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Sample records for weak agonist activity

  1. ?-Galactosylceramide Analogs with Weak Agonist Activity for Human iNKT Cells Define New Candidate Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bricard, Gabriel; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Yu, Karl O. A.; Im, Jin S.; Ndonye, Rachel M.; Howell, Amy R.; Veerapen, Natacha; Illarionov, Petr A.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Li, Qian; Chang, Young-Tae; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells with invariant T cell receptor ? chains (iNKT cells) are a unique lymphocyte subset that responds to recognition of specific lipid and glycolipid antigens. They are conserved between mice and humans and exert various immunoregulatory functions through their rapid secretion of a variety of cytokines and secondary activation of dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells. In the current study, we analyzed the range of functional activation states of human iNKT cells using a library of novel analogs of ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer), the prototypical iNKT cell antigen. Measurement of cytokines secreted by human iNKT cell clones over a wide range of glycolipid concentrations revealed that iNKT cell ligands could be classified into functional groups, correlating with weak versus strong agonistic activity. The findings established a hierarchy for induction of different cytokines, with thresholds for secretion being consistently lowest for IL-13, higher for interferon-? (IFN?), and even higher for IL-4. These findings suggested that human iNKT cells can be intrinsically polarized to selective production of IL-13 by maintaining a low level of activation using weak agonists, whereas selective polarization to IL-4 production cannot be achieved through modulating the strength of the activating ligand. In addition, using a newly designed in vitro system to assess the ability of human iNKT cells to transactivate NK cells, we found that robust secondary induction of interferon-? secretion by NK cells was associated with strong but not weak agonist ligands of iNKT cells. These results indicate that polarization of human iNKT cell responses to Th2-like or anti-inflammatory effects may best be achieved through selective induction of IL-13 and suggest potential discrepancies with findings from mouse models that may be important in designing iNKT cell-based therapies in humans. PMID:21179412

  2. Agonist-activated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ion channels as an example of the pharmacologist's stock in trade, the action of an agonist on a receptor to produce a response. Looked at in this way, ion channels have been helpful because they are still the only system which is simple enough for quantitative investigation of transduction mechanisms. A short history is given of attempts to elucidate what happens between the time when agonist first binds, and the time when the channel opens. PMID:16402101

  3. Zebrafish cardiotoxicity: the effects of CYP1A inhibition and AHR2 knockdown following exposure to weak aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel R; Clark, Bryan W; Garner, Lindsey V T; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Strong AHR agonists, such as certain polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause severe cardiac teratogenesis in fish embryos. Moderately strong AHR agonists, such as benzo[a]pyrene and ?-naphthoflavone, have been shown to cause similar cardiotoxic effects when coupled with a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) inhibitor, such as fluoranthene (FL). We sought to determine if weak AHR agonists, when combined with a CYP1A inhibitor (FL) or CYP1A morpholino gene knockdown, are capable of causing cardiac deformities similar to moderately strong AHR agonists (Wassenberg and Di Giulio Environ Health Perspect 112(17):1658-1664, 2004a; Wassenberg and Di Giulio Res 58(2-5):163-168, 2004b; Billiard et al. Toxicol Sci 92(2):526-536, 2006; Van Tiem and Di Giulio Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 254(3):280-287, 2011). The weak AHR agonists included the following: carbaryl, phenanthrene, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, indigo, and indirubin. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos were first exposed to weak AHR agonists at equimolar concentrations. The agonists were assessed for their relative potency as inducers of CYP1 enzyme activity, measured by the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay, and cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, and 3-methylindole induced the highest CYP1A activity in zebrafish. Experiments were then conducted to determine the individual cardiotoxicity of each compound. Next, zebrafish were coexposed to each agonist (at concentrations below those determined to be cardiotoxic) and FL in combination to assess if CYP1A inhibition could induce cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, and phenanthrene significantly increased pericardial edema relative to controls when combined with FL. To further evaluate the interaction of the weak AHR agonists and CYP1A inhibition, a morpholino was used to knockdown CYP1A expression, and embryos were then exposed to each agonist individually. In embryos exposed to 2-methylindole, CYP1A knockdown caused a similar level of pericardial edema to that caused by exposure to 2-methylindole and FL. The results showed a complex pattern of cardiotoxic response to weak agonist inhibitor exposure and morpholino-knockdown. However, CYP1A knockdown in phenanthrene and 3-methylindole only moderately increased pericardial edema relative to coexposure to FL. AHR2 expression was also knocked down using a morpholino to determine its role in mediating the observed cardiac teratogenesis. Knockdown of AHR2 did not rescue the pericardial edema as previously observed with strong AHR agonists. While some of the cardiotoxicity observed may be attributed to the combination of weak AHR agonism and CYP1A inhibition, other weak AHR agonists appear to be causing cardiotoxicity through an AHR2-independent mechanism. The data show that CYP1A is protective of the cardiac toxicity associated with weak AHR agonists and that knockdown can generate pericardial edema, but these findings are also suggestive of differing mechanisms of cardiac toxicity among known AHR agonists. PMID:25532870

  4. Weak rappers rock more: hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Elizabeth; Briffa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps did not show a reduction in the number of raps used. By contrast, they showed an increased frequency of a less intense agonistic behaviour, shell rocking. This change in behaviour, in attackers that are forced to rap weakly, indicates that they assess their own agonistic behaviour. PMID:26740563

  5. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Cureri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of cAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of cAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  6. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  7. Potent Agonists of the Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2)

    PubMed Central

    Boitano, Scott; Flynn, Andrea N.; Schulz, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Justin; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Novel peptidomimetic pharmacophores to PAR2 were designed based on the known activating peptide SLIGRL-NH2. A set of 15 analogues was evaluated with a model cell line (16HBE14o-) that highly expresses PAR2. Cells exposed to the PAR2 activating peptide with N-terminal 2-furoyl modification (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2) initiated increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i EC50 = 0.84 ?M) and in vitro physiological responses as measured by the xCELLigence real time cell analyzer (RTCA EC50 = 138 nM). We discovered two selective PAR2 agonists with comparable potency: compound 1 (2-aminothiazol-4-yl; Ca2+ EC50 = 1.77 ?M, RTCA EC50 = 142 nM) and compound 2 (6-aminonicotinyl; Ca2+ EC50 = 2.60 ?M, RTCA EC50 = 311 nM). Unlike the previously described agonist, these novel agonists are devoid of the metabolically unstable 2-furoyl modification and thus provide potential advantages for PAR2 peptide design for in vitro and in vivo studies. The novel compounds described herein also serve as a starting point for structure–activity relationship (SAR) design and are, for the first time, evaluated via a unique high throughput in vitro physiological assay. Together these will lead to discovery of more potent agonists and antagonists of PAR2. PMID:21294569

  8. Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

    2009-05-28

    Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

  9. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ?300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by ?Y190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by ?W55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of ?(1) and one each of ?, ?, and either ? (fetal) or ? (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at ?? and either ?? or ?? subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C?O opening rate constant and C?O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly to reach a peak that corresponds to PO ?0.96. PMID:26206191

  10. Activity-Directed Synthesis with Intermolecular Reactions: Development of a Fragment into a Range of Androgen Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgis, George; Dow, Mark; Aimon, Anthony; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Activity-directed synthesis (ADS), a novel discovery approach in which bioactive molecules emerge in parallel with associated syntheses, was exploited to develop a weakly binding fragment into novel androgen receptor agonists. Harnessing promiscuous intermolecular reactions of carbenoid compounds enabled highly efficient exploration of chemical space. Four substrates were prepared, yet exploited in 326 reactions to explore diverse chemical space; guided by bioactivity alone, the products of just nine of the reactions were purified to reveal diverse novel agonists with up to 125-fold improved activity. Remarkably, one agonist stemmed from a novel enantioselective transformation; this is the first time that an asymmetric reaction has been discovered solely on the basis of the biological activity of the product. It was shown that ADS is a significant addition to the lead generation toolkit, enabling the efficient and rapid discovery of novel, yet synthetically accessible, bioactive chemotypes. PMID:26358926

  11. Activity-Directed Synthesis with Intermolecular Reactions: Development of a Fragment into a Range of Androgen Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, George; Dow, Mark; Aimon, Anthony; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Activity-directed synthesis (ADS), a novel discovery approach in which bioactive molecules emerge in parallel with associated syntheses, was exploited to develop a weakly binding fragment into novel androgen receptor agonists. Harnessing promiscuous intermolecular reactions of carbenoid compounds enabled highly efficient exploration of chemical space. Four substrates were prepared, yet exploited in 326 reactions to explore diverse chemical space; guided by bioactivity alone, the products of just nine of the reactions were purified to reveal diverse novel agonists with up to 125-fold improved activity. Remarkably, one agonist stemmed from a novel enantioselective transformation; this is the first time that an asymmetric reaction has been discovered solely on the basis of the biological activity of the product. It was shown that ADS is a significant addition to the lead generation toolkit, enabling the efficient and rapid discovery of novel, yet synthetically accessible, bioactive chemotypes. PMID:26358926

  12. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Biomimetic Agonist-Antagonist Active Knee Prosthesis

    E-print Network

    Herr, Hugh

    Design and Evaluation of a Biomimetic Agonist-Antagonist Active Knee Prosthesis by ARCHIVES Ernesto;Design and Evaluation of a Biomimetic Agonist-Antagonist Active Knee Prosthesis by Ernesto Carlos. This thesis presents the design and evaluation of a novel biomimetic active knee prosthesis capable

  14. Sustained wash-resistant receptor activation responses of GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, J Daniel; Bussey, Charlotte E; Brown, Alastair J; Scott, James S; Dale, Ian; Rawlins, Philip

    2015-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is involved in regulating metabolic homoeostasis, with GPR119 agonists targeted for the treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Using the endogenous agonist oleoylethanolamide and a number of small molecule synthetic agonists we have investigated the temporal dynamics of receptor signalling. Using both a dynamic luminescence biosensor-based assay and an endpoint cAMP accumulation assay we show that agonist-driven desensitization is not a major regulatory mechanism for GPR119 despite robust activation responses, regardless of the agonist used. Temporal analysis of the cAMP responses demonstrated sustained signalling resistant to washout for some, but not all of the agonists tested. Further analysis indicated that the sustained effects of one synthetic agonist AR-231,453 were consistent with a role for slow dissociation kinetics. In contrast, the sustained responses to MBX-2982 and AZ1 appeared to involve membrane deposition. We also detect wash-resistant responses to AR-231,453 at the level of physiologically relevant responses in an endogenous expression system (GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells). In conclusion, our findings indicate that in a recombinant expression system GPR119 activation is sustained, with little evidence of pronounced receptor desensitization, and for some ligands persistent agonist responses continue despite removal of excess agonist. This provides novel understanding of the temporal responses profiles of potential drug candidates targetting GPR119, and highlights the importance of carefully examining the the mechanisms through which GPCRs generate sustained responses. PMID:26101059

  15. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zim?ík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. PMID:25882246

  16. Agonist-induced platelet procoagulant activity requires shear and a Rac1-dependent signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Michael Keegan; Liu, Junling; Kim, Kyungho; Shen, Bo; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Zheng, Yi; Cho, Jaehyung; Du, Xiaoping

    2014-09-18

    Activated platelets facilitate blood coagulation by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) and releasing microvesicles (MVs). However, the potent physiological agonists thrombin and collagen poorly induce PS exposure when a single agonist is used. To obtain a greater procoagulant response, thrombin is commonly used in combination with glycoprotein VI agonists. However, even under these conditions, only a percentage of platelets express procoagulant activity. To date, it remains unclear why platelets poorly expose PS even when stimulated with multiple agonists and what the signaling pathways are of soluble agonist-induced platelet procoagulant activity. Here we show that physiological levels of shear present in blood significantly enhance agonist-induced platelet PS exposure and MV release, enabling low doses of a single agonist to induce full-scale platelet procoagulant activity. PS exposed on the platelet surface was immediately released as MVs, revealing a tight coupling between the 2 processes under shear. Using platelet-specific Rac1(-/-) mice, we discovered that Rac1 plays a common role in mediating the low-dose agonist-induced procoagulant response independent of platelet aggregation, secretion, and the apoptosis pathway. Platelet-specific Rac1 function was not only important for coagulation in vitro but also for fibrin accumulation in vivo following laser-induced arteriolar injury. PMID:25079357

  17. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? agonist fenofibrate and the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Unni; Stunes, Astrid K; Gustafsson, Björn I; Obrant, Karl J; Nordsletten, Lars; Berge, Rolf; Thommesen, Liv; Reseland, Janne E

    2009-01-01

    Background All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPAR? agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats. Methods Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. Results The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Conclusion We show opposite skeletal effects of PPAR? and ? agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPAR? activation. PMID:19331671

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta agonist ameliorated inflammasome activation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Yeon, Jong Eun; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoon, Eileen L; Suh, Sang Jun; Kang, Keunhee; Kim, Hae Rim; Kang, Seoung Hee; Yoo, Yang Jae; Je, Jihye; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inflammasome activation and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-? agonist treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were classified according to control or high fat diet (HFD) with or without PPAR-? agonist (GW) over period of 12 wk [control, HFD, HFD + lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HFD + LPS + GW group]. HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and/or LPS in the absence or presence of GW. RESULTS: HFD caused glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. In mice fed an HFD with LPS, caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1? in the liver were significantly increased. Treatment with GW ameliorated the steatosis and inhibited overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In HepG2 cells, PA and LPS treatment markedly increased mRNA of several nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family members (NLRP3, NLRP6, and NLRP10), caspase-1 and IL-1?. PA and LPS also exaggerated reactive oxygen species production. All of the above effects of PA and LPS were reduced by GW. GW also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK-?. CONCLUSION: PPAR-? agonist reduces fatty acid-induced inflammation and steatosis by suppressing inflammasome activation. Targeting the inflammasome by the PPAR-? agonist may have therapeutic implication for NAFLD. PMID:26668503

  19. Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 days after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.

  20. Inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists on collagen IV production in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Shen, Yachen; Li, Min; Su, Dongming; Xu, Weifeng; Liang, Xiubin; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists have beneficial effects on the kidney diseases through preventing microalbuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effects of PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and pioglitazone (Pio), on collagen IV production in mouse podocytes. The endogenous expression of PPAR-? was found in the primary podocytes and can be upregulated by Rosi and Pio, respectively, detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. PPAR-? agonist markedly blunted the increasing of collagen IV expression and extraction in podocytes induced by TGF-?. In contrast, adding PPAR-? antagonist, GW9662, to podocytes largely prevented the inhibition of collagen IV expression from Pio treatment. Our data also showed that phosphorylation of Smad2/3 enhanced by TGF-? in a time-dependent manner was significantly attenuated by adding Pio. The promoter region of collagen IV gene contains one putative consensus sequence of Smad-binding element (SBE) by promoter analysis, Rosi and Pio significantly ameliorated TGF-?-induced SBE4-luciferase activity. In conclusion, PPAR-? activation by its agonist, Rosi or Pio, in vitro directly inhibits collagen IV expression and synthesis in primary mouse podocytes. The suppression of collagen IV production was related to the inhibition of TGF-?-driven phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and decreased response activity of SBEs of collagen IV in PPAR-? agonist-treated mouse podocytes. This represents a novel mechanistic support regarding PPAR-? agonists as podocyte protective agents. PMID:25920446

  1. Systemic Chemotherapy Is Modulated by Platelet-Activating Factor-Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Ferracini, Matheus; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is used to treat numerous cancers including melanoma. However, its effectiveness in clinical settings is often hampered by various mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated that prooxidative stressor-mediated generation of oxidized lipids with platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity induces systemic immunosuppression that augments the growth of experimental melanoma tumors. We have recently shown that treatment of murine B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro or tumors implanted into syngeneic mice and treated intratumorally with various chemotherapeutic agents generated PAF-R agonists in a process blocked by antioxidants. Notably, these intratumoral chemotherapy-generated PAF-R agonists augmented the growth of secondary (untreated) tumors in a PAF-R dependent manner. As both localized and systemic chemotherapies are used based on tumor localization/stage and metastases, the current studies were sought to determine effects of PAF-R agonists on systemic chemotherapy against experimental melanoma. Here, we show that systemic chemotherapy with etoposide (ETOP) attenuates the growth of melanoma tumors when given subsequent to the tumor cell implantation. Importantly, this ETOP-mediated suppression of melanoma tumor growth was blocked by exogenous administration of a PAF-R agonist, CPAF. These findings indicate that PAF-R agonists not only negatively affect the ability of localized chemotherapy but also compromise the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy against murine melanoma. PMID:25922565

  2. Nortestosterone-derived synthetic progestogens do not activate the progestogen receptor of Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) but are potent agonists of androgen receptors alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anu; Ogino, Yukiko; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic progestogens derived from 19-nortestosterone can elicit a number of adverse effects in fish including decreased fecundity, altered hormone levels, disruption of normal breeding cycles, expression in females of male-specific biomarkers, development of male secondary sexual characteristics in females, and changes in the expression of steroidogenic genes. A recent in vitro study showed that a number of representatives from this class of progestins were potent agonists of fathead minnow androgen receptor (AR) and only weak agonists of progesterone receptor (PR) from the same species. This confirms that synthetic progestogens derived from 19-nortestosterone function as AR agonists in otomorphs, which express a single AR subtype. However, numerous perciformes are known to express two AR subtypes. We have recently shown that AR? and AR? from Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) respond differently to certain androgens and anti-androgens. The goal of the present study was to determine concentration-response profiles for selected progestins in transactivation assays driven by rainbowfish AR?, AR? and PR in order to ascertain the relative potency of progestins against these receptors. As a means of confirming the expected activity of the progestins and reference compounds used in the study against human-derived receptors, we also established concentration-response relationships using transactivation assays driven by human PR and AR. We found that all five 19-nortestosterone-derived progestins tested were highly potent agonists of rainbowfish AR?, but that only four of the five progestins were potent agonists of rainbowfish AR?, with norgestimate exhibiting only weak activity against rainbowfish AR?. The spironolactone-derived progestin, drospirenone, was not an agonist of rainbowfish AR? or AR? but was a weak agonist of rainbowfish PR. None of the 19-nortestosterone-progestins activated rainbowfish PR. These findings confirm that the majority of 19-nortestosterone-derived progestins are likely to elicit strong androgenic activity in teleosts, but that PR-mediated effects would be minimal. In species that express two AR subtypes similar to rainbowfish AR? and AR?, biological processes mediated by a specific subtype may be affected differently by progestins such as norgestimate. PMID:25863598

  3. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of ?2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Annette J; Steel, Helen C; Tintinger, Gregory R; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (?2-agonists) are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled ?2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of ?2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ?2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of ?2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. PMID:24285920

  4. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of ?2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    PubMed

    Theron, Annette J; Steel, Helen C; Tintinger, Gregory R; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (?2-agonists) are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled ?2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of ?2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ?2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of ?2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. PMID:24285920

  5. Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranee; Reed, Anthony N; Chu, Peifei; Scully, Conor C G; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Durek, Thomas; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    Potent ligands for the human complement C3a receptor (C3aR) were developed from the almost inactive tripeptide Leu-Ala-Arg corresponding to the three C-terminal residues of the endogenous peptide agonist C3a. The analogous Leu-Ser-Arg was modified by condensing the serine side chain with the leucine carbonyl with elimination of water to form leucine-oxazole-arginine. Subsequent elaboration with a variety of N-terminal amide capping groups produced agonists as potent as human C3a itself in stimulating Ca(2+) release from human macrophages. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:26522948

  6. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  7. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Heiss, Elke H; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2014-11-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR? are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPAR? agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPAR?-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPAR?-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPAR? ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPAR? (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPAR?-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPAR? (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPAR? activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  8. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?): a review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR? are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPAR? agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPAR?-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPAR?-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPAR? ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPAR? (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPAR?-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPAR? (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPAR? activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  9. The transcriptional PPAR?/? network in human macrophages defines a unique agonist-induced activation state

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Till; Wortmann, Annika; Schumann, Tim; Finkernagel, Florian; Lieber, Sonja; Roth, Katrin; Toth, Philipp M.; Diederich, Wibke E.; Nist, Andrea; Stiewe, Thorsten; Kleinesudeik, Lara; Reinartz, Silke; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor with established metabolic functions, whereas its anti-inflammatory function is poorly understood. To address this issue, we determined the global PPAR?/?-regulated signaling network in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Besides cell type-independent, canonical target genes with metabolic and immune regulatory functions we identified a large number of inflammation-associated NF?B and STAT1 target genes that are repressed by agonists. Accordingly, PPAR?/? agonists inhibited the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory mediators and induced an anti-inflammatory, IL-4-like morphological phenotype. Surprisingly, bioinformatic analyses also identified immune stimulatory effects. Consistent with this prediction, PPAR?/? agonists enhanced macrophage survival under hypoxic stress and stimulated CD8+ T cell activation, concomitantly with the repression of immune suppressive target genes and their encoded products CD274 (PD-1 ligand), CD32B (inhibitory Fc? receptor IIB) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1), as well as a diminished release of the immune suppressive IDO-1 metabolite kynurenine. Comparison with published data revealed a significant overlap of the PPAR?/? transcriptome with coexpression modules characteristic of both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings indicate that PPAR?/? agonists induce a unique macrophage activation state with strong anti-inflammatory but also specific immune stimulatory components, pointing to a context-dependent function of PPAR?/? in immune regulation. PMID:25934804

  10. Novel Oxazolidinone-Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Agonists: Molecular Modeling, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fresno, N; Macías-González, M; Torres-Zaguirre, A; Romero-Cuevas, M; Sanz-Camacho, P; Elguero, J; Pavón, F J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Goya, P; Pérez-Fernández, R

    2015-08-27

    A series of new peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) chiral ligands have been designed following the accepted three-module structure comprising a polar head, linker, and hydrophobic tail. The majority of the ligands incorporate the oxazolidinone moiety as a novel polar head, and the nature of the hydrophobic tail has also been varied. Docking studies using the crystal structure of an agonist bound to the ligand binding domain of the PPAR? receptor have been performed as a tool for their design. Suitable synthetic procedures have been developed, and compounds with different stereochemistries have been prepared. Evaluation of basal and ligand-induced activity proved that several compounds showed agonist activity at the PPAR? receptor, thus validating the oxazolidinone template for PPAR activity. In addition, two compounds, 2 and 4, showed dual PPAR?/PPAR? agonism and interesting food intake reduction in rats. PMID:26226490

  11. ?-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPAR? and PPAR?.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated ?-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. ?-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that ?-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPAR? and PPAR?. ?-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of ?-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24317060

  12. Selective ligand behaviors provide new insights into agonist activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Christopher B; Rreza, Iva; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2014-05-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a diverse set of ion channels that are essential to everyday brain function. Contemporary research studies selective activation of individual subtypes of receptors, with the hope of increasing our understanding of behavioral responses and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we aim to expand current binding models to help explain the specificity seen among three activators of ?4?2 receptors: sazetidine-A, cytisine, and NS9283. Through mutational analysis, we can interchange the activation profiles of the stoichiometry-selective compounds sazetidine-A and cytisine. In addition, mutations render NS9283--currently identified as a positive allosteric modulator--into an agonist. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) occupation at each primary face of an ? subunit is needed to activate the channel and (2) the complementary face of the adjacent subunit dictates the binding ability of the agonist. PMID:24564429

  13. Probing the 2 Adrenoceptor Binding Site with Catechol Reveals Differences in Binding and Activation by Agonists and

    E-print Network

    Kobilka, Brian

    Probing the 2 Adrenoceptor Binding Site with Catechol Reveals Differences in Binding and Activation. In the present study, we use catechol (1,2-benzenediol, a structural component of catecholamine agonists, such as isoproterenol, and by the struc- turally related non-catechol partial agonist salbutamol. Us- ing biophysical

  14. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing ?4, ?2, and sometimes other subunits (?4?2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of ?4 and ?2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is ?4 but not if it is ?2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical ?4?2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (?4?2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and ?4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that ?2, ?3, ?4, and ?6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with ?4 subunits, but ?2 and ?4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, ?4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of ?4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the ?4?2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  15. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hER?, hER?, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  16. Agonist-induced activation of rat mesenteric resistance vessels: comparison between noradrenaline and vasopressin

    SciTech Connect

    Cauvin, C.; Weir, S.W.; Wallnoefer, A.R.; Rueegg, U.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of noradrenaline (NA, 10(-5) M) and (arginine8)vasopressin (AVP, 10(-7) M) on tension in Ca2+-free medium and on membrane potential, and the inhibition of NA- and AVP-induced contractions by isradipine, have been compared in mesenteric resistance vessels (MRVs) from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The release of intracellular Ca2+ by AVP contributed significantly less to its tension development than does that by NA. Nonetheless, the concentration-response curves for inhibition by isradipine of NA- and AVP-induced tonic tension were nearly identical. Similarly, these two agonists produced the same degree of membrane depolarization. In addition, both agonists were able to stimulate large contractions in vessels previously depolarized by 80 mM K+. AVP also stimulated /sup 45/Ca influx into rat cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In contrast to the stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx by KCl depolarization, the agonist-stimulated /sup 45/Ca influx was insensitive to inhibition by organic Ca2+ antagonists. It is concluded that Ca2+ entry through receptor-operated Ca2+-permeable channels (ROCs) may contribute to agonist-induced activation of rat aortic and MRV smooth muscle.

  17. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) - surprisingly - autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

  18. Can alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists reverse or prevent tolerance to the antinociceptive activity of opioids in rats?

    PubMed

    De Kock, M; Meert, T F

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of some alpha 2-agonists in the phenomenon of tolerance to opioid-induced antinociception. To do so, the alpha 2-agonists were tested alone and in combination with opioids in naive and repeatedly fentanyl-treated rats in the tail withdrawal reaction (TWR) test. Under the treatment schedule used, rats became tolerant to fentanyl and cross-tolerance was observed with other opioids. The alpha 2-agonists alone were inactive in opioid naive and repeatedly fentanyl-treated rats. The potentiating interaction between the alpha 2-agonists and fentanyl in naive animals diminished considerably after the repeated fentanyl treatment. Adding an alpha 2-agonist to high doses of fentanyl during repeated treatment resulted in a complete tolerance to both compounds. Using lower, but equipotent antinociceptive drug combinations of alpha 2-agonists and opioids, resulted in less tolerance. Alpha 2-agonists are thus unable to directly overcome tolerance to the antinociceptive activity of fentanyl in tolerant animals. Nevertheless, by lowering the dose of the opioid for an equipotent antinociceptive activity, alpha 2-agonists are able to delay the onset of tolerance, probably based on the concept of opioid receptor sparing. PMID:8669220

  19. Activation of human brown adipose tissue by a ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Cypess, Aaron M; Weiner, Lauren S; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Franquet Elía, Elisa; Kessler, Skyler H; Kahn, Peter A; English, Jeffrey; Chatman, Kelly; Trauger, Sunia A; Doria, Alessandro; Kolodny, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of endogenous brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential approach to treat obesity and diabetes. The class of ?3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists stimulates rodent BAT, but this activity has never been demonstrated in humans. Here we determined the ability of 200 mg oral mirabegron (Myrbetriq, Astellas Pharma, Inc.), a ?3-AR agonist currently approved to treat overactive bladder, to stimulate BAT as compared to placebo. Mirabegron led to higher BAT metabolic activity as measured via (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in all twelve healthy male subjects (p = 0.001), and it increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) by 203 ± 40 kcal/day (+13%; p = 0.001). BAT metabolic activity was also a significant predictor of the changes in RMR (p = 0.006). Therefore, a ?3-AR agonist can stimulate human BAT thermogenesis and may be a promising treatment for metabolic disease. PMID:25565203

  20. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPAR? agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 ? M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a ?-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  1. Isoflavone agonists of IRF-3 dependent signaling have antiviral activity against RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Kristin M; Wang, Myra L; Proll, Sean C; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Katze, Michael G; Gale, Michael; Iadonato, Shawn P

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing need for novel antiviral therapies that are broad spectrum, effective, and not subject to resistance due to viral mutations. Using high-throughput screening methods, including computational docking studies and an interferon-stimulated gene 54 (ISG54)-luciferase reporter assay, we identified a class of isoflavone compounds that act as specific agonists of innate immune signaling pathways and cause activation of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3) transcription factor. The isoflavone compounds activated the ISG54 promoter, mediated nuclear translocation of IRF-3, and displayed highly potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and influenza virus. Additionally, these agonists efficiently activated IRF-3 in the presence of the HCV protease NS3-4A, which is known to blunt the host immune response. Furthermore, genomic studies showed that discrete innate immune pathways centered on IRF signaling were regulated following agonist treatment without causing global changes in host gene expression. Following treatment, the expression of only 64 cellular genes was significantly induced. This report provides the first evidence that innate immune pathways dependent on IRF-3 can be successfully targeted by small-molecule drugs for the development of novel broad-spectrum antiviral compounds. PMID:22532686

  2. Discovery of a novel class of 2-mercaptohexanoic acid derivatives as highly active PPARalpha agonists.

    PubMed

    Zettl, Heiko; Steri, Ramona; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2009-08-01

    A novel and robust scaffold for highly active PPARalpha agonists based on the 2-mercaptohexanoic acid substructure is presented. Systematic structural variation of the substitution pattern of the phenolic backbone yielded detailed SAR especially of ortho and meta substituents. We corroborated the importance of the sulfur atom as well as of the n-butyl chain for PPARalpha activity in the 2-mercaptohexanoic acid head group by preparation of carbon analogs and alpha-unsubstituted derivatives. Compound 10 represents a low nano molar active PPARalpha activator with excellent selectivity towards PPARgamma. PMID:19556125

  3. Agonists and protein kinase C-activation induce phosphorylation and internalization of FFA1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Alvarado, Carla; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B; Takei, Yoshinori; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Hirasawa, Akira; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2015-12-01

    FFA1 (previously known as GPR40) is a free fatty acid receptor involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and insulin secretion. The cellular actions resulting from FFA1 activation have received considerable attention. However, little is known on the regulation of the receptor function. In the present work, using cells transfected with this receptor, docosahexaenoic acid and ?-linolenic acid increased intracellular calcium concentration and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. It was also observed that FFA1 is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state was increased (2- to 3-fold) by agonists (i.e., free fatty acids) and also by phorbol myristate acetate. Agonist- and phorbol ester-mediated FFA1 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase C. Receptor stimulation by free fatty acids and protein kinase C activation also induced receptor internalization as evidenced by confocal microscopy. In summary, our data show that FFA1 is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state is modulated by agonists and protein kinase C activation; such covalent modification is associated with receptor internalization. PMID:26526350

  4. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Brown, Claire; Fezoui, Malika; Selig, William M; Schwartz, Carl E; Ellis, James L

    2004-01-01

    1. Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and various putative sigma receptor agonists in the guinea-pig citric-acid cough model. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) and the sigma-1 agonists SKF-10,047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), Pre-084 (5 mg kg(-1)), and carbetapentane (1-5 mg kg(-1)) inhibited citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. Intraperitoneal administration of a sigma-1 antagonist, BD 1047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), reversed the inhibition of cough elicited by SKF-10,047. In addition, two structurally dissimilar sigma agonists SKF-10,047 (1 mg ml(-1)) and Pre-084 (1 mg ml(-1)) inhibited cough when administered by aerosol. 3. Aerosolized BD 1047 (1 mg ml(-1), 30 min) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 (5 mg kg(-1)) or DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) given by i.p. administration and, likewise, i.p. administration of BD 1047 (5 mg kg(-1)) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 given by aerosol (1 mg ml(-1)). 4. These results therefore support the argument that antitussive effects of DEX may be mediated via sigma receptors, since both systemic and aerosol administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists inhibit citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. While significant systemic exposure is possible with aerosol administration, the very low doses administered (estimated <0.3 mg kg(-1)) suggest that there may be a peripheral component to the antitussive effect. PMID:14691051

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR agonists: the 'future' in dermatology therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors and comprise three different isoforms namely PPAR?, PPAR?, and PPAR?/? with PPAR?/? being the predominant subtype in human keratinocytes. After binding with specific ligands, PPARs regulate gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and tumorogenesis. PPARs also modulate a wide variety of skin functions including keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal barrier formation, wound healing, melanocyte proliferation, and sebum production. Recent studies have shown the importance of PPARs in the pathogenesis of many dermatological disorders. Clinical trials have suggested possible role of PPAR agonists in the management of various dermatoses ranging from acne vulgaris, psoriasis, hirsutism, and lipodystrophy to cutaneous malignancies including melanoma. This article is intended to be a primer for dermatologists in their understanding of clinical relevance of PPARs and PPAR agonists in dermatology therapeutics. PMID:25986745

  6. Discovery of the oxazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives as potent and orally active GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xing; Stamford, Andrew; Liu, Hong; Neustadt, Bernard; Hao, Jingsong; Kowalski, Tim; Hawes, Brian; Xu, Xiaoying; Baker, Hana; O'Neill, Kim; Woods, Morgan; Tang, Huadong; Greenlee, William

    2015-11-15

    The design and synthesis of two conformationally restricted oxazabicyclo octane derivatives as GRP119 agonists is described. Derivatives of scaffold C, with syn configuration, have the best overall profiles with respect to solubility and in vivo efficacy. Compound 25a was found to have extremely potent agonistic activity and was orally active in lowering blood glucose levels in a mouse oral glucose tolerance test at a dose of 0.1mg/kg. PMID:26433449

  7. Standard Opioid Agonists Activate Heteromeric Opioid Receptors: Evidence for Morphine and [d-Ala2-MePhe4-Glyol5]Enkephalin as Selective ??? Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research in the opioid field has relied heavily on the use of standard agonist ligands such as morphine, [d-Ala2-MePhe4-Glyol5]enkephalin (DAMGO), U69593, bremazocine, [d-Pen2d-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE), and deltorphin-II as tools for investigating the three major types of opioid receptors, MOP (?), KOP (?), and DOP (?), that mediate antinociception. The functional selectivity of these ligands has been based on the assumption that opioid receptors exist as homomers. As numerous studies in cultured cells have suggested that opioid receptors can associate both as homomers and heteromers, we have investigated the selectivity of these standard ligands using intracellular calcium release and [35S]GTP?S assays in HEK-293 cells that contain singly and coexpressed opioid receptors. The present study reveals that morphine and DAMGO, traditionally classified as ? selective agonists, selectively activate ??? heteromeric opioid receptors with greater efficacy than homomeric opioid receptors. Moreover, standard ligands that have been widely employed as ?- and ?-selective agonists display little or no differences in the activation of homomeric and heteromeric opioid receptors. The far-reaching implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22816017

  8. A 7-phenyl substituted triazolopyridazine has inverse agonist activity at the benzodiazepine receptor site.

    PubMed Central

    Biziere, K.; Bourguignon, J. J.; Chambon, J. P.; Heaulme, M.; Perio, A.; Tebib, S.; Wermuth, C. G.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate further the structural requirements for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligands, we synthesized SR 95195, [7-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo-(4,3-b) pyridazine], a positional isomer of the 6-phenyl-triazolo-pyridazines, which were the first non-BZD derivatives to exhibit high affinity for the BZD receptor and BZD-like activity in vivo. In vitro, SR 95195 displaced specifically bound [3H]-flunitrazepam from rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes with respective IC50 values of 4 and 8 microM. In vivo, SR 95195 lacked BZD-like activity. At high doses SR 95195 induced clonic seizures in mice (threshold convulsant dose: 150 mg kg-1; CD50: 160 mg kg-1 i.p.) which were antagonized by Ro 15-1788. At non-convulsant doses (25 mg kg-1 i.p. and 100 mg kg-1 i.p.) SR 95195 significantly decreased punished responding in an operant conflict procedure in the rat, suggesting SR 95195 has intrinsic anxiogenic activity. SR 95195, in mice, reversed the anticonvulsant and myorelaxant actions of diazepam 3 mg kg-1, orally (respective ED50 values: 45 mg kg-1 i.p. and 44 mg kg-1 i.p.). In an operant-conflict test in rats, SR 95195 at non-anxiogenic doses, antagonized the disinhibitory action of diazepam 4 mg kg-1, i.p. (ED50: 8.6 mg kg-1, i.p.), but not that of pentobarbitone 15 mg kg-1, i.p. It is concluded that SR 95195 has the pharmacological profile of an inverse BZD agonist and that displacing the phenyl from the 6- to the 7-position in the triazolopyridazine series causes a shift from agonist to inverse agonist type activity at the BZD receptor site. PMID:3028557

  9. Polyyne Hybrid Compounds from Notopterygium incisum with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonistic Effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the search for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) active constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum, 11 new polyacetylene derivatives (1–11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and HRESIMS as new polyyne hybrid molecules of falcarindiol with sesquiterpenoid or phenylpropanoid moieties, named notoethers A–H (1–8) and notoincisols A–C (9–11), respectively. Notoincisol B (10) and notoincisol C (11) represent two new carbon skeletons. When tested for PPAR? activation in a luciferase reporter assay with HEK-293 cells, notoethers A–C (1–3), notoincisol A (9), and notoincisol B (10) showed promising agonistic activity (EC50 values of 1.7 to 2.3 ?M). In addition, notoincisol A (9) exhibited inhibitory activity on NO production of stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:25333853

  10. PPAR? Agonist WY-14643 Induces SIRT1 Activity in Rat Fatty Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Panisello, Arnau; Varela, Ana Teresa; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a frequent complication in surgery, especially in case of steatotic livers that present decreased tolerance towards IRI. Apart from its major role in metabolism, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) has been related with positive effects on IRI. In addition, the deacetylase enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has recently emerged as a promising target for preventing IRI, through its interaction with stress-related mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Taking this into account, this study aims to explore whether PPAR? agonist WY-14643 could protect steatotic livers against IRI through sirtuins and ERS signaling pathway. Obese Zucker rats were pretreated or not pretreated with WY-14643 (10?mg/kg intravenously) and then submitted to partial (70%) hepatic ischemia (1 hour) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Liver injury (ALT levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA), SIRT1 activity, and the protein expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 and ERS parameters (IRE1?, peIF2, caspase 12, and CHOP) were evaluated. Treatment with WY-14643 reduced liver injury in fatty livers, enhanced SIRT1 activity, and prevented ERS. Together, our results indicated that PPAR? agonist WY-14643 may exert its protective effect in fatty livers, at least in part, via SIRT1 induction and ERS prevention. PMID:26539534

  11. PPAR-? agonist stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; He, Ming; Guo, Zong-wei; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •PPAR-? increases KLF4 protein level but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. •The increase of KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-?-dependent. •Pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-? are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-? in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-? overexpression increases, while PPAR-? knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-?-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-? and KLF4 in regulating each other’s expression in VSMCs.

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives as novel human GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang-Yang; Morales, Christian L; Wang, Ying; Rossi, Karen A; Malmstrom, Sarah E; Abousleiman, Mojgan; Sereda, Larisa; Apedo, Atsu; Robl, Jeffrey A; Miller, Keith J; Krupinski, John; Wacker, Dean A

    2014-06-01

    Through appropriate medicinal chemistry design tactics and computer-assisted conformational modeling, the initial lead A was evolved into a series of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives 3 as potent GPR119 agonists. This Letter describes the optimization of general structure 3, including the substituent(s) on dihydrobenzofuran, the R(1) attachment on right-hand piperidine nitrogen, and the left-hand piperidine/piperazine and its attachment R(2). The efforts led to the identification of compounds 13c and 24 as potent human GPR119 modulators with favorable metabolic stability, ion channel activity, and PXR profiles. PMID:24755425

  13. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA>BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA>TBBPA>BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. PMID:23714657

  14. Modeling active electrolocation in weakly electric fish Habib Ammari

    E-print Network

    Garnier, Josselin

    Modeling active electrolocation in weakly electric fish Habib Ammari Thomas Boulier Josselin in weakly electric fishes. We first investigate the forward complex conductivity problem and derive the approx- imate boundary conditions on the skin of the fish. Then we provide a dipole approximation

  15. Agonist-, antagonist-, and inverse agonist-regulated trafficking of the delta-opioid receptor correlates with, but does not require, G protein activation.

    PubMed

    Zaki, P A; Keith, D E; Thomas, J B; Carroll, F I; Evans, C J

    2001-09-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between ligand-induced regulation of surface delta opioid receptors and G protein activation. G protein activation was assessed with [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) binding assays conducted at both 37 and 0 degrees C. Ligand-independent (constitutive) activity of the delta-receptor was readily observed when the [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding assay was performed at 37 degrees C. We identified a new class of alkaloid inverse agonists (RTI-5989-1, RTI-5989-23, RTI-5989-25), which are more potent than the previously described peptide inverse agonist ICI-174864 (N,N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu). Treatment with these inverse agonists for 18 h caused up-regulation of surface receptors. Eighteen-hour treatment with etorphine resulted in approximately 90% loss of surface receptor, whereas fentanyl, diprenorphine, and morphine caused between 20 and 50% loss. The abilities of ligands to modulate [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding at 37 degrees C showed a strong correlation with their abilities to regulate surface receptor number (r(2) = 0.86). Interestingly, the ability of fentanyl to activate G proteins was markedly temperature sensitive. Fentanyl showed no stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding at 0 degrees C but was as efficacious as etorphine, morphine, and diprenorphine at 37 degrees C. Neither the ligand-induced receptor increases nor decreases were perturbed by pertussis toxin pretreatment, suggesting that functional G proteins are not required for ligand-regulated delta-opioid receptor trafficking. PMID:11504798

  16. The pain receptor TRPV1 displays agonist-dependent activation stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Adina; Kumar, Rakesh; Matzner, Henry; Priel, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The receptor channel TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1) is expressed by primary afferent sensory neurons of the pain pathway, where it functions as a sensor of noxious heat and various chemicals, including eicosanoids, capsaicin, protons and peptide toxins. Comprised of four identical subunits that organize into a non-selective cationic permeable channel, this receptor has a variety of binding sites responsible for detecting their respective agonists. Although its physiological role as a chemosensor has been described in detail, the stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation by its different ligands remains unknown. Here, we combined the use of concatemeric constructs harboring mutated binding sites with patch-clamp recordings in order to determine the stoichiometry for TRPV1 activation through the vanilloid binding site and the outer-pore domain by capsaicin and protons, respectively. We show that, while a single capsaicin-bound subunit was sufficient to achieve a maximal open-channel lifetime, all four proton-binding sites were required. Thus, our results demonstrate a distinct stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation through two of its different agonist-binding domains. PMID:26194846

  17. Screening of Receptor Antagonists Using Agonist-Activated Patch Clamp Detection in

    E-print Network

    selection and biosensor functionality is simply achieved by selection of an appropriate agonist-methyl-D-aspartate and the co-agonist glycine. The presented method offers new possibilities for drug screening

  18. Modeling active electrolocation in weakly electric fish

    E-print Network

    Habib Ammari; Thomas Boulier; Josselin Garnier

    2013-03-06

    In this paper, we provide a mathematical model for the electrolocation in weakly electric fishes. We first investigate the forward complex conductivity problem and derive the approximate boundary conditions on the skin of the fish. Then we provide a dipole approximation for small targets away from the fish. Based on this approximation, we obtain a non-iterative location search algorithm using multi-frequency measurements. We present numerical experiments to illustrate the performance and the stability of the proposed multi-frequency location search algorithm. Finally, in the case of disk- and ellipse-shaped targets, we provide a method to reconstruct separately the conductivity, the permittivity, and the size of the targets from multi-frequency measurements.

  19. Discovery of a nortropanol derivative as a potent and orally active GPR119 agonist for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Chackalamannil, Samuel; Greenlee, William J; Jayne, Charles; Neustadt, Bernard; Stamford, Andrew; Vaccaro, Henry; Xu, Xiaoying Lucy; Baker, Hana; O'Neill, Kim; Woods, Morgan; Hawes, Brian; Kowalski, Tim

    2011-06-01

    The lead optimization studies of a series of GPR119 agonists incorporating a nortropanol scaffold are described. Extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the lead compound 20f led to the identification of compound 36j as a potent, single digit nanomolar GPR119 agonist with high agonist activity. Compound 36j was orally active in lowering blood glucose levels in a mouse oral glucose tolerance test and increased plasma insulin levels in a rat hyperglycemic model. It showed good to excellent pharmacokinetic properties in rats and monkeys and no untoward activities in counter-screen assays. Compound 36j demonstrated an attractive in vitro and in vivo profile for further development. PMID:21536438

  20. Preparation, characterization and molecular modeling of PEGylated human growth hormone with agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Bahman; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Varasteh, AbdolReza; Chamani, JamshidKhan; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mohammadpanah, Hamid; Abnous, Khalil; Saberi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-09-01

    In this study, site-specific PEGylated human growth hormone (hGH) was prepared by microbial transglutaminase, modeled and characterized. To this end, the effects of different reaction parameters including reaction media, PEG:protein ratios, reaction time and pH value were investigated. PEG-hGH was purified by size exclusion chromatography method and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BCA, peptide mapping, ESI and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectroscopy methods. Biophysical and biological properties of PEG-hGH were evaluated. Molecular simulation was utilized to provide molecular insight into the protein-receptor interaction. The optimum conditions that were obtained for PEGylation were phosphate buffer with pH of 7.4, 48h of stirring and PEG:protein ratio of 40:1. By this method, mono-PEG-hGH with high reaction yield was obtained and PEGylation site was at Gln-40 residue. The circular dichroism and fluorescence spectrum indicated that PEGylation did not change the secondary structure while tertiary structure was altered. Upon enzymatic PEGylation, agonistic activity of hGH was preserved; however, Somavert(®), which is prepared by chemical PEGylation, is an antagonist form of protein. These data were confirmed by the total energy of affinity obtained by computational protein-receptor interaction. In conclusion, PEGylation of hGH was led to prepare a novel form of hormone with an agonist activity which merits further investigations. PMID:26116386

  1. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues with enhanced ? opioid agonist potency and with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent ? opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe(3) with various 2',6'-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2',4',6'-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2'-ethyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3'-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3'-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased ? agonist potency, retained ? receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp(3)-, Imp(3)-, Emp(3)- and 1-Nal(3)-containing analogues showed much increased ? receptor binding affinity and had mixed ?/? properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C(?)C(?) bond of the Xxx(3) residue, in correlation with the observed ? receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed ?/? opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:24602401

  2. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  3. Assessing the agonist profiles of the prostacyclin analogues treprostinil and naxaprostene, particularly their DP? activity.

