by quantitative RT-PCR, resulting in induction of significant high levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs. This indicates that propanil, diuron and linuron possess AhR-mediated transactivation effect in vivo as well as in vitro. Through the present study, we demonstrated that DR-EcoScreen cells are useful for sensitive, rapid and simple identification of AhR agonists among a large number of environmental chemicals. PMID:18835618

  9. Lepidozenolide from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana acts as a farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Lepidozenolide is a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana and its possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and hyperglycemia. In this study, whether lepidozenolide may act as a FXR agonist was determined. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, lepidozenolide transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in a dose-dependent manner, while it exhibited slightly less agonistic activity than chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR agonist. Through the molecular modeling docking studies lepidozenolide was shown to bind to FXR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that lepidozenolide acts as a FXR agonist. PMID:25315435

  10. Effect of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on alanine amino transferase, fructose-1:6-bisphosphatase and glucose production in hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasim Ara Begum; Asoke G. Datta

    1992-01-01

    Using rat hepatocytes we confirmed our previous results that glucagon and ß-adrenergic agonists increased the enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase (AAT) and propranolol abolished their effects. Only the enzyme activity was measured and other parameters like quantity of the enzyme or activation due to modification were not looked for. As in perfusion experiment phenylephrine and phenoxybenzamine (a-agonist and a-antagonist respectively)

  11. Wnt Agonist Attenuates Liver Injury and Improves Survival after Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kuncewitch, Michael; Yang, Weng-Lang; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is well characterized in stem cell biology and plays a critical role in liver development, regeneration, and homeostasis. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through its known proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 70% hepatic ischemia by microvascular clamping of the hilum of the left and median lobes of the liver for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. Wnt agonist (2-amino-4-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino]-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, 5 mg/kg BW) or vehicle (20% DMSO in saline) in 0.5 ml was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 h prior to ischemia or infused intravenously over 30 min right after ischemia. Blood and tissue samples from the pre-treated groups were collected 24 h after reperfusion, and a survival study was performed. Hepatic expression of ?-catenin and its downstream target gene Axin2 were decreased after I/R while Wnt agonist restored their expression to sham levels. Wnt agonist blunted I/R-induced elevations of AST, ALT, and LDH and significantly improved the microarchitecture of the liver. The cell proliferation determined by Ki67 immunostaining significantly increased with Wnt agonist treatment and inflammatory cascades were dampened in Wnt agonist-treated animals, as demonstrated by attenuations in IL-6, myeloperoxdase, iNOS and nitrotyrosine. Wnt agonist also significantly decreased the amount of apoptosis, as evidenced by decreases in both TUNEL staining as well as caspase-3 activity levels. Finally, the 10-day survival rate was increased from 27% in the vehicle group to 73% in the pre-treated Wnt agonist group and 55% in the Wnt agonist post-ischemia treatment group. Thus, we propose that direct Wnt/?-catenin stimulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatic I/R. PMID:23143067

  12. S-16924, a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties. IV. A drug discrimination comparison with clozapine.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Schreiber, R; Monneyron, S; Denorme, B; Melon, C; Queriaux, S; Dekeyne, A

    1999-04-01

    The novel benzodioxopyrrolidine (S-16924) displays a clozapine-like profile of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors, in addition to potent agonist activity at serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors. S-16924 (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and clozapine (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) generated robust discriminative stimuli (DS) and displayed full mutual generalization. The D4 antagonists L-745,870 and S-18126, the D1/D5 antagonist SCH-39166, and the D3 antagonist S-14297 showed at most partial generalization to S-16924 and clozapine. The D2/D3 antagonist raclopride fully generalized to S-16924, but only partially generalized to clozapine. The 5-HT2A antagonist MDL-100, 907 fully generalized to S-16924 and two further 5-HT2A antagonists, fananserin and SR-46349, showed partial generalization. However, MDL-100,907, fananserin, and SR-46349 showed less pronounced generalization to clozapine. Similarly, the 5-HT2C antagonists SB-200,646 and SB-206,553 more markedly generalized to S-16924 than to clozapine. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+/-)-8-dihydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Full generalization was obtained to both S-16924 and clozapine for the clozapine congeners, olanzapine and quetiapine. In distinction, the benzisoxazole, risperidone, and the phenylindole, sertindole, weakly generalized to S-16924 and clozapine. However, the benzisoxazole ziprasidone, which possesses 5-HT1A agonist properties, generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Finally, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine generalized fully to clozapine and partially to S-16924. In conclusion, S-16924 and clozapine display both communalities and differences in their "compound" DS; this likely reflects their respective complex patterns of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors. Although no specific receptor was identified as underlying the clozapine DS, 5-HT1A agonist as well as D2 and 5-HT2A/2C antagonist properties contribute to the S-16924 DS. PMID:10087034