    PubMed

    Syed, Nawazish-i-Husain; Jones, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the inhibitory profiles of the prostacyclin analogues treprostinil and naxaprostene on several isolated smooth muscle preparations have been investigated. Treprostinil was an agonist for prostanoid DP1, EP2 and IP receptors, but not EP4 receptors; its DP1 potency was only 3-4 times less than PGD2 itself. Naxaprostene was much more selective for IP receptors and tended towards partial agonism. Treprostinil is a 13,14-dihydro analogue and the role of conformation around C12-15 in controlling agonist specificity is debated; the synthesis of new analogues is proposed and possible clinical usage discussed. In terms of selective prostanoid antagonists employed, BW-A868C/MK-0524 (DP1), ACA-23 (EP2) and GW-627368 (EP4) were found fit for purpose. However, the IP antagonist RO-1138452 was compromised by ?1 and ?2-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile activity on rat tail artery and anti-muscarinic activity on mouse trachea. There is a need for IP receptor antagonists with better selectivity and higher affinity. PMID:25542069

  4. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists in the prevention and treatment of murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Aprahamian, Tamar R; Bonegio, Ramon G; Weitzner, Zachary; Gharakhanian, Raffi; Rifkin, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists are known to have many immunomodulatory effects. We have previously shown that the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone is beneficial when used early in prevention of disease in murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SLE-related atherosclerosis. In this report, we demonstrate that another PPAR? agonist, pioglitazone is also beneficial as a treatment for early murine lupus, indicating that this is a class effect and not agent-specific. We further attempt to define the ability of PPAR? agonists to ameliorate established or severe autoimmune disease using two mouse models: the MRL.lpr SLE model and the gld.apoE?/? model of accelerated atherosclerosis and SLE. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the marked amelioration of disease seen when PPAR? agonist treatment was started before disease onset, treatment with rosiglitazone after disease onset in MRL.lpr or gld.apoE?/? mice had minimal beneficial effect on the development of the autoimmune phenotype; however, rosiglitazone treatment remained highly effective at reducing lupus-associated atherosclerosis in gld.apoE?/? mice after disease onset or when mice were maintained on a high cholesterol Western diet. These results suggest that beneficial effects of PPAR? agonists on the development of autoimmunity might be limited to the early stages of disease, but that atherosclerosis, a major cause of death in SLE patients, may be ameliorated even in established or severe disease. PMID:24456224

  6. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor labeled with a tritiated, photoactivatable agonist: a new tool for investigating the functional, activated state.

    PubMed

    Kotzyba-Hibert, F; Kessler, P; Zerbib, V; Grutter, T; Bogen, C; Takeda, K; Hammadi, A; Knerr, L; Goeldner, M

    1997-01-01

    Upon agonist activation, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor undergoes allosteric transitions leading to channel opening and sodium ion influx. The molecular structure of the agonist binding site has been mapped previously by photoaffinity labeling, but most photosensitive probes used for this purpose interact only with closed receptor states (resting or desensitized). We have synthesized two novel photoactivatable 4-diazocyclohexa-2,5-dienone derivatives as cholinergic agonist candidates, with the objective of identifying structural changes at the acetylcholine binding site associated with receptor activation. One of these ligands, 9b, is a functional agonist at muscle acetylcholine receptors in human TE 671 cells. In photolabeling experiments with 9b, up to 35% inactivation of agonist binding sites was observed at Torpedo acetylcholine receptors. Tritiated 9b was synthesized, and photolabeling was found to occur mainly on the alpha-subunit in a partially protectable manner. This novel radiolabeled photoprobe appears to be suitable for future investigation of the molecular dynamics of allosteric transitions occurring at the active acetylcholine receptor binding site. PMID:9258443

  7. A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Chang, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to D-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes. - Highlights: • Monascin acts as a PPARgamma agonist. • Monascin activates Nrf2 and AMPK. • Monascin promotes MG metabolism into D-lactic acid. • Monascin attenuates inflammation and diabetes in vivo.

  8. Adaptability and selectivity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan agonists revealed from crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Takuji; Toyota, Kenji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Hirakawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Naoko; Kasuga, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-08-01

    The structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR?) in complexes with a pan agonist, an ?/? dual agonist and a PPAR?-specific agonist were determined. The results explain how each ligand is recognized by the PPAR LBDs at an atomic level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family, which is defined as transcriptional factors that are activated by the binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Although the three PPAR subtypes display different tissue distribution patterns and distinct pharmacological profiles, they all are essentially related to fatty-acid and glucose metabolism. Since the PPARs share similar three-dimensional structures within the LBDs, synthetic ligands which simultaneously activate two or all of the PPARs could be potent candidates in terms of drugs for the treatment of abnormal metabolic homeostasis. The structures of several PPAR LBDs were determined in complex with synthetic ligands, derivatives of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid, which exhibit unique agonistic activities. The PPAR? and PPAR? LBDs were complexed with the same pan agonist, TIPP-703, which activates all three PPARs and their crystal structures were determined. The two LBD–ligand complex structures revealed how the pan agonist is adapted to the similar, but significantly different, ligand-binding pockets of the PPARs. The structures of the PPAR? LBD in complex with an ?/?-selective ligand, TIPP-401, and with a related ?-specific ligand, TIPP-204, were also determined. The comparison between the two PPAR? complexes revealed how each ligand exhibits either a ‘dual selective’ or ‘single specific’ binding mode.

  9. Neuroprotective mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia accounting for 50-60% of all cases. The pathological hallmarks of AD are the formation of extracellular plaques consisting of amyloid-? protein, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and presence of chronic neuroinflammation causing progressive decline in memory and cognitive functions. The current therapeutic strategies to improve memory deficits aim at preventing the formation and accumulation of amyloid-? and tau phosphorylation. Beyond the plaque and tangle-related targets, other aspects of pathophysiology including molecular transport mechanism, oxidative damage, inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism may also provide opportunities to slow down the progression of memory loss. A novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of AD is through the exploration of nuclear receptor agonists, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which have been clinically used as antidiabetic and dyslipidemic agents. The findings that PPAR agonists may possess antiamyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, and cholesterol-lowering potential suggest that they could be interesting candidates for AD drugs. Through this review, we will discuss the probable pathophysiological mechanisms that may elicit the defending role of these receptors in brains of AD patients. PMID:21607645

  10. D1 agonists suppress zero Mg(2+)-induced epileptiform activity in the rat cingulate cortex slice.

    PubMed

    Alam, A M; Starr, M S

    1993-10-25

    This study determined whether dopamine can influence epileptiform activity in vitro through an action at D1 receptors. Dopamine (50-1000 microM) and the selective D1 agonists SKF 38393, SKF 75670, SKF 80723 and SKF 82526 (10-250 microM) suppressed the paroxysmal discharges produced in rat cingulate cortex slices by the omission of Mg2+ from the bathing medium. These antiepileptic effects were mimicked by forskolin (10-100 microM), blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH 39166 (0.5 microM), facilitated by IBMX (500 microM) and unaffected by propranolol (2 microM), suggesting the participation of cyclic AMP in the D1 response. Possible mechanisms, including direct postsynaptic inhibition, modulatory enhancement of GABA activity and presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release are considered. PMID:7506591

  11. Bacterially expressed murine CSF-1 possesses agonistic activity in its monomeric form.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, S; Baccarini, M

    1993-04-30

    CSF-1 is a dimeric peptide growth factor, stabilized by disulfide bonds. We expressed mouse CSF-1 in bacteria as a fusion protein either with glutathione S-transferase (GST) or with a six histidine tag (His-tag). Large amounts of recombinant material were obtained and purified by a single affinity chromatography step. Purified CSF-1-His-tag monomers efficiently dimerized in vitro, but the presence of variable amounts of GST-moiety in CSF-1 preparations obtained by thrombin cleavage of GST-fusion proteins (thrombin-released CSF-1) interfered with dimerization. However, the thrombin-released CSF-1 monomers possessed agonistic activity, being capable of stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of the CSF-1 receptor and of an array of cellular proteins in living macrophages and of supporting their growth. These results show that CSF-1 dimerization is not essential for receptor activation in vivo. PMID:8484779

  12. Structural basis for constitutive activity and agonist-induced activation of the enteroendocrine fat sensor GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Engelstoft, M S; Norn, C; Hauge, M; Holliday, N D; Elster, L; Lehmann, J; Jones, R M; Frimurer, T M; Schwartz, T W

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose GPR119 is a G?s-coupled 7TM receptor activated by endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and by the dietary triglyceride metabolite 2-monoacylglycerol. GPR119 stimulates enteroendocrine hormone and insulin secretion. But despite massive drug discovery efforts in the field, very little is known about the basic molecular pharmacology of GPR119. Experimental Approach GPR119 receptor signalling was studied in transfected cells. Mutational mapping (30 mutations in 23 positions) was performed on residues required for ligand-independent and agonist-induced GPR119 activation (AR231453 and OEA). Novel Rosetta-based receptor modelling was applied, using a composite template approach with segments from different X-ray structures and fully flexible ligand docking. Key Results The increased signalling induced by increasing the cell surface expression of GPR119 in the absence of agonist and the inhibitory effect of two synthetic inverse agonists demonstrated that GRP119 signals with a high degree of constitutive activity through the G?s pathway. The mutational maps for AR231453 and OEA were very similar and, surprisingly, also similar to the mutational map for residues affecting the constitutive signalling – albeit with key differences. Surprisingly, almost all residues in extracellular loop-2b were important for the constitutive activity. The molecular modelling and docking demonstrated that AR231453 binds in a ‘vertical’ pocket in between mutational hits reaching from the centre of the receptor out to extracellular loop-2b. Conclusions and Implications The high constitutive activity of GPR119 should be taken into account in future drug discovery efforts, which can now be guided by the detailed knowledge of the physiochemical properties of the extended ligand-binding pocket. PMID:25117266

  13. WEAKLY SHEARED ACTIVE SUSPENSIONS OF RIGID ELLIPSOIDS

    E-print Network

    or applied magnetic and electric fields. This includes phase transitions, shear banding [14], and even of active par- ticle suspensions, such as bacterial swimmers [6, 9, 10], cell extracts and motor proteins- tractile suspensions of motor-filaments mixtures and con- firmed these results and predicted an actual

  14. Suppression of Rat Oral Carcinogenesis by Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, David L.; Horn, Thomas L.; Johnson, William D.; Peng, Xinjian; Lubet, Ronald A.; Steele, Vernon E.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In vivo studies were performed to evaluate the activities of two thiazolidinedione PPAR? agonists, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, as inhibitors of oral carcinogenesis in rats. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were induced in male F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO; 20 ppm in the drinking water for 10 weeks). In each study, groups of 30 NQO-treated rats were exposed to a PPAR? agonist beginning at week 10 (one day after completion of NQO administration) or at week 17 (7 weeks post-NQO); chemopreventive agent exposure was continued until study termination at week 22 (rosiglitazone study) or week 24 (pioglitazone study). Administration of rosiglitazone (800 mg/kg diet) beginning at week 10 increased survival, reduced oral cancer incidence, and reduced oral cancer invasion score in comparison to dietary controls; however, chemopreventive activity was largely lost when rosiglitazone administration was delayed until week 17. Administration of pioglitazone (500 mg/kg diet beginning at week 10 or 1000 mg/kg diet beginning at week 17) induced significant reductions in oral cancer incidence without significant effects on OSCC invasion scores. Transcript levels of PPAR? and its three transcriptional variants (PPAR?v1, PPAR?v2, and PPAR?v3) were not significantly different in OSCC versus age- and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from rats treated with NQO. These data suggest that PPAR? provides a useful molecular target for oral cancer chemoprevention, and that overexpression of PPAR? at the transcriptional level in neoplastic lesions is not essential for chemopreventive efficacy. PMID:26516762

  15. Specific activation of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer by small-molecule agonists

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kui; Gao, Meng; Godfroy, James I.; Brown, Peter N.; Kastelowitz, Noah; Yin, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists activate both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. These TLR agonists have been exploited as potent vaccine adjuvants and antitumor agents. We describe the identification and characterization of a small molecule, N-methyl-4-nitro-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)aniline (CU-T12-9), that directly targets TLR1/2 to initiate downstream signaling. CU-T12-9 specifically induces TLR1/2 activation, which can be blocked by either the anti-hTLR1 or the anti-hTLR2 antibody, but not the anti-hTLR6 antibody. Using a variety of different biophysical assays, we have demonstrated the binding mode of CU-T12-9. By binding to both TLR1 and TLR2, CU-T12-9 facilitates the TLR1/2 heterodimeric complex formation, which in turn activates the downstream signaling. Fluorescence anisotropy assays revealed competitive binding to the TLR1/2 complex between CU-T12-9 and Pam3CSK4 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 54.4 nM. Finally, we showed that CU-T12-9 signals through nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and invokes an elevation of the downstream effectors tumor necrosis factor–? (TNF-?), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Thus, our studies not only provide compelling new insights into the regulation of TLR1/2 signaling transduction but also may facilitate future therapeutic developments. PMID:26101787

  16. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 ; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  17. The effects of agonist and antagonist muscle activation on the knee extension moment-angle relationship in adults and children.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Thomas D; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of agonist activation and antagonist co-activation on the shape of the knee extension moment-angle relationship in adults and children. Isometric knee extension maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed at every 5 degrees of knee flexion between 55 degrees and 90 degrees (full extension = 0 degrees) by ten men, ten women, ten boys and ten girls. For each trial, the knee extensors' voluntary activation level was quantified using magnetic stimulation and the level of antagonist co-activation was quantified from their electromyographical activity. Peak MVC moment was greater for men (264 +/- 63 N m) than women (177 +/- 60 N m), and greater for adults than children (boys 78 +/- 17 N m, girls 91 +/- 28 N m) (p < 0.01). The agonistic activation level was greater for adults (approximately 85%) than children (approximately 70%). Similarly, antagonist co-activation was greater for adults than children, but relative to the agonist moment there were no differences between groups (all groups 7-8%). Correcting the peak moment for agonist and antagonist activation levels resulted in moments produced by fully activated agonist muscles of 334 +/- 83, 229 +/- 70, 114.2 +/- 32 and 147 +/- 46 N m, for men, women, boys and girls, respectively. Although correcting for shifts in joint angle during contraction altered the angle of peak moment by approximately 10 degrees (p < 0.01), the peak moment occurred at approximately 60 degrees for all groups. Changes in tendon stiffness, muscle size and architecture, and the pattern of the moment arm-angle relationship may in combination occur so that as children develop and mature into adults the shape of the moment-angle relationship is not altered. PMID:19471955

  18. Identification of a potent synthetic FXR agonist with an unexpected mode of binding and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Soisson, Stephen M.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Adams, Alan D.; Sahoo, Soumya; Sitlani, Ayesha; Sparrow, Carl; Cui, Jisong; Becker, Joseph W.

    2008-07-08

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. There is intense interest in understanding the mechanisms of FXR regulation and in developing pharmaceutically suitable synthetic FXR ligands that might be used to treat metabolic syndrome. We report here the identification of a potent FXR agonist (MFA-1) and the elucidation of the structure of this ligand in ternary complex with the human receptor and a coactivator peptide fragment using x-ray crystallography at 1.9-{angstrom} resolution. The steroid ring system of MFA-1 binds with its D ring-facing helix 12 (AF-2) in a manner reminiscent of hormone binding to classical steroid hormone receptors and the reverse of the pose adopted by naturally occurring bile acids when bound to FXR. This binding mode appears to be driven by the presence of a carboxylate on MFA-1 that is situated to make a salt-bridge interaction with an arginine residue in the FXR-binding pocket that is normally used to neutralize bound bile acids. Receptor activation by MFA-1 differs from that by bile acids in that it relies on direct interactions between the ligand and residues in helices 11 and 12 and only indirectly involves a protonated histidine that is part of the activation trigger. The structure of the FXR:MFA-1 complex differs significantly from that of the complex with a structurally distinct agonist, fexaramine, highlighting the inherent plasticity of the receptor.

  19. Distinct roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor dimerization in agonist activation and G-protein coupling

    PubMed Central

    El Moustaine, Driss; Granier, Sébastien; Doumazane, Etienne; Scholler, Pauline; Rahmeh, Rita; Bron, Patrick; Mouillac, Bernard; Banères, Jean-Louis; Rondard, Philippe; Pin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key modulators of synaptic transmission and are considered promising targets for the treatment of various brain disorders. Whereas glutamate acts at a large extracellular domain, allosteric modulators have been identified that bind to the seven transmembrane domain (7TM) of these dimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We show here that the dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for the modulation of active and inactive states of the 7TM by agonists, but is not necessary for G-protein activation. Monomeric mGlu2, either as an isolated 7TM or in full-length, purified and reconstituted into nanodiscs, couples to G proteins upon direct activation by a positive allosteric modulator. However, only a reconstituted full-length dimeric mGlu2 activates G protein upon glutamate binding, suggesting that dimerization is required for glutamate induced activation. These data show that, even for such well characterized GPCR dimers like mGluR2, a single 7TM is sufficient for G-protein coupling. Despite this observation, the necessity of dimeric architecture for signaling induced by the endogenous ligand glutamate confirms that the central core of signaling complex is dimeric. PMID:22988116

  20. Structure?Activity Study of Dihydrocinnamic Acids and Discovery of the Potent FFA1 (GPR40) Agonist TUG-469

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFA1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic ?-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists containing the para-substituted dihydrocinnamic acid moiety are known. We here present a structure?activity relationship study of this compound family suggesting that the central methyleneoxy linker is preferable for the smaller compounds, whereas the central methyleneamine linker gives higher potency to the larger compounds. The study resulted in the discovery of the potent and selective full FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (29). PMID:24900217

  1. Discovery and biological evaluation of novel 4-amino-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives as potent and orally active GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Kenji; Yonetoku, Yasuhiro; Misawa-Mukai, Hana; Hamaguchi, Wataru; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-09-01

    Novel 4-amino-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as GPR119 agonists. Optimization of the substituents on the phenyl ring at the 2-position and the amino group at the 4-position led to the identification of 3,4-dihalogenated and 2,4,5-trihalogenated phenyl derivatives showing potent GPR119 agonistic activity. The advanced analog (2R)-3-{[2-(4-chloro-2,5-difluorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl]amino}propane-1,2-diol (24g) was found to improve glucose tolerance at 1mg/kg po in mice and to show excellent pharmacokinetic profiles in mice and monkeys. Compound 24g also showed an excellent antidiabetic effect in diabetic kk/Ay mice after one week of single daily treatment. These results demonstrate that novel GPR119 agonist 24g improves glucose tolerance not only by enhancing glucose-dependent insulin secretion but also by preserving pancreatic ?-cell function. PMID:22836190

  2. T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density J. R. Wedagedera* and N. J. Burroughsy

    E-print Network

    Wedagedera, Janak R.

    T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density J. R. Wedagedera* and N. J, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom ABSTRACT We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell,arobustnessanalysisshowsthatthesepropertiesaredegradedwhenthequeueparameters aresubject tovariation--for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface

  3. Structure-activity relationship study around guanabenz identifies two derivatives retaining antiprion activity but having lost ?2-adrenergic receptor agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phu Hai; Hammoud, Hassan; Halliez, Sophie; Pang, Yanhong; Evrard, Justine; Schmitt, Martine; Oumata, Nassima; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Sanyal, Suparna; Beringue, Vincent; Blondel, Marc; Bihel, Frédéric; Voisset, Cécile

    2014-10-15

    Guanabenz (GA) is an orally active ?2-adrenergic agonist that has been used for many years for the treatment of hypertension. We recently described that GA is also active against both yeast and mammalian prions in an ?2-adrenergic receptor-independent manner. These data suggest that this side-activity of GA could be explored for the treatment of prion-based diseases and other amyloid-based disorders. In this perspective, the potent antihypertensive activity of GA happens to be an annoying side-effect that could limit its use. In order to get rid of GA agonist activity at ?2-adrenergic receptors, we performed a structure-activity relationship study around GA based on changes of the chlorine positions on the benzene moiety and then on the modifications of the guanidine group. Hence, we identified the two derivatives 6 and 7 that still possess a potent antiprion activity but were totally devoid of any agonist activity at ?2-adrenergic receptors. Similarly to GA, 6 and 7 were also able to inhibit the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR) which has been suggested to be involved in prion appearance/maintenance. Therefore, these two GA derivatives are worth being considered as drug candidates. PMID:25244284

  4. Agonist Activated PKC?II Translocation and Modulation of Cardiac Myocyte Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyosook; Robinson, Dustin; Rogers, Julie B.; Stevenson, Tamara K.; Lang, Sarah E.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Day, Sharlene M.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated protein kinase C ?II (PKC?II) expression develops during heart failure and yet the role of this isoform in modulating contractile function remains controversial. The present study examines the impact of agonist-induced PKC?II activation on contractile function in adult cardiac myocytes. Diminished contractile function develops in response to low dose phenylephrine (PHE, 100?nM) in controls, while function is preserved in response to PHE in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. PHE also caused PKC?II translocation and a punctate distribution pattern in myocytes expressing this isoform. The preserved contractile function and translocation responses to PHE are blocked by the inhibitor, LY379196 (30?nM) in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. Further analysis showed downstream protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation and phosphatase activation are associated with the LY379196-sensitive contractile response. PHE also triggered a complex pattern of end-target phosphorylation in PKC?II-expressing myocytes. These patterns are consistent with bifurcated activation of downstream signaling activity by PKC?II. PMID:23756828

  5. Treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Miho; Kuroyanagi, Kana; Kohno, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist has been approved for treating hypercholesterolemia and lipid abnormalities. Researchers have recently discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of fenofibrate on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Methods EAU was induced in Lewis rats using bovine S-antigen (S-Ag) peptide. Fenofibrate was suspended in 3% arabic gum and administered orally at a high dose of 100 mg/kg and at a low dose of 20 mg/kg every day. Fenofibrate treatment was initiated after the clinical onset once daily for 14 days. The rats were examined every other day for clinical signs of EAU. The histological scores and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were evaluated on day 28 post-immunization. Morphologic and immunohistochemical examinations were performed with light and confocal microscopy, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with [3H] thymidine incorporation into antigen-stimulated T cells from inguinal lymph nodes. Results Clinical and histological scores of EAU were decreased in the fenofibrate-treated groups. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and Müller cell proliferation were inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups. DTH was significantly inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups, compared with the vehicle-treated groups (controls). Lymphocyte proliferation assay demonstrated decreased proliferation in the presence of 25 mg/ml S-Ag peptide in the fenofibrate-treated groups compared with controls. Conclusions The current results indicate that fenofibrate administered orally following clinical onset has therapeutic effect in EAU. Fenofibrate may be useful for treating intraocular inflammation. PMID:25489225

  6. Modulation of agonist-activated calcium influx by extracellular pH in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Muallem, S.; Pandol, S.J.; Beeker, T.G. )

    1989-12-01

    The biochemical and Ca2+ transport pathways involved in generating the hormone-evoked Ca2+ signal are reported to be influenced by pH. The present study was designed to determine the effect of extracellular pH (pHo) and intracellular pH (pHi) on hormone-stimulated Ca2+ transport. We used rat pancreatic acini and measured free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ((Ca2+)i) with fura-2, pHi with 2,7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), and Ca2+ fluxes with 45Ca2+. In the presence of external Ca2+, increasing pHo increased steady-state (Ca2+)i during sustained agonist stimulation; in the absence of external Ca2+, this increase in (Ca2+)i did not occur. The addition of an antagonist or blocking plasma membrane Ca2+ influx with La3+ in stimulated cells suspended at pHo 8.2 resulted in a reduction in (Ca2+)i. Increasing pHo increased the rate and extent of 45Ca2+ uptake into stimulated cells and the rate and extent of Ca2+ reloading of intracellular stores. The increased Ca2+ content of the intracellular stores with increased pHo indicated that at physiological pHo and pHi the agonist-mobilizable internal stores are not saturated with Ca2+. Changes in pHo affected pHi. However, changes in pHi at constant pHo had no effect on hormone-evoked (Ca2+)i increase, reduction in (Ca2+)i after hormone stimulation, or reloading of intracellular stores. We conclude that the hormone-activated plasma membrane Ca2+ entry pathway responsible for Ca2+ reloading is directly modulated by external H+.

  7. Novel indole and azaindole (pyrrolopyridine) cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists: design, synthesis, structure-activity relationships, physicochemical properties and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Blaazer, Antoni R; Lange, Jos H M; van der Neut, Martina A W; Mulder, Arie; den Boon, Femke S; Werkman, Taco R; Kruse, Chris G; Wadman, Wytse J

    2011-10-01

    The discovery, synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a novel series of cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) and cannabinoid 2 (CB(2)) receptor ligands are reported. Based on the aminoalkylindole class of cannabinoid receptor agonists, a biphenyl moiety was introduced as novel lipophilic indole 3-acyl substituent in 11-16. Furthermore, the 3-carbonyl tether was replaced with a carboxamide linker in 17-20 and the azaindole (pyrrolopyridine) nucleus was designed as indole bioisostere with improved physicochemical properties in 21-25. Through these SAR efforts, several high affinity CB(1)/CB(2) dual cannabinoid receptor ligands were identified. Indole-3-carboxamide 17 displayed single-digit nanomolar affinity and ~80 fold selectivity for CB(1) over the CB(2) receptor. The azaindoles displayed substantially improved physicochemical properties (lipophilicity; aqueous solubility). Azaindole 21 elicited potent cannabinoid activity. Cannabinoid receptor agonists 17 and 21 potently modulated excitatory synaptic transmission in an acute rat brain slice model of cannabinoid receptor-modulated neurotransmission. PMID:21885167

  8. Molecular basis for agonist selectivity and activation of the orphan BRS-3-receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nieves; Hocart, Simon J.; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Mantey, Samuel A.; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Zudaire, Enrique; Coy, David H.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3(BRS-3), a G protein-coupled orphan receptor, shares 51% identity with the mammalian bombesin(Bn) receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide(GRPR). There is increasing interest in BRS-3 because it is important in energy metabolism, glucose control,motility and tumor-growth. BRS-3 has low affinity for all Bn-related peptides, however, recently synthetic high-affinity agonists[D-Tyr6/D-Phe6,?Ala11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6–14) were described, but they are nonselective for BRS-3 over other Bn-receptors. Based on these peptides, three BRS-3 selective-ligands were developed: peptide#2,[D-Tyr6(R)-Apa11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn(6–14); peptide#3,[D-Tyr6,(R)-Apa11,4Cl-Phe13,Nle14]Bn(6–14); peptide #4,Ac-Phe-Trp-Ala-His(tBzl)-Nip-Gly-Arg-NH2. Their molecular determinants of selectivity/high affinity for BRS-3 are unknown. To address this we used a chimeric/site-mutagenesis approach. Substitution of extracellular domain2(EC2) of BRS-3 by the comparable GRPR domain decreased 26-,4,0-fold affinity for peptides#4,3,2. Substitution of EC3 decreased affinity 4-,11-,0-fold affinity for peptides#2,3,4. Ten point mutations in the EC2 and adjacent transmembrane regions (TM2) 2 and 3 of BRS-3 were made. His107(EC2-BRS-3) for lysine(H107K)(EC2-GRPR), decreased affinity(25-,0-fold) for peptide#4,1; however it could not be activated by either peptide. Its combination with Val101(TM2),Gly112(EC2),Arg127(TM3) resulted in complete loss-of-affinity of peptide#4. Receptor-modeling showed that each of these residues face inward and are within 4Å of the binding-pocket. These results demonstrate [Val101,His107,Gly112,Arg127] in the EC2/adjacent upper TMs of BRS-3 are critical for the high BRS3-selectivity of peptide#4. His107 in EC2 is essential for BRS-3 activation, suggesting amino-aromatic ligand/receptor interactions with peptide#4 are critical for both binding/ activation. Furthermore, these result demonstrate that even though these three BRS-3 selective agonists were developed from the same template peptide,[D-Phe6,?Ala11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6–14), their molecular determinants of selectivity/high affinity varied considerably. PMID:18006692

  9. Human Toll-Like Receptor 8-Selective Agonistic Activities in 1-Alkyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-8 agonists strongly induce the production of T helper 1-polarizing cytokines and may therefore serve as promising candidate vaccine adjuvants, especially for the very young and the elderly. Earlier structure-based ligand design led to the identification of 3-pentyl-quinoline-2-amine as a novel, human TLR8-specific agonist. Comprehensive structure–activity relationships in ring-contracted 1-alkyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-amines were undertaken, and the best-in-class compound, 4-methyl-1-pentyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine, was found to be a pure TLR8 agonist, evoking strong proinflammatory cytokine and Type II interferon responses in human PBMCs, with no attendant CD69 upregulation in natural lymphocytic subsets. The 1-alkyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-amines represent a novel, alternate chemotype with pure TLR8-agonistic activities and will likely prove useful not only in understanding TLR8 signaling but also perhaps as a candidate vaccine adjuvant. PMID:25102141

  10. Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca/sup + +/ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of /sup 3/H-inositol (/sup 3/H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the /sup 3/H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 ..mu..M), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of /sup 3/H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of fused-pyrimidine derivatives as a series of novel GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Kenji; Yonetoku, Yasuhiro; Moritomo, Ayako; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Iikubo, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-11-01

    A series of fused-pyrimidine derivatives have been discovered as potent and orally active GPR119 agonists. A combination of the fused-pyrimidine structure and 4-chloro-2,5-difluorophenyl group provided the 5,7-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]pyrimidine 6,6-dioxide derivative 14a as a highly potent GPR119 agonist. Further optimization of the amino group at the 4-position in the pyrimidine ring led to the identification of 2-{1-[2-(4-chloro-2,5-difluorophenyl)-6,6-dioxido-5,7-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]piperidin-4-yl}acetamide (16b) as an advanced analog. Compound 16b was found to have extremely potent agonistic activity and improved glucose tolerance at 0.1 mg/kg po in mice. We consider compound 16b and its analogs to have clear utility in exploring the practicality of GPR119 agonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23010456

  12. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPAR? activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPAR? transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPAR? enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPAR? activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPAR? activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPAR? transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPAR? activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPAR? enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPAR? activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPAR? activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPAR? activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Constrained meta-Substituted Phenyl Propanoic Acids as Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor r and Dual Agonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    examined. Most of the compounds possessing an oxime ether linker were more potent PPAR activators than ether linker, was found to selectively transactivate PPAR (EC50 ) 0.028 µM) over PPARR (EC50 ) 7.22 µ. PPARR agonists mainly improve dyslipidemia and PPAR agonists improve insulin resistance.1 Many synthetic

  14. T-cell activation: A queuing theory analysis at low agonist density.

    PubMed

    Wedagedera, J R; Burroughs, N J

    2006-09-01

    We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell receptor (TCR) within the framework of queuing theory, in which TCRs enter the queue upon full activation and exit by downregulation. We fit our model to four experimentally characterized threshold activation criteria and analyze their specificity and sensitivity: the initial calcium spike, cytotoxicity, immunological synapse formation, and cytokine secretion. Specificity characteristics improve as the time window for detection increases, saturating for time periods on the timescale of downregulation; thus, the calcium spike (30 s) has low specificity but a sensitivity to single-peptide MHC ligands, while the cytokine threshold (1 h) can distinguish ligands with a 30% variation in the complex lifetime. However, a robustness analysis shows that these properties are degraded when the queue parameters are subject to variation-for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface and population variation in the cellular threshold. A time integration of the queue over a period of hours is shown to be able to control parameter noise efficiently for realistic parameter values when integrated over sufficiently long time periods (hours), the discrimination characteristics being determined by the TCR signal cascade kinetics (a kinetic proofreading scheme). Therefore, through a combination of thresholds and signal integration, a T cell can be responsive to low ligand density and specific to agonist quality. We suggest that multiple threshold mechanisms are employed to establish the conditions for efficient signal integration, i.e., coordinate the formation of a stable contact interface. PMID:16766611

  15. Differential contribution of two serine residues of wild type and constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptors to the interaction with ?2-selective agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Hideo; Kurose, Hitoshi; Isogaya, Masafumi; Sato, Yoji; Nagao, Taku

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the difference in receptor binding activity between partial and full ?2-adrenoceptor agonists and the abilities of the agonists to interact with Ser204 and Ser207 in the fifth transmembrane region of the ?2-adrenoceptor, amino acid residues that are important for activation of the ?2-adrenoceptor. In the binding study with [125I]-iodocyanopindolol, the Ki values of (±)-salbutamol, (±)-salmeterol, TA-2005 and (?)-isoprenaline for the ?2-adrenoceptor expressed in COS-7 cell membranes were 3340, 21.0, 12.0 and 904?nM, respectively. The ?1/?2 selectivity of these agonists was in the order of (±)-salmeterol (332 fold)>TA-2005 (52.8)>(±)-salbutamol (6.8)>(?)-isoprenaline (1.1), and the ?3-/?2-adrenoceptor selectivity of these agonists was in the order of TA-2005 (150 fold)>(±)-salmeterol (88.6)>(±)-salbutamol (10.4)>(?)-isoprenaline (3.2). The maximal activation of adenylyl cyclase by stimulation of the ?1-, ?2- and ?3-adrenoceptors by TA-2005 was 32, 100 and 100% of that by (?)-isoprenaline, respectively, indicating that TA-2005 is a full agonist at the ?2- and ?3-adrenoceptors and a partial agonist at the ?1-adrenoceptor. (±)-Salbutamol and (±)-salmeterol were partial agonists at both ?1- (8% and 9% of (?)-isoprenaline) and ?2- (83% and 74% of (?)-isoprenaline) adrenoceptors. The affinities of full agonists, TA-2005 and (?)-isoprenaline, were markedly decreased by substitution of Ala for Ser204 (S204A) of the ?2-adrenoceptor, whereas this substitution slightly reduced the affinities of partial agonists, (±)-salbutamol and (±)-salmeterol. Although the affinities of full agonists for the S207A-?2-adrenoceptor were decreased, those of partial agonists for the S207A-?2-adrenoceptor were essentially the same as for the wild type receptor. The constitutively active mutant (L266S, L272A) of the ?2-adrenoceptor had an increased affinity for all four agonists. The affinities of full agonists were decreased by substitution of Ser204 of the constitutively active mutant, whereas the degree of decrease was smaller than that caused by the substitution of the wild type receptor. Although the affinities of (±)-salbutamol and (±)-salmeterol for the S207A-?2-adrenoceptor were essentially the same as those for the wild type ?2-adrenoceptor, the affinities of (±)-salbutamol and (±)-salmeterol for the constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptor were decreased by substitution of Ser207. These results suggest that Ser204 and Ser207 of the wild type and constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptors differentially interacted with ?2-selective agonists. PMID:9249239

  16. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  17. TLR3 agonist and Sorafenib combinatorial therapy promotes immune activation and controls hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Victor; Lim, Tong Seng; Lee, Justin; Steinberg, Jeffrey; Szmyd, Radoslaw; Tham, Muly; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kaldis, Philipp; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Chew, Valerie

    2015-09-29

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with high mortality and the current therapy for advanced HCC, Sorafenib, offers limited survival benefits. Here we assessed whether combining the TLR3 agonist: lysine-stabilized polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid (poly-ICLC) with Sorafenib could enhance tumor control in HCC. Combinatorial therapy with poly-ICLC and Sorafenib increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of HCC cell lines in vitro, in association with impaired phosphorylation of AKT, MEK and ERK. In vivo, the combinatorial treatment enhanced control of tumor growth in two mouse models: one transplanted with Hepa 1-6 cells, and the other with liver tumors induced using the Sleeping beauty transposon. Tumor cell apoptosis and host immune responses in the tumor microenvironment were enhanced. Particularly, the activation of local NK cells, T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells was enhanced. Decreased expression of the inhibitory signaling molecules PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and tumor cells, respectively. Tumor infiltration by monocytic-myeloid derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSC) was also reduced indicating the reversion of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Our data demonstrated that the combinatorial therapy with poly-ICLC and Sorafenib enhances tumor control and local immune response hence providing a rationale for future clinical studies. PMID:26287667

  18. Selective CB2 receptor agonists. Part 2: Structure-activity relationship studies and optimization of proline-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Riether, Doris; Zindell, Renee; Wu, Lifen; Betageri, Raj; Jenkins, James E; Khor, Someina; Berry, Angela K; Hickey, Eugene R; Ermann, Monika; Albrecht, Claudia; Ceci, Angelo; Gemkow, Mark J; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Romig, Helmut; Sauer, Achim; Thomson, David S

    2015-02-01

    Through a ligand-based pharmacophore model (S)-proline based compounds were identified as potent cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists with high selectivity over the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Structure-activity relationship investigations for this compound class lead to oxo-proline compounds 21 and 22 which combine an impressive CB1 selectivity profile with good pharmacokinetic properties. In a streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy model, 22 demonstrated a dose-dependent reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:25556092

  19. BAY36-7620: a potent non-competitive mGlu1 receptor antagonist with inverse agonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Fiona Y.; Stolle, Andreas; Beart, Philip M.; Voerste, Arnd; Brabet, Isabelle; Mauler, Frank; Joly, Cécile; Antonicek, Horst; Bockaert, Joël; Müller, Thomas; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    L-glutamate (Glu) activates at least eight different G protein-coupled receptors, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which mostly act as regulators of synaptic transmission. These receptors consist of two domains: an extracellular one where agonists bind, and a transmembrane heptahelix region involved in G-protein activation. Although new mGlu receptor agonists and antagonists have been described, few are selective for a single mGlu subtype. Here, we have examined the effects of a novel compound BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)-6a-Naphtalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydro-cyclopental[c]furan-1-on], on mGlu receptors (mGlu1-8), transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. BAY36-7620 is a potent (IC50 = 0.16 ?M) and selective antagonist at mGlu1 receptors and inhibits >60% of mGlu1a receptor constitutive activity (IC50 = 0.38 ?M). BAY36-7620 is therefore the first described mGlu1 receptor inverse agonist. To address the mechanism of action of BAY36-7620, Glu dose-response curves were performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of BAY36-7620. The results show that BAY36-7620 largely decreases the maximal effect of Glu. Moreover, BAY36-7620 did not displace the [3H]quisqualate binding from the Glu-binding pocket., further indicating that BAY36-7620 is a non-competitive mGlu1 antagonist. We then looked for its site of action. Studies of chimeric receptors containing regions of mGlu1, and regions of DmGluA, mGlu2 or mGlu5, revealed that the transmembrane region of mGlu1 is necessary for activity of BAY36-7620. Transmembrane helices 4–7 are shown to play a critical role in the selectivity of BAY36-7620. This specific site of action of BAY36-7620 differs from that of competitive antagonists, and indicates that the transmembrane region plays a pivotal role in the agonist-independent activity of this receptor. BAY36-7620 will be useful to further delineate the functional importance of the mGlu1 receptor, including its putative agonist-independent activity. PMID:11306677

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas M1-macrophage-related molecules such as integrin {alpha}X, IL-1{beta}, MIP2{alpha} and leptin were decreased at rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites. Moreover, transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated peritoneal macrophages into the incisional sites significantly attenuated hyperalgesia. We speculate that local administration of rosiglitazone significantly alleviated the development of postincisional pain, possibly through regulating macrophage polarity at the inflamed site. PPAR{gamma} signaling in macrophages may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of acute pain development.

  1. Design, synthesis and biological activity of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives as novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Xia, Wenting; Zhou, Xianhao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a novel antidiabetic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes based on particular mechanism in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We have previously identified a series of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives. Herein, we describe the further chemical modification of this series directed by ligand efficiency and ligand lipophilicity efficiency. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the promising candidate 16, an excellent FFA1 agonist with robust agonistic activity (43.6nM), desired LE and LLE values. Moreover, compound 16 revealed a great potential for improving the hyperglycemia levels in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice without the risk of hypoglycemia even at the high dose of 40mg/kg. PMID:26482570

  2. Design of Potent and Orally Active GPR119 Agonists for the Treatment of Type II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hu, Zhiyong; DuBois, Byron G; Moyes, Christopher R; Hunter, David N; Zhu, Cheng; Kar, Nam Fung; Zhu, Yuping; Garfunkle, Joie; Kang, Ling; Chicchi, Gary; Ehrhardt, Anka; Woods, Andrea; Seo, Toru; Woods, Morgan; van Heek, Margaret; Dingley, Karen H; Pang, Jianmei; Salituro, Gino M; Powell, Joyce; Terebetski, Jenna L; Hornak, Viktor; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Lamberson, Joe; Ujjainwalla, Fez; Miller, Michael; Stamford, Andrew; Wood, Harold B; Kowalski, Timothy; Nargund, Ravi P; Edmondson, Scott D

    2015-08-13

    We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of potent and selective GPR119 agonists. Our objective was to develop a GPR119 agonist with properties that were suitable for fixed-dose combination with a DPP4 inhibitor. Starting from a phenoxy analogue (1), medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing half-life and increasing solubility led to the synthesis of a series of benzyloxy analogues. Compound 28 was chosen for further profiling because of its favorable physicochemical properties and excellent GPR119 potency across species. This compound exhibited a clean off-target profile in counterscreens and good in vivo efficacy in mouse oGTT. PMID:26288697

  3. Exploring pharmacological activities and signaling of morphinans substituted in position 6 as potent agonists interacting with the ? opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesics are the most effective drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, they also produce several adverse effects that can complicate pain management. The ? opioid (MOP) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, is recognized as the opioid receptor type which primarily mediates the pharmacological actions of clinically used opioid agonists. The morphinan class of analgesics including morphine and oxycodone are of main importance as therapeutically valuable drugs. Though the natural alkaloid morphine contains a C-6-hydroxyl group and the semisynthetic derivative oxycodone has a 6-carbonyl function, chemical approaches have uncovered that functionalizing position 6 gives rise to a range of diverse activities. Hence, position 6 of N-methylmorphinans is one of the most manipulated sites, and is established to play a key role in ligand binding at the MOP receptor, efficacy, signaling, and analgesic potency. We have earlier reported on a chemically innovative modification in oxycodone resulting in novel morphinans with 6-acrylonitrile incorporated substructures. Results This study describes in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities and signaling of new morphinans substituted in position 6 with acrylonitrile and amido functions as potent agonists and antinociceptive agents interacting with MOP receptors. We show that the presence of a 6-cyano group in N-methylmorphinans has a strong influence on the binding to the opioid receptors and post-receptor signaling. One 6-cyano-N-methylmorphinan of the series was identified as the highest affinity and most selective MOP agonist, and very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, this MOP agonist showed to be greatly effective against thermal and chemical nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency than the lead molecule oxycodone. Conclusion Development of such novel chemotypes by targeting position 6 provides valuable insights on ligand-receptor interaction and molecular mode of action, and may aid in identification of opioid therapeutics with enhanced analgesic properties and fewer undesirable effects. PMID:25059282

  4. Food flavonoid aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated agonistic/antagonistic/synergic activities in human and rat reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Bechoux, Nathalie; Muller, Marc; Sergent, Thérèse; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2009-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the adverse effects of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we investigated the genetic-, time-, dose-, species- and tissue-dependent AhR-mediated agonistic/antagonistic activities of three food flavonoids: quercetin, chrysin and genistein. To that end, four stably transfected cell lines were used in cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays: three lines were transformed with the ptKLuc vector harbouring four dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter and the luciferase gene (HepG2-Luc, T-47D-Luc and H4IIE-ULg). The fourth is a patented cell line transformed with a different construct: H4IIE DR-CALUX((R)). Both H4IIE cells were compared for their genetic construction. Human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) and human breast tumour (T-47D-Luc) cells were compared for tissue-dependent effects. Rat hepatoma (H4IIE-ULg) and human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) cells were compared for species-dependent activities. We concluded that quercetin, chrysin and genistein act in a time-, dose-, species- and tissue-specific way. For example, genistein displayed agonistic activities when exposed to rat hepatoma cells during 6h but not after 24h. Flavonoids displayed agonistic/antagonistic activities in human breast tumour cells, depending on the exposure time, while in human hepatoma cells, only antagonistic activities of flavonoids were measured. In addition, we report, in all the cells, a synergy between an isoflavone and two food contaminants; the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3-methylcholanthrene, a PAH. In rat cells, this synergy occurred when cells were exposed to flavonoids and contaminant for 6h, while it was observed in human cells only after 24h. PMID:19286049

  5. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:25991438

  6. PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seong-Ryong; Kim, Hahn-Young; Hong, Jung-Suk; Baek, Won-Ki; Park, Jong-Wook

    2009-02-27

    Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

  7. Squalene emulsion potentiates the adjuvant activity of the TLR4 agonist, GLA, via inflammatory caspases, IL-18, and IFN-?.

    PubMed

    Desbien, Anthony L; Reed, Steven J; Bailor, Hilton R; Dubois Cauwelaert, Natasha; Laurance, John D; Orr, Mark T; Fox, Christopher B; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Duthie, Malcolm S

    2015-02-01

    The synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA) is a potent Th1-response-inducing adjuvant when formulated in a squalene oil-in-water emulsion (SE). While the innate signals triggered by TLR4 engagement are well studied, the contribution of SE remains unclear. To better understand the effect of SE on the adjuvant properties of GLA-SE, we compared the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by immunization with different formulations: GLA without oil, SE alone or the combination, GLA-SE, in mice. Within the innate response to adjuvants, only GLA-SE displayed features of inflammasome activation, evidenced by early IL-18 secretion and IFN-? production in memory CD8(+) T cells and neutrophils. Such early IFN-? production was ablated in caspase-1/11(-/-) mice and in IL-18R1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, caspase-1/11 and IL-18 were also required for full Th1 CD4(+) T-cell induction via GLA-SE. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-18 and caspase-1/11 are components of the response to immunization with the TLR4 agonist/squalene oil-in-water based adjuvant, GLA-SE, providing implications for other adjuvants that combine oils with TLR agonists. PMID:25367751

  8. Dual Agonist Surrobody Simultaneously Activates Death Receptors DR4 and DR5 to Induce Cancer Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, Snezana; Kashyap, Arun K; Yanagi, Teruki; Wimer, Carina; Zhou, Sihong; O'Neil, Ryann; Kurtzman, Aaron L; Faynboym, Alexsandr; Xu, Li; Hannum, Charles H; Diaz, Paul W; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Bhatt, Ramesh R; Reed, John C

    2016-01-01

    Death receptors of the TNF family are found on the surface of most cancer cells and their activation typically kills cancer cells through the stimulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. The endogenous ligand for death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) is TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TRAIL (Apo2L). As most untransformed cells are not susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, death receptor activators have emerged as promising cancer therapeutic agents. One strategy to stimulate death receptors in cancer patients is to use soluble human recombinant TRAIL protein, but this agent has limitations of a short half-life and decoy receptor sequestration. Another strategy that attempted to evade decoy receptor sequestration and to provide improved pharmacokinetic properties was to generate DR4 or DR5 agonist antibodies. The resulting monoclonal agonist antibodies overcame the limitations of short half-life and avoided decoy receptor sequestration, but are limited by activating only one of the two death receptors. Here, we describe a DR4 and DR5 dual agonist produced using Surrobody technology that activates both DR4 and DR5 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also avoids decoy receptor sequestration. This fully human anti-DR4/DR5 Surrobody displays superior potency to DR4- and DR5-specific antibodies, even when combined with TRAIL-sensitizing proapoptotic agents. Moreover, cancer cells were less likely to acquire resistance to Surrobody than either anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 monospecific antibodies. Taken together, Surrobody shows promising preclinical proapoptotic activity against cancer cells, meriting further exploration of its potential as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(1); 114-24. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26516157

  9. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  10. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel phenoxyacetamide-based free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Qiu, Qianqian; Qiang, Hao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-10-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) has attracted extensive attention as a novel antidiabetic target in the last decade. Several FFA1 agonists reported in the literature have been suffered from relatively high molecular weight and lipophilicity. We have previously reported the FFA1 agonist 1. Based on the common amide structural characteristic of SAR1 and NIH screened compound, we here describe the continued structure-activity exploration to decrease the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the compound 1 series by converting various amide linkers. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the preferable lead compound 18, a compound with considerable agonistic activity, high LE and LLE values, lower lipophilicity than previously reported agonists, and appreciable efficacy on glucose tolerance in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:26420383

  11. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress-Elicited AKT Activation Facilitates PPAR? Agonist-Mediated Inhibition of Stem Cell Character and Tumor Growth of Liver Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingqian; Li, Jingyi; Xu, Dongxu; Zhang, Li; Sun, Jiabin; Xia, Suhua; Zou, Feiyan; Liu, Yongzhong

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are the most malignant cell subpopulation in tumors because of their resistance to chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Targeting TICs may be a key innovation for cancer treatment. In this study, we found that PPAR? agonists inhibited the cancer stem cell-like phenotype and attenuated tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiated by NOX2 upregulation were partially responsible for the inhibitory effects mediated by PPAR? agonists. However, PPAR? agonist-mediated ROS production significantly activated AKT, which in turn promoted TIC survival by limiting ROS generation. Inhibition of AKT, by either pharmacological inhibitors or AKT siRNA, significantly enhanced PPAR? agonist-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and stem cell-like properties in HCC cells. Importantly, in nude mice inoculated with HCC Huh7 cells, we demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect of the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone and the AKT inhibitor triciribine on tumor growth. In conclusion, we observed a negative feedback loop between oxidative stress and AKT hyperactivation in PPAR? agonist-mediated suppressive effects on HCCs. Combinatory application of an AKT inhibitor and a PPAR? agonist may provide a new strategy for inhibition of stem cell-like properties in HCCs and treatment of liver cancer. PMID:24023668

  12. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L; Alkjaer, T; Suetta, C; Mortensen, P; Kjaer, M; Aagaard, P

    2011-12-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle function during match play. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue induced by a simulated handball match on neuromuscular strategy during a functional sidecutting movement, associated with the incidence of ACL injury. Fourteen female team handball players were tested for neuromuscular activity [electromyography (EMG)] during a sidecutting maneuver on a force plate, pre and post a simulated handball match. MVC was obtained during maximal isometric quadriceps and hamstring contraction. The simulated handball match consisted of exercises mimicking handball match activity. Whereas the simulated handball match induced a decrease in MVC strength for both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (P<0.05), a selective decrease in hamstring neuromuscular activity was seen during sidecutting (P<0.05). This study shows impaired ACL-agonist muscle (i.e. hamstring) activity during sidecutting in response to acute fatigue induced by handball match play. Thus, screening procedures should involve functional movements to reveal specific fatigue-induced deficits in ACL-agonist muscle activation during high-risk phases of match play. PMID:20500560

  13. Toll-like receptor 8 agonist and bacteria trigger potent activation of innate immune cells in human liver.

    PubMed

    Jo, Juandy; Tan, Anthony T; Ussher, James E; Sandalova, Elena; Tang, Xin-Zi; Tan-Garcia, Alfonso; To, Natalie; Hong, Michelle; Chia, Adeline; Gill, Upkar S; Kennedy, Patrick T; Tan, Kai Chah; Lee, Kang Hoe; De Libero, Gennaro; Gehring, Adam J; Willberg, Christian B; Klenerman, Paul; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear cells purified from human healthy and diseased livers with distinct pathogen-associated molecules. We discovered that only the TLR8 agonist ssRNA40 selectively activated liver-resident innate immune cells to produce substantial quantities of IFN-?. We identified CD161(Bright) mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) and CD56(Bright) NK cells as the responding liver-resident innate immune cells. Their activation was not directly induced by the TLR8 agonist but was dependent on IL-12 and IL-18 production by ssRNA40-activated intrahepatic monocytes. Importantly, the ssRNA40-induced cytokine-dependent activation of MAIT cells mirrored responses induced by bacteria, i.e., generating a selective production of high levels of IFN-?, without the concomitant production of TNF-? or IL-17A. The intrahepatic IFN-? production could be detected not only in healthy livers, but also in HBV- or HCV-infected livers. In conclusion, the human liver harbors a network of immune cells able to modulate their immunological responses to different pathogen-associated molecules. Their ability to generate a strong production of IFN-? upon stimulation with TLR8 agonist opens new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diverse liver pathologies. PMID:24967632

  14. The Novel PPAR ?/? Dual Agonist MHY 966 Modulates UVB–Induced Skin Inflammation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Hi; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Hye Rim; Park, Chan Hum; Kim, So Ra; Chun, Pusoon; Byun, Youngjoo; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB; 290~320nm) irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation induces inflammatory responses that lead to skin wrinkle formation and epidermal thickening. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? dual agonists have the potential to be used as anti-wrinkle agents because they inhibit inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation. In this study, we evaluated the function of 2-bromo-4-(5-chloro-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) phenol (MHY 966), a novel synthetic PPAR ?/? dual agonist, and investigated its anti-inflammatory and anti-lipid peroxidation effects. The action of MHY 966 as a PPAR ?/? dual agonist was also determined in vitro by reporter gene assay. Additionally, 8-week-old melanin-possessing hairless mice 2 (HRM2) were exposed to 150 mJ/cm2 UVB every other day for 17 days and MHY 966 was simultaneously pre-treated every day for 17 days to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. MHY 966 was found to stimulate the transcriptional activities of both PPAR ? and ?. In HRM2 mice, we found that the skins of mice exposed to UVB showed significantly increased pro-inflammatory mediator levels (NF-?B, iNOS, and COX-2) and increased lipid peroxidation, whereas MHY 966 co-treatment down-regulated these effects of UVB by activating PPAR ? and ?. Thus, the present study shows that MHY 966 exhibits beneficial effects on inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation by simultaneously activating PPAR ? and ?. The major finding of this study is that MHY 966 demonstrates potential as an agent against wrinkle formation associated with chronic UVB exposure. PMID:24130794

  15. Amyloid-? Pathology and APOE Genotype Modulate Retinoid X Receptor Agonist Activity in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Leon M.; Koster, Kevin P.; Luo, Jia; Lee, Sue H.; Wang, Yue-ting; Collins, Nicole C.; Ben Aissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Previous data demonstrate that bexarotene (Bex), retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, reduces soluble and insoluble amyloid-? (A?) in Alzheimer disease (AD)-transgenic mice either by increasing the levels of mouse apolipoprotein E (apoE) or increasing ABCA1/ABCG1-induced apoE lipoprotein association/lipidation. However, although the mechanism of action of RXR agonists remains unclear, a major concern for their use is human (h)-APOE4, the greatest AD genetic risk factor. If APOE4 imparts a toxic gain-of-function, then increasing apoE4 may increase soluble A?, likely the proximal AD neurotoxin. If the APOE4 loss-of-function is lipidation of apoE4, then induction of ABCA1/ABCG1 may be beneficial. In novel EFAD-Tg mice (overexpressing h-A?42 with h-APOE), levels of soluble A? (A?42 and oligomeric A?) are highest in E4FAD hippocampus (HP) > E3FAD-HP > E4FAD cortex (CX) > E3FAD-CX, whereas levels of lipoprotein-associated/lipidated apoE have the opposite pattern (6 months). In E4FAD-HP, short-term RXR agonist treatment (Bex or LG100268; 5.75–6 months) increased ABCA1, apoE4 lipoprotein-association/lipidation, and apoE4/A? complex, decreased soluble A?, and increased PSD95. In addition, hydrogel delivery, which mimics low sustained release, was equally effective as gavage for Bex and LG100268. RXR agonists induced no beneficial effects in the E4FAD-HP in a prevention protocol (5–6 months) and actually increased soluble A? levels in E3FAD-CX and E4FAD-CX with the short-term protocol, possibly the result of systemic hepatomegaly. Thus, RXR agonists address the loss-of-function associated with APOE4 and exacerbated by A? pathology, i.e. low levels of apoE4 lipoprotein association/lipidation. Further studies are vital to address whether RXR agonists are an APOE4-specific AD therapeutic and the systemic side effects that limit translational application. PMID:25217640

  16. (1R, 3S)-(?)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G?q to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(?)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (?)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (?)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (?)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (?)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  17. Activation of Developmental Nuclear Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Signaling and Neurogenesis in Adult Brain by ?7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Narla, Sridhar T.; Klejbor, Ilona; Birkaya, Barbara; Lee, Yu-Wei; Morys, Janusz; Stachowiak, Ewa K.; Prokop, Dorota; Bencherif, Merouane

    2013-01-01

    Reactivation of endogenous neurogenesis in the adult brain or spinal cord holds the key for treatment of central nervous system injuries and neurodegenerative disorders, which are major health care issues for the world's aging population. We have previously shown that activation of developmental integrative nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling (INFS), via gene transfection, reactivates neurogenesis in the adult brain by promoting neuronal differentiation of brain neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). In the present study, we report that targeting the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) with a specific TC-7020 agonist led to a robust accumulation of endogenous FGFR1 in the cell nucleus. Nuclear FGFR1 accumulation was accompanied by an inhibition of proliferation of NS/PCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and by the generation of new neurons. Neuronal differentiation was observed in different regions of the adult mouse brain, including (a) ?III-Tubulin-expressing cortical neurons, (b) calretinin-expressing hippocampal neurons, and (c) cells in substantia nigra expressing the predopaminergic Nurr1+ phenotype. Furthermore, we showed that in vitro stimulation of neural stem/progenitor cells with ?7nAChR agonist directly activated INFS and neuronal-like differentiation. TC-7020 stimulation of the ?III-Tubulin gene was accompanied by increased binding of FGFR1, CREB binding protein, and RNA polymerase II to a Nur77 targeted promoter region. TC-7020 augmented Nur77-dependent activation of nerve growth factor inducible-B protein responsive element, indicating that ?7nAChR upregulation of ?III-Tubulin involves neurogenic FGFR1-Nur signaling. The reactivation of INFS and neurogenesis in adult brain by the ?7nAChR agonist may offer a new strategy to treat brain injuries, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:24014683

  18. Characterization of a new synthetic isoflavonoid with inverse agonist activity at the central benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniele V S; Caruso, Rodrigo R B; Castro, Newton G; Costa, Paulo R R; da Silva, Alcides J M; Noël, François

    2004-07-14

    Research aimed at developing selective drugs acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors introduced compounds from diverse chemical classes unrelated to the 1,4-benzodiazepines, including flavonoids. These studies also revealed the potential use of inverse agonists as cognition-enhancing agents. Here we report pharmacological properties of the novel synthetic isoflavonoid 2-methoxy-3,8,9-trihydroxy coumestan (PCALC36). PCALC36 displaced [3H]flunitrazepam binding to rat brain synaptosomes with an IC50 of 13.8 microM. Scatchard analysis of the effect of PCALC36 showed a concentration-dependent reduction of the Bmax of [3H]flunitrazepam, without a marked change in Kd. This effect could be reversed by diluting and washing the preparation. Addition of 20-microM GABA shifted to the right the inhibition curve of PCALC36 on [3H]flunitrazepam binding (IC50 ratio of 0.68), which is characteristic for inverse agonists. PCALC36 produced little change in the GABAergic tonic currents recorded by whole-cell patch clamp in cultured rat hippocampal neurones, but it caused a 20% reduction in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude and completely antagonised the full (direct) agonist midazolam in a quickly reversible manner. The data suggest that the coumestan backbone can be useful for developing novel ligands at the GABAA receptor. PMID:15249156

  19. NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION STRENGTHENS WEAK ELECTRICAL COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Han, Victor Z.; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Welsh, John P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling that shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of receptormediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate-receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20–100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, while co-stimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate-receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (i) occurred despite increased input conductance, (ii) induced Ca2+-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (iii) required activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (iv) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and thus, (v) strengthened coupling mainly between non-adjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  20. Antitumor activity of a novel small molecule TLR7 agonist via immune response induction and tumor microenvironment modulation.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yuwen; Wang, Xiaodong; Wan, Yanyan; Zhong, Jingjing; Gao, Dong; Liu, Yu; Gao, Ningning; Li, Wang; Liu, Bing; Huang, Xinping; Jin, Zhenchao; Peng, Boya; Wang, Zhulin; Fu, Li; Chen, Siping; Jin, Guangyi

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful and active tumor-specific approach against cancer via triggering the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental elements of the immune system, which facilitate our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune pathways. TLR agonists used as single agents can effectively eradicate tumors due to their potent stimulation of innate and adaptive immunity. We examined the effects of a novel adenine type of TLR7 agonists on both innate and adaptive immune activation in vitro and in vivo. We established the local and distant tumor?bearing mice derived from murine mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1) to model metastatic disease. Our data demonstrated that SZU101 was able to stimulate innate immune cells to release cytokines at the very high level compared with LPS at the same or lower concentration. Locally intratumoral SZU101 injection can elicit a systemic antitumor effect on murine breast tumor model. SZU101 affected the frequency of intratumoral immune cell infiltration, including the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ increase, and the ratio of Tregs decrease. Our data reveal that the antitumor effect of SZU101 is associated with multiple mechanisms, inducing tumor?specific immune response, activation of innate immune cells and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26718332

  1. CBLB502, an agonist of Toll-like receptor 5, has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguang; Ge, Changhui; Yang, Liu; Wang, Ruixue; Lu, Yiming; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yonghong; Zheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial protein flagellin is the known agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). It has been reported that CBLB502, a novel agonist of TLR5 derived from Salmonella flagellin, could reduce radiation toxicity in mouse and primate models, protect mice from dermatitis and oral mucositis caused by radiation, inhibit acute renal ischemic failure, and inhibit the growth of A549 lung cancer cell. The property of CBLB502 is able to bind to TLR5 and activates NF-?B signaling. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant potential and free radicals scavenging properties of CBLB502 in vitro. Interestingly, we found that CBLB502 has a direct and distinct antioxidant capacity and can efficiently scavenge a variety of free radicals, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and ABTS cation (ABTS(+)). Through wave scanning and kinetic evaluation of scavenging ABTS(+), we found that the ABTS(+) scavenging process of CBLB502 is relatively slow, and the ABTS(+) scavenging activity of CBLB502 has a consistently kinetics characteristics. In conclusion, our results suggested that CBLB502 has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro. It is implied that CBLB502 might partially promote the beneficial protective effect through its scavenging free radicals. PMID:26476243

  2. 4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa; Nishii, Yasuho; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2008-03-14

    (5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

  3. Discovery of tripeptide-derived multifunctional ligands possessing delta/mu opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities.

    PubMed

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-09-01

    Several bifunctional peptides were synthesized and characterized based on the pentapeptide-derived ligand NP30 (1: Tyr-DAla-Gly-Phe-Gly-Trp-O-[3',5'-Bzl(CF3)2]). Modification and truncation of amino acid residues were performed, and the tripeptide-derived ligand NP66 (11: Dmt-DAla-Trp-NH-[3',5'-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was obtained based on the overlapping pharmacophore concept. The Trp(3) residue of ligand 11 works as a message residue for both opioid and NK1 activities. The significance lies in the observation that the approach of appropriate truncation of peptide sequence could lead to a tripeptide-derived chimeric ligand with effective binding and functional activities for both mu and delta opioid and NK1 receptors with agonist activities at mu and delta opioid and antagonist activity at NK1 receptors, respectively. PMID:26212775

  4. Site Specificity of Agonist and Second Messenger-Activated Kinases for Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2A (Sst2A) Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qisheng; Bee, Mark S.; Schonbrunn, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor subtype 2A (sst2A) mediates many of the endocrine and neuronal actions of somatostatin and is the target of somatostatin analogs in cancer therapy. As with many G-protein-coupled receptors, agonist stimulation causes sst2A receptor desensitization and internalization, events that require receptor phosphorylation. Furthermore, heterologous receptor activation of protein kinase C (PKC) also increases sst2A receptor phosphorylation and internalization. Here we analyzed a series of sst2A receptor mutants biochemically to identify residues in the receptor carboxyl terminus that were phosphorylated upon agonist stimulation, and we then generated four phosphorylation-sensitive antibodies to those residues. Once the selectivity of each antibody for its phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated target sequence was determined, the phospho-site-specific antibodies were used to demonstrate that somatostatin treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the wild type sst2A receptor increased phosphorylation on five residues in the receptor C terminus: Ser341, Ser343, Ser348, Thr353, and Thr354. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased receptor phosphorylation only on Ser343. Inhibition of PKC blocked PMA but not somatostatin stimulation, showing that different kinases catalyzed Ser343 phosphorylation. In contrast, somatostatin-stimulated sst2A receptor phosphorylation was inhibited by knockdown of G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 with siRNA. Somatostatin increased sst2A receptor phosphorylation on the same five residues in GH4C1 pituitary cells as in CHO cells. However, PMA stimulated sst2A receptor phosphorylation on both Ser343 and Ser348 in GH4C1 cells. These results characterize the complex pattern of sst2A receptor phosphorylation by agonist and second messenger-activated kinases for the first time and indicate that cell type-specific regulation of sst2A receptor phosphorylation occurs. PMID:19389921

  5. Characterization of CM572, a Selective Irreversible Partial Agonist of the Sigma-2 Receptor with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Hilary; Comeau, Anthony; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R; Bowen, Wayne D

    2015-08-01

    The sigma-2 receptors are promising therapeutic targets because of their significant upregulation in tumor cells compared with normal tissue. Here, we characterize CM572 [3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-6-isothiocyanatobenzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one] (sigma-1 Ki ? 10 µM, sigma-2 Ki = 14.6 ± 6.9 nM), a novel isothiocyanate derivative of the putative sigma-2 antagonist, SN79 [6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one]. CM572 bound irreversibly to sigma-2 receptors by virtue of the isothiocyanate moiety but not to sigma-1. Studies in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells revealed that CM572 induced an immediate dose-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium concentration. A 24-hour treatment of SK-N-SH cells with CM572 induced dose-dependent cell death, with an EC50 = 7.6 ± 1.7 µM. This effect was sustained over 24 hours even after a 60-minute pretreatment with CM572, followed by extensive washing to remove ligand, indicating an irreversible effect consistent with the irreversible binding data. Western blot analysis revealed that CM572 also induced cleavage activation of proapoptotic BH3-interacting domain death agonist. These data suggest irreversible agonist-like activity. Low concentrations of CM572 that were minimally effective were able to attenuate significantly the calcium signal and cell death induced by the sigma-2 agonist CB-64D [(+)-1R,5R-(E)-8-benzylidene-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylmorphan-7-one]. CM572 was also cytotoxic against PANC-1 pancreatic and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of CM572 was selective for cancer cells over normal cells, being much less potent against primary human melanocytes and human mammary epithelial cells. Taken together, these data show that CM572 is a selective, irreversible sigma-2 receptor partial agonist. This novel irreversible ligand may further our understanding of the endogenous role of this receptor, in addition to having potential use in targeted cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26034081

  6. The Silent Majority Jets and Radio Cores from Weakly Active Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Falcke, Heino

    cores and jets in radio-weak AGN. Here I summarize our work concerning these radio cores and jetsThe Silent Majority Jets and Radio Cores from Weakly Active Black Holes Heino Falcke #12; #12; The Silent Majority Jets and Radio Cores from Weakly Active Black Holes Die schweigende Mehrheit Jets und

  7. A new perspective for schizophrenia: TAAR1 agonists reveal antipsychotic- and antidepressant-like activity, improve cognition and control body weight.

    PubMed

    Revel, F G; Moreau, J-L; Pouzet, B; Mory, R; Bradaia, A; Buchy, D; Metzler, V; Chaboz, S; Groebke Zbinden, K; Galley, G; Norcross, R D; Tuerck, D; Bruns, A; Morairty, S R; Kilduff, T S; Wallace, T L; Risterucci, C; Wettstein, J G; Hoener, M C

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and highly complex mental illness. Current treatments manage the positive symptoms, yet have minimal effects on the negative and cognitive symptoms, two prominent features of the disease with critical impact on the long-term morbidity. In addition, antipsychotic treatments trigger serious side effects that precipitate treatment discontinuation. Here, we show that activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a modulator of monoaminergic neurotransmission, represents a novel therapeutic option. In rodents, activation of TAAR1 by two novel and pharmacologically distinct compounds, the full agonist RO5256390 and the partial agonist RO5263397, blocks psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and produces a brain activation pattern reminiscent of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine, suggesting antipsychotic-like properties. TAAR1 agonists do not induce catalepsy or weight gain; RO5263397 even reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy and prevented olanzapine from increasing body weight and fat accumulation. Finally, TAAR1 activation promotes vigilance in rats and shows pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like properties in rodent and primate models. These data suggest that TAAR1 agonists may provide a novel and differentiated treatment of schizophrenia as compared with current medication standards: TAAR1 agonists may improve not only the positive symptoms but also the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, without causing adverse effects such as motor impairments or weight gain. PMID:22641180

  8. Discovery of Novel Multifunctional Ligands with ?/? Opioid Agonist/Neurokinin-1 (NK1) Antagonist Activities for the Treatment of Pain.

    PubMed

    Giri, Aswini Kumar; Apostol, Christopher R; Wang, Yue; Forte, Brittany L; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Davis, Peg; Rankin, David; Molnar, Gabriella; Olson, Keith M; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-11-12

    Multifunctional ligands with agonist bioactivities at ?/? opioid receptors (MOR/DOR) and antagonist bioactivity at the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been designed and synthesized. These peptide-based ligands are anticipated to produce better biological profiles (e.g., higher analgesic effect with significantly less adverse side effects) compared to those of existing drugs and to deliver better synergistic effects than coadministration of a mixture of multiple drugs. A systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) study has been conducted to find multifunctional ligands with desired activities at three receptors. It has been found that introduction of Dmt (2,6-dimethyl-tyrosine) at the first position and NMePhe at the fourth position (ligand 3: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-NMePhe-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) displays binding as well as functional selectivity for MOR over DOR while maintaining efficacy, potency, and antagonist activity at the NK1R. Dmt at the first position with Phe(4-F) at the fourth position (ligand 5: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) exhibits balanced binding affinities at MOR and DOR though it has higher agonist activity at DOR over MOR. This study has led to the discovery of several novel ligands including 3 and 5 with excellent in vitro biological activity profiles. Metabolic stability studies in rat plasma with ligands 3, 5, and 7 (H-Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) showed that their stability depends on modifications at the first and fourth positions (3: T1/2 > 24 h; 5: T1/2 ? 6 h; 7: T1/2 > 2 h). Preliminary in vivo studies with these two ligands have shown promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:26465170

  9. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? agonists protect oligodendrocyte progenitors against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced damage: Effects on mitochondrial functions and differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Nuccio, C; Bernardo, A; Cruciani, C; De Simone, R; Visentin, S; Minghetti, L

    2015-09-01

    The activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and PPAR-? agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents in brain diseases including those affecting myelin. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammation is one of the causes of myelin and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is highly dependent on mitochondria, which are major targets of inflammatory insult. Here we show that PPAR-? agonists protect OL progenitors against the maturational arrest induced by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? by affecting mitochondrial functions. We demonstrate that the inhibition of OL differentiation by TNF-? is associated with i) increased mitochondrial superoxide production; ii) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP); and iii) decreased ADP-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, which we previously showed to be dependent on efficient mitochondria. The TNF-? effects were comparable to those of the mitochondrial toxin rotenone, further suggesting that TNF-? damage is mediated by mitochondrial function impairment. PPAR-? agonists protected OL progenitors against the inhibitory activities of both TNF-? and rotenone on mMP, mitochondrial ROS production, Ca(2+) oscillations and OL differentiation. Finally, the PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone increased the expression of PGC-1? (a mitochondrial biogenesis master regulator), UCP2 (a mitochondrial protein known to reduce ROS production), and cytochrome oxidase subunit COX1. These findings confirm the central role of mitochondria in OL differentiation and point to mitochondria as major targets of PPAR-? agonist protection against TNF-? damage. PMID:26210873

  10. Protein Kinase D Isoforms Are Expressed In Rat and Mouse Primary Sensory Neurons and Are activated by Agonists Of Protease-Activated Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Amadesi, Silvia; Grant, Andrew D.; Cottrell, Graeme S.; Vaksman, Natalya; Poole, Daniel P.; Rozengurt, Enrique; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases generated during injury and inflammation cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on primary sensory neurons to induce neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia requires sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels by mechanisms involving phospholipase C and protein kinase C (PKC). The protein kinase D (PKD) serine/threonine kinases are activated by diacylglycerol and PKCs, and can phosphorylate TRPV1. Thus, PKDs may participate in novel signal transduction pathways triggered by serine proteases during inflammation and pain. However, it is not known whether PAR2 activates PKD, and the expression of PKD isoforms by nociceptive neurons is poorly characterized. Using HEK293 cells transfected with PKDs, we found that PAR2 stimulation promoted plasma membrane translocation and phosphorylation of PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3, indicating activation. This effect was partially dependent on PKC?. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, with antibodies against PKD1/PKD2, PKD3 and neuronal markers, we found that PKDs were expressed in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including nociceptive neurons that expressed TRPV1, PAR2 and neuropeptides. PAR2 agonist induced phosphorylation of PKD in cultured DRG neurons, indicating PKD activation. Intraplantar injection of PAR2 agonist also caused phosphorylation of PKD in neurons of lumbar DRG, confirming activation in vivo. Thus, PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 are expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate neurogenic inflammation and pain transmission, and PAR2 agonists activate PKDs in HEK293 cells and DRG neurons in culture and in intact animals. PKD may be a novel component of a signal transduction pathway for protease-induced activation of nociceptive neurons and an important new target for anti-inflammatory and analgesic therapies. PMID:19575452

  11. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    PubMed Central

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Bylund, Johan; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323?209, 2014). In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy), meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus. PMID:25303226

  12. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    PubMed

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Bylund, Johan; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323?209, 2014). In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy), meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus. PMID:25303226

  13. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Nicotine enhances murine airway contractile responses to kinin receptor agonists via activation of JNK- and PDE4-related intracellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nicotine plays an important role in cigarette-smoke-associated airway disease. The present study was designed to examine if nicotine could induce airway hyperresponsiveness through kinin receptors, and if so, explore the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods Murine tracheal segments were cultured for 1, 2 or 4 days in serum-free DMEM medium in presence of nicotine (1 and 10 ?M) or vehicle (DMSO). Contractile responses induced by kinin B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg9-bradykinin, and B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, were monitored with myographs. The B1 and B2 receptor mRNA expressions were semi-quantified using real-time PCR and their corresponding protein expressions assessed with confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Various pharmacological inhibitors were used for studying intracellular signaling pathways. Results Four days of organ culture with nicotine concentration-dependently increased kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated airway contractions, without altering the kinin receptor-mediated relaxations. No such increase was seen at day 1 or day 2. The airway contractile responses to 5-HT, acetylcholine and endothelin receptor agonists remained unaffected by nicotine. Two different neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonists MG624 and hexamethonium blocked the nicotine-induced effects. The enhanced contractile responses were accompanied by increased mRNA and protein expression for both kinin receptors, suggesting the involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. Confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry showed that 4 days of nicotine treatment induced activation (phosphorylation) of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38. Inhibition of JNK with its specific inhibitor SP600125 abolished the nicotine-induced effects on kinin receptor-mediated contractions and reverted the enhanced receptor mRNA expression. Administration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (YM976 and theophylline), glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) or adenylcyclase activator (forskolin) suppressed the nicotine-enhanced airway contractile response to des-Arg9-bradykinin and bradykinin. Conclusions Nicotine induces airway hyperresponsiveness via transcriptional up-regulation of airway kinin B1 and B2 receptors, an effect mediated via neuronal nicotinic receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve activation of JNK- and PDE4-mediated intracellular inflammatory signal pathways. Our results might be relevant to active and passive smokers suffering from airway hyperresponsiveness, and suggest new therapeutic targets for the treatment of smoke-associated airway disease. PMID:20113502

  15. KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channel activators as bronchodilators: combination with a ?2-adrenergic agonist enhances relaxation of rat airways

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Haick, Jennifer M.; Neuburg, Samantha; Tate, Shawn; Randhawa, Devjit; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2014-01-01

    KCNQ (Kv7 family) potassium (K+) channels were recently found in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from rodent and human bronchioles. In the present study, we evaluated expression of KCNQ channels and their role in constriction/relaxation of rat airways. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of KCNQ4 > KCNQ5 > KCNQ1 > KCNQ2 > KCNQ3, and patch-clamp electrophysiology detected KCNQ currents in rat ASMCs. In precision-cut lung slices, the KCNQ channel activator retigabine induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of small bronchioles preconstricted with methacholine (MeCh; EC50 = 3.6 ± 0.3 ?M). Bronchoconstriction was also attenuated in the presence of two other structurally unrelated KCNQ channel activators: zinc pyrithione (ZnPyr; 1 ?M; 22 ± 7%) and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10 ?M; 24 ± 8%). The same three KCNQ channel activators increased KCNQ currents in ASMCs by two- to threefold. The bronchorelaxant effects of retigabine and ZnPyr were prevented by inclusion of the KCNQ channel blocker XE991. A long-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, formoterol (10 nM), did not increase KCNQ current amplitude in ASMCs, but formoterol (1–1,000 nM) did induce a time- and concentration-dependent relaxation of rat airways, with a notable desensitization during a 30-min treatment or with repetitive treatments. Coadministration of retigabine (10 ?M) with formoterol produced a greater peak and sustained reduction of MeCh-induced bronchoconstriction and reduced the apparent desensitization observed with formoterol alone. Our findings support a role for KCNQ K+ channels in the regulation of airway diameter. A combination of a ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist with a KCNQ channel activator may improve bronchodilator therapy. PMID:24441871

  16. KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channel activators as bronchodilators: combination with a ?2-adrenergic agonist enhances relaxation of rat airways.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I; Haick, Jennifer M; Neuburg, Samantha; Tate, Shawn; Randhawa, Devjit; Cribbs, Leanne L; Byron, Kenneth L

    2014-03-15

    KCNQ (Kv7 family) potassium (K(+)) channels were recently found in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from rodent and human bronchioles. In the present study, we evaluated expression of KCNQ channels and their role in constriction/relaxation of rat airways. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of KCNQ4 > KCNQ5 > KCNQ1 > KCNQ2 > KCNQ3, and patch-clamp electrophysiology detected KCNQ currents in rat ASMCs. In precision-cut lung slices, the KCNQ channel activator retigabine induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of small bronchioles preconstricted with methacholine (MeCh; EC50 = 3.6 ± 0.3 ?M). Bronchoconstriction was also attenuated in the presence of two other structurally unrelated KCNQ channel activators: zinc pyrithione (ZnPyr; 1 ?M; 22 ± 7%) and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10 ?M; 24 ± 8%). The same three KCNQ channel activators increased KCNQ currents in ASMCs by two- to threefold. The bronchorelaxant effects of retigabine and ZnPyr were prevented by inclusion of the KCNQ channel blocker XE991. A long-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, formoterol (10 nM), did not increase KCNQ current amplitude in ASMCs, but formoterol (1-1,000 nM) did induce a time- and concentration-dependent relaxation of rat airways, with a notable desensitization during a 30-min treatment or with repetitive treatments. Coadministration of retigabine (10 ?M) with formoterol produced a greater peak and sustained reduction of MeCh-induced bronchoconstriction and reduced the apparent desensitization observed with formoterol alone. Our findings support a role for KCNQ K(+) channels in the regulation of airway diameter. A combination of a ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist with a KCNQ channel activator may improve bronchodilator therapy. PMID:24441871

  17. 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho (N,N,N trimethyl) hexanolamine: an analogue of platelet-activating factor with partial agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadis, G; Stewart, A G

    1991-09-01

    1. During studies of the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in macrophage superoxide anion generation (O2(-1], we identified an agonist action of the putative PAF receptor antagonist 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho (N,N,N-trimethyl) hexanolamine (hexanolamine PAF) in guinea-pig macrophages. The 1-O-octadecyl form of this compound has specific antagonist actions at PAF receptors. 2. The agonist properties of hexanolamine PAF were examined in rabbit washed platelets (aggregation) and in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages (O2- generation). 3. Hexanolamine PAF induced significant platelet aggregation (50% of the PAF maximum). However, the omission of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from the Tyrode buffer resulted in a diminution of the response of washed platelets during storage for 24 h at 4 degrees C (7% of PAF maximum), whereas the maximum response to PAF was unaffected by storage for this period, irrespective of the presence of BSA. 4. Platelet aggregation induced by hexanolamine PAF was not accompanied by a detectable increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, whereas the aggregation response to PAF was preceded by a large rise in [Ca2+]i. 5. Hexanolamine PAF induced O2- generation in adherent macrophages, with a maximum response 45% of that to PAF. Hexanolamine PAF (100 nM), at a concentration equi-effective with PAF (1 nM) for stimulation of O2- generation in macrophages, induced an increase in [Ca2+]i which was significantly less than that induced by PAF. 6. PAF concentration-response curves were constructed in platelets or macrophages following pretreatment with hexanolamine PAF (0.1 and 1 microM). The interaction between PAF and the putative partial agonist (hexanolamine PAF) had the characteristics expected of a partial agonist interacting with a full agonist.7. Platelet aggregation induced by hexanolamine PAF was antagonized non-competitively by the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2086, whereas antagonism of PAF-induced aggregation by WEB 2086 was competitive. Macrophage 2- generation induced by hexanolamine PAF or PAF was antagonized by WEB 2086.8. These data indicate that hexanolamine PAF is a partial agonist at PAF receptors in macrophages and platelets. The inability of hexanolamine PAF to increase [Ca2+]i in platelets suggests that PAF receptors may be coupled to platelet aggregation by both Ca2 +-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:1664761

  18. Active-state model of a dopamine D2 receptor-G?i complex stabilized by aripiprazole-type partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kling, Ralf C; Tschammer, Nuska; Lanig, Harald; Clark, Timothy; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Partial agonists exhibit a submaximal capacity to enhance the coupling of one receptor to an intracellular binding partner. Although a multitude of studies have reported different ligand-specific conformations for a given receptor, little is known about the mechanism by which different receptor conformations are connected to the capacity to activate the coupling to G-proteins. We have now performed molecular-dynamics simulations employing our recently described active-state homology model of the dopamine D2 receptor-G?i protein-complex coupled to the partial agonists aripiprazole and FAUC350, in order to understand the structural determinants of partial agonism better. We have compared our findings with our model of the D2R-G?i-complex in the presence of the full agonist dopamine. The two partial agonists are capable of inducing different conformations of important structural motifs, including the extracellular loop regions, the binding pocket and, in particular, intracellular G-protein-binding domains. As G-protein-coupling to certain intracellular epitopes of the receptor is considered the key step of allosterically triggered nucleotide-exchange, it is tempting to assume that impaired coupling between the receptor and the G-protein caused by distinct ligand-specific conformations is a major determinant of partial agonist efficacy. PMID:24932547

  19. Active-State Model of a Dopamine D2 Receptor - G?i Complex Stabilized by Aripiprazole-Type Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Ralf C.; Tschammer, Nuska; Lanig, Harald; Clark, Timothy; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Partial agonists exhibit a submaximal capacity to enhance the coupling of one receptor to an intracellular binding partner. Although a multitude of studies have reported different ligand-specific conformations for a given receptor, little is known about the mechanism by which different receptor conformations are connected to the capacity to activate the coupling to G-proteins. We have now performed molecular-dynamics simulations employing our recently described active-state homology model of the dopamine D2 receptor-G?i protein-complex coupled to the partial agonists aripiprazole and FAUC350, in order to understand the structural determinants of partial agonism better. We have compared our findings with our model of the D2R-G?i-complex in the presence of the full agonist dopamine. The two partial agonists are capable of inducing different conformations of important structural motifs, including the extracellular loop regions, the binding pocket and, in particular, intracellular G-protein-binding domains. As G-protein-coupling to certain intracellular epitopes of the receptor is considered the key step of allosterically triggered nucleotide-exchange, it is tempting to assume that impaired coupling between the receptor and the G-protein caused by distinct ligand-specific conformations is a major determinant of partial agonist efficacy. PMID:24932547

  20. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and PPAR?, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPAR?. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting from chemical exposure during embryonic development. PMID:26624992

  1. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone improves cardiometabolic risk and renal inflammation in murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenpu; Thacker, Seth G; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Jeffrey H; Park, James L; Randolph, Ann; Somers, Emily C; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2009-08-15

    Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a striking increase in the risk of premature atherosclerosis, a complication preceded by significant subclinical vascular damage. A proposed mechanism leading to accelerated vascular disease in SLE is an imbalance between vascular damage and repair, as patients with this disease display significant abnormalities in phenotype and function of endothelial progenitor cells. In addition, individuals with SLE have a higher incidence of insulin resistance which may further contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. This study examined the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in improving endothelial function, endothelial progenitor cell numbers and functional capacity, metabolic parameters, and disease activity in the lupus-prone murine model New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB x NZW)F(1). Ten-week-old prenephritic female NZB/NZW F(1) mice were exposed to 10 or 25 mg/kg/day of oral pioglitazone or vehicle for 15 or 24 wk. Mice exposed to pioglitazone exhibited pronounced enhancement in endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation of thoracic aortas and in endothelial progenitor cell function, as assessed by the capacity of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Pioglitazone-treated mice showed improvement in insulin resistance, adipokine, and lipid profile. Kidneys from pioglitazone-treated mice showed significant decreases in immune complex deposition, renal inflammation, T cell glomerular infiltration, and intrarenal synthesis of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and VCAM-1. These results indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists could serve as important tools in the prevention of premature cardiovascular disease and organ damage in SLE. PMID:19620300

  2. Effect of beta-ADrenergic Agonist on Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Because it seems logical that these agonists exert their action on muscle through stimulation of cAMP synthesis, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax levels were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. In addition, the EC50 values for isoproterenol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, epinephrine, and albuterol were 360 nM, 630 nM, 900 nM, 2,470 nM, and 3,650 nM, respectively. Finally, dose response curves show that the concentrations of cimaterol and clenbuterol in culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals had no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP accumulation in chicken skeletal muscle cells.

  3. Neonatal exposure to endocrine active compounds or an ERbeta agonist increases adult anxiety and aggression in gonadally intact male rats.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Bateman, Heather L

    2008-04-01

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been shown to influence a number of reproductive endpoints but less is known about how they might affect other hormone dependent behaviors including anxiety and aggression. Recent evidence suggests that these effects may be mediated through the beta form of the estrogen receptor (ERbeta). Using male Long Evans rats, we sought to determine how neonatal exposure to EACs affects anxiety and aggression in adulthood. Anxiety was assessed using the elevated plus maze and aggression was assessed 8 weeks later using the resident intruder test. To gain insight into which ER subtype (ERalpha vs ERbeta) might be mediating these effects we used agonists specific for ERalpha (1,3,5-tris(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT)) or ERbeta (Diarylpropionitrile (DPN)) as additional treatment groups. For these experiments the synthetic EAC bisphenol-A (BPA) and the phytoestrogen metabolite equol (EQ) were used. Male neonates were injected with either 0.05 ml sesame oil (control), 50 microg estradiol benzoate (EB), 1 mg/kg DPN, 1 mg/kg PPT, 50 microg/kg BPA, or 10 mg/kg EQ daily for 4 days beginning on the day of birth (PND 0). Compared to the oil treated controls, significantly fewer open arm entries were made by the males neonatally treated with DPN, EQ, or BPA. The DPN and EQ treated males were also more aggressive compared to the controls. These findings suggest that neonatal exposure to EACs with agonistic activity on ERbeta may influence affective behavior in adulthood, including anxiety and aggression. PMID:18308321

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf . E-mail: ralf.arnold@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-07-05

    We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists inhibited the inflammatory response of RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we supply evidence that specific PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone, troglitazone, Fmoc-Leu) efficiently blocked the RSV-induced cytotoxicity and development of syncytia in tissue culture (A549, HEp-2). All PPAR{gamma} agonists under study markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of the viral G and F protein on RSV-infected A549 cells. This was paralleled by a reduced cellular amount of N protein-encoding mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR. Concomitantly, a reduced release of infectious progeny virus into the cell supernatants of human lung epithelial cells (A549, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE)) was observed. Similar results were obtained regardless whether PPAR{gamma} agonists were added prior to RSV infection or thereafter, suggesting that the agonists inhibited viral gene expression and not the primary adhesion or fusion process.

  5. Activation of latent HIV-1 expression by protein kinase C agonists. A novel therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV-1 reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Vo, Minh Q; Pérez, Moisés; Calzado, Marco A; Moreno, Santiago; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The persistence of latent HIV-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major hurdle to virus eradication in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. The molecular mechanisms by which integrated HIV-1 is repressed during latency have been partially identified in different models of HIV-1 latency, and the involvement of multiple processes has been demonstrated. Therefore, several molecular targets amenable to pharmacological manipulation have emerged to antagonize HIV-1 latency in the viral reservoirs. In this context, it has been suggested that successful depletion of such latent reservoirs will require a combination of therapeutic agents that can specifically and efficiently act on cells harbouring latent HIV-1 provirus. HIV-1 reactivation therapy is a potential therapeutic option to purge the viral reservoirs. The goal of this therapy is to enhance the transcriptional activity of the latent HIV-1 without inducing the polyclonal activation of non-infected cells. In this sense natural or semisynthetic protein kinase C agonists lacking tumour-promoter activities clearly fulfil this criterion, thereby opening new research avenues to purge HIV-1 reservoirs. In this review article, we have succinctly summarized the known effects of "natural products", focusing on phorboids like prostratin and ingenols, macrolides like bryostatin 1, and macrocyclic polyesters like ingols and jatrophanes. A comprehensive view on the molecular mechanisms underlying the principle of HIV-1 reactivation from latency is provided, discussing the combination of "natural products" with other experimental or conventional therapeutics. PMID:20955147

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist activation ameliorates venous thrombosis-induced arteriovenous fistula failure in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chiang-Ting; Fan, Shih-Chen; Lin, Shao-Chieh; Kuo, Chang-Chih; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Lee, Shih-Pin; Cheng, Dai-Yu; Li, Ping-Chia

    2014-11-01

    High shear stress that develops in the arteriovenous fistula of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) may increase H2O2 and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release, thereby exacerbating endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, and neointimal hyperplasia. We investigated whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist/exendin-4, a potentially cardiovascular protective agent, could improve TXA2-induced arteriovenous fistula injury in CKD. TXA2 administration to H2O2-exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells increased apoptosis, senescence, and detachment; these phenotypes were associated with the downregulation of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase/heme oxygenase-1 (eNOS/HO-1) signalling. Exendin-4 reduced H2O2/TXA2-induced endothelial injury via inhibition of apoptosis-related mechanisms and restoration of phosphorylated eNOS/HO-1 signalling. Male Wistar rats subjected to right common carotid artery-external jugular vein anastomosis were treated with exendin-4 via cervical implant osmotic pumps for 16-42 days. High shear stress induced by the arteriovenous fistula significantly increased venous haemodynamics, blood and tissue H2O2 and TXB2 levels, macrophage/monocyte infiltration, fibrosis, proliferation, and adhesion molecule-1 expression. Apoptosis was also increased due to NADPH oxidase gp91 activation and mitochondrial Bax translocation in the proximal end of the jugular vein of CKD rats. Exendin-4-treatment of rats with CKD led to the restoration of normal endothelial morphology and correction of arteriovenous fistula function. Exendin-4 treatment or thromboxane synthase gene deletion in CKD mice markedly reduced ADP-stimulated platelet adhesion to venous endothelium, and prevented venous occlusion in FeCl3-injured vessels by upregulation of HO-1. Together, these data reveal that the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists is an effective strategy for treatment of CKD-induced arteriovenous fistula failure. PMID:25030617

  7. Differential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, B; Samadi, N; Baradaran, B; Rameshknia, V; Shafiei-Irannejad, V; Majidinia, M; Targhaze, N; Zarghami, N

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is still a main obstacle for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers. Therefore, identification of safe and effective MDR reversing compounds with minimal adverse side effects is an important approach in the cancer treatment. Studies show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) ligands can inhibit cell growth in many cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of different PPAR agonists include fenofibrate, troglitazone and aleglitazar on doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. The effects of doxorubicin (DOX) following treatment with PPAR agonists on cell viability were evaluated using MTT assay and the reversal fold (RF) values. Rhodamine123 (Rh123) assays were used to determine P-gp functioning. P-gp mRNA/protein expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis after incubation with troglitazone and aleglitazar. Our results showed that troglitazone and aleglitazar significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and decreased the RF values in K562/DOX cells, however, no such results were found for fenofibrate. Troglitazone and aleglitazar significantly down regulated P-gp expression in K562/DOX cells; in addition, the present study revealed that aleglitazar elevated intracellular accumulation of Rh123in K562/DOX cells as short-term effects, which also contribute to the reversal of MDR. These findings show that troglitazone and especially aleglitazar exhibited potent effects in the reversal of P-gp-mediated MDR, suggesting that these compounds may be effective for combination therapy strategies and circumventing MDR in K562/DOX cells to other conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26718439

  8. Agonist activation of cytosolic Ca2+ in subfornical organ cells projecting to the supraoptic nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Sharma, R. V.; Xu, Z.; Bhatty, R. A.; Johnson, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is sensitive to both ANG II and ACh, and local application of these agents produces dipsogenic responses and vasopressin release. The present study examined the effects of cholinergic drugs, ANG II, and increased extracellular osmolarity on dissociated, cultured cells of the SFO that were retrogradely labeled from the supraoptic nucleus. The effects were measured as changes in cytosolic calcium in fura 2-loaded cells by using a calcium imaging system. Both ACh and carbachol increased intracellular ionic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, in contrast to the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on SFO neurons, manipulation of the extracellular osmolality produced no effects, and application of ANG II produced only moderate effects on [Ca2+]i in a few retrogradely labeled cells. The cholinergic effects on [Ca2+]i could be blocked with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and with the more selective muscarinic receptor antagonists pirenzepine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperdine methiodide (4-DAMP). In addition, the calcium in the extracellular fluid was required for the cholinergic-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. These findings indicate that ACh acts to induce a functional cellular response in SFO neurons through action on a muscarinic receptor, probably of the M1 subtype and that the increase of [Ca2+]i, at least initially, requires the entry of extracellular Ca2+. Also, consistent with a functional role of M1 receptors in the SFO are the results of immunohistochemical preparations demonstrating M1 muscarinic receptor-like protein present within this forebrain circumventricular organ.

  9. Anticoccidial activities of 7-bromo-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)-1H-indazol-6-amine and other alpha 2 adrenergic agonists.