  13. On the possibility of estimating weak interactions of macromolecules in solutions from the experimental viscous flow activation energies data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Varfolomeeva; V. Ya. Grinberg; V. B. Tolstogusov

    1980-01-01

    The initial viscosity and activation energy in viscous flow of the systems: water(W)-casein(C)-polysaccharide(PS) (gum arabic(G),de-xtran(D), extran sulfat (DS)) have been determined for various ionic strengths corresponding to total or limited thermodynamic compatibility of macrocomponents. Excess activation energy ?H?E due to the protein-polysaccharide interactions has been calculated. It is positive for systems with total compatibility and negative for systems with limited

  14. Total synthesis and dual PPAR?/? agonist effects of amorphastilbol and its synthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taejung; Lee, Woojung; Jeong, Kyu Hyuk; Song, Jung Ho; Park, Soon-Hye; Choi, Pilju; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Seokjoon; Ham, Jungyeob

    2012-06-15

    Amorphastilbol (APH-1), isolated from a Robinia pseudoacacia var. umbraculifer [corrected] seed extract, is a biologically interesting natural trans-stilbene compound with dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? agonist activity. After total synthesis of APH-1 and its derivatives by Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a common (E)-styryl bromide intermediate and various aromatic trifluoroborate compounds, we biologically evaluated APH-2-APH-12 for PPAR agonist activity. APH-4 and APH-11 were effective PPAR?/? transcriptional activators, compared with APH-1. Therefore, we suggest that APH-4 and APH-11 are novel dual PPAR?/? agonists and are potentially useful for treating type 2 diabetes by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:22579420

  15. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A165b Is a Weak In vitro Agonist for VEGF Receptor2 Due to Lack of Coreceptor Binding and Deficient Regulation of Kinase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harukiyo Kawamura; Xiujuan Li; Steven J. Harper; David O. Bates

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165b is a COOH- terminal splice variant of VEGF-A that has been implicated in negative regulation of angiogenesis. We compared the properties of VEGF-A165b with those of VEGF-A121, VEGF- A145, and VEGF-A165. Induction of tyrosine phosphoryla- tion sites in VEGFR-2 differed between the VEGF ligands as determined by tryptic phosphopeptide mapping and by use of phosphosite-specific

  16. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate>clobetasone butyrate>betamethasone 17-valerate>difluprednate>betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate>Dex>betamethasone>6?-methylprednisolone>prednisolone>cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from <3.0-78ngL(-1) (median: 29ngL(-1), n=50). To evaluate the contribution of the target GCs, theoretical Dex-EQs were calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each GC by its respective REP. Our calculation of Dex-EQ contribution for individual GR agonists indicated that the well-known GCs cortisol and Dex should not be given priority for subsequent in vivo testing, monitoring and removal experiments, but rather the highly potent synthetic GCs clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate (REP=28 and 3.1) as well as other unidentified compounds are important GR agonists in STP effluents in Japan. PMID:25965047

  17. Action of novel antipsychotics at human dopamine D3 receptors coupled to G protein and ERK1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, Liesbeth A; Palmier, Christiane; Tardif, Stéphanie; Cussac, Didier

    2007-08-01

    The effects of new generation antipsychotic drugs (APDs) targeting dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors were compared with typical and atypical APDs on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and measures of G protein activation in CHO cell lines stably expressing the human dopamine D(3) receptor. The preferential dopamine D(3) agonists (+)-7-OH-DPAT and PD128907, like dopamine and quinelorane, efficaciously stimulated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation at dopamine D(3) receptors. In contrast, in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding experiments, (+)-7-OH-DPAT exhibited partial agonist properties, while PD128907 and quinelorane maintained full agonist properties. The preferential dopamine D(3) ligand BP 897 and the antidyskinetic sarizotan partially activated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation while exerting no agonist activity on GTPgammaS binding, suggesting signal amplification at the MAP kinase level. Antipsychotics differed in their ability to inhibit both agonist-stimulated GTPgammaS binding and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, but all typical and atypical compounds tested acted as dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists with the exception of n-desmethylclozapine, the active metabolite of clozapine, which partially activated dopamine D(3) receptor-mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Among the new generation dopamine D(2)/serotonin 5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, only F 15063 and SLV313 acted as pure dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists, bifeprunox was highly efficacious whereas SSR181507 and aripiprazole showed marked partial agonist properties for ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, in the GTPgammaS binding study, aripiprazole was devoid of agonist properties and bifeprunox, and to an even lesser extent SSR181507, only weakly stimulated GTPgammaS binding. In summary, these findings underline the differences of dopamine D(3) properties of new generation antipsychotics which may need to be considered in understanding their diverse therapeutic actions. PMID:17588617