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, J W; Ricketts, A P; Newcomb, D M; Shively, J E; Glazer, E A

    1992-01-01

    Activity against the coccidial pathogen Eimeria tenella in chickens has been discovered among alpha 2 adrenergic agonists. The clonidine analog 7-bromo-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)-1H-indazol-6-amine was active in feed at 7.5 ppm, a concentration similar to the use levels of potent commercial agents, e.g., maduramicin. Additional alpha 2 agonists were also found to have anticoccidial activity, for example, the catecholamine nordefrin, which is chemically unrelated to clonidine. However, alpha 1 agonists and alpha antagonists were inactive. These observations imply that anticoccidial effects reflect involvement of a receptor with the characteristics of the vertebrate alpha 2 adrenoceptor. alpha 2 agonists that permeate the blood-brain barrier (like clonidine) inhibit feed intake at efficacious levels, whereas those that are restricted to the peripheral compartment (such as catecholamines) do not inhibit feed intake as much. Hence, anticoccidial efficacy may be a peripheral adrenergic effect whereas depression of feed intake is likely centrally mediated. PMID:1351380

  10. WY-14643, a Potent Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor-? PPAR-? Agonist Ameliorates the Inflammatory Process Associated to Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Enrico; Di Paola, Rosanna; Paterniti, Irene; Mazzon, Emanuela; Oteri, Giacomo; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of WY14643, a potent peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were lightly anaesthetized with pentobarbitone (35?mg/kg). Sterile, 2-0 black braided silk thread was placed around the cervix of the lower left first molar and knotted medially. Animals received WY14643 (1?mg/kg i.p, daily for eight days). Eighths days after placement of the ligature, we evaluated several markers of inflammation such us (1) myeloperoxidase activity, (2) a cytokines and adhesion molecules expression, (3) NF-?B expression, (4) iNOS expression, (5) the nitration of tyrosine residues, (6) activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, (7) apoptosis, and (8) the degree of gingivomucosal tissues injury. Administration of WY14643 significantly decreased all of the parameters of inflammation as described above. These results demonstrate that WY14643 exerts an anti-inflammatory role during experimental periodontitis and is able to ameliorate the tissue damage. PMID:21253492

  11. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol differentially suppresses emesis versus enhanced locomotor activity produced by chemically diverse dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Crim, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), suppresses nausea and vomiting in cancer patients caused by chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. Cisplatin induces vomiting via a number of emetic stimuli, including dopamine. Currently, there is controversy as to whether Delta9-THC can prevent emesis produced by dopaminergic agonists such as apomorphine. The present investigation utilizes the least shrew to evaluate the antiemetic potential and the cannabinoid receptor by which Delta9-THC may prevent emesis produced by four dopamine receptor agonists with differing selectivity for D2 and D3 receptors, i.e., a nonselective dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), a D2-preferring receptor agonist (quinpirole), and two D3-preferring receptor agonists (quinelorane and 7-OH DPAT). In addition, relative to its antiemetic doses, the motor suppressive doses of Delta9-THC in dopamine D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews were also evaluated. Thus, different groups of shrews were injected with either vehicle (V) or varying doses of Delta9-THC [0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)] 10 min prior to administration of a 2 mg/kg dose of one of the four cited D2/D3 agonists. Immediately after the last injection, the frequency of vomiting for each shrew was recorded for the next 30 min. To investigate which cannabinoid receptor is involved in the antiemetic action of Delta9-THC, various doses of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A [0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, subcutaneous (s.c.)] were administered to shrews 10 min prior to an injection of a fully effective antiemetic dose of Delta9-THC (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Ten minutes later, each treated shrew was administered with a 2 mg/kg dose of apomorphine. The emesis frequency was recorded for the next 30 min. For locomotor studies, different groups of shrews received either vehicle or various doses of Delta9-THC (0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) 10 min prior to an injection of vehicle or a 2 mg/kg dose of one of the four D2/D3 receptor agonists. The triad of motor behaviors (spontaneous locomotor activity, total duration of movement, and rearing frequency) were recorded for the next 30 min by a computerized video tracking system. Delta9-THC dose-dependently attenuated the frequency of emesis as well as fully protecting shrews from vomiting produced by each one of the four cited dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists with ID50s ranging from 1 to 4 mg/kg. SR 141716A reversed the antiemetic activity of Delta9-THC against apomorphine-induced emesis. Delta9-THC also differentially suppressed the triad of motor activities in dopamine D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews with ID50s ranging from 7 to 21 mg/kg. The results suggest that Delta9-THC prevents emesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in a potent and dose-dependent manner in D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews at doses well below those which cause significant motor depression. PMID:15652378

  12. A synergistic interaction of 17-?-estradiol with specific cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist/inverse agonist on proliferation activity in primary human osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    HOJNIK, MARKO; DOBOVIŠEK, LUKA; KNEZ, ŽELJKO; FERK, POLONCA

    2015-01-01

    The bone remodeling process is influenced by various factors, including estrogens and transmitters of the endocannabinoid system. In osteoblasts, cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB-2) are expressed at a much higher level compared to CB-1 receptors. Previous studies have shown that estrogens could influence CB-2 receptor expression. In the present study, the possible interactions of a specific CB-2 agonist and a specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist with 17-?-estradiol were investigated in primary human osteoblasts (HOB). HOB cells were cultured in phenol red-free osteoblast growth medium (37°C, 5% CO2). In their 5th passage, HOB were exposed to different concentrations of i) 17-?-estradiol (1, 10 and 100 nM); ii) a specific CB-2 agonist (R,S)-AM1241 (1 and 7.5 µM); and iii) a specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist AM630 (10 µM) and to selected combinations of the substances. After 24 and 48 h of incubation, HOB proliferation activity was measured using a WST-8 assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also evaluated using spectrophotometry. Concomitant exposure of HOB to 17-?-estradiol (10 nM) and to specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist (10 µM) showed similar HOB proliferation activity to HOB incubated with 17-?-estradiol only at a 100 nM concentration. By contrast, concomitant incubation of HOB with 17-?-estradiol (10 nM) and specific CB-2 agonist (7.5 µM) resulted in decreased HOB proliferation activity as compared to HOB incubated with 17-?-estradiol only (10 nM). Similar findings were observed after 24 and 48 h of incubation. In all the experiments, HOB successfully passed the alkaline phosphatase differentiation test. In conclusion, for the first time a synergistic interaction between 17-?-estradiol and specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist was observed in HOB. Understanding the molecular pathways of this interaction would be of great importance in developing more efficient and safer drugs for treating or preventing bone diseases. PMID:26171165

  13. PTEROSTILBENE AS A NEW AGONIST FOR THE PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA ISOFORM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pterostilbene, a stilbenoid antioxidant found in blueberries, grapes, other small fruits, and in woody plants was shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) isoform. This nuclear receptor is proposed to mediate the activity of lipid-lowering drugs such as th...

  14. Treatment with PPAR? Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPAR? agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPAR? agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPAR? agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXR? and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPAR? agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  15. Amide derivatives of 9,11-seco-estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-11-oic acid as modified orally active estrogen agonists with moderate antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Negi, Arvind Singh; Chaturvedi, Devdutt; Gupta, Atul; Ray, S; Dwivedy, Anila; Singh, M M

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of amide derivatives of 9,11-seco-estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-11-oic acid containing alkyl and aromatic amine residues has been carried out with an aim to prepare orally active estrogen antagonists. Modification of the estradiol molecule in the form of C-seco-amide derivatives has led to their high oral absorption. Compounds 7 an n-propyl amide, 8 an n-butyl amide, and 16 a p-anisidyl amide of C-seco-estrane showed significant estrogen antagonistic activity (>20%), while, the majority of compounds possessed high estrogen agonistic activity on oral administration at 10mg/kg dose in rats. PMID:15582419

  16. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines from RSV-infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf . E-mail: ralf.arnold@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-03-15

    The epithelial cells of the airways are the target cells for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the site of the majority of the inflammation associated with the disease. Recently, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the role of PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone and troglitazone) on the synthesis of RSV-induced cytokine release from RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). We observed that all PPAR{gamma} ligands inhibited dose-dependently the release of TNF-{alpha}, GM-CSF, IL-1{alpha}, IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL5 (RANTES) from RSV-infected A549 cells. Concomitantly, the PPAR{gamma} ligands diminished the cellular amount of mRNA encoding for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5 and the RSV-induced binding activity of the transcription factors NF-{kappa}B (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-fos), respectively. Our data presented herein suggest a potential application of PPAR{gamma} ligands in the anti-inflammatory treatment of RSV infection.

  17. Isoproterenol Acts as a Biased Agonist of the Alpha-1A-Adrenoceptor that Selectively Activates the MAPK/ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Copik, Alicja. J.; Baldys, Aleksander; Nguyen, Khanh; Sahdeo, Sunil; Ho, Hoangdung; Kosaka, Alan; Dietrich, Paul J.; Fitch, Bill; Raymond, John R.; Ford, Anthony P. D. W.; Button, Donald; Milla, Marcos E.

    2015-01-01

    The ?1A-AR is thought to couple predominantly to the G?q/PLC pathway and lead to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, although certain agonists acting at this receptor have been reported to trigger activation of arachidonic acid formation and MAPK pathways. For several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) agonists can manifest a bias for activation of particular effector signaling output, i.e. not all agonists of a given GPCR generate responses through utilization of the same signaling cascade(s). Previous work with G?q coupling-defective variants of ?1A-AR, as well as a combination of Ca2+ channel blockers, uncovered cross-talk between ?1A-AR and ?2-AR that leads to potentiation of a G?q-independent signaling cascade in response to ?1A-AR activation. We hypothesized that molecules exist that act as biased agonists to selectively activate this pathway. In this report, isoproterenol (Iso), typically viewed as ?-AR-selective agonist, was examined with respect to activation of ?1A-AR. ?1A-AR selective antagonists were used to specifically block Iso evoked signaling in different cellular backgrounds and confirm its action at ?1A-AR. Iso induced signaling at ?1A-AR was further interrogated by probing steps along the G?q /PLC, G?s and MAPK/ERK pathways. In HEK-293/EBNA cells transiently transduced with ?1A-AR, and CHO_?1A-AR stable cells, Iso evoked low potency ERK activity as well as Ca2+ mobilization that could be blocked by ?1A-AR selective antagonists. The kinetics of Iso induced Ca2+ transients differed from typical G?q- mediated Ca2+ mobilization, lacking both the fast IP3R mediated response and the sustained phase of Ca2+ re-entry. Moreover, no inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation could be detected in either cell line after stimulation with Iso, but activation was accompanied by receptor internalization. Data are presented that indicate that Iso represents a novel type of ?1A-AR partial agonist with signaling bias toward MAPK/ERK signaling cascade that is likely independent of coupling to G?q. PMID:25606852

  18. CMHX008, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Partial Agonist, Enhances Insulin Sensitivity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jibin; Gao, Rufei; Zhang, Yuyao; Mei, Hu; Guo, Tingwang; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Bochu; Wu, Chaodong; Xiao, Xiaoqiu

    2014-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPAR? activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPAR? agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPAR? target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders. PMID:25004107

  19. The major leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors in the mouse gut lumen are not N-formylpeptide receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Ojode, Teresa; Schneider, Erich H; Tiffany, H Lee; Yung, Sunny; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Cultured bacteria release N-formylpeptides, which are potent chemoattractants for phagocytic leukocytes acting at G-protein-coupled receptors FPR1 and FPR2. However, the distribution and immunologic activity of these molecules at mucosal surfaces, where large numbers of bacteria are separated from the immune system by epithelium, remain undefined. To investigate this for the gut, we tested leukocyte responses to cell-free gut luminal contents from C57Bl/6 mice fed a chow diet. Small and large intestine contents were able to compete with labeled N-formylpeptide for binding to FPR1, indicating the presence of FPR1 ligands in the gut lumen. Material from both small and large intestine induced robust calcium flux responses by primary FPR1(+) leukocytes (mouse bone marrow cells and splenocytes and human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells), as well as chemotactic responses by both mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral blood neutrophils. However, unlike defined N-formylpeptides, calcium flux responses induced by gut luminal contents were insensitive both to pertussis toxin treatment of leukocytes and to proteinase K digestion of the samples. Moreover, the gut samples were fully active on neutrophils from mice lacking Fpr1, and the kinetics of the calcium flux response differed markedly for neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The active factor(s) could be dialyzed using a 3.5-kDa pore size membrane. Thus, mouse intestinal lumen contains small, potent and highly efficacious leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors that may be distinct from neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and distinct from Fpr1 agonists. PMID:22722599

  20. Epigenetic Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists Increases the Anticancer Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aouali, Nassera; Broukou, Angeliki; Bosseler, Manon; Keunen, Olivier; Schlesser, Vincent; Janji, Bassam; Palissot, Valerie; Stordeur, Philippe; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play a major role in the development of multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO) enhances, in-vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), valproic acid (VPA), on multiple myeloma cells. Here, we described the development of a new multiple myeloma mouse model using MOLP8 cells, in order to evaluate the effect of VPA/PIO combination on the progression of myeloma cells, by analyzing the proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. We showed that VPA/PIO delays the progression of the disease and the invasion of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that VPA/PIO increases the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and induces the acetylation of Histone 3 (H3). Furthermore, we provided evidence that PPAR? agonist is able to enhance the action of other HDACi such as Vorinostat or Mocetinostat. Using PPAR? antagonist or siPPAR?, we strongly suggest that, as described during adipogenesis, PIO behaves as an epigenetic regulator by improving the activity of HDACi. This study highlights the therapeutic benefit of PIO/VPA combination, compared to VPA treatment as a single-arm therapy on multiple myeloma and further highlights that such combination may constitute a new promising treatment strategy which should be supported by clinical trials. PMID:26091518

  1. Vasculotide reduces endothelial permeability and tumor cell extravasation in the absence of binding to or agonistic activation of Tie2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence TH; Lee, Christina R; Bogdanovic, Elena; Prodeus, Aaron; Gariépy, Jean; Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) activation of Tie2 receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) reduces adhesion by tumor cells (TCs) and limits junctional permeability to TC diapedesis. We hypothesized that systemic therapy with Vasculotide (VT)—a purported Ang1 mimetic, Tie2 agonist—can reduce the extravasation of potentially metastatic circulating TCs by similarly stabilizing the host vasculature. In vitro, VT and Ang1 treatments impeded endothelial hypermeability and the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231•LM2-4 (breast), HT29 (colon), or SN12 (renal) cancer cells to varying degrees. In mice, VT treatment inhibited the transit of TCs through the pulmonary endothelium, but not the hepatic or lymphatic endothelium. In the in vivo LM2-4 model, VT monotherapy had no effect on primary tumors, but significantly delayed distant metastatic dissemination to the lungs. In the post-surgical adjuvant treatment setting, VT therapeutically complemented sunitinib therapy, an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor which limited the local growth of residual disease. Unexpectedly, detailed investigations into the putative mechanism of action of VT revealed no evidence of Tie2 agonism or Tie2 binding; alternative mechanisms have yet to be determined. PMID:25851538

  2. The ? Opioid Receptor Agonist SNC80 Selectively Activates Heteromeric ?–? Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coexpressed and colocalized ?- and ?-opioid receptors have been established to exist as heteromers in cultured cells and in vivo. However the biological significance of opioid receptor heteromer activation is less clear. To explore this significance, the efficacy of selective activation of opioid receptors by SNC80 was assessed in vitro in cells singly and coexpressing opioid receptors using a chimeric G-protein-mediated calcium fluorescence assay, SNC80 produced a substantially more robust response in cells expressing ?–? heteromers than in all other cell lines. Intrathecal SNC80 administration in ?- and ?-opioid receptor knockout mice produced diminished antinociceptive activity compared with wild type. The combined in vivo and in vitro results suggest that SNC80 selectively activates ?–? heteromers to produce maximal antinociception. These data contrast with the current view that SNC80 selectively activates ?-opioid receptor homomers to produce antinociception. Thus, the data suggest that heteromeric ?–? receptors should be considered as a target when SNC80 is employed as a pharmacological tool in vivo. PMID:22860219

  3. Differential Adjuvant Activities of TLR7 and TLR9 Agonists Inversely Correlate with Nitric Oxide and PGE2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Martinez, Nuria; West, Kim; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Activation of different pattern recognition receptors causes distinct profiles of innate immune responses, which in turn dictate the adaptive immune response. We found that mice had higher CD4+ T cell expansion to an immunogen, ovalbumin, when coadministered with CpG than with CL097 in vivo. To account for this differential adjuvanticity, we assessed the activities of CpG and CL097 on antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion in vitro using an OT-II CD4+ T cell/bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) co-culture system. Unexpectedly, ovalbumin-stimulated expansion of OT-II CD4+ T cells in vitro was potently suppressed by both TLR agonists, with CL097 being stronger than CpG. The suppression was synergistically reversed by co-inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase. In addition, stimulation of OT-II CD4+ T cell/DC cultures with CL097 induced higher levels of CD4+ T cell death than stimulation with CpG, and this CD4+ T cell turnover was reversed by NO and PGE2 inhibition. Consistently, the co-cultures stimulated with CL097 produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO than stimulation with CpG. CL097 induced higher PGE2 production in DC cultures and higher IFN-? in the OT-II CD4+ T cell/DC cultures, accounting for the high levels of PGE2 and NO. This study demonstrates that the adjuvant activities of immunostimulatory molecules may be determined by differential induction of negative regulators, including NO and PGE2 suppressing clonal expansion and promoting cell death of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25875128

  4. Phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids are generated in agonist-activated human platelets and enhance tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher P; Morgan, Lloyd T; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Murphy, Robert C; Kühn, Hartmut; Hazen, Stanley L; Goodall, Alison H; Hamali, Hassan A; Collins, Peter W; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2010-03-01

    Here, a group of specific lipids, comprising phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)- or phosphatidylcholine (PC)-esterified 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), generated by 12-lipoxygenase was identified and characterized. 12S-HETE-PE/PCs were formed within 5 min of activation by thrombin, ionophore, or collagen. Esterified HETE levels generated in response to thrombin were 5.85 +/- 1.42 (PE) or 18.35 +/- 4.61 (PC), whereas free was 65.5 +/- 17.6 ng/4 x 10(7) cells (n = 5 separate donors, mean +/- S.E.). Their generation was stimulated by triggering protease-activated receptors-1 and -4 and signaling via Ca(2+) mobilization secretory phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase, src tyrosine kinases, and protein kinase C. Stable isotope labeling showed that they form predominantly by esterification that occurs on the same time scale as free acid generation. Unlike free 12S-HETE that is secreted, esterified HETEs remain cell-associated, with HETE-PEs migrating to the outside of the plasma membrane. 12-Lipoxygenase inhibition attenuated externalization of native PE and phosphatidylserine and HETE-PEs. Platelets from a patient with the bleeding disorder, Scott syndrome, did not externalize HETE-PEs, and liposomes supplemented with HETE-PC dose-dependently enhanced tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation in vitro. This suggests a role for these novel lipids in promoting coagulation. Thus, oxidized phospholipids form by receptor/agonist mechanisms, not merely as an undesirable consequence of vascular and inflammatory disease. PMID:20061396

  5. Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sali, Tina M; Pryke, Kara M; Abraham, Jinu; Liu, Andrew; Archer, Iris; Broeckel, Rebecca; Staverosky, Julia A; Smith, Jessica L; Al-Shammari, Ahmed; Amsler, Lisi; Sheridan, Kayla; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N; DeFilippis, Victor R

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, and enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN) response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10), which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I and III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. PMID:26646986

  6. Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Tina M.; Pryke, Kara M.; Abraham, Jinu; Liu, Andrew; Archer, Iris; Broeckel, Rebecca; Staverosky, Julia A.; Smith, Jessica L.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed; Amsler, Lisi; Sheridan, Kayla; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N.; DeFilippis, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, and enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN) response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10), which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I and III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. PMID:26646986

  7. Dendritic cells and NK cells stimulate bystander T cell activation in response to TLR agonists through secretion of IFN-alpha beta and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Arun T; Sheasby, Christopher E; Tough, David F

    2005-01-15

    Recognition of conserved features of infectious agents by innate pathogen receptors plays an important role in initiating the adaptive immune response. We have investigated early changes occurring among T cells after injection of TLR agonists into mice. Widespread, transient phenotypic activation of both naive and memory T cells was observed rapidly after injection of molecules acting through TLR3, -4, -7, and -9, but not TLR2. T cell activation was shown to be mediated by a combination of IFN-alphabeta, secreted by dendritic cells (DCs), and IFN-gamma, secreted by NK cells; notably, IFN-gamma-secreting NK cells expressed CD11c and copurified with DCs. Production of IFN-gamma by NK cells could be stimulated by DCs from TLR agonist-injected mice, and although soluble factors secreted by LPS-stimulated DCs were sufficient to induce IFN-gamma, maximal IFN-gamma production required both direct contact of NK cells with DCs and DC-secreted cytokines. In vitro, IFN-alphabeta, IL-18, and IL-12 all contributed to DC stimulation of NK cell IFN-gamma, whereas IFN-alphabeta was shown to be important for induction of T cell bystander activation and NK cell IFN-gamma production in vivo. The results delineate a pathway involving innate immune mediators through which TLR agonists trigger bystander activation of T cells. PMID:15634897

  8. Antitumor action of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist rosiglitazone in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    BO, QI-FU; SUN, XIU-MEI; LIU, JIN; SUI, XIAO-MEI; LI, GUI-XIN

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of apoptosis in cancer cells is the major pathological feature of hepatic carcinoma. Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?), has been shown to induce apoptosis in hepatic carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of RGZ on cell viability and apoptosis, and its mechanisms in cultured HepG2 cells using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with RGZ may attenuate HepG2 cell viability and induce the apoptosis of the cells. The mechanism of RGZ-induced apoptosis involves an increase in the level of activated PPAR-? (p-PPAR-?) and a decrease in p85 and Akt expression. In addition, the PPAR-? antagonist GW9662 suppressed the effect of RGZ in the HepG2 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that RGZ induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells through the activation of PPAR-?, suppressing the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Such mechanisms may contribute to the favorable effects of treatment using RGZ in HepG2 cells.

  9. Biostable agonists that match or exceed activity of native insect kinins on recombinant arthropod GPCRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multifunctional arthropod insect kinins share the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal pentapeptide motif Phe-X1-X2-Trp-Gly-NH2, where X1 = His, Asn, Ser, or Tyr and X2 = Ser, Pro, or Ala. Insect kinins regulate diuresis in many species of insects. Compounds with similar biological activity cou...

  10. Characterization of a novel, brain-penetrating CB1 receptor inverse agonist: metabolic profile in diet-induced obese models and aspects of central activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Commerford, S Renee; Gerber, Sarah P; Chen, Yu Alice; Dardik, Beatriz; Chaperon, Frederique; Schwartzkopf, Chad; Nguyen-Tran, Van; Hollenbeck, Thomas; McNamara, Peter; He, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong; Seidel, H Martin; Jaton, Anne-Liese; Gromada, Jesper; Teixeira, Sandra

    2011-12-01

    Pharmacologic antagonism of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1 receptors) in the central nervous system (CNS) suppresses food intake, promotes weight loss, and improves the metabolic profile. Since the CB1 receptor is expressed both in the CNS and in peripheral tissues, therapeutic value may be gained with CB1 receptor inverse agonists acting on receptors in both domains. The present report examines the metabolic and CNS actions of a novel CB1 receptor inverse agonist, compound 64, a 1,5,6-trisubstituted pyrazolopyrimidinone. Compound 64 showed similar or superior binding affinity, in vitro potency, and pharmacokinetic profile compared to rimonabant. Both compounds improved the metabolic profile in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and obese cynomolgus monkeys. Weight loss tended to be greater in compound 64-treated DIO rats compared to pair-fed counterparts, suggesting that compound 64 may have metabolic effects beyond those elicited by weight loss alone. In the CNS, reversal of agonist-induced hypothermia and hypolocomotion indicated that compound 64 possessed an antagonist activity in vivo. Dosed alone, compound 64 suppressed extinction of conditioned freezing (10 mg/kg) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (30 mg/kg), consistent with previous reports for rimonabant, although for REM sleep, compound 64 was greater than threefold less potent than for metabolic effects. Together, these data suggested that (1) impairment of extinction learning and REM sleep suppression are classic, centrally mediated responses to CB1 receptor inverse agonists, and (2) some separation may be achievable between central and peripheral effects with brain-penetrating CB1 receptor inverse agonists while maintaining metabolic efficacy. Furthermore, chronic treatment with compound 64 contributes to evidence that peripheral CB1 receptor blockade may yield beneficial outcomes that exceed those elicited by weight loss alone. PMID:21947251

  11. Existence of weak entropic solutions for gas chromatography system with one or two active species

    E-print Network

    Gisclon, Marguerite

    Existence of weak entropic solutions for gas chromatography system with one or two active species), the system of conservation laws (6) generalizes the system of chromatography which has been intensively of chromatography co

  12. Agonist and antagonist properties of antipsychotics at human dopamine D4.4 receptors: G-protein activation and K+ channel modulation in transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Heusler, Peter; Martel, Jean-Claude; Ormière, Anne-Marie; Leduc, Nathalie; Cussac, Didier

    2008-05-01

    Interaction at dopamine D4 receptors may improve cognitive function, which is highly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia, but comparative studies of recent antipsychotics in cellular models of D4 receptor activation are lacking. Here, we report the in-vitro profile of over 30 ligands at recombinant hD4.4 receptors. In [35S]GTPgammaS binding experiments using membranes of CHO-hD4.4 cells, apomorphine, preclamol and the selective D4 agonists, ABT724, CP226269, Ro-10-5824 and PD168077, behaved as partial agonists (Emax 20-60% vs. dopamine), whereas L745870 and RBI257, displayed antagonist properties. The 'conventional' antipsychotic, haloperidol and the 'atypicals', clozapine and risperidone, exhibited antagonist properties, while 'third generation' compounds bifeprunox, SLV313 and F15063, acted as partial agonists (10-30%). Aripiprazole and SSR181507 slightly stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding at micromolar concentrations. In Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing hD4.4 receptors with G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, apomorphine, preclamol, ABT724, CP226269, and PD168077 stimulated GIRK currents (Emax 70-80%). The 5-HT1A receptor ligands, WAY100635 and flibanserin, also exhibited partial agonist activity (30% and 15%, respectively). Haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine and nemonapride did not stimulate GIRK currents, whereas aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SLV313 and F15063, but not SSR181507, exhibited partial agonism (Emax 20-35%). In-vitro responses depended on experimental conditions: increasing NaCl concentration (30 mm to 100 mm) reduced agonist efficacy in [35S]GTPgammaS binding, whereas decreasing the amount of hD4.4 cRNA injected into oocytes (from 2.0 to 0.5 ng/oocyte) reduced agonist efficacy of several compounds. These data indicate that, unlike conventional or 'atypical' antipsychotics, several 'third generation' agents display D4 receptor partial agonism that may be sufficient to influence physiological D4 receptor activity in vivo. PMID:17897483

  13. On the Origin of Muscle Synergies: Invariant Balance in the Co-activation of Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Koba, Keitaro; Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Uemura, Mitsunori; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist–antagonist (AA) muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame in the muscle space. In this study, we examined the AA concept using the following explanatory variables: the AA ratio, which is related to the equilibrium-joint angle, and the AA sum, which is associated with joint stiffness. We formulated muscle synergies as a function of AA sums, positing that muscle synergies are composite units of mechanical impedance. The AA concept can be regarded as another form of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, and it can be extended to the concept of EP-based synergies. We introduce, here, a novel tool for analyzing the neurological and motor functions underlying human movements and review some initial insights from our results about the relationships between muscle synergies, endpoint stiffness, and virtual trajectories (time series of EP). Our results suggest that (1) muscle synergies reflect an invariant balance in the co-activation of AA muscle pairs; (2) each synergy represents the basis for the radial, tangential, and null movements of the virtual trajectory in the polar coordinates centered on the specific joint at the base of the body; and (3) the alteration of muscle synergies (for example, due to spasticity or rigidity following neurological injury) results in significant distortion of endpoint stiffness and concomitant virtual trajectories. These results indicate that muscle synergies (i.e., the balance of muscle mechanical impedance) are essential for motor control. PMID:26636079

  14. Development of a potent and selective GPR7 (NPBW1) agonist: a systematic structure-activity study of neuropeptide B.

    PubMed

    Kanesaka, Maki; Matsuda, Masao; Hirano, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kanatani, Akio; Tokita, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    Neuropeptide B (NPB) has been recently identified as an endogenous ligand for GPR7 (NPBW1) and GPR8 (NPBW2) and has been shown to possess a relatively high selectivity for GPR7. In order to identify useful experimental tools to address physiological roles of GPR7, we synthesized a series of NPB analogs based on modification of an unbrominated form of 23 amino acids with amidated C-terminal, Br(-)NPB-23-NH(2). We confirmed that truncation of the N-terminal Trp residue resulted in almost complete loss of the binding affinity of NPB for GPR7 and GPR8, supporting the special importance of this residue for binding. Br(-)NPB-23-NH2 analogs in which each amino acid in positions 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 21 was replaced with alanine or glycine exhibited potent binding affinity comparable to the parent peptide. In contrast, replacement of Tyr(11) with alanine reduced the binding affinity for both GPR7 and GPR8 four fold. Of particular interest, several NPB analogs in which the consecutive amino acids from Pro4 to Val(13) were replaced with several units of 5-aminovaleric acid (Ava) linkers retained their potent affinity for GPR7. Furthermore, these Ava-substituted NPB analogs exhibited potent agonistic activities for GPR7 expressed in HEK293 cells. Among the Ava-substituted NPB analogs, analog 15 (Ava-5) and 17 (Ava-3) exhibited potency comparable to the parent peptide for GPR7 with significantly reduced activity for GPR8, resulting in high selectivity for GPR7. These highly potent and selective NPB analogs may be useful pharmacological tools to investigate the physiological and pharmacological roles of GPR7. PMID:17486669

  15. Natural immunity enhances the activity of a DR5 agonistic antibody and carboplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Gazzar, Ahmed; Perco, Paul; Eckelhart, Eva; Anees, Mariam; Sexl, Veronika; Mayer, Bernd; Liu, Yanxin; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Horvat, Reinhard; Pangerl, Thomas; Zheng, Dexian; Krainer, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis specifically in cancer cells with little effect on normal cells. We have previously shown that TRAIL signaling is altered in most ovarian cancer patients and that resistance to TRAIL contributes to ovarian cancer progression. In this study, we investigated whether resistance to TRAIL may be overcome by a monoclonal TRAILR2 (DR5) agonistic antibody (AD5-10). We found that the joint presence of AD5-10 with TRAIL and natural killer (NK) cells expressing TRAIL resensitizes ovarian cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The combination of AD5-10 with carboplatin exerts a more than additive effect in vitro, which may at least partially be explained by the fact that carboplatin triggers DR5 expression on ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, AD5-10 restores the sensitivity of platin-resistant ovarian cancer to carboplatin in vivo. In addition, we found that TRAIL expression and NK cells are abundant in the tumor microenvironment and that depletion of NK cells abolishes the antitumor activity of AD5-10. This indicates that NK-mediated immunosurveillance against ovarian cancer might be mediated by TRAIL and that apoptosis induced by AD5-10 requires the presence of NK cells. In conclusion, this study indicates a key role and strong antitumorigenic effect of DR5 and highlights a novel link between NK-mediated immunosurveillance and activation of DR5-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1007-18. (c)2010 AACR. PMID:20371719

  16. Identification of a Small Molecular Insulin Receptor Agonist With Potent Antidiabetes Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Guifen; Xue, Shenghui; Yang, Jenny J.; Du, Guanhua; Pang, Xiaobin; Li, Xiaoting; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang

    2014-01-01

    Insulin replacement therapy is a widely adopted treatment for all patients with type 1 diabetes and some with type 2 diabetes. However, injection of insulin has suffered from problems such as tissue irritation, abscesses, discomfort, and inconvenience. The use of orally bioactive insulin mimetics thus represents an ideal treatment alternative. Here we show that a chaetochromin derivative (4548-G05) acts as a new nonpeptidyl insulin mimetic. 4548-G05 selectively activates an insulin receptor (IR) but not insulin-like growth factor receptor-I or other receptor tyrosine kinases. Through binding to the extracellular domain of the IR, 4548-G05 induces activation of the receptor and initiates the downstream Akt and extracellular signal–related kinase pathways to trigger glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, it displays a potent blood glucose-lowering effect when administrated orally in normal, type 1 diabetic, and type 2 diabetic mice models. Therefore, 4548-G05 may represent a novel pharmacological agent for antidiabetes drug development. PMID:24651808

  17. Non-conventional synchronization of weakly coupled active oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manevitch, L. I.; Kovaleva, M. A.; Pilipchuk, V. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new type of self-sustained vibrations in the fundamental physical model covering a broad area of applications from wave generation in radiophysics and nonlinear optics to the heart muscle contraction and eyesight disorder in biophysics. Such a diversity of applications is due to the universal physical phenomenon of synchronization. Previous studies of this phenomenon, originating from Huygens famous observation, are based mainly on the model of two weakly coupled Van der Pol oscillators and usually deal with their synchronization in the regimes close to nonlinear normal modes (NNMs). In this work, we show for the first time that, in the important case of threshold excitation, an alternative synchronization mechanism can develop when the conventional synchronization becomes impossible. We identify this mechanism as an appearance of dynamic attractor with the complete periodic energy exchange between the oscillators, which is the dissipative analogue of highly intensive beats in a conservative system. This type of motion is therefore opposite to the NNM-type synchronization with no energy exchange by definition. The analytical description of these vibrations employs the concept of Limiting Phase Trajectories (LPTs) introduced by one of the authors earlier for conservative systems. Finally, within the LPT approach, we describe the transition from the complete energy exchange between the oscillators to the energy localization mostly on one of the two oscillators. The localized mode is an attractor in the range of model parameters wherein the LPT as well as the in-phase and out-of-phase NNMs become unstable.

  18. Non-competitive antagonism of ?2-agonist-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation by ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells endogenously expressing constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, H E; Latif, M L; Hill, S J

    2000-01-01

    Constitutive activity of the ?2-adrenoceptor, which is sensitive to inhibition by an inverse agonist such as ICI?118551, has been readily demonstrated in recombinant systems expressing constitutively-active mutant receptors or over-expressing the wild-type ?2-adrenoceptor. Here we demonstrate the presence of constitutive ?2-adrenoceptor activity in BC3H1 cells which endogenously express this receptor. In BC3H1 cells, only ICI?118551 behaved as an inverse agonist at ?2-adrenoceptors, while propranolol, ICI?118551, atenolol and, to a lesser extent, alprenolol exhibited inverse agonism in CHO-?24 cells transfected with cDNA for the human ?2-adrenoceptor (310?fmol.mg protein?1). The level of expression of ?2-adrenoceptors in BC3H1 cells was not high (78 fmol.mg protein?1) and the efficiency of receptor–effector coupling in this cell line was much lower than in the recombinant CHO-?24 cells (as judged by the partial agonist nature of both salbutamol and clenbuterol). ICI?118551 (log KD?9.73±0.07) and propranolol (log KD?9.25±0.12) both behaved as conventional competitive antagonists of isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in high expressing CHO-?24 cells. In contrast, ICI 118551 appeared to act as a non-competitive antagonist in BC3H1 cells and in low expressing CHO-?26 cells (50?fmol.mg protein?1). This non-competitive effect of ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells was also observed when either salbutamol was used as agonist, or the incubation period with isoprenaline was extended to 30?min. The possibility that these effects of ICI 118551 are due to an interaction with different affinity states (R, R* and R?) of the receptor is discussed. PMID:10960078

  19. Circumventing seizure activity in a series of G protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonists.

    PubMed

    Scott, James S; Bowker, Suzanne S; Brocklehurst, Katy J; Brown, Hayley S; Clarke, David S; Easter, Alison; Ertan, Anne; Goldberg, Kristin; Hudson, Julian A; Kavanagh, Stefan; Laber, David; Leach, Andrew G; MacFaul, Philip A; Martin, Elizabeth A; McKerrecher, Darren; Schofield, Paul; Svensson, Per H; Teague, Joanne

    2014-11-13

    Agonism of GPR119 is viewed as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type II diabetes and other elements of metabolic syndrome. During progression of a previously disclosed candidate 1 through mice toxicity studies, we observed tonic-clonic convulsions in several mice at high doses. An in vitro hippocampal brain slice assay was used to assess the seizure liability of subsequent compounds, leading to the identification of an aryl sulfone as a replacement for the 3-cyano pyridyl group. Subsequent optimization to improve the overall profile, specifically with regard to hERG activity, led to alkyl sulfone 16. This compound did not cause tonic-clonic convulsions in mice, had a good pharmacokinetic profile, and displayed in vivo efficacy in murine models. Importantly, it was shown to be effective in wild-type (WT) but not GPR119 knockout (KO) animals, consistent with the pharmacology observed being due to agonism of GPR119. PMID:25286150

  20. Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [alpha/delta] Agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2012-03-15

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPAR{alpha} ligand-binding domain and PPAR{delta} ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPAR{alpha}/{delta} by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPAR{alpha} ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPAR{alpha}/{delta} interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  1. Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Dykens, James A.; Bernal, Autumn; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Will, Yvonne

    2007-09-15

    Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones examined, ciglitazone, troglitazone, and darglitazone potently disrupted mitochondrial respiration. In accord with these data, ciglitazone and troglitazone were also potent inhibitors of Complexes II + III, IV, and V, while darglitazone predominantly inhibited Complex IV. Of the six statins evaluated, lovastatin, simvastatin, and cerivastatin impaired mitochondrial respiration the most, with simvastatin and lovastatin impairing multiple OXPHOS Complexes. Within the class of fibrates, gemfibrozil more potently impaired respiration than fenofibrate, clofibrate, or ciprofibrate. Gemfibrozil only modestly inhibited Complex I, fenofibrate inhibited Complexes I, II + III, and V, and clofibrate inhibited Complex V. Our findings with the two complementary methods indicate that (1) some members of each class impair mitochondrial respiration, whereas others have little or no effect, and (2) the rank order of mitochondrial impairment accords with clinical adverse events observed with these drugs. Since the statins are frequently co-prescribed with the fibrates or thiazolidinediones, various combinations of these three drug classes were also analyzed for their mitochondrial effects. In several cases, the combination additively uncoupled or inhibited respiration, suggesting that some combinations are more likely to yield clinically relevant drug-induced mitochondrial side effects than others.

  2. PPAR? partial agonist GQ-16 strongly represses a subset of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Milton, Flora Aparecida; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Amato, Angelica A; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Filgueira, Carly S; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy Sigamani; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan Rocha; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Webb, Paul

    2015-08-28

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists that improve insulin resistance but trigger side effects such as weight gain, edema, congestive heart failure and bone loss. GQ-16 is a PPAR? partial agonist that improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of obesity and diabetes without inducing weight gain or edema. It is not clear whether GQ-16 acts as a partial agonist at all PPAR? target genes, or whether it displays gene-selective actions. To determine how GQ-16 influences PPAR? activity on a gene by gene basis, we compared effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi) and GQ-16 in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes using microarray and qRT-PCR. Rosi changed expression of 1156 genes in 3T3-L1, but GQ-16 only changed 89 genes. GQ-16 generally showed weak effects upon Rosi induced genes, consistent with partial agonist actions, but a subset of modestly Rosi induced and strongly repressed genes displayed disproportionately strong GQ-16 responses. PPAR? partial agonists MLR24 and SR1664 also exhibit disproportionately strong effects on transcriptional repression. We conclude that GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist effects but efficiently represses some negatively regulated PPAR? responsive genes. Strong repressive effects could contribute to physiologic actions of GQ-16. PMID:26168725

  3. Agonist-induced changes in RalA activities allows the prediction of the endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaohan; Guo, Shuohan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Min, Chengchun; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Oak, Min-Ho; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-01-01

    GTP binding proteins are classified into two families: heterotrimeric large G proteins which are composed of three subunits, and one subunit of small G proteins. Roles of small G proteins in the intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were studied. Among various small G proteins tested, GTP-bound form (G23V) of RalA inhibited the internalization of dopamine D2 receptor independently of the previously reported downstream effectors of RalA, such as Ral-binding protein 1 and PLD. With high affinity for GRK2, active RalA inhibited the GPCR endocytosis by sequestering the GRK2 from receptors. When it was tested for several GPCRs including an endogenous GPCR, lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1, agonist-induced conversion of GTP-bound to GDP-bound RalA, which presumably releases the sequestered GRK2, was observed selectively with the GPCRs which have tendency to undergo endocytosis. Conversion of RalA from active to inactive state occurred by translocation of RGL, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, from the plasma membrane to cytosol as a complex with G??. These results suggest that agonist-induced G??-mediated conversion of RalA from the GTP-bound form to the GDP-bound form could be a mechanism to facilitate agonist-induced internalization of GPCRs. PMID:26477566

  4. Activation of the human. beta. sub 2 -interferon/hepatocyte-stimulating factor/interleukin 6 promoter by cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, A.; Tatter, S.B.; May, L.T.; Sehgal, P.B. )

    1988-09-01

    The hallmark of {beta}{sub 2}-interferon (IFN-{beta}{sub 2})/hepatocyte-stimulating factor/interleukin 6 gene expression is its inducibility in different types of human cells (fibroblasts, monocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells) by different stimuli, which include cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 (IL-1) and platelet-derived growth factor, different viruses, and bacterial products such as endotoxin. The activation by cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists of the IFN-{beta}{sub 2} promoter linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was studied after transfection into HeLa cells. A chimeric gene containing IFN-{beta}{sub 2} DNA from -1180 to +13 linked to the CAT gene was inducible {approx}10-fold by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), followed, in decreasing order, by pseudorabies and Sendai viruses; serum; the cytokines tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, and epidermal growth factor; the cAMP agonists BrcAMP and forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; poly(I){center dot}poly(C); 1,2-diacylglycerol and the calcium ionophore A23187. The region between -225 and -113 in IFN-{beta}{sub 2}, which contains DNA motifs similar to the regulatory elements in the human c-fos gene, appears to contain the major cis-acting regulatory elements responsible for the activation of the IFN-{beta}{sub 2} promoter by several different cytokines, viruses, and second messenger agonists.

  5. Structure-activity studies and analgesic efficacy of N-(3-pyridinyl)-bridged bicyclic diamines, exceptionally potent agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bunnelle, William H; Daanen, Jerome F; Ryther, Keith B; Schrimpf, Michael R; Dart, Michael J; Gelain, Arianna; Meyer, Michael D; Frost, Jennifer M; Anderson, David J; Buckley, Michael; Curzon, Peter; Cao, Ying-Jun; Puttfarcken, Pamela; Searle, Xenia; Ji, Jianguo; Putman, C Brent; Surowy, Carol; Toma, Lucio; Barlocco, Daniela

    2007-07-26

    A series of exceptionally potent agonists at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been investigated. Several N-(3-pyridinyl) derivatives of bridged bicyclic diamines exhibit double-digit-picomolar binding affinities for the alpha 4 beta 2 subtype, placing them with epibatidine among the most potent nAChR ligands described to date. Structure-activity studies have revealed that substitutions, particularly hydrophilic groups in the pyridine 5-position, differentially modulate the agonist activity at ganglionic vs central nAChR subtypes, so that improved subtype selectivity can be demonstrated in vitro. Analgesic efficacy has been achieved across a broad range of pain states, including rodent models of acute thermal nociception, persistent pain, and neuropathic allodynia. Unfortunately, the hydrophilic pyridine substituents that were shown to enhance agonist selectivity for central nAChRs in vitro tend to limit CNS penetration in vivo, so that analgesic efficacy with an improved therapeutic window was not realized with those compounds. PMID:17585748

  6. Ibotenic acid analogues. Synthesis, molecular flexibility, and in vitro activity of agonists and antagonists at central glutamic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, J; Honoré, T; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1985-05-01

    The syntheses of (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (9, ATPA), (alpha-RS, beta-RS)-alpha-amino-beta-methyl-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionic acid (8), (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolebutyric acid (15a), and (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolevaleric acid (15b) are described. The compounds were tested in vitro together with (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-(bromomethyl)-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (ABPA) as inhibitors of the binding of radioactive-labeled (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) to rat brain synaptic membranes. These data were compared with the earlier reported effects of the compounds on single neurons in the feline spinal cord obtained by microelectrophoretic techniques. The three compounds AMPA, ATPA, and ABPA are agonists at the class of receptors assumed to represent a subtype of physiological (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. Inhibition of [3H]AMPA binding by ATPA was 1 order of magnitude weaker than that of AMPA, in agreement with the relative potency of these compounds in vivo. ABPA proved to be equipotent with AMPA both as an inhibitor of AMPA binding and as a neuronal excitant. The compounds 8, 15a, and 15b have no effect as inhibitors of AMPA binding, in agreement with in vivo studies that have shown that 8 does not affect the firing of central neurons whereas 15a and 15b are antagonists at NMDA receptors, a subpopulation of excitatory receptors not affected by AMPA. Molecular mechanical calculations on AMPA, ATPA, and ABPA using the program MM2 showed that conformations of AMPA, ABPA, and especially ATPA by rotation of the amino acid side chain have energy barriers. A possible receptor-active conformation is suggested. PMID:2859375

  7. Clobetasol and Halcinonide Act as Smoothened Agonists to Promote Myelin Gene Expression and RxR? Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    De Nardis, Velia; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Scardapane, Marco; Poma, Anna; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes of permanent disability in chronic multiple sclerosis patients is the inability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to terminate their maturation program at lesions. To identify key regulators of myelin gene expression acting at the last stages of OPC maturation we developed a drug repositioning strategy based on the mouse immortalized oligodendrocyte (OL) cell line Oli-neu brought to the premyelination stage by stably expressing a key factor regulating the last stages of OL maturation. The Prestwick Chemical Library® of 1,200 FDA-approved compound(s) was repositioned at three dosages based on the induction of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) expression. Drug hits were further validated using dosage-dependent reproducibility tests and biochemical assays. The glucocorticoid class of compounds was the most highly represented and we found that they can be divided in three groups according to their efficacy on MBP up-regulation. Since target identification is crucial before bringing compounds to the clinic, we searched for common targets of the primary screen hits based on their known chemical-target interactomes, and the pathways predicted by top ranking compounds were validated using specific inhibitors. Two of the top ranking compounds, Halcinonide and Clobetasol, act as Smoothened (Smo) agonists to up-regulate myelin gene expression in the Oli-neuM cell line. Further, RxR? activation is required for MBP expression upon Halcinonide and Clobetasol treatment. These data indicate Clobetasol and Halcinonide as potential promyelinating drugs and also provide a mechanistic understanding of their mode of action in the pathway leading to myelination in OPCs. Furthermore, our classification of glucocorticoids with respect to MBP expression provides important novel insights into their effects in the CNS and a rational criteria for their choice in combinatorial therapies in de-myelinating diseases. PMID:26658258

  8. Pharmacokinetic properties of MH84, a ?-secretase modulator with PPAR? agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Pellowska, M; Stein, C; Pohland, M; Merk, D; Klein, J; Eckert, G P; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Wurglics, M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Since no causative treatment is available, new therapeutic options are utmost needed. Several pirinixic acid derivatives, including MH84 (2-((4,6-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenethoxy)pyrimidin-2-yl)thio)hexanoic acid), have shown promising in vitro results as ?-secretase modulators as well as PPAR? activators as potential pharmacological compounds against AD. Using a newly developed and validated sensitive LC-MS (APCI-qTOF mass analyzer) method, the pharmacokinetic and long-term accumulating properties as well as the blood-brain-barrier permeability of MH84 were evaluated in a preclinical animal study. MH84 was administered to mice by oral gavage with a dose of 12 mg/kg. Nine time points from 0.5 to 48 h with 6 animals per point were investigated. Additionally 6 animals were fed daily, for 21 days with an identical dose to determine possible long-term accumulation in plasma and brain tissue. The sample preparation was performed by a liquid-liquid extraction on Extrelut(®) columns whereas the LC separation was operated on a MulthoHigh 100 RP 18-5 ? column (125 × 4 mm) using an isocratic mobile phase of formic acid (0.1% (v/v))-methanol mixture (11:89 (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The validation confirmed the new LC-MS method to be precise, accurate and reliable. After oral application, Cmax and Tmax of unmetabolized MH84 was determined to be 10.90 ?g/ml and 3h in plasma. In brain tissue a constant level of 300 to maximum 320.64 ng/g was found after 1.5-6h. Daily gavage for 21 days did not lead to a long-term drug accumulation in the brain. The efficacy of the obtained MH84 levels needs to be investigated in further preclinical pharmacodynamic animal studies. PMID:25459941

  9. Insulin Signaling and Insulin Sensitizing in Muscle and Liver of Obese Monkeys: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonist Improves Defective Activation of Atypical Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Ortmeyer, Heidi K.; Sajan, Mini P.; Miura, Atsushi; Kanoh, Yoshinore; Rivas, Jose; Li, Yongxiang; Standaert, Mary L.; Ryan, Alice S.; Bodkin, Noni L.; Farese, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and aging share several pathogenic features in both humans and non-human primates, including insulin resistance and inflammation. Since muscle and liver are considered key integrators of metabolism, we sought to determine in biopsies from lean and obese aging rhesus monkeys the nature of defects in insulin activation and, further, the potential for mitigation of such defects by an in vivo insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, and a thiazolidinedione activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist reduced hyperinsulinemia, improved insulin sensitivity, lowered plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, and increased plasma adiponectin. In muscle of obese monkeys, previously shown to exhibit defective insulin signaling, the insulin sensitizer improved insulin activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), the defective direct activation of aPKC by phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3,4,5-(PO4)3, and 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 mRNA expression, but it did not improve insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1-dependent PI 3-kinase (IRS-1/PI3K), protein kinase B, or glycogen synthase. We found that, although insulin signaling was impaired in muscle, insulin activation of IRS-1/PI3K, IRS-2/PI3K, protein kinase B, and aPKC was largely intact in liver and that rosiglitazone improved insulin signaling to aPKC in muscle by improving responsiveness to PI-3,4,5-(PO4)3. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 207–219. PMID:20518698

  10. Histamine H3 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    De Esch, I J P; Belzar, K J

    2004-11-01

    The SAR of H3 ligands has been difficult to evaluate because of species differences, multiple isoforms and constitutive activity, among other complicating factors. A review is given of the sometimes-conflicting affinity, activity and efficacy data of H3 agonists that has been described in literature to date. PMID:15544556

  11. Detection and measurement of the agonistic activities of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs to the constitutive androstane receptor using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to exert their toxicities mainly by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and by stimulating transcription of various genes, notably metabolizing enzymes including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family. However, PCBs and their metabolites could have potential to activate other nuclear receptors and subsequent events. We focused on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) inducing CYP2B and measured the agonistic activity of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) to the CAR using yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and its response pathway. Twenty-nine of 34 tested PCBs and 72 of 91 OH-PCBs exhibited CAR agonistic effects. Of 41 OH-PCBs that had the same chlorination patterns as the tested PCBs, 9 had activities more than twice those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. In particular, 2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol and 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol were 332- and 22-fold more potent than their analogs and were 15 times and 2.8 times, respectively, as active as a reference substance, 4-tert-octylphenol. The activities of 17 of the OH-PCBs were reduced to less than half those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. Four OH-PCBs derived from 3 active PCBs were inactive. However, a consistent relationship between hydroxyl substituent position and activity could not be discerned. Comprehensive evaluation of the toxic potential of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites and their concentrations in the environment are required. PMID:26231822

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 4-amino-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives as a series of novel GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Kenji; Yonetoku, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-04-01

    Through preparation and examination of a series of novel 4-amino-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives as agonists for GPR119, we identified 2-(4-bromophenyl)-6-methyl-N-[2-(1-oxidopyridin-3-yl)ethyl]pyrimidin-4-amine (9t). Compound 9t improved glucose tolerance in mice following oral administration and showed good pharmacokinetic profiles in rats. PMID:22365911

  13. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies in the literature have shown that exposure of mice and rats to nicotine early in development alters its effects when the rodents are subsequently challenged with nicotine. Anatoxin-a is a nicotinic agonist produced by several genera of cyanobacteria, and has caus...

  14. Activation of GPR119 by fatty acid agonists augments insulin release from clonal ?-cells and isolated pancreatic islets and improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2014-04-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is emerging as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study assessed the insulin-secreting properties of various GPR119 agonists and the distribution of GPR119 in pancreatic islets. Endogenous ligands [oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamine (PEA)] and chemically synthetic analogues (AS-1269574, PSN-375963) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Secondary messenger assays such as intracellular Ca²? and cAMP in response to agonists at normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions were assessed. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release. AS-1269574 was the most potent and selective agonist tested in isolated islets, with an EC?? value of 9.7×10?? mol/l, enhancing insulin release maximally by 63.2%. Stimulation was also observed with GPR119 ligands; OEA (3.0×10?? mol/l; 37.5%), PSN-375963 (2.4×10?? mol/l; 28.7%) and PEA (1.2×10?? mol/l; 22.2%). Results were corroborated by studies using BRIN-BD11 cells, which revealed augmentation of intracellular Ca²? and cAMP. Both OEA and AS-1269574 enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance in vivo in NIH Swiss mice. These results demonstrate the cellular localisation of GPR119 on islet cells (? and pancreatic polypeptide cells), its activation of the ?-cell stimulus-secretion coupling pathway and glucose lowering effects in vivo. PMID:24323890

  15. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. PMID:26294672

  16. PWZ-029, a compound with moderate inverse agonist functional selectivity at GABA(A) receptors containing alpha5 subunits, improves passive, but not active, avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Savi?, Miroslav M; Clayton, Terry; Furtmüller, Roman; Gavrilovi?, Ivana; Samardzi?, Janko; Savi?, Snezana; Huck, Sigismund; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M

    2008-05-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZ) site ligands affect vigilance, anxiety, memory processes, muscle tone and epileptogenic propensity through modulation of neurotransmission at GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha5 subunits, and may have numerous experimental and clinical applications. The ability of non-selective BZ site inverse agonists to enhance cognition, documented in animal models and human studies, is clinically not feasible due to potentially unacceptable psychomotor effects. Most investigations to date have proposed the alpha1 and/or alpha5 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors as comprising the memory-modulating population of these receptors. The novel ligand PWZ-029, which we synthesized and characterized electrophysiologically, possesses in vitro binding selectivity and moderate inverse agonist functional selectivity at alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors. This ligand has also been examined in rats in the passive and active avoidance, spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus maze and grip strength tests, primarily predictive of the effects on the memory acquisition, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level and muscle tone, respectively. The improvement of task learning was detected at the dose of 5 mg/kg in the passive, but not active avoidance test. The inverse agonist PWZ-029 had no effect on anxiety or muscle tone, whereas at higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) it decreased locomotor activity. This effect was antagonized by flumazenil and also by the lower (but not the higher) dose of an agonist (SH-053-R-CH3-2'F) selective for GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha5 subunit. The hypolocomotor effect of PWZ-029 was not antagonized by the antagonist ss-CCt exhibiting a preferential affinity for alpha1-subunit-containing receptors. These data suggest that moderate negative modulation at GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha5 subunit is a sufficient condition for eliciting enhanced encoding/consolidation of declarative memory, while the influence of higher doses of modulators at these receptors on motor activity shows an intricate pattern whose relevance and mechanism await to be defined. PMID:18394590

  17. Weakness of the San Andreas Fault revealed by samples from the active fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the strength and slip behaviour of tectonic faults is a central problem in earthquake physics and seismic-hazard assessment. Many major faults, including the San Andreas Fault, are weak compared with the surrounding rock, but the cause of this weakness is debated. Previous measurements of the frictional strength of San Andreas Fault rocks are too high to explain the observed weakness. However, these measurements relied on samples taken at a distance from the active fault or from weathered surface samples. Recent drilling into the San Andreas Fault has provided material from the actively slipping fault at seismogenic depths. Here we present systematic measurements of the frictional properties and composition of the San Andreas Fault at 2.7km depth, including the wall rock and active fault. We find that the fault is weak relative to the surrounding rock and that the fault rock exhibits stable sliding friction behaviour. The fault zone contains the weak mineral smectite and exhibits no frictional healing--bonds in the material do not heal after rupture. Taken together, the low inherent strength and lack of healing of the fault-zone material could explain why the San Andreas Fault slips by aseismic creep and small earthquakes in central California, rather than by large, destructive earthquakes.

  18. Possible beneficial effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)--? and ? agonist against a rat model of oral dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sania; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Vikram, Vir; Budhiraja, R D

    2013-10-01

    Tardive dyskinesia is a type of hyperkinetic movement disorder which consists of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial movements. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation play important role in the pathogenesis of TD. Recently, PPAR-? and PPAR-? have been reported as neuroprotective agent in various animal models. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) and PPAR-? agonist, fenofibrate (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) in an animal model of oral dyskinesia. Oral dyskinesia was induced by chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 21 days. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, sniffing and grooming in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by pioglitazone and fenofibrate. Further, it also decreased % retention of memory in an elevated plus maze test on day 22. Chronic administration of haloperidol also induced oxidative damage and neuroinflammation (TNF-? and IL-1?) in brain regions. The fenofibrate and pioglitazone were able to reverse the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by haloperidol. Further the study proposed the antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of both PPAR agonists in this model. We concluded that administration of pioglitazone and fenofibrate individually or in combination along with antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia, prevent or delay the symptoms of oral dyskinesia. PMID:23948071

  19. Differential activation of the epithelial and smooth muscle NK1 receptors by synthetic tachykinin agonists in guinea-pig trachea

    PubMed Central

    Figini, Michela; Emanueli, Costanza; Bertrand, Claude; Sicuteri, Riccardo; Regoli, Domenico; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    1997-01-01

    The presence of tachykinin NK1 receptors have been shown in the epithelium and smooth muscle of guinea-pig airways. Previous data showed that substance P (SP), and the NK1 receptor agonist, [Sar9, Met (O2)11]-SP, relax guinea-pig tracheal tube preparations by stimulation of epithelial NK1 receptors and via nitric oxide (NO) release. However, the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor agonist, septide, was unable to produce this effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of a series of SP analogues to stimulate NK1 receptors of guinea-pig airway epithelium. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated tracheal tube preparations in which compounds were administered intraluminally in the presence of phosphoramidon, indomethacin (both 1??M) and the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48,968 ((S)-N-methyl N-(4-acetyl-amino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyl)benzamide) (0.1??M). Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained in preparations under resting tone or in preparations precontracted with acetylcholine (ACh, 10??M). Contractile responses to low concentrations (0.1–10?nM) of substance P (SP) and the selective agonist of NK1 receptors, [Pro9]-SP, in non precontracted tracheae were higher in preparations pretreated with the NO-synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA, 100??M) than in preparations pretreated with its inactive enantiomer D-NMMA (100??M). Tracheal tube preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with D-NMMA were relaxed by low concentrations of SP and [Pro9]-SP (0.1–10?nM). In contrast, after pretreatment with L-NMMA, SP and [Pro9]-SP contracted tracheae at all the concentrations tested. Concentration-response curves to the NK1 receptor agonists, SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11) obtained in non-precontracted tracheae were similar in the presence of either D-NMMA or L-NMMA. SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11) did not produce any relaxation, but instead, cause contractions in tracheal tube preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with D-NMMA. Concentration-response curves produced by all these agonists were similar in preparations precontracted with ACh and pretreated with L-NMMA or D-NMMA. In guinea-pig tracheal tube preparations two groups of NK1 receptor agonists can be distinguished: one group, including [Pro9]-SP, stimulator epithelial NK1 receptors, the other group, including SP methyl ester, [Apa9–10]-SP and [pGlu6] SP (6–11), does not. One possible explanation for these findings and for the existence of compounds with a peculiar ‘septide-like' pharmacological profile in the guinea-pig trachea could be the recently proposed phenomenon referred to as ‘agonist-directed receptor trafficking'. PMID:9208147

  20. Differential Effects of the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on Anti-IgE Induced Human Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yangyang; Yip, Kwok Ho; Tam, Issan Yee San; Sam, Sze Wing; Ng, Chun Wai; Zhang, Wei; Lau, Hang Yung Alaster

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mechanism involving crosslinking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI), mast cells are also activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are at the center of innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the response of LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line) to anti-IgE was altered in the presence of the TLR2 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN) and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys)4 (Pam3CSK4). Pretreatment of PGN and Pam3CSK4 inhibited anti-IgE induced calcium mobilization and degranulation without down-regulation of Fc?RI expression. Pam3CSK4 but not PGN acted in synergy with anti-IgE for IL-8 release when the TLR2 agonist was added simultaneously with anti-IgE. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes implicated in mast cell signaling revealed that the synergistic release of IL-8 induced by Pam3CSK4 and anti-IgE involved ERK and calcineurin signaling cascades. The differential modulations of anti-IgE induced mast cell activation by PGN and Pam3CSK4 suggest that dimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 produced different modulating actions on Fc?RI mediated human mast cell activation. PMID:25398056

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist is neuroprotective and stimulates PGC-1? expression and CREB phosphorylation in human dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Johanna; Tselykh, Timofey V; Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Eriksson, Ove; Korhonen, Laura T; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a master gene for mitochondrial biogenesis and has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of PD. In this work we have studied the mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) selective agonist N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-O-[2-(methyl-2-pyridinylamino)ethyl]-l-tyrosine hydrate (GW1929) acts on human dopaminergic neurons in culture. Data showed that GW1929 increased the viability of human dopaminergic neurons and protected them against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and the mitochondrial toxin Rotenone. The enhanced resilience of the neurons was attributed to increased levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and of PGC-1?. GW1929 treatment further increased cell respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression in the human dopaminergic neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was also robustly increased in GW1929-treated cells. Together these results show that the PPAR? agonist GW1929 influences CREB signaling and PGC-1? activities in the human dopaminergic neurons contributing to an increased cell viability. This supports the view that drugs acting on the PPAR?-PGC-1? signaling in neurons may have beneficial effects in PD and possible also in other brain disorders. PMID:26631533

  2. Bimodal effects of dopamine D2 receptor agonists on zero Mg(2+)-induced epileptiform activity in the rat cingulate cortex slice.

    PubMed

    Alam, A M; Starr, M S

    1994-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent inhibition of zero Mg(2+)-induced epileptiform discharges in the rat cingulate cortex slice suspended in a grease-gap bath. This investigation considers the role of dopamine D2 receptors in the modulation of paroxysmal activity in this in vitro model. Some 123 of 143 slices exhibited spontaneous paroxysmal depolarizations, which in 105 cases were accompanied by secondary depolarizing after-potentials (SDAPs). In 43.5% of slices tested, dopamine preferentially and irreversibly facilitated SDAP production at low bath concentrations (1-100 microM), but at concentrations > 100 microM suppressed all components of the epileptiform responses. Similar dose-related bimodal responses were obtained with the D2 agonists LY 171555, PHNO and 7-OH-DPAT, but not with lisuride or RU 24213, which were exclusively inhibitory. The excitatory response to LY 171555 was attenuated by the D2 antagonist raclopride (2 microM), but not by the D1 antagonist SCH 39166 (0.5 microM). On the other occasions, the sole effect of dopamine (56.5% of slices) and the other D2 agonists, was to preferentially suppress SDAP number at low concentrations (1-100 microM) and to suppress all parameters of the epileptiform response at higher concentrations. The inhibitory effect of the D2 agonist LY 171555 on SDAP formation was paradoxically attenuated by the D1 antagonist SCH 39166, but not by the D2 antagonist raclopride. These results support the notion that dopamine can modulate epileptiform activity differentially, through its actions at D1 and D2 receptors. The possibility that these effects of dopamine may be mediated indirectly is discussed. PMID:7895801

  3. Lasting modulation of in-vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation

    E-print Network

    Parra, Lucas C.

    University of New York, New York, USA December 3, 2014 Abstract Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (t hypothesis. Introduction The number of studies on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has rapidlyLasting modulation of in-vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation Davide

  4. Far tail (255 RE) fast response to very weak magnetic activity J.A. Sauvaud,1

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Far tail (255 RE) fast response to very weak magnetic activity J.A. Sauvaud,1 A. Opitz,1 L. Palin,1 present an original study of the dynamical changes measured in the far tail at XGSM -255 RE, onboard are well correlated with motions of the far tail in which the spacecraft passes from the lobe

  5. CD137 Agonist Therapy Can Reprogram Regulatory T Cells into Cytotoxic CD4+ T Cells with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Littwitz-Salomon, Elisabeth; Malyshkina, Anna; Dietze, Kirsten K; Streeck, Hendrik; Brandau, Sven; Dittmer, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes in immune therapeutic strategies aimed to improve control over tumor growth have sparked hope that long-lived control of cancer through stimulation of the immune system can be possible. However, the underlying immunological mechanisms that are induced by immunotherapeutic strategies are not well understood. In this study, we used the highly immunogenic Friend virus-induced FBL-3 tumor as a model to study the mechanisms of immunological tumor control by CD4(+) T cells in the course of CD137 (4-1BB) agonist immunotherapy in the absence of a CD8 T cell response. We demonstrate that treatment with a CD137 agonist resulted in complete FBL-3 tumor regression in CD8(+) T cell-deficient mice. CD137 signaling enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, a subset of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells was reprogrammed to eliminate immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in response to CD137 agonist treatment. These cells expressed markers characteristic for Th cells (CD154) and produced the cytokine TNF-? or the T-box transcriptional factor Eomesodermin and granzyme B without loss of Foxp3 expression. Foxp3 Eomes double-positive CD4(+) T cells were capable of eliminating immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in vivo. Thus, our data show that tumor-induced Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells can be reprogrammed into cytotoxic effector cells upon therapeutic costimulatory signaling and restore antitumor immunity. PMID:26608920

  6. (-)-Pentylsedinine, a New Alkaloid from the Leaves of Lobelia tupa with Agonist Activity at Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, Jose; Silva, Mario; Burgosa, Viviana; Heydenreich, Matthias; Schmidt, Bernd; Tran, Thu; Vetter, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Lobelia tupa, also called devil's tobacco, is a native plant from the center-south of Chile which has been used by the native people of Chile as a hallucinogenic and anesthetic plant. A new piperidine alkaloid, called pentylsedinine, which comprises five carbons in the side chain, was isolated from the aerial part of L. tupa, along with lobeline and lobelanidine. The structure was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. While lobeline is a neutral antagonist at ?3?2/?3?4 nAChR and ?7 nAChR, both lobelanidine and pentylsedinine act as partial agonists at nAChR. PMID:26434115

  7. Adsorption of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist to Alum-Based Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Dampens Pro-T Helper 2 Activities and Enhances Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bortolatto, Juliana; Mirotti, Luciana; Rodriguez, Dunia; Gomes, Eliane; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum salts gels (alum) are TLR-independent adjuvants and have been used to boost antibody responses in alum-based vaccines such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid (DPT) triple vaccine. However, the pro-Th2 activity of alum-based vaccine formulations has not been fully appreciated. Here we found that alum-based tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine was biased toward a Th-2 profile as shown by TT-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production, and high levels of IgE anaphylactic antibodies. The adsorption into alum of prototypic TLR4 agonists such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli consistently dampened TT-induced Th2 activities without inducing IFN? or Th1-like responses in the lung. Conversely, adsorption of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) extracted from Salmonella minnesota, which is a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-?- (TRIF-) biased TLR4 agonist, was less effective in decreasing Th-2 responses. Importantly, in a situation with antigenic competition (OVA plus TT), TT-specific IgG1 or IgG2a was decreased compared with TT sensitization. Notably, LPS increased the production of IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibodies. In conclusion, the addition of LPS induces a more robust IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibody production and concomitantly decreases Th2-cellular and humoral responses, indicating a potential use of alum/TLR-based vaccines. PMID:26380316

  8. In vitro screening of 200 pesticides for agonistic activity via mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} and PPAR{gamma} and quantitative analysis of in vivo induction pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Matsuda, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Hiroyuki . E-mail: kojima@iph.pref.hokkaido.jp

    2006-12-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and key regulators of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation. However, there have been few studies reporting on a variety of environmental chemicals, which may interact with these receptors. In the present study, we characterized mouse PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonistic activities of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 11 acid amides, 7 triazines, 8 ureas and 44 others) by in vitro reporter gene assays using CV-1 monkey kidney cells. Three of the 200 pesticides, diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, which have different chemical structures, showed PPAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activities in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, none of the 200 pesticides showed PPAR{gamma} agonistic activity at concentrations {<=} 10{sup -5} M. To investigate the in vivo effects of diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, we examined the gene expression of PPAR{alpha}-inducible cytochrome P450 4As (CYP4As) in the liver of female mice intraperitoneally injected with these compounds ({<=} 300 mg/kg). RT-PCR revealed significantly high induction levels of CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 mRNAs in diclofop-methyl- and pyrethrins-treated mice, whereas imazalil induced almost no gene expressions of CYP4As. In particular, diclofop-methyl induced as high levels of CYP4A mRNAs as WY-14643, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist. Thus, most of the 200 pesticides tested do not activate PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{gamma} in in vitro assays, but only diclofop-methyl and pyrethrins induce PPAR{alpha} agonistic activity in vivo as well as in vitro.

  9. A novel partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) recruits PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha, prevents triglyceride accumulation, and potentiates insulin signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Burgermeister, Elke; Schnoebelen, Astride; Flament, Angele; Benz, Jörg; Stihle, Martine; Gsell, Bernard; Rufer, Arne; Ruf, Armin; Kuhn, Bernd; Märki, Hans Peter; Mizrahi, Jacques; Sebokova, Elena; Niesor, Eric; Meyer, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), also termed selective PPARgamma modulators, are expected to uncouple insulin sensitization from triglyceride (TG) storage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These agents shall thus avoid adverse effects, such as body weight gain, exerted by full agonists such as thiazolidinediones. In this context, we describe the identification and characterization of the isoquinoline derivative PA-082, a prototype of a novel class of non-thiazolidinedione partial PPARgamma ligands. In a cocrystal with PPARgamma it was bound within the ligand-binding pocket without direct contact to helix 12. The compound displayed partial agonism in biochemical and cell-based transactivation assays and caused preferential recruitment of PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) to the receptor, a feature shared with other selective PPARgamma modulators. It antagonized rosiglitazone-driven transactivation and TG accumulation during de novo adipogenic differentiation of murine C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. The latter effect was mimicked by overexpression of wild-type PGC1alpha but not its LXXLL-deficient mutant. Despite failing to promote TG loading, PA-082 induced mRNAs of genes encoding components of insulin signaling and adipogenic differentiation pathways. It potentiated glucose uptake and inhibited the negative cross-talk of TNFalpha on protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in mature adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. PGC1alpha is a key regulator of energy expenditure and down-regulated in diabetics. We thus propose that selective recruitment of PGC1alpha to favorable PPARgamma-target genes provides a possible molecular mechanism whereby partial PPARgamma agonists dissociate TG accumulation from insulin signaling. PMID:16373399

  10. The QBO and weak external forcing by solar activity: A three dimensional model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dameris, M.; Ebel, A.

    1989-01-01

    A better understanding is attempted of the physical mechanisms leading to significant correlations between oscillations in the lower and middle stratosphere and solar variability associated with the sun's rotation. A global 3-d mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere is employed to investigate the effects of minor artificially induced perturbations. The aim is to explore the physical mechanisms of the dynamical response especially of the stratosphere to weak external forcing as it may result from UV flux changes due to solar rotation. First results of numerical experiments dealing about the external forcing of the middle atmosphere by solar activity were presented elsewhere. Different numerical studies regarding the excitation and propagation of weak perturbations have been continued since then. The model calculations presented are made to investigate the influence of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the dynamical response of the middle atmosphere to weak perturbations by employing different initial wind fields which represent the west and east phase of the QBO.

  11. Weak activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase toward Bisphenol analogs in mouse perinatal development

    PubMed Central

    YABUSAKI, Risa; IWANO, Hidetomo; TSUSHIMA, Sumito; KOIKE, Nanako; OHTANI, Naoko; TANEMURA, Kentaro; INOUE, Hiroki; YOKOTA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical that disrupts endocrine function. BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that has been demonstrated to affect reproductive organ development, brain development, metabolic disease and post-natal behavior. Accordingly, Bisphenol analogs, Bisphenol F (BPF, bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane) and Bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4-hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenol) are used as replacements for BPA. BPA is mainly metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), UGT2B1, but this effective metabolizing system is weak in the fetus. In the present study, we demonstrated that hepatic UGT activity toward BPAF was very weak, in comparison with BPA and BPF, in the fetus, pups and dams. Conversely, hepatic UGT activity toward BPF was very weak in the fetus and newborn pups, and was increased to the same level as BPA post-partum. In conclusion, BPAF possibly tends to accumulate in the fetus, because of weak metabolism during the perinatal period, suggesting that the metabolism of individual Bisphenol analogs requires assessment to properly gauge their risks. PMID:26074487

  12. Weak activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase toward Bisphenol analogs in mouse perinatal development.

    PubMed

    Yabusaki, Risa; Iwano, Hidetomo; Tsushima, Sumito; Koike, Nanako; Ohtani, Naoko; Tanemura, Kentaro; Inoue, Hiroki; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical that disrupts endocrine function. BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that has been demonstrated to affect reproductive organ development, brain development, metabolic disease and post-natal behavior. Accordingly, Bisphenol analogs, Bisphenol F (BPF, bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane) and Bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4-hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenol) are used as replacements for BPA. BPA is mainly metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), UGT2B1, but this effective metabolizing system is weak in the fetus. In the present study, we demonstrated that hepatic UGT activity toward BPAF was very weak, in comparison with BPA and BPF, in the fetus, pups and dams. Conversely, hepatic UGT activity toward BPF was very weak in the fetus and newborn pups, and was increased to the same level as BPA post-partum. In conclusion, BPAF possibly tends to accumulate in the fetus, because of weak metabolism during the perinatal period, suggesting that the metabolism of individual Bisphenol analogs requires assessment to properly gauge their risks. PMID:26074487

  13. A Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Prevents Thrombin-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via the Inhibition of Microglial Activation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Yang, Yang; Feng, Zhou; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Liming; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously found that the selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist JWH-133 reduced brain edema and neurological deficits following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). We explored whether CB2R stimulation ameliorated thrombin-induced brain edema and BBB permeability as well as the possible molecular mechanism involved. A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats received a thrombin (20 U) injection in the right basal ganglia. JWH-133 (1.5 mg/kg) or SR-144528 (3.0 mg/kg) and vehicle were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected 1 h after surgery. Brain water content measurement, Evans blue (EB) extravasation, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to study the effects of a CB2R agonist 24 h after surgery. The results demonstrated that JWH-133 administration significantly decreased thrombin-induced brain edema and reduced the number of Iba-1-positive microglia. JWH-133 also decreased the number of P44/P42(+)/Iba-1(+) microglia, lowered Evans blue extravasation, and inhibited the elevated matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-12 activities. However, a selective CB2R antagonist (SR-144528) reversed these effects. We demonstrated that CB2R stimulation reduced thrombin-induced brain edema and alleviated BBB damage. We also found that matrix metalloproteinase suppression may be partially involved in these processes. PMID:26376816

  14. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup ?/?} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-? expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ? JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ? JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and toxicity to colon by inducing T cell apoptosis. ? JWH-133 decreased mast cells, macrophages, NK cells, IFN-?{sup +} cells in the LPL. ? AM630, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 antagonist inverted the colitis defense of JWH-133. ? Cannnabinoid receptor-2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for IBD.

  15. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo; Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lim, Jiwon; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Shin, Hong-In; Kim, Shin-Yoon Park, Eui Kyun

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  16. ?2-agonist therapy in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive P; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, M Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    ?2-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to relax airway smooth muscle (ASM). They exert their effects via their binding to the active site of ?2-adrenoceptors on ASM, which triggers a signaling cascade that results in a number of events, all of which contribute to relaxation of ASM. There are some differences between ?2-agonists. Traditional inhaled short-acting ?2-agonists albuterol, fenoterol, and terbutaline provide rapid as-needed symptom relief and short-term prophylactic protection against bronchoconstriction induced by exercise or other stimuli. The twice-daily ?2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol represent important advances. Their effective bronchodilating properties and long-term improvement in lung function offer considerable clinical benefits to patients. More recently, a newer ?2-agonist (indacaterol) with a longer pharmacodynamic half-life has been discovered, with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. In general, ?2-agonists have an acceptable safety profile, although there is still controversy as to whether long-acting ?2-agonists may increase the risk of asthma mortality. In any case, they can induce adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, palpitations, transient decrease in PaO2, and tremor. Desensitization of ?2-adrenoceptors that occurs during the first few days of regular use of ?2-agonist treatment may account for the commonly observed resolution of the majority of these adverse events after the first few doses. Nevertheless, it can also induce tolerance to bronchoprotective effects of ?2-agonists and has the potential to reduce bronchodilator sensitivity to them. Some novel once-daily ?2-agonists (olodaterol, vilanterol, abediterol) are under development, mainly in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid or a long-acting antimuscarinic agent. PMID:23348973

  17. Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The alpha(1) adrenoceptors are three of nine well-characterized receptors that are activated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Agonists acting at the alpha(1) adrenoceptors produce numerous physiological effects, and are used therapeutically for several indications. Many known alpha(1) adrenoceptor agonists are alpha(1A) selective, but the discovery of highly selective alpha(1B) and alpha(1D) adrenoceptor agonists has proven to be an extremely difficult goal to achieve. This review will focus on recent advances in the discovery, development and clinical utility of subtype-specific alpha(1) agonists as well as contributions to our understanding of agonist-receptor interactions. PMID:17266602

  18. Conformational comparisons of oxytocin agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists using laser Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Examination of 1-penicillamine and diastereoisomeric analogues.

    PubMed

    Hruby, V J; Mosberg, H I; Fox, J W; Tu, A T

    1982-05-10

    The biological activity of peptide hormones and analogues depends on the structural and conformational properties of these compounds. A comparative study of the conformational properties of diastereoisomeric analogues of oxytocin with weak agonist activities (fully active but low potency), partial agonist activity (only able to partially induce biological response), and of conformationally restricted 1-penicillamine analogues with potent antagonist activity (no intrinsic activity, but can block the hormone's activity) was made using circular dichroism and laser Raman spectroscopies. Conformational information regarding the peptide amide, disulfide, and tyrosine chromophores was obtained, and indicates differences in the hormone agonists and antagonists. The diastereoisomeric oxytocin analogues [1-hemi-D-cystine]-, [2-D-tyrosine]-, and [5-D-asparagine]-oxytocin, have spectral features consistent with overall backbone conformations similar to oxytocin itself, but with differences in side chain moieties. This suggests that the substantial decrease in potency of the diastereoisomeric oxytocin analogues is due to changes in the relative orientations of the side chains. In contrast, the 1-penicillamine analogues of the present study, [1-penicillamine, 4-threonine]- and [1-penicillamine, 2-phenylalanine, 4-threonine]-oxytocin, like 1-penicillamine oxytocin analogues previously examined, have different backbone and disulfide conformations than oxytocin. All the 1-penicillamine oxytocin derivatives thus far examined appear, from laser Raman and CD data, to have similar topologies. However, those of the present study seem to have more rigid conformations as evidenced by very intense amide n-pi* and tyrosine pi-pi* CD transitions. PMID:7068672

  19. Combined Liver X Receptor/Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Agonist Treatment Reduces Amyloid ? Levels and Improves Behavior in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Rebecca; Pellegrino, Mateus P; Casali, Brad T; Taraboanta, Laura; Landreth, Gary E

    2015-08-28

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid ? (A?), which is accompanied by a robust inflammatory response in the brain. Both of these pathogenic processes are regulated by nuclear receptors, including the liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome-proliferator receptor ? (PPAR?). Agonists of LXRs have been demonstrated previously to reduce A? levels and improve cognitive deficits in AD mouse models by inducing the transcription and lipidation of apolipoprotein E (apoE). Agonists targeting PPAR? reduce the microglial expression of proinflammatory genes and have also been shown to modulate apoE expression. Here we investigate whether a combination therapy with both LXR and PPAR? agonists results in increased benefits in an AD mouse model. We found that the LXR agonist GW3965 and the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone were individually able to increase the levels of apoE and related genes, decrease the expression of proinflammatory genes, and facilitate A? decreases in the hippocampus. Combined treatment with both agonists provoked a further increase in the expression of apoE and a decrease in the soluble and deposited forms of A?. The decrease in plaques was associated with increased colocalization between microglia and plaques. In addition, the PPAR? agonist in the combined treatment paradigm was able to counteract the elevation in plasma triglycerides that is a side effect of LXR agonist treatment. These results suggest that combined LXR/PPAR? agonist treatment merits further investigation for the treatment of AD. PMID:26163517

  20. Effects of systemically applied nAChR?7 agonists and antagonists on light-induced phase shifts of hamster circadian activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L; Garcia, David A; Millan, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Many physiological systems in mammals are linked to the body's master circadian rhythm in the sleep/wake cycle and dysfunctions in this rhythm has been associated with neurological diseases such as major depression, Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia. There is some evidence that nicotinic cholinergic input to the master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, may modulate circadian activity rhythms, but data employing in vivo preparations is sparse. Therefore we examined the ability of intraperitoneally applied nicotinic agonists and antagonists relatively selective for the ?7 nicotinic receptor to modulate light-induced phase shifts of hamster circadian wheel running rhythms. Hamsters were maintained in constant darkness and exposed to light pulses early and late in their active period, mimicking dusk and dawn respectively, which elicited phase delays and advances of their circadian wheel running rhythms. The ?7 receptor antagonists bPiDDB (0.03-3mg/kg) and methyllacaconitine (0.1-1mg/kg) inhibited both light- induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms by as much as 75% versus vehicle injections. In contrast, systemic injections of the ?7 agonists PHA 543613 and ABT107, both at 0.156-2.5mg/kg, had no effect on light induced phase advances or delays. Further, ?7 nicotinic receptors were identified in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus using an antibody that recognizes ?7 nicotinic receptors. These results clearly identify the ability of ?7 nicotinic receptor antagonists to inhibit light-entrainment of the hamster circadian pacemaker. Therefore, nicotinic compounds may be useful for the treatment of circadian dysfunction associated with neurological diseases. PMID:24388152

  1. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Agonist Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Derived Adipocytes Through Activation of HO-1-pAKT Signaling and a Decrease in PPAR?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Vanella, Luca; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Burgess, Angela; Gotlinger, Katherine; Manthati, Vijaya Lingam; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Falck, John R.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8?±?5.8?pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83?±?1.62?pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture decreased adipogenesis. EETs decreased MSC-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, 8,9- and 14,15-EET having the maximum reductive effect on adipogenesis. We examined the effect of 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8(Z)-enoic acid, an EET agonist, on MSC-derived adipocytes and demonstrated an increased number of healthy small adipocytes, attenuated fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels (P?activity or AKT by tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) and LY2940002, respectively, reversed EET-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting that activation of the HO-1-adiponectin axis underlies EET effect in MSCs. These findings indicate that EETs decrease MSC-derived adipocyte stem cell differentiation by upregulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AKT signaling and play essential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting PPAR?, C/EBP?, and FAS and in stem cell development. These novel observations highlight the seminal role of arachidonic acid metabolism in MSCs and suggest that an EET agonist may have potential therapeutic use in the treatment of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20412023

  2. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone increases functional expression of the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Jared; Amiridis, Stephanie; Stylli, Stanley S.; Bjorksten, Andrew R.; Kountouri, Nicole; Zheng, Thomas; Paradiso, Lucy; Luwor, Rodney B.; Morokoff, Andrew P.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Kaye, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Glioma cells release glutamate through expression of system xc?, which exchanges intracellular glutamate for extracellular cysteine. Lack of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression maintains high extracellular glutamate levels in the glioma microenvironment, causing excitotoxicity to surrounding parenchyma. Not only does this contribute to the survival and proliferation of glioma cells, but is involved in the pathophysiology of tumour-associated epilepsy (TAE). We investigated the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonist pioglitazone in modulating EAAT2 expression in glioma cells. We found that EAAT2 expression was increased in a dose dependent manner in both U87MG and U251MG glioma cells. Extracellular glutamate levels were reduced with the addition of pioglitazone, where statistical significance was reached in both U87MG and U251MG cells at a concentration of ? 30 ?M pioglitazone (p < 0.05). The PPAR? antagonist GW9662 inhibited the effect of pioglitazone on extracellular glutamate levels, indicating PPAR? dependence. In addition, pioglitazone significantly reduced cell viability of U87MG and U251MG cells at ? 30 ?M and 100 ?M (p < 0.05) respectively. GW9662 also significantly reduced viability of U87MG and U251MG cells with 10 ?M and 30 ?M (p < 0.05) respectively. The effect on viability was partially dependent on PPAR? activation in U87MG cells but not U251MG cells, whereby PPAR? blockade with GW9662 had a synergistic effect. We conclude that PPAR? agonists may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of gliomas and furthermore suggest a novel role for these agents in the treatment of tumour associated seizures through the reduction in extracellular glutamate. PMID:26046374

  3. Antidepressant-Like Activity of YL-0919: A Novel Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-ming; Xue, Rui; Xu, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Zhi-kun; Wang, Xian-wang; Zhang, You-zhi; Yang, Ri-fang; Li, Yun-feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that drugs combining activities of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist may form a novel strategy for higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacology of YL-0919, a novel synthetic compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. We performed in vitro binding and function assays and in vivo behavioral tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of YL-0919. YL-0919 displayed high affinity in vitro to both 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT transporter prepared from rat cortical tissue. It exerted an inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and potently inhibited 5-HT uptake in both rat cortical synaptosomes and recombinant cells. After acute p.o. administration, very low doses of YL-0919 reduced the immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice and rats, with no significant effect on locomotor activity in open field test. Furthermore, WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg) significantly blocked the effect of YL-0919 in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. In addition, chronic YL-0919 treatment significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors in chronically stressed rats. These findings suggest that YL-0919, a novel structure compound, exerts dual effect on the serotonergic system, as both 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT uptake blocker, showing remarkable antidepressant effects in animal models. Therefore, YL-0919 may be used as a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24367588

  4. The relationship between the agonist-induced activation and desensitization of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, S; Gent, J P; Findlay, J B C; Donnelly, D

    1998-01-01

    Repeated applications of neurokinin?A (NKA) to oocytes injected with 25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA caused complete attenuation of second and subsequent NKA-induced responses while analogous experiments using repeated applications of GR64349 and [Nle10]NKA(4–10) resulted in no such desensitization. This behaviour has been previously attributed to the ability of the different ligands to stabilize different active conformations of the receptor that have differing susceptibilities to receptor kinases (Nemeth & Chollet, 1995).However, for Xenopus oocytes injected (into the nucleus) with 10?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cDNA, a single 100?nM concentration of any of the three ligands resulted in complete desensitization to further concentrations.On the other hand, none of the ligands caused any desensitization in oocytes injected with 0.25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA, even at concentrations up to 10??M.The two N-terminally truncated analogues of neurokinin?A have a lower efficacy than NKA and it is likely that it is this property which causes the observed differences in desensitization, rather than the formation of alternative active states of the receptor.The peak calcium-dependent chloride current is not a reliable measure of maximal receptor stimulation and efficacy is better measured in this system by studying agonist-induced desensitization.The specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 can enhance NKA and GR64349-mediated desensitization which suggests that agonist-induced desensitization involves the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and the subsequent down-regulation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, possibly by cross-talk to a second signalling pathway. PMID:9690859

  5. CD47 Agonist Peptides Induce Programmed Cell Death in Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells via PLC?1 Activation: Evidence from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Attout, Tarik; Boullet, Heloïse; Herbi, Linda; Vela, Laura; Barbier, Sandrine; Chateau, Danielle; Chapiro, Elise; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Davi, Frédéric; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Moumné, Roba; Sarfati, Marika; Karoyan, Philippe; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Launay, Pierre; Susin, Santos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adulthood leukemia, is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal CD5+ B lymphocytes, which results in a progressive failure of the immune system. Despite intense research efforts, drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure in CLL, particularly in patients with dysfunctional TP53. The objective of our work was to identify potential approaches that might overcome CLL drug refractoriness by examining the pro-apoptotic potential of targeting the cell surface receptor CD47 with serum-stable agonist peptides. Methods and Findings In peripheral blood samples collected from 80 patients with CLL with positive and adverse prognostic features, we performed in vitro genetic and molecular analyses that demonstrate that the targeting of CD47 with peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 efficiently kills the malignant CLL B cells, including those from high-risk individuals with a dysfunctional TP53 gene, while sparing the normal T and B lymphocytes from the CLL patients. Further studies reveal that the differential response of normal B lymphocytes, collected from 20 healthy donors, and leukemic B cells to CD47 peptide targeting results from the sustained activation in CLL B cells of phospholipase C gamma-1 (PLC?1), a protein that is significantly over-expressed in CLL. Once phosphorylated at tyrosine 783, PLC?1 enables a Ca2+-mediated, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) pathway that is not down-modulated by the lymphocyte microenvironment. Accordingly, down-regulation of PLC?1 or pharmacological inhibition of PLC?1 phosphorylation abolishes CD47-mediated killing. Additionally, in a CLL-xenograft model developed in NOD/scid gamma mice, we demonstrate that the injection of CD47 agonist peptides reduces tumor burden without inducing anemia or toxicity in blood, liver, or kidney. The limitations of our study are mainly linked to the affinity of the peptides targeting CD47, which might be improved to reach the standard requirements in drug development, and the lack of a CLL animal model that fully mimics the human disease. Conclusions Our work provides substantial progress in (i) the development of serum-stable CD47 agonist peptides that are highly effective at inducing PCD in CLL, (ii) the understanding of the molecular events regulating a novel PCD pathway that overcomes CLL apoptotic avoidance, (iii) the identification of PLC?1 as an over-expressed protein in CLL B cells, and (iv) the description of a novel peptide-based strategy against CLL. PMID:25734483

  6. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, AVE8134, attenuates the progression of heart failure and increases survival in rats

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Wolfgang; Wohlfart, Paulus; Baader, Manuel; Breitschopf, Kristin; Falk, Eugen; Schäfer, Hans-Ludwig; Gerl, Martin; Kramer, Werner; Rütten, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the efficacy of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, AVE8134, in cellular and experimental models of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Methods: In Sprague Dawley rats with permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (post-MI), AVE8134 was compared to the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone and in a second study to the ACE inhibitor ramipril. In DOCA-salt sensitive rats, efficacy of AVE8134 on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis was investigated. Finally, AVE8134 was administered to old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at a non-blood pressure lowering dose with survival as endpoint. In cellular models, we studied AVE8134 on hypertrophy in rat cardiomyocytes, nitric oxide signaling in human endothelial cells (HUVEC) and LDL-uptake in human MonoMac-6 cells. Results: In post-MI rats, AVE8134 dose-dependently improved cardiac output, myocardial contractility and relaxation and reduced lung and left ventricular weight and fibrosis. In contrast, rosiglitazone exacerbated cardiac dysfunction. Treatment at AVE8134 decreased plasma proBNP and arginine and increased plasma citrulline and urinary NOx/creatinine ratio. In DOCA rats, AVE8134 prevented development of high blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction. Compound treatment increased cardiac protein expression and phosphorylation of eNOS. In old SHR, treatment with a low dose of AVE8134 improved cardiac and vascular function and increased life expectancy without lowering blood pressure. AVE8134 reduced phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In HUVEC, Ser-1177-eNOS phosphorylation but not eNOS expression was increased. In monocytes, AVE8134 increased the expression of CD36 and the macrophage scavenger receptor 1, resulting in enhanced uptake of oxidized LDL. Conclusion: The PPAR? agonist AVE8134 prevents post-MI myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction. AVE8134 has beneficial effects against hypertension-induced organ damages, resulting in decreased mortality. The compound exerts its protective properties by a direct effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but also indirectly via monocyte signaling and increased endothelial NO production. PMID:19503102

  7. Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation

  8. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. PMID:24060477

  9. Modulation of Innate Immune Responses via Covalently Linked TLR Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel adjuvants for vaccine development using multivalent scaffolds and bioconjugation chemistry to spatially manipulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. TLRs are primary receptors for activation of the innate immune system during vaccination. Vaccines that contain a combination of small and macromolecule TLR agonists elicit more directed immune responses and prolong responses against foreign pathogens. In addition, immune activation is enhanced upon stimulation of two distinct TLRs. Here, we synthesized combinations of TLR agonists as spatially defined tri- and di-agonists to understand how specific TLR agonist combinations contribute to the overall immune response. We covalently conjugated three TLR agonists (TLR4, 7, and 9) to a small molecule core to probe the spatial arrangement of the agonists. Treating immune cells with the linked agonists increased activation of the transcription factor NF-?B and enhanced and directed immune related cytokine production and gene expression beyond cells treated with an unconjugated mixture of the same three agonists. The use of TLR signaling inhibitors and knockout studies confirmed that the tri-agonist molecule activated multiple signaling pathways leading to the observed higher activity. To validate that the TLR4, 7, and 9 agonist combination would activate the immune response to a greater extent, we performed in vivo studies using a vaccinia vaccination model. Mice vaccinated with the linked TLR agonists showed an increase in antibody depth and breadth compared to mice vaccinated with the unconjugated mixture. These studies demonstrate how activation of multiple TLRs through chemically and spatially defined organization assists in guiding immune responses, providing the potential to use chemical tools to design and develop more effective vaccines. PMID:26640818

  10. Development of Cyclic ?-MSH Analogues with Selective hMC3R Agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mayorov, Alexander V.; Cai, Minying; Chandler, Kevin B.; Petrov, Ravil R.; Van Scoy, April R.; Yu, Zerui; Tanaka, Dustin K.; Trivedi, Dev; Hruby, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    A series of cyclic lactam analogues of ?-MSH (H-Tyr1-Val2-Met3-Gly4-His5-Phe6-Arg7-Trp8-Asp9-Arg10-Phe11-Gly12-OH) with a bulky hydrophobic residue in the direct proximity to the pharmacophore (Xaa-d-Phe/d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp) were designed and synthesized by solid-phase methods. A variety of amino acids with a broad range of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties was introduced in position 5 to further explore their complementary role in receptor selectivity. Biological evaluation of these peptides revealed several analogues with potent hMC3R agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist activities, and good receptor selectivity. Analogue 4, c[Nle-Arg-d-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was found to be a very potent and selective hMC3R agonist (EC50 = 1.2 nM, 112% act). In addition, analogue 13, c[Nle-Val-d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was identified as an hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist with the best selectivity against the hMC4R in this series (pA2(hMC3R) = 8.4; pA2(hMC5R) = 8.7). These results indicate the significance of steric factors in melanocortin receptor selectivity and suggest that introduction of bulky residues in the direct proximity to the melanocortin pharmacophore is an effective approach to design of novel hMC3R and hMC5R selective ligands. PMID:16539382

  11. Lower Anxiogenic Effects of Serotonin Agonists are Associated with Lower Activation of Amygdala and Lateral Orbital Cortex in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Coburn, Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jacob; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    There has been controversy over use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to treat affective disorders in children and adolescents due to clinical reports of increased risk for suicidal ideation and behavior during treatment, and animal studies showing changes in adult anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors after repeated treatment during adolescence. However, the acute effect of serotonergic drugs on affective behavior during adolescence is poorly understood. We investigated serotonergic modulation of anxiety-like behavior in adolescent (PN28-32) and adult (PN 67-73) male rats using the SSRI fluoxetine, the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH DPAT, and the 5-HT2 agonist mCPP. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced greater anxiogenic effects in adults than adolescents in the light/dark (LD) test for anxiety-like behavior, but fluoxetine (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased extracellular serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex similarly in both ages. Adults were also more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of 8-OH DPAT (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), but not mCPP (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), in the LD test. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) stimulated greater increases in c-Fos expression across the extended amygdala in adults than in adolescents, and 8-OH DPAT (0.5 mg/kg) produced greater increases in c-Fos in the lateral orbital cortex and central nucleus of the amygdala in adults. These data show that lower anxiogenic effects of acute SSRIs in adolescents are associated with lesser activation of cortical and amygdala brain regions. This immaturity could contribute to the different profile of behavioral effects observed in adolescents and adults treated with SSRIs. PMID:23774134

  12. Non-equivalent ligand selectivity of agonist sites in (?4?2)2?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a key determinant of agonist efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Simone; Gasparri, Federica; New, Karina; Alcaino, Constanza; Faundez, Manuel; Iturriaga Vasquez, Patricio; Vijayan, Ranjit; Biggin, Philip C; Bermudez, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant nAChR type in the brain, and this receptor type exists in alternate (?4?2)2?4 and (?4?2)2?2 forms, which are activated by agonists with strikingly differing efficacies. Recent breakthroughs have identified an additional operational agonist binding site in the (?4?2)2?4 nAChR that is responsible for the signature sensitivity of this receptor to activation by agonists, yet the structural mechanisms determining agonist efficacy at this receptor type are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterized the ligand selectivity of the individual agonist sites of the (?4?2)2?4 nAChR to determine whether differences in agonist selectivity influence agonist efficacy. Applying the substituted cysteine accessibility method to individual agonist sites in concatenated (?4?2)2?4 receptors, we determined the agonist selectivity of the agonist sites of the (?4?2)2?4 receptor. We show that (a) accessibility of substituted cysteines to covalent modification by methanesulfonate reagent depends on the agonist site at which the modification occurs and (b) that agonists such as sazetidine-A and TC-2559 are excluded from the site at the ?4/?4 interface. Given that additional binding to the agonist site in the ?4/?4 interface increases acetylcholine efficacy and that agonists excluded from the agonist site at the ?4/?4 interface behave as partial agonists, we conclude that the ability to engage all agonist sites in (?4?2)2?4 nAChRs is a key determinant of agonist efficacy. The findings add another level of complexity to the structural mechanisms that govern agonist efficacy in heteromeric nAChRs and related ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:24936069

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for weak acid respiratory uncouplers to Vibrio fisheri

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Cronin, M.T.D.