  18. Endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine binding site have inverse agonistic properties.

    PubMed

    Sliva, Jiri; Hess, Ladislav; Votava, Martin; Malek, Jiri

    2013-12-01

    Benzodiazepines have been widely used in clinical praxis for many decades. They act as GABAA receptor agonists and possess muscle-relaxant, hypnotic-sedative, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic properties. Flumazenil acts as a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (subunits ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?5) or partial agonist (subunits ?4 and ?6). It competitively inhibits the activity at the benzodiazepine recognition site on the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex, thereby reversing the effects of benzodiazepines. In our experiments, administration of flumazenil in rabbits was surprisingly associated with anxiolytic effects similar to those of midazolam. Additionally, flumazenil significantly and dose-dependently decreased the total number of vocalizations in rats, i.e. it was anxiolytic. These observations seem to be in contrast to the effect of flumazenil in humans, where it is believed to produce mainly anxiogenic effects. It seems that in individuals, who exhibit anxiogenic behavior or in individuals with anticipation anxiety, flumazenil acts as an anxiolytic agent, while in individuals without any signs of anxiety, flumazenil can also act as anxiogenic agent. Thus, we hypothesize that flumazenil is associated with decreased intensity of anticipatory anxiety due to occupancy of benzodiazepine binding sites by an endogenous ligand with inverse agonistic properties. PMID:24183322

  19. Evidence for lack of modulation of mu-opioid agonist action by delta-opioid agonists in the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J; Traynor, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. There is evidence from in vivo studies for an interaction of mu- and delta-opioid ligands. In the present work this concept has been investigated using the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal preparations. 2. In field stimulated vasa deferentia of the mouse, co-administration of sub-effective concentrations of the delta-opioid agonist [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and [Met5]- or [Leu5]enkephalin had no effect on the dose-response curves of the mu-agonists [D-Ala2,MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine. Similarly, the delta-opioid agonists did not alter the potency of morphine and DAMGO when added at different times prior to the mu-opioid agonists, or when EC50 concentrations of delta-opioid ligands were co-administered. Compounds with preferred activity for the putative delta 1-(DPDPE) or delta 2-([D-Ala2,Glu4]deltorphin II (Delt II)) opioid receptors were ineffective in this respect. 3. The guinea-pig ileum contains delta-opioid receptors. No function of these receptors in mediating blockage of field-stimulated contractions was observed with ligands having affinity for the putative delta 1 or delta 2 subtypes nor were the agonists able to modulate responses to mu-opioid ligands in this tissue. 4. The results demonstrate the modulation of mu-opioid agonists by delta-opioid agonists does not occur in the isolated peripheral tissues examined. Thus the findings do not support the concept of a functional coupling of opioid receptors, though the results may be explained by differences between opioid systems in the brain and peripheral tissues examined. PMID:7780641

  20. Effect of structurally constrained oxime–ether linker on PPAR subtype selectivity: Discovery of a novel and potent series of PPAR-pan agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Makadia; Shailesh R. Shah; Harikishore Pingali; Pandurang Zaware; Darshit Patel; Suresh Pola; Baban Thube; Priyanka Priyadarshini; Dinesh Suthar; Maanan Shah; Suresh Giri; Chitrang Trivedi; Mukul Jain; Pankaj Patel; Rajesh Bahekar

    2011-01-01

    A novel series of thaizole and oxazole containing phenoxy acetic acid derivatives is reported as PPAR-pan agonists. Incorporation of structurally constrained oxime–ether based linker in the chemotype of a potent PPAR? selective agonist GW-501516 was adapted as designing strategy. In vitro, selected test compounds 12a, 12c, 17a and 18a showed PPAR-pan agonists activities and among these four compounds tested, 12a

  1. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-02-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  2. A Human Platelet Calcium Calculator Trained by Pairwise Agonist Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  3. Considerations when assessing antagonism in vitro: Why standardizing the agonist concentration matters.