    1997-02-01

    Acute toxicity values of 16 organic compounds thought to elicit their response via the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action were secured from the literature. Regression analysis of toxicities revealed that a measured 5-min V. fisheri potency value can be used as a surrogate for the 30-min value. Regression analysis of toxicity versus hydrophobicity, measured as the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}), was used to formulate a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The equation log pT{sub 30}{sup {minus}1} = 0.489(log K{sub ow}) + 0.126 was found to be a highly predictive model. This V. fisheri QSAR is statistically similar to QSARs generated from weak acid uncoupler potency data for Pimephales promelas survivability and Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment. This work, therefore, suggests that the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action is present in V. fisheri, and as such is not restricted to mitochondria-containing organisms.

  14. Prp4 Kinase Grants the License to Splice: Control of Weak Splice Sites during Spliceosome Activation.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Daniela; Andrée, Nicole; Razanau, Aleh; Zock-Emmenthal, Susanne; Lützelberger, Martin; Plath, Susann; Schmidt, Henning; Guerra-Moreno, Angel; Cozzuto, Luca; Ayté, José; Käufer, Norbert F

    2016-01-01

    The genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes 17 kinases that are essential for cell growth. These include the cell-cycle regulator Cdc2, as well as several kinases that coordinate cell growth, polarity, and morphogenesis during the cell cycle. In this study, we further characterized another of these essential kinases, Prp4, and showed that the splicing of many introns is dependent on Prp4 kinase activity. For detailed characterization, we chose the genes res1 and ppk8, each of which contains one intron of typical size and position. Splicing of the res1 intron was dependent on Prp4 kinase activity, whereas splicing of the ppk8 intron was not. Extensive mutational analyses of the 5' splice site of both genes revealed that proper transient interaction with the 5' end of snRNA U1 governs the dependence of splicing on Prp4 kinase activity. Proper transient interaction between the branch sequence and snRNA U2 was also important. Therefore, the Prp4 kinase is required for recognition and efficient splicing of introns displaying weak exon1/5' splice sites and weak branch sequences. PMID:26730850

  15. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Sung, Ki Woong

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

  16. Electromyographic assessment of the activity of the masticatory using the agonist contract-antagonist relax technique (AC) and contract-relax technique (CR).

    PubMed

    Olivo, Susan Armijo; Magee, David J

    2006-05-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques are a group of therapeutic procedures that may be used to cause relaxation of muscles. Studies have found controversial results when applying these techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of masticatory muscle relaxation through the use of the contract-relax technique (CR) when compared with the agonist contract-antagonist relax technique (AC). A convenience sample of 30 students was recruited for this study. The CR and the AC techniques were applied to the subjects in order to cause relaxation of the masticatory muscles. Electromyography activity of all muscles was registered. Two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that both the AC technique and the CR technique did not decrease the EMG activity of masticatory muscles (P>0.05). Instead, both techniques caused an increase in electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles. Based on the results obtained from this study, both the CR and the AC techniques were not effective in causing relaxation of the masticatory muscles. The purported physiological mechanisms of PNF techniques, which stated that they act through reciprocal inhibition and autogenic inhibition causing muscular relaxation, are not supported by this study. PMID:16226048

  17. A precise method to determine the activity of a weak neutron source using a germanium detector

    E-print Network

    M. J. M. Duke; A. L. Hallin; C. B. Krauss; P. Mekarski; L. Sibley

    2015-06-17

    A standard high purity germanium detector (HPGe) was used to determine the neutron activity of a weak americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron source. Gamma rays were created through 27Al(n,n'), 27Al(n,gamma) and 1H(n,gamma) reactions induced by the neutrons on aluminum and acrylic disks. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the efficiency of the detector system. The activity of our neutron source was determined to be 305.6 +/- 4.9 n/s. The result is consistent for the different gamma rays and was verified using additional simulations and measurements of the 4483 keV gamma ray produced directly from the AmBe source.

  18. A precise method to determine the activity of a weak neutron source using a germanium detector

    E-print Network

    Duke, M J M; Krauss, C B; Mekarski, P; Sibley, L

    2015-01-01

    A standard high purity germanium detector (HPGe) was used to determine the neutron activity of a weak americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron source. Gamma rays were created through 27Al(n,n'), 27Al(n,gamma) and 1H(n,gamma) reactions induced by the neutrons on aluminum and acrylic disks. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the efficiency of the detector system. The activity of our neutron source was determined to be 305.6 +/- 4.9 n/s. The result is consistent for the different gamma rays and was verified using additional simulations and measurements of the 4483 keV gamma ray produced directly from the AmBe source.

  19. Classification of active and weakly active ST inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase using a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aixia; Xuan, Shouyi; Hu, Xiaoying

    2012-12-01

    Using a support vector machine (SVM), two computational models were built to predict whether a compound is an active or weakly active strand transfer (ST) inhibitor based on a dataset of 1257 ST inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. The model built with MACCS fingerprints gave a prediction accuracy of 91.82% and a Matthews Correlation Coeffiient (MCC) of 0.73 on test set, and the model built with 40 MOE descriptors gave a prediction accuracy of 93.64% and an MCC of 0.79 on test set. Some molecular properties such as electrostatic properties, van der Waals surface area, hydrogen bond properties and the number of fluorine atoms are important factors influencing the interactions between the inhibitor and the integrase. Some scaffolds like ?-diketo acid and its derivatives, naphthyridine carboxamide or the isosteric of it and pyrimidionones may play crucial rule to the activity of the HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. PMID:22934952

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Frascerra, Silvia; Corrado, Alda; Pupilli, Cinzia; Bernini, Giampaolo; Benvenga, Salvatore; Ferrannini, Ele; Fallahi, Poupak

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  1. Failure of cAMP agonists to activate rescued deltaF508 CFTR in CFBE41o- airway epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bebok, Zsuzsa; Collawn, James F; Wakefield, John; Parker, William; Li, Yao; Varga, Karoly; Sorscher, Eric J; Clancy, J P

    2005-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel. Mutations in the CFTR gene result in cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common mutation, deltaF508, results in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) of CFTR. DeltaF508 CFTR has been described as a temperature-sensitive mutation that can be rescued following growth at 27 degrees C. In order to study the processing and function of wild-type and rescued deltaF508 CFTR at the cell surface under non-polarized and polarized conditions, we developed stable cell lines expressing deltaF508 or wild-type CFTR. CFBE41o- is a human airway epithelial cell line capable of forming high resistance, polarized monolayers when cultured on permeable supports, while HeLa cells are normally grown under non-polarizing conditions. Immunoprecipitation, cell surface biotinylation, immunofluorescence, and functional assays confirmed the presence of deltaF508 CFTR at the cell surface in both cell lines after incubating the cells for 48 h at 27 degrees C. However, stimulators of wild-type CFTR such as forskolin, beta2-adrenergic or A2B-adenosine receptor agonists failed to activate rescued deltaF508 CFTR in CFBE41o- monolayers. Rescued deltaF508 CFTR could be stimulated with genistein independent of pretreatment with cAMP signalling agonists. Interestingly, rescued deltaF508 CFTR in HeLa cells could be efficiently stimulated with either forskolin or genistein to promote Cl- transport. These results indicate that deltaF508 CFTR, when rescued in CFBE41o- human airway epithelial cells, is poorly responsive to signalling pathways known to regulate wild-type CFTR. Furthermore, the differences in rescue and activation of deltaF508 CFTR in the two cell lines suggest that cell-type specific differences in deltaF508 CFTR processing are likely to complicate efforts to identify potentiators and/or correctors of the deltaF508 defect. PMID:16210354

  2. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased ?-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 ?M after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 ?M at the G-protein and ?-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50 = 9 ?M) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting ?-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa ?-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 ?M. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations >1 ?M in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders. PMID:26302653

  3. The Protease-activated Receptor-2-specific Agonists 2-Aminothiazol-4-yl-LIGRL-NH2 and 6-Aminonicotinyl-LIGRL-NH2 Stimulate Multiple Signaling Pathways to Induce Physiological Responses in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea N.; Tillu, Dipti V.; Asiedu, Marina N.; Hoffman, Justin; Vagner, Josef; Price, Theodore J.; Boitano, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is one of four protease-activated G-protein-coupled receptors. PAR2 is expressed on multiple cell types where it contributes to cellular responses to endogenous and exogenous proteases. Proteolytic cleavage of PAR2 reveals a tethered ligand that activates PAR2 and two major downstream signaling pathways: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Peptides or peptidomimetics can mimic binding of the tethered ligand to stimulate signaling without the nonspecific effects of proteases. The most commonly used peptide activators of PAR2 (e.g. SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2) lack potency at the receptor. However, although the potency of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (2-f-LIGRLO-NH2) underscores the use of peptidomimetic PAR2 ligands as a mechanism to enhance pharmacological action at PAR2, 2-f-LIGRLO-NH2 has not been thoroughly evaluated. We evaluated the known agonist 2-f-LIGRLO-NH2 and two recently described pentapeptidomimetic PAR2-specific agonists, 2-aminothiazol-4-yl-LIGRL-NH2 (2-at-LIGRL-NH2) and 6-aminonicotinyl-LIGRL-NH2 (6-an-LIGRL-NH2). All peptidomimetic agonists stimulated PAR2-dependent in vitro physiological responses, MAPK signaling, and Ca2+ signaling with an overall rank order of potency of 2-f-LIGRLO-NH2 ? 2-at-LIGRL-NH2 > 6-an-LIGRL-NH2 ? SLIGRL-NH2. Because PAR2 plays a major role in pathological pain conditions and to test potency of the peptidomimetic agonists in vivo, we evaluated these agonists in models relevant to nociception. All three agonists activated Ca2+ signaling in nociceptors in vitro, and both 2-at-LIGRL-NH2 and 2-f-LIGRLO-NH2 stimulated PAR2-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in vivo. We have characterized three high potency ligands that can be used to explore the physiological role of PAR2 in a variety of systems and pathologies. PMID:21467041

  4. Complete rescue of cerebrovascular function in aged Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by antioxidants and pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist.

    PubMed

    Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Ongali, Brice; Lecrux, Clotilde; Fernandes, Priscilla; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2008-09-10

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cerebrovascular dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using aged ( approximately 16 months) amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice that exhibit increased production of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and severe cerebrovascular and memory deficits, we examined the capacity of in vivo treatments with the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tempol, or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone to rescue cerebrovascular function and selected markers of AD neuropathology. Additionally, we tested the ability of pioglitazone to normalize the impaired increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose uptake (CGU) induced by whisker stimulation, and to reverse spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze. All compounds fully restored cerebrovascular reactivity of isolated cerebral arteries concomitantly with changes in proteins regulating oxidative stress, without reducing brain Abeta levels or Abeta plaque load. Pioglitazone, but not NAC, significantly attenuated astroglial activation and improved, albeit nonsignificantly, the reduced cortical cholinergic innervation. Furthermore, pioglitazone completely normalized the CBF and CGU responses to increased neuronal activity, but it failed to improve spatial memory. Our results are the first to demonstrate that late pharmacological intervention with pioglitazone not only overcomes cerebrovascular dysfunction and altered neurometabolic coupling in aged APP mice, but also counteracts cerebral oxidative stress, glial activation, and, partly, cholinergic denervation. Although early or combined therapy may be warranted to improve cognition, these findings unequivocally point to pioglitazone as a most promising strategy for restoring cerebrovascular function and counteracting several AD markers detrimental to neuronal function. PMID:18784309

  5. Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a dual agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ?/?

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, Mastura Abd; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee Jin; Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 ; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak Ju; Lee, Chul; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside is a dual ligand for PPAR? and ?/?. ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside reduces cellular lipid levels in multiple cell types. ? Cells stimulated with ombuine up-regulated target genes in cholesterol efflux. ? Cells stimulated with ombuine regulated target fatty acid ?-oxidation and synthesis. ? Ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: We demonstrated that ombuin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (ombuine), a flavonoid from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, is a dual agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) ? and ?/?. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses, and reporter gene assays, we showed that ombuine bound directly to PPAR? and ?/? but not to PPAR? or liver X receptors (LXRs). Cultured HepG2 hepatocytes stimulated with ombuine significantly reduced intracellular concentrations of triglyceride and cholesterol and downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), with activation of PPAR? and ?/?. Activation of LXRs by ombuine was confirmed by reporter gene assays, however, SPR and cell-based FRET assays showed no direct binding of ombuine to either of the LXRs suggesting LXR activation by ombuine may be operated via PPAR? stimulation. Ombuine-stimulated macrophages showed significantly induced transcription of ATP binding cassette cholesterol transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1), the key genes in reverse cholesterol transport, which led to reduced cellular cholesterol concentrations. These results suggest that ombuine is a dual PPAR ligand for PPAR? and ?/? with the ability to decrease lipid concentrations by reducing lipogenic gene expression in hepatocytes and inducing genes involved in cholesterol efflux in macrophages.

  6. Effects of alkyl side chains and terminal hydrophilicity on vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonistic activity based on the diphenylpentane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takashi; Yorioka, Momoko; Demizu, Yosuke; Noguchi-Yachide, Tomomi; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Kurashima-Kinoshita, Megumi; Motoyoshi, Hitomi; Nojiri, Hisao; Kittaka, Atsushi; Makishima, Makoto; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2015-11-15

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a family of nuclear receptors (NR) that regulates physiological effects such as the immune system, calcium homeostasis, and cell proliferation. We synthesized non-secosteroidal VDR ligands bearing a long alkyl chain based on the diphenylpentane skeleton. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated using a reporter gene assay and HL-60 cell differentiation-inducing assay. We herein described the structure-activity relationship and effects of alkyl-chain length on VDR-mediated transcriptional activity. PMID:26432035

  7. Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

    2013-02-05

    Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650 Degree-Sign C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  8. Molecular engineering of organophosphate hydrolysis activity from a weak promiscuous lactonase template.

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika M; Rajendran, Chitra; Malisi, Christoph; Fox, Nicholas G; Xu, Chengfu; Schlee, Sandra; Barondeau, David P; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard; Raushel, Frank M

    2013-08-01

    Rapid evolution of enzymes provides unique molecular insights into the remarkable adaptability of proteins and helps to elucidate the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We interrogated the evolution of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta (PdPTE), which hydrolyzes synthetic organophosphates with remarkable catalytic efficiency. PTE is thought to be an evolutionarily "young" enzyme, and it has been postulated that it has evolved from members of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) family that show promiscuous organophosphate-degrading activity. Starting from a weakly promiscuous PLL scaffold (Dr0930 from Deinococcus radiodurans ), we designed an extremely efficient organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) with broad substrate specificity using rational and random mutagenesis in combination with in vitro activity screening. The OPH activity for seven organophosphate substrates was simultaneously enhanced by up to 5 orders of magnitude, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiencies up to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Structural and computational analyses identified the molecular basis for the enhanced OPH activity of the engineered PLL variants and demonstrated that OPH catalysis in PdPTE and the engineered PLL differ significantly in the mode of substrate binding. PMID:23837603

  9. Molecular Engineering of Organophosphate Hydrolysis Activity from a Weak Promiscuous Lactonase Template

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Monika M; Rajendran, Chitra; Malisi, Christoph; Fox, Nicholas G; Xu, Chengfu; Schlee, Sandra; Barondeau, David P; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard; Raushel, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Rapid evolution of enzymes provides unique molecular insights into the remarkable adaptability of proteins and helps to elucidate the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure and function. We interrogated the evolution of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta (PdPTE), which hydrolyzes synthetic organophosphates with remarkable catalytic efficiency. PTE is thought to be an evolutionarily “young” enzyme and it has been postulated that it has evolved from members of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) family that show promiscuous organophosphate degrading activity. Starting from a weakly promiscuous PLL scaffold (Dr0930 from Deinococcus radiodurans), we designed an extremely efficient organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) with broad substrate specificity using rational and random mutagenesis in combination with in vitro activity screening. The OPH activity for seven organophosphate substrates was simultaneously enhanced by up to five orders of magnitude, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiencies up to 106 M?1 s?1. Structural and computational analyses identified the molecular basis for the enhanced OPH activity of the engineered PLL variants and demonstrated that OPH catalysis in PdPTE and the engineered PLL differ significantly in the mode of substrate binding. PMID:23837603

  10. SAR-studies of ?-secretase modulators with PPAR?-agonistic and 5-lipoxygenase-inhibitory activity for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Daniel; Ness, Julia; Lamers, Christina; Dehm, Friederike; Popella, Sven; Steri, Ramona; Ogorek, Isabella; Hieke, Martina; Dannhardt, Gerd; Werz, Oliver; Weggen, Sascha; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2015-02-15

    We present the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of compounds containing a 2-(benzylidene)hexanoic acid scaffold as multi-target directed ?-secretase-modulators. Broad structural variations were undertaken to elucidate the structure-activity-relationships at the 5-position of the aromatic core. Compound 13 showed the most potent activity profile with IC50 values of 0.79?M (A?42), 0.3?M (5-lipoxygenase) and an EC50 value of 4.64?M for PPAR?-activation. This derivative is the first compound exhibiting low micromolar to nanomolar activities for these three targets. Combining ?-secretase-modulation, PPAR?-agonism and inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase in one compound could be a novel disease-modifying multi-target-strategy for Alzheimer's disease to concurrently address the causative amyloid pathology and secondary pathologies like chronic brain inflammation. PMID:25575659

  11. Orally active opioid ?/? dual agonist MGM-16, a derivative of the indole alkaloid mitragynine, exhibits potent antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Narita, Minoru; Muramatsu, Naotaka; Nakayama, Terumi; Misawa, Kaori; Kitajima, Mariko; Tashima, Kimihito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2014-03-01

    (E)-Methyl 2-((2S,3S,7aS,12bS)-3-ethyl-7a-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,7a,12b-octahydroindolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-2-yl)-3-methoxyacrylate (7-hydroxymitragynine), a main active constituent of the traditional herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, is an indole alkaloid that is structurally different from morphine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine induces a potent antinociceptive effect on mouse acute pain through ?-opioid receptors. In this study, we developed dual-acting ?- and ?-opioid agonists MGM-15 and MGM-16 from 7-hydroxymitragynine for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. MGM-16 showed a higher potency than that of 7-hydroxymitragynine and MGM-15 in in vitro and in vivo assays. MGM-16 exhibited a high affinity for ?- and ?-opioid receptors, with K(i) values of 2.1 and 7.0 nM, respectively. MGM-16 showed ?- and ?-opioid full agonistic effects in a guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) binding assay and in a functional test using electrically elicited guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens contractions. Systemic administration of MGM-16 produced antinociceptive effects in a mouse acute pain model and antiallodynic effects in a chronic pain model. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was approximately 240 times more potent than that of morphine in a mouse tail-flick test, and its antiallodynic effect was approximately 100 times more potent than that of gabapentin in partial sciatic nerve-ligated mice, especially with oral administration. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was completely and partially blocked by the ?-selective antagonist ?-funaltrexamine hydrochloride (?-FNA) and by the ?-selective antagonist naltrindole, respectively, in a tail-flick test. The antiallodynic effect of MGM-16 was completely blocked by ?-FNA and naltrindole in a neuropathic pain model. These findings suggest that MGM-16 could become a class of a compound with potential therapeutic utility for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:24345467

  12. Effect of combination treatment of S–amlodipine with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance associated with dyslipidemia and hypertension. The available drugs are not sufficiently efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk and restoring normal glucose metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes as a mono- or a combination therapy. The present study examined the combined effects of an antihypertensive (S-Amlodipine) and an insulin-sensitizing agent, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists (Pioglitazone and Ragaglitazar), on cardiovascular risk factors in aged diabetic and insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rats. Methods Following combination treatment for 14 days, blood pressure (BP), serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Aortic ring study was conducted to determine the effect of combination treatments on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasorelaxation. Results In combination, S-Amlodipine and Pioglitazone significantly reduced blood glucose (115.1?±?6.6 vs. 81.7?±?4.2), BP (184.4?±?5.0 vs. 155.1?±?5.0), serum triglycerides (362.5?±?47.5 vs. 211.1?±?23.7) and glucose intolerance when compared with vehicle treated Zucker fa/fa rats. Similar results were observed with the combination of S-Amlodipine and Ragaglitazar (Triglycerides, 362.5?±?47.5 vs. 252.34?±?27.86; BP, 184.4?±?5.0 vs. 159.0?±?8.0) except for serum glucose. ACh-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings was also superior with both of the combinations compared to individual treatment. Furthermore, there was less body weight gain and food intake with S-Amlodipine and Pioglitazone combination in Zucker fa/fa rats. S-Amlodipine itself caused significant reduction in glucose (115.1?±?6.6 vs. 89.7?±?2.7) and BP (184.4?±?5.0 vs. 156.1?±?4.0) with improvement in insulin sensitivity observed through oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of PPAR agonists and S-Amlodipine has partial benefits in improving the cardiovascular risk factors such as reduction in triglyceride levels, associated with chronic type 2 diabetes, and therefore may be utilized as an approach for addressing some of these devastating metabolic syndrome complications. PMID:24673913

  13. Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

    2013-04-01

    Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

  14. Administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist pioglitazone during fractionated brain irradiation prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Weiling; Payne, Valerie; Tommasi, Ellen; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, F.-C.; Robbins, Mike E. . E-mail: mrobbins@wfubmc.edu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the anti-inflammatory peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone (Pio) to adult male rats would inhibit radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Methods and Materials: Young adult male F344 rats received one of the following: (1) fractionated whole brain irradiation (WBI); 40 or 45 Gy {gamma}-rays in 4 or 4.5 weeks, respectively, two fractions per week and normal diet; (2) sham-irradiation and normal diet; (3) WBI plus Pio (120 ppm) before, during, and for 4 or 54 weeks postirradiation; (4) sham-irradiation plus Pio; or (5) WBI plus Pio starting 24h after completion of WBI. Results: Administration of Pio before, during, and for 4 or 54 weeks after WBI prevented Radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Administration of Pio for 54 weeks starting after completion of fractionated WBI substantially but not significantly reduced Radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Conclusions: These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life and increasing the therapeutic window for brain tumor patients.

  15. Estrogen receptor agonists for attenuation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Haque, Azizul; Banik, Naren L.; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Ray, Swapan K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from laboratory investigations and clinical trials indicate important roles for estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from noxious consequences of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes in several CNS disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, which drive the resident neuroinflammatory response. During neurodegenerative processes, activated microglia and astrocytes cause deleterious effects on surrounding neurons. The inhibitory activity of ER agonists on microglia activation might be a beneficial therapeutic option for delaying the onset or progression of neurodegenerative injuries and diseases. Recent studies suggest that ER agonists can provide neuroprotection by modulation of cell survival mechanisms, synaptic reorganization, regenerative responses to axonal injury, and neurogenesis process. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of ER agonists are mediated mainly via two ERs known as ER? and ER?. Although some studies have suggested that ER agonists may be deleterious to some neuronal populations, the potential clinical benefits of ER agonists for augmenting cognitive function may triumph over the associated side effects. Also, understanding the modulatory activities of ER agonists on inflammatory pathways will possibly lead to the development of selective anti-inflammatory molecules with neuroprotective roles in different CNS disorders such as SCI, MS, PD, and AD in humans. Future studies should be concentrated on finding the most plausible molecular pathways for enhancing protective functions of ER agonists in treating neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative injuries and diseases in the CNS. PMID:25245209

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonist-induced down-regulation of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor expression in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiang; Li Ming; Sun Weiping; Bi Yan; Cai Mengyin; Liang Hua; Yu Qiuqiong; He Xiaoying; Weng Jianping

    2008-04-18

    It was reported that glucocorticoid production was inhibited by fenofibrate through suppression of type-1 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in liver. The inhibition might be a negative-feedback regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which is quickly induced by glucocorticoid in the liver. However, it is not clear if GR expression is changed by fenofibrate-induced PPAR{alpha} activation. In this study, we tested this possibility in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. GR expression was reduced by fenofibrate in a time- and does-dependent manner. The inhibition was observed in liver, but not in fat and muscle. The corticosterone level in the blood was increased significantly by fenofibrate. These effects of fenofibrate were abolished by PPAR{alpha} inhibitor MK886, suggesting that fenofibrate activated through PPAR{alpha}. In conclusion, inhibition of GR expression may represent a new molecular mechanism for the negative feedback regulation of GR activity by PPAR{alpha}.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma agonists in model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Persike, Daniele Suzete; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Tonin, Fernanda S; da Cunha, Claudio; Lucio Boschen, Suelen; Lima, Marcelo M S; Vital, Maria A B F

    2014-11-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists may improve some of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the PPAR-? agonist fenofibrate (100mg/kg) and PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone (30mg/kg) in a rat model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP). Male Wistar rats were pretreated with both drugs for 5 days and received an infusion of MPTP. The experiments were divided into two parts. First, 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery, the animals were submitted to the open field test. On days 21 and 22, the rats were subjected to the forced swim test and two-way active avoidance task. In the second part of the study, 24h after neurotoxin administration, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence detection was used to assess caspase-3 activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Both fenofibrate as pioglitazone protected against hypolocomotion, depressive-like behavior, impairment of learning and memory, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by MPTP, with dopaminergic neuron loss of approximately 33%. Fenofibrate and pioglitazone also protected against the increased activation of caspase-3, an effector enzyme of the apoptosis cascade that is considered one of the pathological features of PD. Thus, PPAR agonists may contribute to therapeutic strategies in PD. PMID:25127682

  18. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the Ki values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg?1, dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg?1) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg?1) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. PMID:26171224

  19. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Inatsuka, Carol; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Disis, Mary L.; Standish, Leanna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been shown to be partially dependent on functional NK cells. Novel agents that enhance NK cell function could potentially improve the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. We recently identified polysaccharide krestin (PSK), a natural product extracted from medicinal mushroom Trametes Versicolor, as a potent TLR2 agonist. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on human NK cells and the potential of using PSK to enhance HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Experimental Design Human PBMC were stimulated with PSK to evaluate the effect of PSK on NK cell activation, IFN-? production, cytotoxicity, and trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Whether the effect of PSK on NK cells is direct or indirect was also investigated. Then in vivo experiment in neu transgenic mice was carried out to determine the potential of using PSK to augment the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Results PSK activated human NK cells to produce IFN-? and to lyse K562 target cells. PSK also enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Both direct and IL-12-dependent indirect effects seem to be involved in the effect of PSK on NK cells. Oral administration of PSK significantly potentiated the anti-tumor effect of anti-HER2/neu mAb therapy in neu-transgenic mice. Conclusion These results demonstrated that PSK activates human NK cells and potentiates trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Concurrent treatment of PSK and trastuzumab may be a novel way to augment the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. PMID:21918170

  20. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Potent cAMP Signaling Agonist (-)-Alotaketal A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhua; Yang, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed account of the first total synthesis of alotaketal A, a tricyclic spiroketal sesterterpenoid that potently activates the cAMP signaling pathway, is provided. The synthesis employs both intra- and intermolecular reductive allylation of esters for assembling one of the fragments and their coupling. A Hg(OAc)2-mediated allylic mercuration is used to introduce the C22-hydroxyl group. The subtle influence of substituents over the course of the spiroketalization process is revealed. The synthesis confirms the relative and absolute stereochemistry of (-)-alotaketal A and allows verification of alotaketal A’s effect over cAMP signaling using reporter-based FRET imaging assays with HEK 293T cells. Our studies also revealed alotaketal A’s unique activity in selectively targeting nuclear PKA signaling in living cells. PMID:23584129

  1. Indole Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Active in a Model of Dyslipidemia Act via a Unique Association with an Agonist Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Luz, John G; Carson, Matthew W; Condon, Bradley; Clawson, David; Pustilnik, Anna; Kohlman, Daniel T; Barr, Robert J; Bean, James S; Dill, M Joelle; Sindelar, Dana K; Maletic, Milan; Coghlan, Michael J

    2015-08-27

    To further elucidate the structural activity correlation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism, the crystal structure of the GR ligand-binding domain (GR LBD) complex with a nonsteroidal antagonist, compound 8, was determined. This novel indole sulfonamide shows in vitro activity comparable to known GR antagonists such as mifepristone, and notably, this molecule lowers LDL (-74%) and raises HDL (+73%) in a hamster model of dyslipidemia. This is the first reported crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to a nonsteroidal antagonist, and this article provides additional elements for the design and pharmacology of clinically relevant nonsteroidal GR antagonists that may have greater selectivity and fewer side effects than their steroidal counterparts. PMID:26218343

  2. Low molecular weight, non-peptidic agonists of TrkA receptor with NGF-mimetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Scarpi, D; Cirelli, D; Matrone, C; Castronovo, G; Rosini, P; Occhiato, E G; Romano, F; Bartali, L; Clemente, A M; Bottegoni, G; Cavalli, A; De Chiara, G; Bonini, P; Calissano, P; Palamara, A T; Garaci, E; Torcia, M G; Guarna, A; Cozzolino, F

    2012-01-01

    Exploitation of the biologic activity of neurotrophins is desirable for medical purposes, but their protein nature intrinsically bears adverse pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we report synthesis and biologic characterization of a novel class of low molecular weight, non-peptidic compounds with NGF (nerve growth factor)-mimetic properties. MT2, a representative compound, bound to Trk (tropomyosin kinase receptor)A chain on NGF-sensitive cells, as well as in cell-free assays, at nanomolar concentrations and induced TrkA autophosphorylation and receptor-mediated internalization. MT2 binding involved at least two amino-acid residues within TrkA molecule. Like NGF, MT2 increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and Akt proteins and production of MKP-1 phosphatase (dual specificity phosphatase 1), modulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, sustained survival of serum-starved PC12 or RDG cells, and promoted their differentiation. However, the intensity of such responses was heterogenous, as the ability of maintaining survival was equally possessed by NGF and MT2, whereas the induction of differentiation was expressed at definitely lower levels by the mimetic. Analysis of TrkA autophosphorylation patterns induced by MT2 revealed a strong tyrosine (Tyr)490 and a limited Tyr785 and Tyr674/675 activation, findings coherent with the observed functional divarication. Consistently, in an NGF-deprived rat hippocampal neuronal model of Alzheimer Disease, MT2 could correct the biochemical abnormalities and sustain cell survival. Thus, NGF mimetics may reveal interesting investigational tools in neurobiology, as well as promising drug candidates. PMID:22764098

  3. Anticancer activity of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor antagonist, ganitumab, in combination with the death receptor 5 agonist, conatumumab.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Josep; Chawla, Sant P; Kindler, Hedy; Reckamp, Karen; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Azad, Nilofer S; Lockhart, A Craig; Hsu, Cheng-Pang; Baker, Nigel F; Galimi, Francesco; Beltran, Pedro; Baselga, José

    2015-03-01

    Agents targeting the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R) have shown antitumor activity. Based on the evidence for interaction between the IGF-1 and TRAIL pathways, we hypothesized that the combination of ganitumab (monoclonal antibody to IGF1R) with the pro-apoptotic death receptor 5 agonist, conatumumab, might increase antitumor response. Ganitumab and conatumumab were tested in combination in a Colo-205 xenograft model. Part 1 of the clinical study was a phase Ib program of three doses of conatumumab (1, 3, 15 mg/kg) in combination with 18 mg/kg ganitumab to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with advanced solid tumors. Part 2 was conducted in six cohorts with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (squamous or non-squamous histology), colorectal cancer, sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, or ovarian cancer, treated at the recommended doses of the combination. The combination was significantly more active in the Colo-205 xenograft model than either single agent alone (p?

  4. The cannabinoid receptor agonist THC attenuates weight loss in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Verty, Aaron N A; Evetts, Megan J; Crouch, Geraldine J; McGregor, Iain S; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J

    2011-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia (ABA). The effect of subchronic (6 days) ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment (0.1, 0.5, or 2.0?mg/kg/day) was assessed on chow and high-fat diet (HFD) intake, body weight, running wheel activity (RWA) as well as thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Limited time availability of food and continuous access to running wheels led to anorexia and significantly reduced body weight. THC treatment (0.5 and 2.0?mg/kg/day) transiently stimulated chow intake with a moderate effect on RWA. THC (2.0?mg/kg/day) significantly reduced body weight loss and shifted markers of thermogenesis in BAT and lipid metabolism in WAT in directions consistent with reduced energy expenditure and lipolysis. THC (2.0?mg/kg/day) combined with HFD, produced a transient increase in food intake, reduction in RWA, attenuation of body weight loss, and changes in markers of thermogensis in BAT and lipolysis in the WAT. These changes were significantly greater than those seen in vehicle (HFD), vehicle (chow), and THC (chow)-treated animals. These data show for the first time the effectiveness of the endocannabinoid system in attenuating the weight loss associated with the development of ABA via a mechanism involving reduced energy expenditure. PMID:21412227

  5. The Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist THC Attenuates Weight Loss in a Rodent Model of Activity-Based Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Verty, Aaron NA; Evetts, Megan J; Crouch, Geraldine J; McGregor, Iain S; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia (ABA). The effect of subchronic (6 days) ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment (0.1, 0.5, or 2.0?mg/kg/day) was assessed on chow and high-fat diet (HFD) intake, body weight, running wheel activity (RWA) as well as thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Limited time availability of food and continuous access to running wheels led to anorexia and significantly reduced body weight. THC treatment (0.5 and 2.0?mg/kg/day) transiently stimulated chow intake with a moderate effect on RWA. THC (2.0?mg/kg/day) significantly reduced body weight loss and shifted markers of thermogenesis in BAT and lipid metabolism in WAT in directions consistent with reduced energy expenditure and lipolysis. THC (2.0?mg/kg/day) combined with HFD, produced a transient increase in food intake, reduction in RWA, attenuation of body weight loss, and changes in markers of thermogensis in BAT and lipolysis in the WAT. These changes were significantly greater than those seen in vehicle (HFD), vehicle (chow), and THC (chow)-treated animals. These data show for the first time the effectiveness of the endocannabinoid system in attenuating the weight loss associated with the development of ABA via a mechanism involving reduced energy expenditure. PMID:21412227

  6. Lack of the effect of lobeglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Ah; Lee, Soo-Yun; Kim, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Chin; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aims Lobeglitazone has been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to evaluate potential drug–drug interactions between lobeglitazone and warfarin, an anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index. Methods In this open-label, three-treatment, crossover study, 24 healthy male subjects were administered lobeglitazone (0.5 mg) for 1–12 days with warfarin (25 mg) on day 5 in one period. After a washout interval, subjects were administered warfarin (25 mg) alone in the other period. Pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin and lobeglitazone, as well as pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as measured by international normalized ratio (INR) and factor VII activity, were assessed. Results The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for area under the curve from time zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) for warfarin + lobeglitazone: warfarin alone were 1.0076 (90% CI: 0.9771, 1.0391) for R-warfarin and 0.9880 (90% CI: 0.9537, 1.0235) for S-warfarin. The maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) values were 1.0167 (90% CI: 0.9507, 1.0872) for R-warfarin and 1.0028 (90% CI: 0.9518, 1.0992) for S-warfarin, both of which were contained in the interval 0.80–1.25. Lobeglitazone had no effect on the area under the effect–time curve from time 0 to 168 hours (AUEC) of INR and factor VII activity, as demonstrated by the GMRs of 1.0091 (90% CI: 0.9872, 1.0314) and 0.9355 (90% CI: 0.9028, 0.9695), respectively. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of lobeglitazone was also unaffected by warfarin. Conclusion Concomitant administration of lobeglitazone and warfarin was well tolerated. Lobeglitazone had no meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin. These findings indicate that lobeglitazone and warfarin can be coadministered without dosage adjustments for either drug. PMID:25767371

  7. Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-? Agonist, Attenuates Inflammation Via NF-?B Inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Fang; Zou, Xun-Liang; Wu, Jun; Yu, Xue-Qing; Yang, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonist, rosiglitazone, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis rat model. LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish peritonitis model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to normal saline (the solvent of LPS), LPS, rosiglitazone plus LPS, and rosiglitazone alone. A simple peritoneal equilibrium test was performed with 20 ml 4.25 % peritoneal dialysis fluid. We measured the leukocyte count in dialysate and ultrafiltration volume. Peritoneal membrane histochemical staining was performed, and peritoneal thickness was assessed. CD40 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA (ICAM-1 mRNA) levels in rat visceral peritoneum were detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. IL-6 in rat peritoneal dialysis effluent was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation of NF-?B-p65 and I?B? was analyzed by Western blot. LPS administration resulted in increased peritoneal thickness and decreased ultrafiltration volume. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly decreased peritoneal thickness. In addition to CD40 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, the IL-6, p-p65, and p-I?B? protein expressions were enhanced in LPS-administered animals. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly decreased ICAM-1 mRNA upregulation, secretion of IL-6 protein, and phosphorylation of NF-?B-p65 and I?B? without decreasing CD40 mRNA expression. Rosiglitazone has a protective effect in peritonitis, simultaneously decreasing NF-?B phosphorylation, suggesting that NF-?B signaling pathway mediated peritoneal inflammation induced by LPS. PPAR-? might be considered a potential therapeutic target against peritonitis. PMID:26047949

  8. Interfacial behavior of polar, weakly polar, and nonpolar compounds bound to activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Zarko, V I; Goncharuk, O V; Nychiporuk, Yu M; Kozynchenko, O P; Skubiszewska-Zi?ba, J; Leboda, R; Charmas, B; Balakin, D Yu; Ptushinskii, Yu G

    2013-08-15

    Detailed analysis of the interfacial behavior of water and weakly polar or nonpolar organics adsorbed alone or co-adsorbed onto activated carbons (AC) at different temperatures is a complex problem important for practical applications of adsorbents. Interaction of water, 1-decanol, and n-decane with AC possessing highly developed porosity (pore volume Vp?1.4-2.3 cm(3)/g, specific surface area S(BET)?1500-3500 m(2)/g) was studied over a broad temperature range using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermoporometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, cryoporometry, and temperature-programmed desorption with mass-spectrometry control methods. Comparison of the pore size distributions (PSD) calculated using the DSC thermoporometry, NMR cryoporometry, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms allows us to determine localization of adsorbates in different pores, as well as changes in the PSD of AC due to freezing of adsorbates in pores. Theoretical calculations (using ab initio HF/6-31G(d,p), DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and PM7 methods) explain certain aspects of the interfacial behavior of water, decane, and decanol adsorbed onto AC that appear in the experimental data. Obtained results show strong temperature dependence (above and below the freezing point, Tf, of bulk liquids) of the interfacial behavior of adsorbates on the textural characteristics and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of AC and the adsorbate amounts that affect the distributions of adsorbates unfrozen at T

  9. BIMT 17, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist, directly activates postsynaptic 5-HT inhibitory responses in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Borsini, F; Ceci, A; Bietti, G; Donetti, A

    1995-09-01

    BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) piperazin-1-yl] ethyl] benzimidazol- [1H]-2-one), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist (see Borsini et al., accompanying paper), in a dose range of 1-10 mg/kg i.v., dose-dependently inhibited the electrical activity of rat medial prefronto-cortical neurons, whereas buspirone, in a dose range of 0.1-1000 micrograms/kg, increased it. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and 1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4-[1-(7-methoxynaphthyl)] piperazine (S 14671) presented biphasic patterns of response; they increased electrical activity at doses in the range of 0.1-10 micrograms/kg and 0.1-3 micrograms/kg i.v. respectively, and reduced it at high doses, 30-300 micrograms/kg and 10-30 micrograms/kg i.v., respectively. The inhibitory effect of BIMT 17 on the firing rate of neurons in the frontal cortex was antagonized by the 5-HT1A antagonists tertatolol and WAY 100135, and was still present after destruction of serotonin (5-HT) containing neuronal endings by the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 150 micrograms/rat, given intraventricularly), which reduced the cortical 5-HT content by 85%. This destruction of 5-HT neurons, while suppressing the ability of 8-OH-DPAT to inhibit the firing rate at high doses, did not change the excitatory action of this compound at low doses. The addition of ritanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, potentiated both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of 8-OH-DPAT on neuronal electrical activity. Direct microiontophoretic application (100 nA/20 s) of 5-HT and BIMT 17, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT, onto medial prefronto-cortical neurons, decreased the firing rate of these neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8584043

  10. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  11. 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)ureido]propanamide enantiomers with human formyl-peptide receptor agonist activity: molecular modeling of chiral recognition by FPR2.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lucente, Ermelinda; Lacivita, Enza; De Giorgio, Paola; Quinn, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that play critical roles in inflammatory reactions, and FPR-specific interactions can possibly be used to facilitate the resolution of pathological inflammatory reactions. Recent studies indicated that FPRs have stereo-selective preference for chiral ligands. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of 24 chiral ureidopropanamides, including previously reported compounds PD168368/PD176252 and their close analogs, and used molecular modeling to define chiral recognition by FPR2. Unlike previously reported 6-methyl-2,4-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-ones, whose R-forms preferentially activated FPR1/FPR2, we found that four S-enantiomers in the seven ureidopropanamide pairs tested preferentially activated intracellular Ca(2+) flux in FPR2-transfected cells, while the R-counterpart was more active in two enantiomer pairs. Thus, active enantiomers of FPR2 agonists can be in either R- or S-configurations, depending on the molecular scaffold and specific substituents at the chiral center. Using molecular modeling approaches, including field point methodology, homology modeling, and docking studies, we propose a model that can explain stereoselective activity of chiral FPR2 agonists. Importantly, our docking studies of FPR2 chiral agonists correlated well with the FPR2 pharmacophore model derived previously. We conclude that the ability of FPR2 to discriminate between the enantiomers is the consequence of the arrangement of the three asymmetric hydrophobic subpockets at the main orthosteric FPR2 binding site with specific orientation of charged regions in the subpockets. PMID:23219934

  12. Antitumor activity of liposomal ErbB2/HER2 epitope peptide-based vaccine constructs incorporating TLR agonists and mannose receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Heurtault, Béatrice; Weidner, Steffen; Brayé, Mélanie; Beyrath, Julien; Fournel, Sylvie; Schuber, Francis; Frisch, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Synthetic and molecularly defined constructs containing the minimal components to mimic and amplify the physiological immune response are able to induce an efficient cytotoxic response. In the current study this approach was applied to the development of highly versatile liposomal constructs to co-deliver peptide epitopes in combination with TLR agonists in order to induce a specific anti-tumor cellular immune response against ErbB2 protein-expressing tumor cells. Liposomes containing ErbB2 p63-71 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and HA307-319 T- helper (Th) peptide epitopes associated to innovative synthetic TLR2/1 (Pam(3)CAG) or TLR2/6 agonists (Pam(2)CAG and Pam(2)CGD), were injected in mice bearing ErbB2 protein-expressing tumor cells. Mannosylated ligands were also incorporated into the constructs to target antigen-presenting cells. We showed that the TLR2/6 agonists were more efficient than the TLR2/1 agonists for the eradication of tumors expressing ErbB2 protein. Furthermore, mannose-targeted liposomes displayed higher therapeutic efficiency against tumor allowing treatment with decreased quantities of both TLR ligands and peptide epitopes. Our results validated that antigen-associated mannosylated liposomes combined with efficient TLR ligands are effective vectors for vaccination against tumor. In this study we developed useful tools to evaluate the vaccination efficiency of various adjuvants and/or targeting molecules and their potential synergy. PMID:21474175

  13. Novel amino-carbonitrile-pyrazole identified in a small molecule screen activates wild-type and ?F508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the absence of a cAMP agonist.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Park, Jinhong; Seo, Yohan; Verkman, A S

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl? channel. We developed a phenotype-based high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule activators of human airway epithelial Ca²?-activated Cl? channels (CaCCs) for CF therapy. Unexpectedly, screening of ?110,000 synthetic small molecules revealed an amino-carbonitrile-pyrazole, C(act)-A1, that activated CFTR but not CaCC Cl? conductance. C(act)-A1 produced large and sustained CFTR Cl? currents in CFTR-expressing Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells and in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, without increasing intracellular cAMP and in the absence of a cAMP agonist. C(act)-A1 produced linear whole-cell currents. C(act)-A1 also activated ?F508-CFTR Cl? currents in low temperature-rescued ?F508-CFTR-expressing FRT cells and CF-HBE cells (from homozygous ?F508 patients) in the absence of a cAMP agonist, and showed additive effects with forskolin. In contrast, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (VX-770) and genistein produced little or no ?F508-CFTR Cl? current in the absence of a cAMP agonist. In FRT cells expressing G551D-CFTR and in CF nasal polyp epithelial cells (from a heterozygous G551D/Y1092X-CFTR patient), C(act)-A1 produced little Cl? current by itself but showed synergy with forskolin. The amino-carbonitrile-pyrazole C(act)-A1 identified here is unique among prior CFTR-activating compounds, as it strongly activated wild-type and ?F508-CFTR in the absence of a cAMP agonist. Increasing ?F508-CFTR Cl? conductance by an "activator," as defined by activation in the absence of cAMP stimulation, provides a novel strategy for CF therapy that is different from that of a "potentiator," which requires cAMP elevation. PMID:23788656

  14. Novel Amino-Carbonitrile-Pyrazole Identified in a Small Molecule Screen Activates Wild-Type and ?F508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in the Absence of a cAMP Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhong; Seo, Yohan; Verkman, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl? channel. We developed a phenotype-based high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule activators of human airway epithelial Ca2+-activated Cl? channels (CaCCs) for CF therapy. Unexpectedly, screening of ?110,000 synthetic small molecules revealed an amino-carbonitrile-pyrazole, Cact-A1, that activated CFTR but not CaCC Cl? conductance. Cact-A1 produced large and sustained CFTR Cl? currents in CFTR-expressing Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells and in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, without increasing intracellular cAMP and in the absence of a cAMP agonist. Cact-A1 produced linear whole-cell currents. Cact-A1 also activated ?F508-CFTR Cl? currents in low temperature-rescued ?F508-CFTR-expressing FRT cells and CF-HBE cells (from homozygous ?F508 patients) in the absence of a cAMP agonist, and showed additive effects with forskolin. In contrast, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (VX-770) and genistein produced little or no ?F508-CFTR Cl? current in the absence of a cAMP agonist. In FRT cells expressing G551D-CFTR and in CF nasal polyp epithelial cells (from a heterozygous G551D/Y1092X-CFTR patient), Cact-A1 produced little Cl? current by itself but showed synergy with forskolin. The amino-carbonitrile-pyrazole Cact-A1 identified here is unique among prior CFTR-activating compounds, as it strongly activated wild-type and ?F508-CFTR in the absence of a cAMP agonist. Increasing ?F508-CFTR Cl? conductance by an “activator,” as defined by activation in the absence of cAMP stimulation, provides a novel strategy for CF therapy that is different from that of a “potentiator,” which requires cAMP elevation. PMID:23788656

  15. Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yihua; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-08-01

    We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst?-45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst?-18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8-6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1-0.5fce and a peak spectral density ˜10-4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (˜10-300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed electron distribution, we perform ray tracing simulations to show that nightside chorus waves are indeed produced by the observed electron distribution with a peak growth for a field-aligned propagation approximately between 0.3fce and 0.4fce, at latitude <7°. Moreover, chorus waves launched with initial normal angles either ?<90° or >90° propagate along the field either northward or southward and then bounce back either away from Earth for a lower frequency or toward Earth for higher frequencies. The current results indicate that nightside chorus waves can be excited even during weak geomagnetic activities in cases of continuous injection associated with negative Bz. Moreover, we examine a dayside event during a small storm C on 8 May 2014 (Dst?-45) and find that the observed anisotropic energetic electron distributions potentially contribute to the generation of dayside chorus waves, but this requires more thorough studies in the future.

  16. Alpha 2 agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Paddleford, R R; Harvey, R C

    1999-05-01

    The alpha 2 agonists can produce reliable dose-dependent sedation and analgesia in most species. Nevertheless, they can also produce significant physiological adverse side effects depending on dose, rate, route of administration, and the concurrent use of other CNS depressants. For this reason, it may be best to use a low dose of an alpha 2 agonist as a preanesthetic agent. The alpha 2 agonists are best suited for young, healthy, exercise-tolerant patients. The combining of low doses of alpha 2, opioid, and benzodiazepine agonists results in a synergistic CNS depressant response while minimizing the undesirable side effects of these three classes of drugs. Each group of drugs has specific antagonists available for their reversal, thus allowing veterinarians to reverse one or more of the agonists depending on the desired response. This may represent a significant advantage to the use of low-dose alpha 2 agonists in combination with opioids and benzodiazepines. PMID:10332820

  17. S32504, a novel naphtoxazine agonist at dopamine D3/D2 receptors: III. Actions in models of potential antidepressive and anxiolytic activity in comparison with ropinirole.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J; Brocco, Mauricette; Papp, Mariusz; Serres, Florence; La Rochelle, Christophe Drieu; Sharp, Trevor; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Dekeyne, Anne

    2004-06-01

    In forced-swim tests in mice and rats, the novel D(3)/D(2) receptor agonist S32504 [(+)-trans-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-9-carbamoyl-4-propyl-2H-naphth[1,2-b]-1,4-oxazine] dose-dependently (0.04-2.5 mg/kg) and stereospecifically suppressed immobility compared with its enantiomer S32601 [(-)-trans-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-9-carbamoyl-4-propyl-2H-naphth-[1,2-b]-1,4-oxazine]. Ropinirole was less potent than S32504 in this procedure, and it was likewise less potent than S32504 (0.04-2.5 mg/kg) in attenuating motor-suppressant properties of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist S18616 [(S)-spiro[(1-oxa-2-amino-3-azacyclopent-2-ene)-4,2'-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydronaphthalene)

  18. Non-equivalent Ligand Selectivity of Agonist Sites in (?4?2)2?4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaferro, Simone; Gasparri, Federica; New, Karina; Alcaino, Constanza; Faundez, Manuel; Iturriaga Vasquez, Patricio; Vijayan, Ranjit; Biggin, Philip C.; Bermudez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant nAChR type in the brain, and this receptor type exists in alternate (?4?2)2?4 and (?4?2)2?2 forms, which are activated by agonists with strikingly differing efficacies. Recent breakthroughs have identified an additional operational agonist binding site in the (?4?2)2?4 nAChR that is responsible for the signature sensitivity of this receptor to activation by agonists, yet the structural mechanisms determining agonist efficacy at this receptor type are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterized the ligand selectivity of the individual agonist sites of the (?4?2)2?4 nAChR to determine whether differences in agonist selectivity influence agonist efficacy. Applying the substituted cysteine accessibility method to individual agonist sites in concatenated (?4?2)2?4 receptors, we determined the agonist selectivity of the agonist sites of the (?4?2)2?4 receptor. We show that (a) accessibility of substituted cysteines to covalent modification by methanesulfonate reagent depends on the agonist site at which the modification occurs and (b) that agonists such as sazetidine-A and TC-2559 are excluded from the site at the ?4/?4 interface. Given that additional binding to the agonist site in the ?4/?4 interface increases acetylcholine efficacy and that agonists excluded from the agonist site at the ?4/?4 interface behave as partial agonists, we conclude that the ability to engage all agonist sites in (?4?2)2?4 nAChRs is a key determinant of agonist efficacy. The findings add another level of complexity to the structural mechanisms that govern agonist efficacy in heteromeric nAChRs and related ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:24936069

  19. Modification of TLR-induced activation of human dendritic cells by type I IFN: synergistic interaction with TLR4 but not TLR3 agonists.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josef; Tough, David F

    2006-07-01

    Upon detection of direct and indirect signs of infection, dendritic cells (DC) undergo functional changes that modify their ability to elicit immune responses. Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta), which includes a large family of closely related infection-inducible cytokines, represents one indirect signal that can act as a DC stimulus. We have investigated the ability of IFN-alpha/beta subtypes to affect DC function and to influence DC responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (i.e., direct infection-associated signals). Subtle differences were observed among 15 subtypes of IFN-alpha/beta in the ability to stimulate expression of maturation markers and chemokines by human monocyte-derived DC, with IFN-omega being the most unique in its effects. Pre-treatment with IFN-alpha/beta did not alter the ability of DC to mature in response to subsequent contact with TLR agonists, but did modulate their secretion of chemokines. Conversely, IFN-alpha/beta was shown to act synergistically with TLR4 but not TLR3 agonists for the induction of maturation and chemokine production when DC were exposed to IFN-alpha/beta and TLR ligands simultaneously. Taken together, these results indicate a complex role for IFN-alpha/beta in regulating DC function during the course an infection, which varies according to IFN-alpha/beta subtype and the timing of exposure to other stimuli. PMID:16783851

  20. A highly potent agonist to protease-activated receptor-2 reveals apical activation of the airway epithelium resulting in Ca2+-regulated ion conductance

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Daines, Michael O.; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The airway epithelium provides a barrier that separates inhaled air and its various particulates from the underlying tissues. It provides key physiological functions in both sensing the environment and initiating appropriate innate immune defenses to protect the lung. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is expressed both apically and basolaterally throughout the airway epithelium. One consequence of basolateral PAR2 activation is the rapid, Ca2+-dependent ion flux that favors secretion in the normally absorptive airway epithelium. However, roles for apically expressed PAR2 activation have not been demonstrated, in part due to the lack of specific, high-potency PAR2 ligands. In the present study, we used the newly developed PAR2 ligand 2at-LIGRLO(PEG3-Pam)-NH2 in combination with well-differentiated, primary cultured airway epithelial cells from wild-type and PAR2?/? mice to examine the physiological role of PAR2 in the conducting airway after apical activation. Using digital imaging microscopy of intracellular Ca2+ concentration changes, we verified ligand potency on PAR2 in primary cultured airway cells. Examination of airway epithelial tissue in an Ussing chamber showed that apical activation of PAR2 by 2at-LIGRLO(PEG3-Pam)-NH2 resulted in a transient decrease in transepithelial resistance that was due to increased apical ion efflux. We determined pharmacologically that this increase in ion conductance was through Ca2+-activated Cl? and large-conductance K+ channels that were blocked with a Ca2+-activated Cl? channel inhibitor and clotrimazole, respectively. Stimulation of Cl? efflux via PAR2 activation at the airway epithelial surface can increase airway surface liquid that would aid in clearing the airway of noxious inhaled agents. PMID:25143347

  1. The potential use of GABA agonists in psychiatric disorders: evidence from studies with progabide in animal models and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K G; Morselli, P L; Depoortere, H; Fournier, V; Zivkovic, B; Scatton, B; Broekkamp, C; Worms, P; Bartholini, G

    1983-06-01

    Progabide, a new antiepileptic GABA agonist of moderate affinity for GABA receptors, has been studied in a number of psychiatric disorders and the results compared with the action of this drug in animal models. In an animal model for anxiety (the aversive response to periaqueductal grey stimulation in the rat) progabide had a similar action to that of diazepam. However in clinical trials to date the effect of the GABA agonist was inferior to that of benzodiazepines. As progabide diminishes both the nigrostriatal dopamine neuron activity and the effects of striatal dopamine receptor activation, a trial in schizophrenic patients was undertaken. Progabide was devoid of any evident antipsychotic action. However a certain improvement in responsiveness to the environment and in social interactions was noticed in hebephrenic and schizoaffective syndromes. This lack of antipsychotic effect of progabide may be a reflection of the weak activity of GABA agonists on limbic dopamine neurons. In these various clinical trials a definite improvement of affect and mood was noted in those patients receiving progabide. In clinical trials in depressed patients progabide produces a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, an action similar to that of imipramine both for the global clinical rating and the HRSD. This antidepressant activity is reflected by the action of progabide in behavioural models of depression such as olfactory bulbectomy, learned helplessness and the sleep-wake cycle. PMID:6351106

  2. In vivo receptor binding of the opiate partial agonist, buprenorphine, correlated with its agonistic and antagonistic actions.

    PubMed Central

    Dum, J. E.; Herz, A.

    1981-01-01

    1 In order to gain more insight into the mechanisms behind the actions of opiate partial agonists, an analysis of the dual agonist/antagonist properties of the partial agonist, buprenorphine, was made in conjunction with in vivo binding studies on the drug in the rat. 2 Buprenorphine revealed a bell-shaped dose-response curve for antinociception peaking at approx. 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously. It antagonized morphine antinociception at doses which normally have agonistic effects and produced maximum antagonistic effects at doses above those having prominent agonistic activity. The withdrawal precipitating potency of buprenorphine as measured in highly morphine-dependent rats was present at doses above those having agonistic activity. The entire dose-response curve for buprenorphine was shifted symmetrically to the right by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone. 3 The dose-dependent occupation of receptors in vivo by buprenorphine seemed to be almost complete over the agonist dosage range; almost no further receptor occupation over the antagonist range was seen. 4 The possibility is discussed that site-to-site receptor interactions leading to cooperativity of effect may be the best explanation of these results. PMID:6271322

  3. Dopamine Agonists and the Suppression of Impulsive Motor Actions in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, S.A.; Claassen, D.O.; Huizenga, H.M.; Schewel, K.D.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Bashore, T.R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The suppression of spontaneous motor impulses is an essential facet of cognitive control that is linked to frontal-basal ganglia circuitry. Basal ganglia dysfunction caused by Parkinson’s disease (PD) disrupts the proficiency of action suppression, but how pharmacotherapy for PD impacts impulsive motor control is poorly understood. Dopamine agonists improve motor symptoms of PD, but can also provoke impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICB). We investigated whether dopamine agonist medication has a beneficial or detrimental effect on impulsive action control in thirty-eight PD patients, half of whom had current ICB. Participants performed the Simon conflict task, which measures susceptibility to acting on spontaneous action impulses as well as the proficiency of suppressing these impulses. Compared to an off agonist state, patients on their agonist were no more susceptible to reacting impulsively, but were less proficient at suppressing the interference from the activation of impulsive actions. Importantly, agonist effects depended on baseline performance in the off agonist state; more proficient suppressors off agonist experienced a reduction in suppression on agonist, whereas less proficient suppressors off agonist showed improved suppression on agonist. Patients with active ICB were actually less susceptible to making fast, impulsive response errors than patients without ICB, suggesting that behavioral problems in this subset of patients may be less related to impulsivity in motor control. Our findings provide further evidence that dopamine agonist medication impacts specific cognitive control processes and that the direction of its effects depends on individual differences in performance off medication. PMID:22571461

  4. Suzaku Observes Weak Flares from IGRJ17391-3021 Representing a Common Low-Activity State in this SFXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriquez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.; Romano, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of a 37-ks observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGRJ17391 -3021 (=XTEJ1739-302) gathered with Suzaku. The source evolved from quiescence to a low-activity level culminating in three weak flares lasting approx.3 ks each in which the peak luminosity is only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare luminosity. The minimum observed luminosity was 1.3 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (d/2.7 kpc)(exp 2) in the 0.5-10 keV range. The weak flares are accompanied by significant changes in the spectral parameters including a column density (N(sub H) = (4.1(+0.4/-0.5)) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm) that is approx.2-9 times the absorption measured during quiescence. Accretion of obscuring clumps of stellar wind material can explain both the small flares and the increase in NH. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we find that weak-flaring episodes, or at least epochs of enhanced activity just above the quiescent level but well below the moderately bright or high-luminosity outbursts, represent more than 60+/-5% of all observations in the 0.5-10keV energy range making this the most common state in the emission behavior of IGRJ17391 -3021.

  5. Self-sustained firing activities of the cortical network with plastic rules in weak AC electrical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Zhao, Jia; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2012-07-01

    Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network.

  6. Topical Application of a Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Agonist Suppresses Phorbol Ester-Induced Acute and Chronic Inflammation and Has Cancer Chemopreventive Activity in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Jesus A.; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C.; Bradish, Joshua R.; Richey, Justin D.; Warren, Simon J.; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Konger, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development. PMID:25375862

  7. Synthesis and structure--activity relationship in a class of indolebutylpiperazines as dual 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Timo; Böttcher, Henning; Gericke, Rolf; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Anzali, Soheila; Seyfried, Christoph A; Greiner, Hartmut E; Van Amsterdam, Christoph

    2004-09-01

    Systematic structural modifications of indolealkylphenylpiperazines led to improved selectivity and affinity within this class of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists. Introduction of electron-withdrawing groups in position 5 on the indole raises serotonin transporter affinity, and the cyano group proved to be the best substituent here. 5-Fluoro and 5-cyano substituted indoles show comparable results in in vitro and in vivo tests, and bioisosterism between these substituents was supported by calculation of the molecular electrostatic potentials and dipole moments. Compounds showing promising in vitro data were further examined in ex vivo (p-chloroamphetamine assay) and in vivo (ultrasonic vocalization) tests. Optimization of the arylpiperazine moiety indicated that the 5-benzofuranyl-2-carboxamide was best suited to increase 5-HT transporter and 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity and to suppress D(2) receptor binding. 5-[4-[4-(5-Cyano-3-indolyl)butyl]-1-piperazinyl]benzofuran-2-carboxamide 29 (vilazodone, EMD 68843) was identified as a highly selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist [GTPgammaS, ED(50) = 1.1 nM] with subnanomolar 5-HT(1A) affinity [IC(50) = 0.2 nM] and as a subnanomolar 5-HT reuptake inhibitor [RUI = 0.5 nM] showing a great selectivity to other GPCRs (e.g., D(2), IC(50) = 666 nM). PMID:15341484

  8. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces cocaine self-administration, reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and cocaine induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Li, Zhaoxia; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Lorcaserin (Lorqess, Belviq(®)) is a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist that has received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. 5-HT2C receptor agonists are also efficacious in decreasing multiple aspects of cocaine motivation and reward in preclinical models. This would suggest that lorcaserin is a clinically available therapeutic with the potential to treat cocaine addiction. Here we report the effects of lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) on multiple aspects of cocaine-related behaviours in rats. We find that lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine self-administration on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Lorcaserin also reduces reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in response to priming injections of cocaine and/or reintroduction of cocaine-associated cues. Finally, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Our results, when considered in concert with similar emergent findings in non-human primates, strongly support continued research into the potential of lorcaserin as a clinical treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:26427596

  9. Synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists on the activity of selected novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2015-05-01

    Studying insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has attracted the attention of many scientists to elucidate the pathways of resistance development and to design novel strategies in order to prevent or minimize the spread and evolution of resistance. Here, we tested the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and two octopamine receptor (OR) agonists, amitraz (AMZ) and chlordimeform (CDM) on selected novel insecticides to increase their lethal action on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. However, chlorfenapyr was the most toxic insecticide (LC50?=?193, 102, and 48?ng/ml, after 24, 48, and 72?h exposure, respectively) tested. Further, PBO synergized all insecticides and the most toxic combinatorial insecticide was nitenpyram even after 48 and 72?h exposure. In addition, OR agonists significantly synergized most of the selected insecticides especially after 48 and 72?h exposure. The results imply that the synergistic effects of amitraz are a promising approach in increasing the potency of certain insecticides in controlling the dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito. PMID:25987220

  10. Effects of the PPAR? agonist WY-14,643 on plasma lipids, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes in a marine flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2015-07-01

    Fibrates and other lipid regulator drugs are widespread in the aquatic environment including estuaries and coastal zones, but little is known on their chronic effects on non-target organisms as marine fish. In the present study, turbot juveniles were exposed to the PPAR? model agonist WY-14,643 for 21 days by repeated injections at the concentrations of 5mg/kg (lo-WY) and 50mg/kg (hi-WY), and samples taken after 7 and 21 days. Enzyme activity and mRNA expression of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase in the liver were analyzed as first response, which validated the experiment by demonstrating interactions with the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress pathways in the hi-WY treatment. In order to get mechanistic insights, alterations of plasma lipids (free cholesterol, FC; HDL associated cholesterol, C-HDL; triglycerides, TG; non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA) and hepatic mRNA expression of 17 genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were studied. The exposure to hi-WY reduced the quantity of plasma FC, C-HDL, and NEFA. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression were higher in hi-WY, and indicated an increased formation of VLDL particles and energy mobilization from liver. It is speculated that energy depletion by PPAR? agonists may contribute to a higher susceptibility to environmental stressors. PMID:25974001

  11. Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have long been known for their ability to initiate innate immune responses upon exposure to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA. More recently, this family of pattern recognition receptors has been attributed a critical role in the elicitation of anticancer immune responses, raising interest in the development of immunochemotherapeutic regimens based on natural or synthetic TLR agonists. In spite of such an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation, only three TLR agonists are currently licensed by FDA for use in cancer patients: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that operates as a mixed TLR2/TLR4 agonist; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of Salmonella minnesota that functions as a potent agonist of TLR4; and imiquimod, a synthetic imidazoquinoline that activates TLR7. One year ago, in the August and September issues of OncoImmunology, we described the main biological features of TLRs and discussed the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on preclinical studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the antineoplastic activity of TLR agonists. PMID:24083080

  12. The novel ?3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron reduces carbachol-induced contractile activity in detrusor tissue from patients with bladder outflow obstruction with or without detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Svalø, Julie; Nordling, Jørgen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Korstanje, Cees; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2013-01-15

    ?(3)-Adrenoceptors are major players in detrusor relaxation and have been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. We determined the effects of mirabegron (YM178), a novel ?(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, on carbachol-induced tone in isolated human detrusor preparations from patients with bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) with and without detrusor overactivity (DO), and from patients with normal bladder function. We compared the effects to those of isoprenaline, a non-selective ?-adrenoceptor agonist. Detrusor specimens were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing cystoscopy and from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy/cystectomy (in total 33 donors). Detrusor contractility was evaluated by organ bath studies and strips were incubated with carbachol (1?M) to induce and enhance tension. Both mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced carbachol-induced tone in tissues from all groups. Isoprenaline decreased tension with higher potency than mirabegron in normal, BOO and BOO+DO detrusor strips with pIC(50) values of 7.49 ± 0.16 vs. 6.23 ± 0.26 (P=0.0002), 6.89 ± 0.34 vs. 6.04 ± 0.31 (P=0.01), and 6.57 ± 0.20 vs. 5.41 ± 0.08 (P<0.0001, n=4), respectively. The maximal relaxant effect of isoprenaline and mirabegron in the normal, BOO and BOO+DO detrusor was 37.7 ± 14.4% and 36.1 ± 23.3%, 14.4 ± 12.2% vs. 33.4 ± 21.0% and 18.3 ± 10.0% vs. 28.3 ± 12.2% (n=4, P>0.05), respectively. Mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced carbachol-induced tone in both normal bladders and obstructed bladder with and without DO. Isoprenaline had higher potency than mirabegron, but the efficacy of mirabegron effect was the same as that of isoprenaline. PMID:23246623

  13. Statins and PPAR{alpha} agonists induce myotoxicity in differentiated rat skeletal muscle cultures but do not exhibit synergy with co-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy E. . E-mail: Timothy_Johnson@merck.com; Zhang, Xiaohua; Shi, Shu; Umbenhauer, Diane R.

    2005-11-01

    Statins and fibrates (weak PPAR{alpha} agonists) are prescribed for the treatment of lipid disorders. Both drugs cause myopathy, but with a low incidence, 0.1-0.5%. However, combined statin and fibrate therapy can enhance myopathy risk. We tested the myotoxic potential of PPAR subtype selective agonists alone and in combination with statins in a differentiated rat myotube model. A pharmacologically potent experimental PPAR{alpha} agonist, Compound A, induced myotoxicity as assessed by TUNEL staining at a minimum concentration of 1 nM, while other weaker PPAR{alpha} compounds, for example, WY-14643, Gemfibrozil and Bezafibrate increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei at micromolar concentrations. In contrast, the PPAR{gamma} agonist Rosiglitazone caused little or no cell death at up to 10 {mu}M and the PPAR{delta} ligand GW-501516 exhibited comparatively less myotoxicity than that seen with Compound A. An experimental statin (Compound B) and Atorvastatin also increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei and co-treatment with WY-14643, Gemfibrozil or Bezafibrate had less than a full additive effect on statin-induced cell killing. The mechanism of PPAR{alpha} agonist-induced cell death was different from that of statins. Unlike statins, Compound A and WY-14643 did not activate caspase 3/7. In addition, mevalonate and geranylgeraniol reversed the toxicity caused by statins, but did not prevent the cell killing induced by WY-14643. Furthermore, unlike statins, Compound A did not inhibit the isoprenylation of rab4 or rap1a. Interestingly, Compound A and Compound B had differential effects on ATP levels. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that in rat myotube cultures, PPAR{alpha} agonism mediates in part the toxicity response to PPAR{alpha} compounds. Furthermore, PPAR{alpha} agonists and statins cause myotoxicity through distinct and independent pathways.

  14. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high activity in the rivers. PMID:20117817

  15. Activity of dietary fatty acids on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterisation of pinolenic acid as a dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist with potential effect against metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Watterson, Kenneth R; Stocker, Claire J; Sokol, Elena; Jenkins, Laura; Simon, Katharina; Grundmann, Manuel; Petersen, Rasmus K; Wargent, Edward T; Hudson, Brian D; Kostenis, Evi; Ejsing, Christer S; Cawthorne, Michael A; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2015-06-14

    Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration-response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases. PMID:25916176

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of phenylglycinols and phenyl amines as agonists of GPR88.

    PubMed

    Dzierba, Carolyn D; Bi, Yingzhi; Dasgupta, Bireshwar; Hartz, Richard A; Ahuja, Vijay; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Kumi, Godwin; Dong, Li; Aleem, Saadat; Fink, Cynthia; Garcia, Yudith; Green, Michael; Han, Jianxin; Kwon, Soojin; Qiao, Ying; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Yulian; Liu, Ying; Zipp, Greg; Liang, Zhi; Burford, Neil; Ferrante, Meredith; Bertekap, Robert; Lewis, Martin; Cacace, Angela; Grace, James; Wilson, Alan; Nouraldeen, Amr; Westphal, Ryan; Kimball, David; Carson, Kenneth; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E

    2015-04-01

    Small molecule modulators of GPR88 activity (agonists, antagonists, or modulators) are of interest as potential agents for the treatment of a variety of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. A series of phenylglycinol and phenylamine analogs have been prepared and evaluated for their GPR88 agonist activity and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. PMID:25690789

  17. Development of novel neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) selective agonists with resistance to proteolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Misu, Ryosuke; Oishi, Shinya; Yamada, Ai; Yamamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Fuko; Yamamoto, Koki; Noguchi, Taro; Ohno, Hiroaki; Okamura, Hiroaki; Ohkura, Satoshi; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2014-10-23

    Neurokinin B (NKB) regulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) via activation of the neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R). We evaluated the biological stability of NK3R selective agonists to develop novel NK3R agonists to regulate reproductive functions. On the basis of degradation profiles, several peptidomimetic derivatives were designed. The modification of senktide with (E)-alkene dipeptide isostere generated a novel potent NK3R agonist with high stability and prolonged bioactivity. PMID:25247671

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline analogues as GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan-Anh N; Yang, Zunhua; Fang, Yuanying; Luo, Jun; Lee, Jongkook; Park, Haeil

    2013-03-01

    GPR119 agonist has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A series of novel 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline analogues was prepared and evaluated their agonistic activity against human GPR119. The analogues bearing azabicyclic amine substituents (12a, 12c and 12g) exhibited better EC(50) values than that of OEA though they appeared to be partial agonists. PMID:23357035

  19. Identification of Hydroxybenzoic Acids as Selective Lactate Receptor (GPR81) Agonists with Antilipolytic Effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Following the characterization of the lactate receptor (GPR81), a focused screening effort afforded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid 1 as a weak agonist of both GPR81 and GPR109a (niacin receptor). An examination of structurally similar arylhydroxy acids led to the identification of 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzoic acid 2, a selective GPR81 agonist that exhibited favorable in vivo effects on lipolysis in a mouse model of obesity. PMID:24900524

  20. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  1. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    E-print Network

    Thomas Speck; Andreas M. Menzel; Julian Bialké; Hartmut Löwen

    2015-03-29

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (mobility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the dynamics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  2. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    PubMed

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. PMID:25465889

  3. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPAR? + ? Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Southgate, Jennifer; Iversen, Lars; Egerod, Frederikke L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPAR? and ? (here termed PPAR?+? agonists) have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPAR? as well as PPAR?, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPAR?+? agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology). Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPAR?+? agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPAR? and ? in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPAR?+? agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds. PMID:19197366

  4. Novel Small Molecule Agonist of TGR5 Possesses Anti-Diabetic Effects but Causes Gallbladder Filling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Briere, Daniel A.; Ruan, Xiaoping; Cheng, Christine C.; Siesky, Angela M.; Fitch, Thomas E.; Dominguez, Carmen; Sanfeliciano, Sonia Gutierrez; Montero, Carlos; Suen, Chen S.; Xu, Yanping; Coskun, Tamer; Michael, M. Dodson

    2015-01-01

    Activation of TGR5 via bile acids or bile acid analogs leads to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestine, increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, and increases gallbladder filling with bile. Here, we present compound 18, a non-bile acid agonist of TGR5 that demonstrates robust GLP-1 secretion in a mouse enteroendocrine cell line yet weak GLP-1 secretion in a human enteroendocrine cell line. Acute administration of compound 18 to mice increased GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) secretion, leading to a lowering of the glucose excursion in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), while chronic administration led to weight loss. In addition, compound 18 showed a dose-dependent increase in gallbladder filling. Lastly, compound 18 failed to show similar pharmacological effects on GLP-1, PYY, and gallbladder filling in Tgr5 knockout mice. Together, these results demonstrate that compound 18 is a mouse-selective TGR5 agonist that induces GLP-1 and PYY secretion, and lowers the glucose excursion in an OGTT, but only at doses that simultaneously induce gallbladder filling. Overall, these data highlight the benefits and potential risks of using TGR5 agonists to treat diabetes and metabolic diseases. PMID:26312995

  5. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  6. Stimulation of the Weak ATPase Activity of Human Hsp90 by a Client Protein

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    , Hip and Hop (Hsp-interacting and Hsp-organising proteins, respectively), as well as high molecular protein; Hip, Hsp-interacting protein; Hop, Hsp70-organising protein; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator of the co-chaperones Hop, FKBP59 and p23 on the basal ATPase activity as well as the client protein

  7. 3D-Pharmacophore Identification for ?-Opioid Agonists Using Ligand-Based Drug-Design Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    A selective ?-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist might act as a powerful analgesic without the side effects of ?-opioid receptor-selective drugs such as morphine. The eight classes of known KOR agonists have different chemical structures, making it difficult to construct a pharmacophore model that takes them all into account. Here, we summarize previous efforts to identify the pharmacophore for ?-opioid agonists and propose a new three-dimensional pharmacophore model that encompasses the ?-activities of all classes. This utilizes conformational sampling of agonists by high-temperature molecular dynamics and pharmacophore extraction through a series of molecular superpositions.

  8. Two distinct classes of novel pyrazolinecarboxamides as potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jos H M; Attali, Amos; van der Neut, Martina A W; Wals, Henri C; Mulder, Arie; Zilaout, Hicham; Duursma, Ate; van Aken, Hans H M; van Vliet, Bernard J

    2010-09-01

    The synthesis and SAR of 3-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carboxamides 1-23 and 1-alkyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydropyrazole-3-carboxamides 24-27 as two novel cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist classes were described. The target compounds elicited high affinities to the CB(1) as well as the CB(2) receptor and were found to act as CB(1) receptor agonists. The key compound 19 elicited potent CB(1) agonistic and CB(2) inverse agonistic properties in vitro and showed in vivo activity in a rodent model for multiple sclerosis after oral administration. PMID:20688519

  9. Fast Skeletal Muscle Troponin Activation Increases Force of Mouse Fast Skeletal Muscle and Ameliorates Weakness Due to Nebulin-Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M.; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R.; Malik, Fady I.; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A.; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension–pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ?60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ?6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring ktr (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased ktr at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength. PMID:23437068

  10. Resveratrol dimers, nutritional components in grape wine, are selective ROS scavengers and weak Nrf2 activators.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Xu, Xiaofei; Tao, Zhihao; Wang, Xiu Jun; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-15

    Resveratrol monomer (Res) and its oligomers are considered as nutritional components distributed in edible plants. Three naturally occurring resveratrol dimers, namely parthenocissin A (Par), quadrangularin A (Qua) and pallidol (Pal), were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates cellular antioxidant systems. In vitro studies with different ROS and radical assay models showed that all the three dimers are strong DPPH quenchers and selective singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavengers (IC50=4.90, 1.05 and 5.50 ?M, respectively). However, they were ineffective against hydroxyl radical (OH) or superoxide anion (O2(-)). Exposing the dimers to an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter cell line revealed that only pallidol was able to activate Nrf2 at 30 ?M, while parthenocissin A and quadrangularin A had no significant effect on Nrf2. Our data demonstrates the distinct difference between reservatrol monomer and its dimers in activating the Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway. PMID:25466015

  11. A long-acting ?2-adrenergic agonist increases the expression of muscarine cholinergic subtype-3 receptors by activating the ?2-adrenoceptor cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN-HUA; WU, SONG-ZE; WANG, GANG; HUANG, NI-WEN; LIU, CHUN-TAO

    2015-01-01

    The persistent administration of ?2-adrenergic (?2AR) agonists has been demonstrated to increase the risk of severe asthma, partly due to the induction of tolerance to bronchoprotection via undefined mechanisms. The present study investigated the potential effect of the long-acting ?2-adrenergic agonist, formoterol, on the expression of muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) in rat airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Primary rat ASMCs were isolated and characterized following immunostaining with anti-?-smooth muscle actin antibodies. The protein expression levels of M3R and phospholipase C-?1 (PLC?1) were characterized by western blot analysis and the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Formoterol increased the protein expression of M3R in rat ASMCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was significantly inhibited by the ?2AR antagonist, ICI118,551 and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inhibitor, SQ22,536. The increased protein expression of M3R was positively correlated with increased production of PLC?1 and IP3. Furthermore, treatment with the glucocorticoid, budesonide, and the PLC inhibitor, U73,122, significantly suppressed the formoterol-induced upregulated protein expression levels of M3R and PLC?1 and production of IP3. The present study demonstrated that formoterol mediated the upregulation of M3R in the rat ASMCs by activating the ?2AR-cAMP signaling pathway, resulting in increased expression levels of PLC?1 and IP3, which are key to inducing bronchoprotection tolerance. Administration of glucocorticoids or a PLC antagonist prevented formoterol-induced bronchoprotection tolerance by suppressing the protein expression of M3R. PMID:25672589

  12. Subclinical Nonautoimmune Hyperthyroidism in a Family Segregates with a Thyrotropin Receptor Mutation with Weakly Increased Constitutive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Rong; Higashiyama, Takuya; Mizutori-Sasai, Yumiko; Ito, Mitsuru; Kubota, Sumihisa; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism is usually associated with Graves' disease or toxic nodular goiter. Here we report a family with hereditary subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by a constitutively activating germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene. Methods The proband was a 64-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a thyroid nodule and was found to be euthyroid with a suppressed serum TSH. The nodule was not hot. Although antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were present, TSHR antibodies were not detected by TSH-binding inhibition or by bioassay. Two of her middle-aged sons, but not her daughter, also had subclinical hyperthyroidism without TSHR antibodies. Without therapy, the clinical condition of the affected individuals remained unchanged over 3 years without development of overt hyperthyroidism. Results A novel heterozygous TSHR point mutation causing a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at codon 575 (E575K) in the second extracellular loop was detected in the three family members with subclinical hyperthyroidism, but was absent in her one daughter with normal thyroid function. In vitro functional studies of the E575K TSHR mutation demonstrated a weak, but significant, increase in constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway. Conclusion Although hereditary nonautoimmune overt hyperthyroidism is very rare, TSHR activating mutations as a cause of subclinical hyperthyroidism may be more common and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially if familial. PMID:20929407

  13. The evolution from weak to strong geomagnetic activity - An interpretation in terms of deterministic chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Klimas, A. J.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Buechner, J.

    1990-01-01

    An analogue of the magnetosphere developed on the basis of Shaw's (1984) dripping faucet model was used to model the mechanisms of the magnetospheric response to energy transfer from the solar wind. It is demonstrated that geomagnetic activity results from nonlinearly coupled physical processes and that the strength and the nature of the coupling changes dramatically as the magnetosphere is driven harder and harder by increasing energy input. Based on initial results obtained from the model, is is suggested that a chaotic transition takes place in the analogue system as the loading rate is increased beyond a critical value. This model is able to explain many of the features in the results of linear prediction filtering techniques.

  14. N-methylthioureas as new agonists of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor.

    PubMed

    Park, Yohan; Hong, Suckchang; Lee, Myungmo; Jung, Hyojun; Cho, Won-Jea; Kim, Eun-Jin; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Park, Hyeung-Geun

    2012-08-01

    Thirty two thiourea derivatives were prepared and their agonistic activities on the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?) were evaluated. The replacement of the 3-allyl-2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one moiety of the lead compound CGP52608 (1) with various functional group substituted aromatic rings, improved the agonistic activity of ROR?. Among the prepared derivatives, 1-methyl-3-(4-phenoxy-benzyl)-thiourea (32) showed 2.6-fold higher agonistic activity than CGP52608 in the ROR?-activation assay. PMID:22941482

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-nitropyrimidine analogs with azabicyclic substituents as GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zunhua; Fang, Yuanying; Pham, Tuan-Anh N; Lee, Jongkook; Park, Haeil

    2013-03-01

    5-Nitropyrimidine analogs substituted with conformationally restricted azabicyclic amines and alcohols were prepared and evaluated their agonistic activity against human GPR119. The analogs bearing endo-azabicyclic amines and alcohols (7, 8, 11, and 12) exhibited full agonistic activities while the analogs with exo-azabicyclic amines and alcohols were proved as partial agonists (9, 10, 13, and 14) regardless of their EC(50) values. 5-Nitropyrimidine analogs with (2-fluoro-4-methylsulfonyl)phenylamino group (8, 10, 12, 14) showed more potent GPR119 activation activities than the analogs without fluorine in all cases (7, 9, 11, 13). PMID:23374864

  16. Analysis of Full and Partial Agonists Binding to ?2-Adrenergic Receptor Suggests a Role of Transmembrane Helix V in Agonist-Specific Conformational Changes

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Reynolds, Kimberly A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A.; Roth, Christopher B.; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    The 2.4 Å crystal structure of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) in complex with the high-affinity inverse agonist (-)-carazolol provides a detailed structural framework for the analysis of ligand recognition by adrenergic receptors. Insights into agonist binding and the corresponding conformational changes triggering GPCR activation mechanism are of special interest. Here we show that while the carazolol pocket captured in the ?2AR crystal structure accommodates (-)-isoproterenol and other agonists without steric clashes, a finite movement of the flexible extracellular part of TM-V helix (TM-Ve) obtained by receptor optimization in the presence of docked ligand can further improve the calculated binding affinities for agonist compounds. Tilting of TM-Ve towards the receptor axis provides a more complete description of polar receptor/ligand interactions for full and partial agonists, by enabling optimal engagement of agonists with two experimentally identified anchor sites, formed by Asp113/Asn312 and Ser203/Ser204/Ser207 side chains. Further, receptor models incorporating a flexible TM-V backbone allow reliable prediction of binding affinities for a set of diverse ligands, suggesting potential utility of this approach to design of effective and subtype-specific agonists for adrenergic receptors. Systematic differences in capacity of partial, full and inverse agonists to induce TM-V helix tilt in the ?2AR model suggest potential role of TM-V as a conformational “rheostat” involved in the whole spectrum of ?2AR responses to small molecule signals. PMID:19353579

  17. Chemotype-selective Modes of Action of ?-Opioid Receptor Agonists*

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, Eyal; Mosier, Philip D.; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Stevens, Raymond C.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a novel platform for inquiry into opioid receptor function. The molecular determinants for activation of the ?-opioid receptor (KOR) were studied using a combination of agonist docking, functional assays, and site-directed mutagenesis. Eighteen positions in the putative agonist binding site of KOR were selected and evaluated for their effects on receptor binding and activation by ligands representing four distinct chemotypes: the peptide dynorphin A(1–17), the arylacetamide U-69593, and the non-charged ligands salvinorin A and the octahydroisoquinolinone carboxamide 1xx. Minimally biased docking of the tested ligands into the antagonist-bound KOR structure generated distinct binding modes, which were then evaluated biochemically and pharmacologically. Our analysis identified two types of mutations: those that affect receptor function primarily via ligand binding and those that primarily affect function. The shared and differential mechanisms of agonist binding and activation in KOR are further discussed. Usually, mutations affecting function more than binding were located at the periphery of the binding site and did not interact strongly with the various ligands. Analysis of the crystal structure along with the present results provide fundamental insights into the activation mechanism of the KOR and suggest that “functional” residues, along with water molecules detected in the crystal structure, may be directly involved in transduction of the agonist binding event into structural changes at the conserved rotamer switches, thus leading to receptor activation. PMID:24121503

  18. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Pless, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a structurally diverse array of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine, and GABA. After the term “chemoreceptor” emerged over 100 years ago, there was some wait until affinity labeling, molecular cloning, functional studies, and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades. This review outlines the functional diversity and current structural understanding of agonist-binding sites, including those of invertebrate Cys-loop receptors. Together, this provides a framework to understand the atomic determinants involved in how these valuable therapeutic targets recognize and bind their ligands. PMID:24795655

  19. Identification of PPAR? Agonists from Natural Sources Using Different In Silico Approaches.

    PubMed

    El-Houri, Rime B; Mortier, Jérémie; Murgueitio, Manuela S; Wolber, Gerhard; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? plays an important role in lipid and glucose homeostasis and is the target of many drug discovery investigations because of its role in diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? by agonists leads to a conformational change in the ligand-binding domain altering the transcription of several target genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in, for example, facilitation of glucose and lipid uptake and amelioration of insulin resistance, and other effects that are important in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? partial agonists are compounds with diminished agonist efficacy compared to full agonists; however, they maintain the antidiabetic effect of full agonists but do not induce the same magnitude of side effects. This mini-review gives a short introduction to in silico screening methods and recent research advances using computational approaches to identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists, especially partial agonists, from natural sources and how these ligands bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in order to better understand their biological effects. PMID:25251562

  20. Novel tricyclic pyrazolopyrimidines as potent and selective GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Azimioara, Mihai; Alper, Phil; Cow, Christopher; Mutnick, Daniel; Nikulin, Victor; Lelais, Gerald; Mecom, John; McNeill, Matthew; Michellys, Pierre-Yves; Wang, Zhiliang; Reding, Esther; Paliotti, Michael; Li, Jing; Bao, Dingjiu; Zoll, Jocelyn; Kim, Young; Zimmerman, Matthew; Groessl, Todd; Tuntland, Tove; Joseph, Sean B; McNamara, Peter; Seidel, H Martin; Epple, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Systematic SAR optimization of the GPR119 agonist lead 1, derived from an internal HTS campaign, led to compound 29. Compound 29 displays significantly improved in vitro activity and oral exposure, leading to GLP1 elevation in acutely dosed mice and reduced glucose excursion in an OGTT study in rats at doses ?10 mg/kg. PMID:25455488

  1. Pyrrolo- and Pyridomorphinans: Non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Clark, M.J.; Traynor, J.R.; Lewis, J.W.; Husbands, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  2. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  3. Discovery of GSK1997132B a novel centrally penetrant benzimidazole PPAR? partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Sime, Mairi; Allan, Amanda C; Chapman, Paul; Fieldhouse, Charlotte; Giblin, Gerard M P; Healy, Mark P; Lambert, Millard H; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Lewis, Ann; Merrihew, Raymond V; Rutter, Richard A; Sasse, Rosemary; Shearer, Barry G; Willson, Timothy M; Wilson, Timothy M; Xu, Robert X; Virley, David J

    2011-09-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, thought to play a role in energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. A novel benzimidazole series of centrally penetrant PPAR? partial agonists has been identified. The optimization of PPAR? activity and in vivo pharmacokinetics leading to the identification of GSK1997132B a potent, metabolically stable and centrally penetrant PPAR? partial agonist, is described. PMID:21798739

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPAR? ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  5. PPAR{alpha} agonist fenofibrate protects the kidney from hypertensive injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats via inhibition of oxidative stress and MAPK activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Xiaoyang; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, BCM 390, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 ; Shen, Ying H.; Li, Chuanbao; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Bu, Peili; Zhang, Yun

    2010-04-09

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of hypertensive renal injury. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) has antioxidant effect. In this study, we demonstrated that fenofibrate significantly reduced proteinuria, inflammatory cell recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins deposition in the kidney of SHRs without apparent effect on blood pressure. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we found that fenofibrate treatment markedly reduced oxidative stress accompanied by reduced activity of renal NAD(P)H oxidase, increased activity of Cu/Zn SOD, and decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK in the kidney of SHRs. Taken together, fenofibrate treatment can protect against hypertensive renal injury without affecting blood pressure by inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis via suppression of oxidative stress and MAPK activity.

  6. Synthesis of spiroindanes by palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulation of non- or weakly activated 1,3-dienes involving C-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imtiaz; Chidipudi, Suresh Reddy; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-02-14

    The synthesis of spiroindanes by the palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulation of non- or weakly activated 1,3-dienes with 2-aryl cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. Examples of the dearomatizing oxidative annulation of 1,3-dienes with 1-aryl-2-naphthols are also presented. PMID:25571940

  7. Discovery of an Oxybenzylglycine Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor [alpha] Selective Agonist 2-((3-((2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-5-methyloxazol-4-yl)methoxy)benzyl)(methoxycarbonyl)amino)acetic Acid (BMS-687453)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Kennedy, Lawrence J.; Shi, Yan; Tao, Shiwei; Ye, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Stephanie Y.; Wang, Ying; Hernndez, Andrs S.; Wang, Wei; Devasthale, Pratik V.; Chen, Sean; Lai, Zhi; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shung; Smirk, Rebecca A.; Bolton, Scott A.; Ryono, Denis E.; Zhang, Huiping; Lim, Ngiap-Kie; Chen, Bang-Chi; Locke, Kenneth T.; O?Malley, Kevin M.; Zhang, Litao; Srivastava, Rai Ajit; Miao, Bowman; Meyers, Daniel S.; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Search, Debra; Grimm, Denise; Zhang, Rongan; Harrity, Thomas; Kunselman, Lori K.; Cap, Michael; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Hosagrahara, Vinayak; Zhang, Lisa; Xu, Carrie; Li, Yi-Xin; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Chang, Chiehying; An, Yongmi; Krystek, Stanley R.; Blanar, Michael A.; Zahler, Robert; Mukherjee, Ranjan; Cheng, Peter T.W.; Tino, Joseph A.

    2010-04-12

    An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, with an EC{sub 50} of 10 nM for human PPAR{alpha} and 410-fold selectivity vs human PPAR{gamma} in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPAR{delta}. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPAR{alpha} ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPAR{alpha} in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist Design Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2011, Vol. 32, No. 1 201 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2011.32.1.201

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to generate pharmacophore model, 1080 compounds were presented and would be useful to treat type 2 diabetes. Key Words: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR), Computer-aided drug design, Pharma- cophore model, Virtual screening, Molecular

  9. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)? Agonist 2-Hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jieun; Lee, Yunna; Yan, Xin-Jia; Noh, Tae Hwan; Kim, Seong Jin; Son, Sujin; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jung, Jee H; Im, Eunok

    2015-10-16

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here we investigated the newly synthesized jasmonate analogue 2-hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate (J11-Cl) for its anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal inflammation. First, to test whether J11-Cl can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), we performed docking simulations because J11-Cl has a structural similarity with anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the endogenous ligands of PPAR?. J11-Cl bound to the ligand binding domain of PPAR? in the same manner as 15d-PGJ2 and rosiglitazone, and significantly increased transcriptional activity of PPAR?. In animal experiments, colitis was significantly reduced in mice with J11-Cl treatment, determined by analyses of survival rate, body weight changes, clinical symptoms, and histological evaluation. Moreover, J11-Cl decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF as well as chemokines including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)20, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)2, CXCL3, and chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) in colon tissues, and LPS or TNF-?-stimulated macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-2 and IL-4 as well as the proliferative factor, GM-CSF, was increased by J11-Cl. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPKs and NF-?B activation by J11-Cl was also observed. J11-Cl reduced intestinal inflammation by increasing the transcriptional activity of PPAR? and modulating inflammatory signaling pathways. Therefore, our study suggests that J11-Cl may serve as a novel therapeutic agent against IBD. PMID:26342083

  10. Fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPAR? is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPAR? played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPAR? ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPAR? mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPAR? and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  11. Discovery of structurally novel, potent and orally efficacious GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Alper, Phil; Azimioara, Mihai; Cow, Christopher; Mutnick, Daniel; Nikulin, Victor; Michellys, Pierre-Yves; Wang, Zhiliang; Reding, Esther; Paliotti, Michael; Li, Jing; Bao, Dingjiu; Zoll, Jocelyn; Kim, Young; Zimmerman, Matthew; Groessel, Todd; Tuntland, Tove; Joseph, Sean B; McNamara, Peter; Seidel, H Martin; Epple, Robert

    2014-05-15

    Screening hit 5 was identified in a biochemical screen for GPR119 agonists. Compound 5 was structurally novel, displayed modest biochemical activity and no oral exposure, but was structurally distinct from typical GPR119 agonist scaffolds. Systematic optimization led to compound 36 with significantly improved in vitro activity and oral exposure, to elevate GLP1 acutely in an in vivo mouse model at a dose of 10mg/kg. PMID:24751443

  12. Discovery of Azetidinone Acids as Conformationally-Constrained Dual PPARalpha/gamma Agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Devasthale, P; Farrelly, D; Gu, L; Harrity, T; Cap, M; Chu, C; Kunselman, L; Morgan, N; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    A novel class of azetidinone acid-derived dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists has been synthesized for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The preferred stereochemistry in this series for binding and functional agonist activity against both PPARa and PPAR? receptors was shown to be 3S,4S. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities of compounds in this series are described. A high-yielding method for N-arylation of azetidinone esters is also described.