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of assessing both agonism and antagonism in parallel for environmental samples. Cell-based in vitro assays have the advantage over receptor binding assays as they are able to differentiate between agonist and antagonist activity, but at present there is no standardized approach to assess antagonism in vitro, and in particular the competing agonist concentration can vary in the literature anywhere from half maximal to maximal effect concentrations. In this study, we investigated the influence of changing agonist concentrations in the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) assays run in antagonist mode. The antagonistic effect varied by over two orders of magnitude when using the range of agonist concentrations applied in the literature, clearly indicating the need for standardization. By comparing antagonist EC50 values with different background agonist concentrations, an EC80 background agonist concentration is recommended when assessing antagonism in vitro to optimise both assay sensitivity and reproducibility. PMID:25876032

  4. Identification of in vitro estrogen and androgen receptor agonists in North Sea offshore produced water discharges.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark R; Thain, John E

    2004-05-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) agonist potency of offshore produced water discharges was examined via bioassay-directed chemical analysis. The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) agonist potency of five produced water samples collected from oil-production platforms in the British and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea was determined by using the yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Produced water samples were extracted in situ on the production platforms by using large-volume solid-phase extraction. All five extracts tested positive for the presence of ER agonists, whereas no AR agonist activity could be detected. By using the yeast estrogen screen assay in association with bioassay-directed fractionation, attempts were made to identify the ER agonist compounds present in the produced water extracts. The fractionation procedure used cyano-amino-bonded silica normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to isolate estrogenic compounds from produced water extract followed by full-scan gas chromatography-electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC-(EI)MS) to identify them. Isomeric mixtures of C1 to C5 and C9 alkylphenols contributed to the majority of the ER agonist potency measured in the samples. PMID:15180366

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Drage; Han-Chun Tsai; Nicole D. Pecora; Tan-Yun Cheng; Ahmad R. Arida; Supriya Shukla; Roxana E. Rojas; Chetan Seshadri; D. Branch Moody; W. Henry Boom; James C. Sacchettini; Clifford V. Harding

    2010-01-01

    Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (which share core structures). Binding

  6. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.5mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-?-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC50=0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other. PMID:23537660

  7. Discovery of novel indazole derivatives as dual angiotensin II antagonists and partial PPAR? agonists.

    PubMed

    Lamotte, Yann; Faucher, Nicolas; Sançon, Julien; Pineau, Olivier; Sautet, Stéphane; Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Beneton, Véronique; Tousaint, Jean-Jacques; Saintillan, Yannick; Ancellin, Nicolas; Nicodeme, Edwige; Grillot, Didier; Martres, Paul

    2014-02-15

    Identification of indazole derivatives acting as dual angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists and partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists is described. Starting from Telmisartan, we previously described that indole derivatives were very potent partial PPAR? agonists with loss of AT1 receptor antagonist activity. Design, synthesis and evaluation of new central scaffolds led us to the discovery of pyrrazolopyridine then indazole derivatives provided novel series possessing the desired dual activity. Among the new compounds, 38 was identified as a potent AT1 receptor antagonist (IC50=0.006 ?M) and partial PPAR? agonist (EC50=0.25 ?M, 40% max) with good oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of compound 38 was demonstrated in two preclinical models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (Zucker fa/fa rat). PMID:24462665

  8. 2-Aminoalkyl nicotinamide derivatives as pure inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bitoku; Funami, Hideaki; Iwaki, Takehiko; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Nagahira, Asako; Koyama, Makoto; Kamiide, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Tsuyoshi; Muto, Tsuyoshi; Annoura, Hirokazu

    2015-07-01

    New inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor (ghrelinR) were obtained through high-throughput screening and subsequent structural modification of 2-aminoalkyl nicotinamide derivatives. The key structural feature to improve in vitro activity was the introduction of a diazabicyclo ring at the 5-position of the pyridine ring. The final product showed potent inverse agonist activity and, despite its low brain permeability, reduced food intake in both normal and obese mice. These results implied that peripheral ghrelinR activity is important for appetite control and that a peripheral ghrelinR inverse agonist could be an anti-obesity drug with reduced risk of central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects. PMID:25981690

  9. Endomorphin-2: A Biased Agonist at the ?-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Llorente, Javier; McPherson, Jamie; Cooke, Alex; Mundell, Stuart J.; McArdle, Craig A.; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M.; Charlton, Steven J.; Krasel, Cornelius; Bailey, Christopher P.; Henderson, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Previously we correlated the efficacy for G protein activation with that for arrestin recruitment for a number of agonists at the ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) stably expressed in HEK293 cells. We suggested that the endomorphins (endomorphin-1 and -2) might be biased toward arrestin recruitment. In the present study, we investigated this phenomenon in more detail for endomorphin-2, using endogenous MOPr in rat brain as well as MOPr stably expressed in HEK293 cells. For MOPr in neurons in brainstem locus ceruleus slices, the peptide agonists [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and endomorphin-2 activated inwardly rectifying K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of these responses with the operational model of pharmacological agonism confirmed that endomorphin-2 had a much lower operational efficacy for G protein-mediated responses than did DAMGO at native MOPr in mature neurons. However, endomorphin-2 induced faster desensitization of the K+ current than did DAMGO. In addition, in HEK293 cells stably expressing MOPr, the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce phosphorylation of Ser375 in the COOH terminus of the receptor, to induce association of arrestin with the receptor, and to induce cell surface loss of receptors was much more efficient than would be predicted from its efficacy for G protein-mediated signaling. Together, these results indicate that endomorphin-2 is an arrestin-biased agonist at MOPr and the reason for this is likely to be the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce greater phosphorylation of MOPr than would be expected from its ability to activate MOPr and to induce activation of G proteins. PMID:22553358

  10. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 ?M) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other protocols, and delineate the use of oxytocin to strengthen the efficiency of electrical stimulation to activate locomotor circuits. PMID:24658101

  11. Effects of 5HT1A receptor agonists, partial agonists and a silent antagonist on the performance of the conditioned emotional response test in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Stanhope; C. T. Dourish

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of 5-HT1A receptor ligands with varying degrees of intrinsic activity at the 5-HT1A receptor were examined in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test and their effects compared to those of the benzodiazepine\\u000a receptor agonists, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide. Diazepam (3.0?mg\\/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (3.0?mg\\/kg), and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists, ipsapirone (10.0?mg\\/kg) and gepirone (3.0?mg\\/kg), alleviated

  12. A radial distribution function approach to predict A 2B agonist effect of adenosine analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maykel Pérez González; Carmen Terán; Yagamare Fall; Marta Teijeira; Pedro Besada

    2005-01-01

    The radial distribution function (RDF) approach has been applied to the study of the A2B agonist effect of a set of 89 adenosine analogues reported with this activity. A model able to describe more than 70% of the variance in the experimental activity was developed with the use of the mentioned approach. In contrast, none of the eleven different approaches

  13. ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 expression are increased in macrophages treated with TLR agonists.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Kenneth R; Kazemi, Mahmood R; Magra, Amy L; McDonald, Carol M; Chui, Lisa G; Shigenaga, Judy K; Patzek, Sophie M; Chan, Zoe W; Londos, Constantine; Grunfeld, Carl

    2010-03-01

    Activation of macrophages by TLR agonists enhances foam cell formation, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We examined the effects of TLR agonists on ADRP/ADFP, a protein associated with forming lipid droplets, and Mal1 a fatty acid-binding protein, in two mouse macrophage cell lines and human monocytes. Low doses of LPS, a TLR4 agonist increased both mRNA and protein levels of ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Following pretreatment with Intralipid, fatty acids, or acetyl-LDL to increase triglyceride or cholesterol ester storage, LPS treatment still increased ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 mRNA levels. LPS also induced ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 in J774 macrophages and ADRP/ADFP in human monocytes. Zymosan, a fungal product that activates TLR2, poly-I:C, a viral mimetic that activates TLR3, and imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist, also increased ADRP/ADFP. Zymosan, but not poly-I:C or imiquimod, induced Mal1. In contrast, neither gene was induced by TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, or interferon-gamma. Thus TLR agonists induce ADRP/ADFP and Mal1, which likely contributes to macrophage triglyceride and cholesterol ester storage leading to foam cell formation. PMID:19748622

  14. ?2-Adrenoceptor agonists are required for development of the asthma phenotype in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Thanawala, Vaidehi J; Forkuo, Gloria S; Al-Sawalha, Nour; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Nguyen, Long P; Eriksen, Jason L; Tuvim, Michael J; Lowder, Thomas W; Dickey, Burton F; Knoll, Brian J; Walker, Julia K L; Bond, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    ?(2)-Adrenoceptor (?2AR) agonists are the most effective class of bronchodilators and a mainstay of asthma management. The first potent ?2AR agonist discovered and widely used in reversing the airway constriction associated with asthma e