  13. Saroglitazar, a novel PPAR?/? agonist with predominant PPAR? activity, shows lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mukul R; Giri, Suresh R; Trivedi, Chitrang; Bhoi, Bibhuti; Rath, Akshyaya; Vanage, Geeta; Vyas, Purvi; Ranvir, Ramchandra; Patel, Pankaj R

    2015-01-01

    Saroglitazar is a novel nonthiazolidinediones (TZD) and nonfibric acid derivative designed to act as dual regulator of lipids and glucose metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). These studies evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of Saroglitazar in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. The EC50 values of Saroglitazar assessed in HepG2 cells using PPAR transactivation assay for hPPAR? and hPPAR? were 0.65 pmol/L and 3 nmol/L, respectively. In db/db mice, 12-day treatment with Saroglitazar (0.01–3 mg/kg per day, orally) caused dose-dependent reductions in serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose. The ED50 for these effects was found to be 0.05, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg, respectively with highly significant (91%) reduction in serum insulin and AUC-glucose following oral glucose administration (59%) at 1 mg/kg dose. Significant reduction in serum TG (upto 90%) was also observed in Zucker fa/fa rats, Swiss albino mice, and in high fat -high cholesterol (HF-HC)-fed Golden Syrian hamsters. LDL cholesterol was significantly lowered in hApoB100/hCETP double transgenic mice and HF-HC diet fed Golden Syrian Hamsters. Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic clamp study in Zucker fa/fa rats demonstrated potent insulin-sensitizing activity. Saroglitazar also showed a significant decrease in SBP (22 mmHg) and increase (62.1%) in serum adiponectin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats. A 90-day repeated dose comparative study in Wistar rats and marmosets confirmed efficacy (TG lowering) potential of Saroglitazar and has indicated low risk of PPAR-associated side effects in humans. Based on efficacy and safety profile, Saroglitazar appears to have good potential as novel therapeutic agent for treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. PMID:26171220

  14. Saroglitazar, a novel PPAR?/? agonist with predominant PPAR? activity, shows lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukul R; Giri, Suresh R; Trivedi, Chitrang; Bhoi, Bibhuti; Rath, Akshyaya; Vanage, Geeta; Vyas, Purvi; Ranvir, Ramchandra; Patel, Pankaj R

    2015-06-01

    Saroglitazar is a novel nonthiazolidinediones (TZD) and nonfibric acid derivative designed to act as dual regulator of lipids and glucose metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). These studies evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of Saroglitazar in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. The EC50 values of Saroglitazar assessed in HepG2 cells using PPAR transactivation assay for hPPAR? and hPPAR? were 0.65 pmol/L and 3 nmol/L, respectively. In db/db mice, 12-day treatment with Saroglitazar (0.01-3 mg/kg per day, orally) caused dose-dependent reductions in serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose. The ED50 for these effects was found to be 0.05, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg, respectively with highly significant (91%) reduction in serum insulin and AUC-glucose following oral glucose administration (59%) at 1 mg/kg dose. Significant reduction in serum TG (upto 90%) was also observed in Zucker fa/fa rats, Swiss albino mice, and in high fat -high cholesterol (HF-HC)-fed Golden Syrian hamsters. LDL cholesterol was significantly lowered in hApoB100/hCETP double transgenic mice and HF-HC diet fed Golden Syrian Hamsters. Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic clamp study in Zucker fa/fa rats demonstrated potent insulin-sensitizing activity. Saroglitazar also showed a significant decrease in SBP (22 mmHg) and increase (62.1%) in serum adiponectin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats. A 90-day repeated dose comparative study in Wistar rats and marmosets confirmed efficacy (TG lowering) potential of Saroglitazar and has indicated low risk of PPAR-associated side effects in humans. Based on efficacy and safety profile, Saroglitazar appears to have good potential as novel therapeutic agent for treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. PMID:26171220

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluations of novel endomorphin analogues containing ?-hydroxy-?-phenylalanine (AHPBA) displaying mixed ?/? opioid receptor agonist and ? opioid receptor antagonist activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Giulianotti, Marc A; McLaughlin, Jay P; Shao, Jiaan; Debevec, Ginamarie; Maida, Laura E; Geer, Phaedra; Cazares, Margaret; Misler, Jaime; Li, Ling; Dooley, Colette; Ganno, Michelle L; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Santos, Radleigh G; Yongye, Austin B; Houghten, Richard A; Yu, Yongping

    2015-03-01

    A novel series of endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2) analogues was synthesized, incorporating chiral ?-hydroxy-?-phenylalanine (AHPBA), and/or Dmt(1)-Tic(2) at different positions. Pharmacological activity and metabolic stability of the series was assessed. Consistent with earlier studies of ?-amino acid substitution into endomorphins, multiple analogues incorporation AHPBA displayed high affinity for ? and ? opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively) in radioligand competition binding assays, and an increased stability in rat brain membrane homogenates, notably Dmt-Tic-(2R,3S)AHPBA-Phe-NH2 (compound 26). Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of 26 produced antinociception (ED50 value (and 95% confidence interval) = 1.98 (0.79-4.15) nmol, i.c.v.) in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay, equivalent to morphine (2.35 (1.13-5.03) nmol, i.c.v.), but demonstrated DOR-selective antagonism in addition to non-selective opioid agonism. The antinociception of 26 was without locomotor activity or acute antinociceptive tolerance. This novel class of peptides adds to the potentially therapeutically relevant collection of previously reported EM analogues. PMID:25559207

  16. Isotopic and enzymatic analyses of planktonic nitrogen utilisation in the vicinity of Cape Sines (Portugal) during weak upwelling activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawyk, Gerd; Coste, Bernard; Collos, Yves; Rodier, Martine

    1997-01-01

    Using measurements of 15N uptake and activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, the utilization of nitrogenous nutrients by microplankton in the Portuguese upwelling area was investigated. During this cruise the euphotic zone of coastal waters was in most cases bisected by a nitracline forming two layers. Total inorganic nitrogen uptake rates (NH 4+ + NO 3-) in the upper mixed and nitrate-impoverished layer ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 nM h -1 and were primarily supported by regenerated (ammonium) nitrogen (62-97%), whereas they varied between 0.9 and 10.4 nM h -1 in the deep nitrate-rich layer and were mainly driven by new (nitrate) nitrogen (52-82%). Depth profiles of Chl a-specific uptake rates for ammonium and nitrate paralleled those of absolute uptake rates, i.e. values of VNH 4+Chl were highest (up to 16.1 nmol ?g -1 h -1) in nitrate-poor surface waters while values of VNO 3-Chl were maximum (up to 8.4 nmol ?g -1 h -1)within the nitracline. This latter vertical ordering of planktonic nitrogen nutrition was consistent with an aged upwelling situation. However, applying several indices of cell metabolism and nutritional status, such as 15N uptake/enzyme activity, surge uptake internally controlled uptake, and V maxChl/K t ratios, we were able to demonstrate that the phytoplankton assemblages inhabiting the nutrient-impoverished upper layer still bore the signature of physically mediated nitrogen (nitrate) supply generated by active upwelling that had occurred during the week before our visit to the area. This signature was the most evident in samples from the station furthest inshore and faded with distance from shore as a result of the deepening of the nitrate isopleths (weakening of upwelling activity), which showed the same offshore trend. The appearance of nitrate-rich waters at the surface, after a strong pulse of upwelling favourable winds just before the end of the cruise, led to a five-fold increase in average (over the euphotic zone) absolute and Chl a-specific nitrate uptake rates (10.4 nM h -1, 7.5 nmol ? -1 h -1) compared to the mean rates during weak upwelling (1.7 nM h -1, 1.5 nmol ? -1 h -1). From a comparison with the neighbouring Moroccan upwelling, it is assumed that new production in the Portuguese upwelling averages 50 nM h -1. Thus, this upwelling would rank with the northwest African upwelling system off Cape Blanc or with the Californian upwelling at Point Conception for the capacity of new production, but seems to be much less efficient (seven-fold) than the highly permanent Peru upwelling.

  17. Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C

    2011-04-15

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors upon agonist binding is a critical step in the signaling cascade for this family of cell surface proteins. We report the crystal structure of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) bound to an agonist UK-432097 at 2.7 angstrom resolution. Relative to inactive, antagonist-bound A(2A)AR, the agonist-bound structure displays an outward tilt and rotation of the cytoplasmic half of helix VI, a movement of helix V, and an axial shift of helix III, resembling the changes associated with the active-state opsin structure. Additionally, a seesaw movement of helix VII and a shift of extracellular loop 3 are likely specific to A(2A)AR and its ligand. The results define the molecule UK-432097 as a "conformationally selective agonist" capable of receptor stabilization in a specific active-state configuration. PMID:21393508

  18. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-?-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  19. Ser203 as well as Ser204 and Ser207 in fifth transmembrane domain of the human ?2-adrenoceptor contributes to agonist binding and receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Taku; Kurose, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    We examined the contribution of Ser203 of the human ?2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) to the interaction with isoprenaline. The affinity of (?)-isoprenaline was reduced by substitution of an alanine for Ser203, as well as for Ser204 and Ser207. An (?)-isoprenaline derivative with only one hydroxyl group, at the meta-position, showed reduced affinity for wild-type ?2-AR and S207A-?2-AR and even lower affinities for S203A-?2-AR and S204A-?2-AR. By contrast, an (?)-isoprenaline derivative with only a para-hydroxyl group showed reduced affinity for wild-type ?2-AR but the serine to alanine mutations did not cause further decreases. The EC50 value for cyclic AMP generation in response to (?)-isoprenaline was increased, by about 120 fold, for each alanine-substituted ?2-AR mutant. These results suggest that Ser203 of the human ?2-AR is important for both ligand binding and receptor activation. PMID:10510435

  20. Securinine, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhances macrophage clearance of phase II C. burnetii: comparison with TLR agonists.

    PubMed

    Lubick, Kirk; Radke, Miranda; Jutila, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Innate immune cell stimulation represents a complementary approach to vaccines and antimicrobial drugs to counter infectious disease. We have used assays of macrophage activation and in vitro and in vivo phase II Coxiella burnetii infection models to compare and contrast the activity of a novel innate immune cell agonist, securinine, with known TLR agonists. As expected, TLR agonists, such as LPS (TLR4) and fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1; TLR2), induced macrophage activation and increased macrophage killing of phase II C. burnetii in vitro. FSL-1 also induced accelerated killing of C. burnetii in vivo. Securinine, a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist, was found to induce TLR-independent macrophage activation in vitro, leading to IL-8 secretion, L-selectin down-regulation, and CD11b and MHC Class II antigen up-regulation. As seen with the TLR agonists, securinine also induced accelerated macrophage killing of C. burnetii in vitro and in vivo. In summary, as predicted by the literature, TLR agonists enhance macrophage killing of phase II C. burnetii in vitro, and at least for TLR2 agonists, this activity occurs in vivo as well. Securinine represents a novel macrophage agonist, which has similar effects as TLR agonists in this model yet apparently, does not act through known TLRs. Securinine has minimal toxicity in vivo, suggesting it or structurally similar compounds may represent novel, therapeutic adjuvants, which increase resistance to intracellular pathogens. PMID:17698917

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Asim; Deng, Caishu; Smith, Jeff D; Hussain, Rehana Z; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Lovett-Racke, Amy E; Drew, Paul D; Racke, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of a nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that includes receptors for steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormone, all of which are known to affect the immune response. Previous studies dealing with PPAR-gamma expression in the immune system have been limited. Recently, PPAR-gamma was identified in monocyte/macrophage cells. In this study we examined the role of PPAR-gamma in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. The hypothesis we are testing is whether PPAR-gamma plays an important role in EAE pathogenesis and whether PPAR-gamma ligands can inhibit the clinical expression of EAE. Initial studies have shown that the presence of the PPAR-gamma ligand 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ2) inhibits the proliferation of Ag-specific T cells from the spleen of myelin basic protein Ac(1-11) TCR-transgenic mice. 15d-PGJ2 suppressed IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-4 production by both Con A- and myelin basic protein Ac(1-11) peptide-stimulated lymphocytes as determined by ELISA and ELISPOT assay. Culture of encephalitogenic T cells with 15d-PGJ2 in the presence of Ag reduced the ability of these cells to adoptively transfer EAE. Examination of the target organ, the CNS, during the course of EAE revealed expression of PPAR-gamma in the spinal cord inflammatory infiltrate. Administration of 15d-PGJ2 before and at the onset of clinical signs of EAE significantly reduced the severity of disease. These results suggest that PPAR-gamma ligands may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:11859145

  2. Identification of metals from osteoblastic ST-2 cell supernatants as novel OGR1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Abe-Ohya, Rie; Ishikawa, Tomio; Shiozawa, Hideyuki; Suda, Koji; Nara, Futoshi

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which has previously been identified as a receptor for protons. It has been reported in this and previous studies that OGR1 expression was markedly up-regulated during osteoclast differentiation. We predicted the possibility of other molecules activating OGR1 in neutral pH, and that osteoblasts might release OGR1 agonistic molecules and activate OGR1 expressed in osteoclasts such as RANKL. We screened for cell supernatants and organ extracts and discovered OGR1 agonistic activity in ST-2 osteoblastic cell supernatants and pancreatic tissues. Finally, we partially purified and identified essential metals, Fe, Zn, Co, Ni and Mn, as novel OGR1 agonists. These OGR1 agonistic metals induce intracellular Gq-coupled inositol phosphate signals in OGR1-expressing cells and primary osteoclasts through OGR1. We also confirmed that these OGR1 agonistic metals activated OGR1 through the same residues which act with protons. Here, we demonstrate that metals, Fe, Zn, Co, Ni and Mn are the novel OGR1 agonists, which can singly activate OGR1 in neutral pH. PMID:26053506

  3. Three-dimensional common-feature hypotheses for octopamine agonist 2-(arylimino)imidazolidines.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Taniguchi, Eiji; Eto, Morifusa

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 10 octopamine (OA) agonist 2-(Arylimino)imidazolidines (AIIs), 2-(Arylimino)thiazolidines (AITs) and 2-(Arylimino)oxazolidines (AIOs). Among the 10 common-featured models generated by program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a ring aromatic (RA), a positive ionizable (PI) and three hydrophobic aliphatic (HpAl) features was considered to be important in evaluating the OA-agonist activity. Active OA agonist 2,6-Et2 AII mapped well onto all the RA, PI and HpAl features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown to be difficult to achieve the energetically favorable conformation which is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3-D common-feature pharmacophore models. Taken together, 2,6-Et2-Ph and foramidine structures are important as OA agonists. The present studies on OA agonists demonstrate that a RA, a PI and three HpAl sites located on the molecule seem to be essential for OA-agonist activity. PMID:11738614

  4. Surface ozone and NOx trends observed over Kannur, a South Indian coastal location of weak industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satheesh Mk; T, Nishanth; M, Praseeed K.

    South India is a peninsular region surrounded by the three belts of Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Usually, coastal regions experience relatively high air quality compared to that of the interior land masses owing to the abundance of OH over ocean surface which acts as detergent in the atmosphere. Kannur (11.9 N, 75.4E, 5 m AMSL) is a coastal location along the Arabian Sea which is located in the northern district of Kerala State with fairly low industrial activities. A continuous observation of surface ozone (O3), NOx and OX (NO2+ O3) which has been initiated at this coastal site since 2009 reveals the enhancement in the concentrations of these trace species quite significantly. It is observed that surface O3 mixing ratio is increased at a rate of 1.51 ± 0.5 ppbv/year during the four year period from 2009 at Kannur. The enhancement rate in the mixing ratios of NOx is 1.01 ± 0.4 ppbv/year and OX is 1.49±0.42 ppbv/year respectively. The increase of O3 may be attributed due to the increase in methane and non-methane organic emissions from the wet lands and vehicles may enhance O3 production and fairly low rate of change of NO concentration at this site. This paper describes the rate of changes of O3, NOx and OX during the period of observation in detail. Likewise, the increase in nighttime concentrations of O3 and PM10 observed during the festival occasions in the summer month of April in all years is explained. Being a weak industrialized location, the main source of pollution is by vehicular emissions and the increase in these trace gases in the context of rapid enhancement in the number of vehicles is well correlated. These results may be helpful for improving government policies to control the photochemical formation of secondary air pollutants in the rural coastal sites that has a significant influence on the onset of monsoon and the outcome of this study have significant relevance for gradual transformation of pristine locations into polluted sites.

  5. Cannabinoid agonist rescues learning and memory after a traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Marium; Khan, Maida; Craig, Laura; Nakanishi, Stan T

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury can cause persistent challenges including problems with learning and memory. Previous studies suggest that the activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor after a traumatic brain injury could be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that posttraumatic brain injury administration of a cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist can rescue deficits in learning and memory. Young adult male rats were subjected to a moderately severe controlled cortical impact brain injury, with a subset given postinjury i.p. injections of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Utilizing novel object recognition and the morris water task, we found that the brain-injured animals treated with the agonist showed a marked recovery. PMID:25815355

  6. GPR119 agonists 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Daniel J; Lehmann, Juerg; Han, Sangdon; Jones, Robert M

    2012-07-01

    The increasing incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus worldwide continues to attract the attention and resources of the pharmaceutical industry in the pursuit of more effective therapies for blood glucose control. New approaches that compare favorably with classical medicaments while avoiding hypoglycemic episodes or waning effectiveness are paramount. Recent advances toward this end have been realized based on the biology of the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R). This ?-cell-expressed GPCR has the ability to promote insulin release in a glucose-dependent fashion, and has been shown to elicit improved glycemic control and preservation of ?-cell mass. Direct activation of GLP1R utilizing peptide mimetics has been achieved; however, attempts to access the biology of this receptor via small-molecule approaches have thus far been elusive. In this context, GPR119 has emerged as a tractable new alternative to GLP1R. GPR119 is another GPCR expressed on the ?-cell, which, like GLP1R, signals in a glucose-dependent manner. Moreover, GPR119-mediated increases in GLP-1 and other incretins upon activation in the intestine further increase the insulinotropic activity of the ?-cell. The early success in identifying small-molecule agonists of the GPR119 has prompted a rapid increase in the number of patent applications filed in the last few years. In this review we provide a comprehensive summary of all patent activity in this field that has appeared within the 2009-2011 timeframe. PMID:24236842

  7. Identification and Small Molecule Inhibition of an Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent Pathway to Age-related Skeletal Muscle Weakness and Atrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Murry, Daryl J.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Lira, Vitor A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Talley, John J.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging reduces skeletal muscle mass and strength, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we used mouse models to investigate molecular mechanisms of age-related skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy as well as new potential interventions for these conditions. We identified two small molecules that significantly reduce age-related deficits in skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass: ursolic acid (a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in apples) and tomatidine (a steroidal alkaloid derived from green tomatoes). Because small molecule inhibitors can sometimes provide mechanistic insight into disease processes, we used ursolic acid and tomatidine to investigate the pathogenesis of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. We found that ursolic acid and tomatidine generate hundreds of small positive and negative changes in mRNA levels in aged skeletal muscle, and the mRNA expression signatures of the two compounds are remarkably similar. Interestingly, a subset of the mRNAs repressed by ursolic acid and tomatidine in aged muscle are positively regulated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Based on this finding, we investigated ATF4 as a potential mediator of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. We found that a targeted reduction in skeletal muscle ATF4 expression reduces age-related deficits in skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass, similar to ursolic acid and tomatidine. These results elucidate ATF4 as a critical mediator of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. In addition, these results identify ursolic acid and tomatidine as potential agents and/or lead compounds for reducing ATF4 activity, weakness, and atrophy in aged skeletal muscle. PMID:26338703

  8. Identification and Small Molecule Inhibition of an Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent Pathway to Age-related Skeletal Muscle Weakness and Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Murry, Daryl J; Fox, Daniel K; Bongers, Kale S; Lira, Vitor A; Meyerholz, David K; Talley, John J; Adams, Christopher M

    2015-10-16

    Aging reduces skeletal muscle mass and strength, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we used mouse models to investigate molecular mechanisms of age-related skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy as well as new potential interventions for these conditions. We identified two small molecules that significantly reduce age-related deficits in skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass: ursolic acid (a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in apples) and tomatidine (a steroidal alkaloid derived from green tomatoes). Because small molecule inhibitors can sometimes provide mechanistic insight into disease processes, we used ursolic acid and tomatidine to investigate the pathogenesis of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. We found that ursolic acid and tomatidine generate hundreds of small positive and negative changes in mRNA levels in aged skeletal muscle, and the mRNA expression signatures of the two compounds are remarkably similar. Interestingly, a subset of the mRNAs repressed by ursolic acid and tomatidine in aged muscle are positively regulated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Based on this finding, we investigated ATF4 as a potential mediator of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. We found that a targeted reduction in skeletal muscle ATF4 expression reduces age-related deficits in skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass, similar to ursolic acid and tomatidine. These results elucidate ATF4 as a critical mediator of age-related muscle weakness and atrophy. In addition, these results identify ursolic acid and tomatidine as potential agents and/or lead compounds for reducing ATF4 activity, weakness, and atrophy in aged skeletal muscle. PMID:26338703

  9. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  10. A Potent and Site-Selective Agonist of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Junichiro; Mio, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Otsuka, Shinya; Mori, Yasuo; Uesugi, Motonari

    2015-12-23

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family that is expressed primarily on sensory neurons. This chemosensor is activated through covalent modification of multiple cysteine residues with a wide range of reactive compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a spicy component of wasabi. The present study reports on potent and selective agonists of TRPA1, discovered through screening 1657 electrophilic molecules. In an effort to validate the mode of action of hit molecules, we noted a new TRPA1-selective agonist, JT010 (molecule 1), which opens the TRPA1 channel by covalently and site-selectively binding to Cys621 (EC50 = 0.65 nM). The results suggest that a single modification of Cys621 is sufficient to open the TRPA1 channel. The TRPA1-selective probe described herein might be useful for further mechanistic studies of TRPA1 activation. PMID:26630251

  11. Melatonin receptor agonists: new options for insomnia and depression treatment.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The circadian nature of melatonin (MLT) secretion, coupled with the localization of MLT receptors to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has led to numerous studies of the role of MLT in modulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms in humans. Although much more needs to be understood about the various functions exerted by MLT and its mechanisms of action, three therapeutic agents (ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT, and agomelatine) are already in use, and MLT receptor agonists are now appearing as new promising treatment options for sleep and circadian-rhythm related disorders. In this review, emphasis has been placed on medicinal chemistry strategies leading to MLT receptor agonists, and on the evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of compounds undergoing clinical evaluation. A wide range of clinical trials demonstrated that ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT and tasimelteon have sleep-promoting effects, providing an important treatment option for insomnia and transient insomnia, even if the improvements of sleep maintenance appear moderate. Well-documented effects of agomelatine suggest that this MLT agonist offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy with a favorable side effect profile. Despite a large number of high affinity nonselective MLT receptor agonists, only limited data on MT? or MT? subtype-selective compounds are available up to now. Administration of the MT?-selective agonist IIK7 to rats has proved to decrease NREM sleep onset latency, suggesting that MT? receptor subtype is involved in the acute sleep-promoting action of MLT; rigorous clinical studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis. Further clinical candidates based on selective activation of MT? or MT? receptors are expected in coming years. PMID:21554566

  12. Weak solar flares with a detectable flux of hard X rays: Specific features of microwave radiation in the corresponding active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'eva, I. Yu.; Livshits, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of very weak flares was registered at the Suzaku X-ray observatory in 2005-2009. The photon power spectrum in the 50-110 keV range for a number of these phenomena shows that some electrons accelerate to energies higher than 100 keV. The corresponding flares originate in active regions (ARs) with pronounced sunspots. As in the case of AR 10933 in January 2007 analyzed by us previously (Grigor'eva et al., 2013), the thoroughly studied weak flares in May 2007 are related to the emergence of a new magnetic field in the AR and to the currents that originate in this case. A comparison of the Suzaku data with the RATAN-600 microwave observations indicates that a new polarized source of microwave radiation develops in the AR (or the previously existing source intensifies) one-two days before a weak flare in the emerging flux regions. Arguments in favor of recent views that fields are force-free in the AR corona are put forward. The development of weak flares is related to the fact that the free energy of the currents that flow above the field neutral line at altitudes reaching several thousand kilometers is accumulated and subsequently released.

  13. [Adrenergic beta-agonist intoxication].

    PubMed

    Carrola, Paulo; Devesa, Nuno; Silva, José Manuel; Ramos, Fernando; Alexandrino, Mário B; Moura, José J

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases (father and daughter), observed in the Hospital Urgency with distal tremors, anxiety, palpitations, nausea, headaches and dizziness, two hours after ingestión of cow liver. They also had leucocytosis (with neutrophylia), hypokalemia and hyperglycaemia. After treatment with potassium i.v. and propranolol, the symptoms disappeared. The symptoms recurred at home because the patients didn't take the prescribed medication and persisted for five days, with spontaneous disappearance. The serum of both patients revealed the presence of clenbuterol (65 hg/ml - father and 58 hg/ml - daughter). The animal's liver had a concentration of 1,42 mg/kg. Clenbuterol is a ß-adrenergic agonist with low specificity, with some veterinary indications. However, this substance has been illegally used as a growth's promotor. We intend to alert doctors for this problem, particularly those that work in the Urgency. PMID:22226216

  14. The inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi) regulates the agonistic property of beta-adrenergic ligands in isolated rat adipocytes. Evidence for a priming effect of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Wesslau, C; Smith, U

    1992-01-01

    Prenalterol, an allegedly beta 1-selective adrenergic agonist with high intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), was shown to be weakly lipolytic in rat adipocytes. However, in pertussis-toxin-treated adipocytes, the ISA of prenalterol was markedly increased (from 10-20% to approx. 100% of that of isoprenaline). The cellular sensitivity was also increased (EC50 approx. 60 nM and approx. 3 microM in pertussis-toxin-treated and control cells respectively). A similar effect was seen for other partial agonists such as the beta 2-selective agonist terbutaline and for beta-adrenergic antagonists with some intrinsic activity (metoprolol, pindolol). There was no clear change in sensitivity to isoprenaline's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in adipocyte membranes from pertussis-toxin-treated animals but the cyclase activity was increased approx. 4-fold in the presence of 1 microM-GTP. Prenalterol stimulated lipolysis by only small increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels (less than 10% of that seen with isoprenaline). Basal lipolysis was increased in cells from pertussis-toxin-treated rats and the cellular sensitivity to the non-degradable cAMP analogue, N6-monobutyryl-cAMP, was increased. In control cells, a submaximal concentration of prenalterol (0.1 microM) increased the sensitivity to the cAMP analogues, N6-monobutyryl-cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP. A low concentration (1 mM) of 8-bromo-cAMP also increased the effect of prenalterol. Similar effects were seen when the phosphodiesterase was inhibited. Thus (1) lipolysis is extremely sensitive to small increases in intracellular cAMP; (2) the degree of activation of adenylate cyclase and thus cAMP formation is the rate-limiting step for the biological response of partial agonists; (3) the inhibitory GTP-binding protein, Gi, is an important modulator ('tissue factor') of the beta-adrenergic agonistic property; (4) low levels of cAMP exert a priming effect on protein kinase A. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1280115

  15. Discovery and optimization of 5-fluoro-4,6-dialkoxypyrimidine GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Daniel J; Kim, Sun Hee; Lehmann, Juerg; Han, Sangdon; Calderon, Imelda; Wong, Amy; Kawasaki, Andrew; Narayanan, Sanju; Bhat, Rohit; Gharbaoui, Tawfik; Lopez, Luis; Yue, Dawei; Whelan, Kevin; Al-Shamma, Hussien; Unett, David J; Shu, Hsin-Hui; Tung, Shiu-Feng; Chang, Steve; Chuang, Ching-Fen; Morgan, Michael; Sadeque, Abu; Chu, Zhi-Liang; Leonard, James N; Jones, Robert M

    2014-09-01

    A series of 5-fluoro-4,6-dialkoxypyrimidine GPR119 modulators were discovered and optimized for in vitro agonist activity. A lead molecule was identified that has improved agonist efficacy relative to our clinical compound (APD597) and possesses reduced CYP2C9 inhibitory potential. This optimized lead was found to be efficacious in rodent models of glucose control both alone and in combination with a Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. PMID:25088191

  16. Predicting selective liver X receptor ? agonists using multiple machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Yali; Wang, Ling; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Chanjuan; Xu, Jiake; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) ? and ? are cholesterol sensors; they respond to excess cholesterol and stimulate reverse cholesterol transport. Activating LXRs represents a promising therapeutic option for dyslipidemia. However, activating LXR? may cause unwanted lipogenicity. A better anti-dyslipidemia strategy would be to develop selective LXR? agonists that do not activate LXR?. In this paper, a data set of 234 selective and non-selective LXR? agonists was collected from the literature. For the first time, we derived the classification models from the data set to predict selective LXR? agonists using multiple machine learning methods (naïve Bayesian (NB), Recursive Partitioning (RP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) methods) with optimized property descriptors and structural fingerprints. The models were optimized from 324 multiple machine learning models, and most of the models showed high predictive abilities (overall predictive accuracies of >80%) for both training and test sets. The top 15 models were evaluated using an external test set of 76 compounds (all containing new scaffolds), and 10 of them displayed overall predictive accuracies exceeding 90%. The top models can be used for the virtual screening of selective LXR? agonists. The NB models can identify privileged and unprivileged fragments for selective LXR? agonists, and the fragments can be used to guide the design of new selective LXR? agonists. PMID:25734698

  17. Scaffold-Based Pan-Agonist Design for the PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR? Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Ren; Wang, Run-Ling; Wang, Jing-Fang

    2012-01-01

    As important members of nuclear receptor superfamily, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) play essential roles in regulating cellular differentiation, development, metabolism, and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. The PPAR receptors have 3 identified subtypes: PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR?, all of which have been treated as attractive targets for developing drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Due to the undesirable side-effects, many PPAR agonists including PPAR?/? and PPAR?/? dual agonists are stopped by US FDA in the clinical trials. An alternative strategy is to design novel pan-agonist that can simultaneously activate PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR?. Under such an idea, in the current study we adopted the core hopping algorithm and glide docking procedure to generate 7 novel compounds based on a typical PPAR pan-agonist LY465608. It was observed by the docking procedures and molecular dynamics simulations that the compounds generated by the core hopping and glide docking not only possessed the similar functions as the original LY465608 compound to activate PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR? receptors, but also had more favorable conformation for binding to the PPAR receptors. The additional absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions showed that the 7 compounds (especially Cpd#1) hold high potential to be novel lead compounds for the PPAR pan-agonist. Our findings can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective pan-agonists against the type 2 diabetes. PMID:23119024

  18. Identification of retinoic acid receptor agonists in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Wu, Xiaoqin; Hu, Jianying; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2009-09-01

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists are speculated to be one possible cause for the widely observed frog deformities in North America, although little is known about the specific RAR agonists in aquatic environments. We identified the specific RAR egonists in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and receiving rivers using an RAR yeast two-hybrid bioassay. Water samples were extracted by solid-phase extract cartridges, which were successively eluted by hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol for bioassay. Among the three fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest RAR agonistic activities. The bioassay-derived activity, expressed as all-trans-retinoic acid (all-transRA) equivalents (ATRA-EQ) were 10.9 +/- 2.2 and 1.7 +/- 1.0 ng/L in the STP influents and effluents, respectively, while the ATRA-EQs were as high as 7.1 and 8.3 ng/L in the two rivers receiving STP effluents. Following a two-step fractionation using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) directed by the bioassay, two bioactive fractions were obtained from Gaobeidian STP influent and all-trans-4-oxo-RA (4.7-10.4 ng/L in influents, < 0.2-0.9 ng/L in effluents) and 13-cis-4-oxo-RA (2.3-7.1 ng/L in influents, < 0.4-1.1 ng/L in effluents) were identified in these fractions with UPLC-MS/MS. The EC50 for all-trans-4-oxo-RA or 13-cis-4-oxo-RA relative to that of all-trans-RA in exhibiting RARalpha agonistic activity was calculated to be 3.87 and 0.46, respectively. PMID:19764225

  19. CB(1) receptor allosteric modulators display both agonist and signaling pathway specificity.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Gemma L; Horswill, James G; Anavi-Goffer, Sharon; Reggio, Patricia H; Bolognini, Daniele; Abood, Mary E; McAllister, Sean; Strange, Phillip G; Stephens, Gary J; Pertwee, Roger G; Ross, Ruth A

    2013-02-01

    We have previously identified allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (Org 27569, PSNCBAM-1) that display a contradictory pharmacological profile: increasing the specific binding of the CB(1) receptor agonist [(3)H]CP55940 but producing a decrease in CB(1) receptor agonist efficacy. Here we investigated the effect one or both compounds in a broad range of signaling endpoints linked to CB(1) receptor activation. We assessed the effect of these compounds on CB(1) receptor agonist-induced [(35)S]GTP?S binding, inhibition, and stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and ?-arrestin recruitment. We also investigated the effect of these allosteric modulators on CB(1) agonist binding kinetics. Both compounds display ligand dependence, being significantly more potent as modulators of CP55940 signaling as compared with WIN55212 and having little effect on [(3)H]WIN55212 binding. Org 27569 displays biased antagonism whereby it inhibits: agonist-induced guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP?S) binding, simulation (G?(s)-mediated), and inhibition (G?(i)-mediated) of cAMP production and ?-arrestin recruitment. In contrast, it acts as an enhancer of agonist-induced ERK phosphorylation. Alone, the compound can act also as an allosteric agonist, increasing cAMP production and ERK phosphorylation. We find that in both saturation and kinetic-binding experiments, the Org 27569 and PSNCBAM-1 appeared to influence only orthosteric ligand maximum occupancy rather than affinity. The data indicate that the allosteric modulators share a common mechanism whereby they increase available high-affinity CB(1) agonist binding sites. The receptor conformation stabilized by the allosterics appears to induce signaling and also selectively traffics orthosteric agonist signaling via the ERK phosphorylation pathway. PMID:23160940

  20. Membrane Potential Controls the Efficacy of Catecholamine-induced ?1-Adrenoceptor Activity.

    PubMed

    Birk, Alexandra; Rinne, Andreas; Bünemann, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane-located proteins and, therefore, are exposed to changes in membrane potential (VM) in excitable tissues. These changes have been shown to alter receptor activation of certain Gi-and Gq-coupled GPCRs. By means of a combination of whole-cell patch-clamp and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in single cells, we demonstrate that the activation of the Gs-coupled ?1-adrenoreceptor (?1-AR) by the catecholamines isoprenaline (Iso) and adrenaline (Adr) is regulated by VM. This voltage-dependence is also transmitted to G protein and arrestin 3 signaling. Voltage-dependence of ?2-AR activation, however, was weak compared with ?1-AR voltage-dependence. Drug efficacy is a major target of ?1-AR voltage-dependence as depolarization attenuated receptor activation, even under saturating concentrations of agonists, with significantly faster kinetics than the deactivation upon agonist withdrawal. Also the efficacy of the endogenous full agonist adrenaline was reduced by depolarization. This is a unique finding since reports of natural full agonists at other voltage-dependent GPCRs only show alterations in affinity during depolarization. Based on a Boltzmann function fit to the relationship of VM and receptor-arrestin 3 interaction we determined the voltage-dependence with highest sensitivity in the physiological range of membrane potential. Our data suggest that under physiological conditions voltage regulates the activity of agonist-occupied ?1-adrenoceptors on a very fast time scale. PMID:26408198

  1. Discovery of 4-(4-(2-((5-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)(propyl)amino)-ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-8-ol and its analogues as highly potent dopamine D2/D3 agonists and as iron chelator: In vivo activity indicates potential application in symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been implicated strongly due to generation of oxidative stress leading to dopamine cell death. In our overall goal to develop bifunctional/multifunctional drugs, we designed dopamine D2/D3 agonist molecules with a capacity to bind to iron. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptors with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (Ki). Functional activity of selected compounds was carried out with GTP?S binding assay. SAR results identified compounds (+)-19a and (?)-19b as two potent agonists for both D2 and D3 receptors (EC50 (GTP?S); D2 = 4.51 and 1.69 nM and D3 = 1.58 and 0.74 nM for (?)-19b and (+)-19a, respectively). In vitro complexation studies with 19b demonstrated efficient chelation with iron. Furthermore, the deoxyribose assay with 19b demonstrated potent antioxidant activity. In PD animal model study, (?)-19b exhibited potent in vivo activity in reversing locomotor activity in reserpinized rats and also in producing potent rotational activity in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. This reports initial development of unique lead molecules which might find potential use in symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment of PD. PMID:20146482

  2. Differential effects of a selective dopamine D1-like receptor agonist on motor activity and c-fos expression in the frontal-striatal circuitry of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic studies suggest the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) may be implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As little is known about the potential motor role of D1R in ADHD, animal models may provide important insights into this issue. Methods We investigated the effects of a full and selective D1R agonist, SKF-81297 (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg), on motor behaviour and expression of the plasticity-associated gene, c-fos, in habituated young adult male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), the most commonly used animal model of ADHD, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; the strain from which SHR were derived). Results SHR rats were more behaviourally active than WKY rats after injection with vehicle. The 0.3 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 increased motor behaviour (locomotion, sifting, rearing, and sniffing) in both SHR and WKY rats. Total grooming was also stimulated, but only in WKY rats. The same dose increased c-fos mRNA expression in the piriform cortex of both strains. The 3 mg/kg dose increased sifting and sniffing in both strains. Locomotion was also stimulated towards the end of the testing period. The intermediate dose decreased total rearing in both strains, and produced a significant increase in c-fos mRNA in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tuberculum, and in the cingulate, agranular insular and piriform cortices. The 10 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 produced a biphasic effect on locomotion, which was characterized by an initial decrease followed by later stimulation. The latter stimulatory effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY rats when compared to their respective vehicle-injected groups. The 10 mg/kg dose also stimulated sifting and sniffing in both strains. Both the 3 and 10 mg/kg doses had no effect on total grooming. The 10 mg/kg dose induced significantly higher levels of c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens and adjacent cortical regions (but not striatum) of SHR when compared to WKY rats. Conclusion The present results suggest a potential alteration in D1R neurotransmission within the frontal-striatal circuitry of SHR involved in motor control. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular alterations in SHR, a heuristically useful model of ADHD. PMID:16729883

  3. A novel Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) agonist rescues the enzyme from inhibition by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4).

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Aring, Danielle; Sadana, Prabodh

    2014-05-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key physiological regulator of triglycerides and atherosclerosis risk. Random screening identified a compound designated C10, showing greater LPL agonist activity than NO-1886, a known LPL agonist. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration of C10 led to the identification of C10d exhibiting at least two fold greater LPL activation than NO-1886. Unlike NO-1886, novel LPL agonists C10 and C10d reversed the LPL inhibition by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a physiological inhibitor of LPL. PMID:24703657

  4. Science gone translational: the OX40 agonist story

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Andrew D.; Morris, Nicholas P.; Kovacsovics-Bankowski, Magdalena; Urba, Walter J.; Curti, Brendan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary OX40 (CD134) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor expressed primarily on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and transmits a potent costimulatory signal when engaged. OX40 is transiently expressed after T-cell receptor engagement and is upregulated on the most recently antigen-activated T cells within inflammatory lesions (e.g. sites of autoimmune destruction and on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). Hence, it is an attractive target to modulate immune responses: OX40 blocking agents to inhibit undesirable inflammation or OX40 agonists to enhance immune responses. In regards to this review, OX40 agonists enhance anti-tumor immunity, which leads to therapeutic effects in mouse tumor models. A team of laboratory and clinical scientists at the Providence Cancer Center has collaborated to bring the preclinical observations in cancer models from the bench to the bedside. This review describes the journey from in vitro experiments through preclinical mouse models to the successful translation of the first OX40 agonist to the clinic for the treatment of patients with cancer. PMID:22017441

  5. Lepidozenolide from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana acts as a farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Lepidozenolide is a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana and its possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and hyperglycemia. In this study, whether lepidozenolide may act as a FXR agonist was determined. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, lepidozenolide transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in a dose-dependent manner, while it exhibited slightly less agonistic activity than chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR agonist. Through the molecular modeling docking studies lepidozenolide was shown to bind to FXR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that lepidozenolide acts as a FXR agonist. PMID:25315435

  6. Evaluation of the interaction of mu and kappa opioid agonists on locomotor behavior in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Mama, K R; Pascoe, P J; Steffey, E P

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the interactive effects of mu and kappa opioid agonists on locomotor behavior in the horse. Three doses of a mu agonist, fentanyl (5, 10, 20 micrograms/kg) and a kappa agonist U50,488H (30, 60, 120 micrograms/kg) were administered in a random order to six horses. Locomotor activity was measured using a two minute footstep count. Each dose of U50,488H was then combined with 20 micrograms/kg of fentanyl to determine the interactive effects of the drugs on locomotor activity. A significant increase in locomotor activity was seen with 20 micrograms/kg of fentanyl and all the drug combinations. The combination of U50,488H with fentanyl resulted in an earlier onset of locomotor activity. At the highest doses of the combination (U50,488H 120 micrograms/kg, fentanyl 20 micrograms/kg), the duration of locomotor activity was significantly increased when compared to the other doses. We conclude that locomotor activity is maintained or enhanced in horses when a receptor specific kappa agonist is combined with a mu receptor agonist. PMID:8490803

  7. Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies and hypertension: preeclampsia and beyond.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E

    2013-06-21

    Hypertensive disorders are life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality, affecting billions of individuals worldwide. A multitude of underlying conditions may contribute to hypertension, thus the need for a plethora of treatment options to identify the approach that best meets the needs of individual patients. A growing body of evidence indicates that (1) autoantibodies that bind to and activate the major angiotensin II type I (AT?) receptor exist in the circulation of patients with hypertensive disorders, (2) these autoantibodies contribute to disease pathophysiology, (3) antibody titers correlate to the severity of the disease, and (4) efforts to block or remove these pathogenic autoantibodies have therapeutic potential. These autoantibodies, termed AT? agonistic autoantibodies have been extensively characterized in preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive condition of pregnancy. As reviewed here, these autoantibodies cause symptoms of preeclampsia when injected into pregnant mice. Somewhat surprisingly, these auto antibodies also appear in 3 animal models of preeclampsia. However, the occurrence of AT? agonistic autoantibodies is not restricted to pregnancy. These autoantibodies are prevalent among kidney transplant recipients who develop severe transplant rejection and malignant hypertension during the first week after transplantation. AT? agonistic autoantibodies are also highly abundant among a group of patients with essential hypertension that are refractory to standard therapy. More recently these autoantibodies have been seen in patients with the autoimmune disease, systemic sclerosis. These 3 examples extend the clinical impact of AT? agonistic autoantibodies beyond pregnancy. Research reviewed here raises the intriguing possibility that preeclampsia and other hypertensive conditions are autoimmune diseases characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies that activate the major angiotensin receptor, AT?. These pathogenic autoantibodies could serve as presymptomatic biomarkers and therapeutic targets, thereby providing improved medical management for these conditions. PMID:23788505

  8. Targeted Delivery of LXR Agonist Using a Site-Specific Antibody-Drug Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Reyna K V; Yu, Shan; Cheng, Bo; Li, Sijia; Kim, Nam-Jung; Cao, Yu; Chi, Victor; Kim, Ji Young; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Schultz, Peter G; Tremblay, Matthew S; Kazane, Stephanie A

    2015-11-18

    Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists have been explored as potential treatments for atherosclerosis and other diseases based on their ability to induce reverse cholesterol transport and suppress inflammation. However, this therapeutic potential has been hindered by on-target adverse effects in the liver mediated by excessive lipogenesis. Herein, we report a novel site-specific antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers a LXR agonist to monocytes/macrophages while sparing hepatocytes. The unnatural amino acid para-acetylphenylalanine (pAcF) was site-specifically incorporated into anti-CD11a IgG, which binds the ?-chain component of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) expressed on nearly all monocytes and macrophages. An aminooxy-modified LXR agonist was conjugated to anti-CD11a IgG through a stable, cathepsin B cleavable oxime linkage to afford a chemically defined ADC. The anti-CD11a IgG-LXR agonist ADC induced LXR activation specifically in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells in vitro (EC50-27 nM), but had no significant effect in hepatocytes, indicating that payload delivery is CD11a-mediated. Moreover, the ADC exhibited higher-fold activation compared to a conventional synthetic LXR agonist T0901317 (Tularik) (3-fold). This novel ADC represents a fundamentally different strategy that uses tissue targeting to overcome the limitations of LXR agonists for potential use in treating atherosclerosis. PMID:25945727

  9. Molecular basis for benzodiazepine agonist action at the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor.

    PubMed

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Cawston, Erin E; Lam, Polo C H; Patil, Achyut; Orry, Andrew; Henke, Brad R; Abagyan, Ruben; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Miller, Laurence J

    2013-07-19

    Understanding the molecular basis of drug action can facilitate development of more potent and selective drugs. Here, we explore the molecular basis for action of a unique small molecule ligand that is a type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor agonist and type 2 CCK receptor antagonist, GI181771X. We characterize its binding utilizing structurally related radioiodinated ligands selective for CCK receptor subtypes that utilize the same allosteric ligand-binding pocket, using wild-type receptors and chimeric constructs exchanging the distinct residues lining this pocket. Intracellular calcium assays were performed to determine biological activity. Molecular models for docking small molecule agonists to the type 1 CCK receptor were developed using a ligand-guided refinement approach. The optimal model was distinct from the previous antagonist model for the same receptor and was mechanistically consistent with the current mutagenesis data. This study revealed a key role for Leu(7.39) that was predicted to interact with the isopropyl group in the N1 position of the benzodiazepine that acts as a "trigger" for biological activity. The molecular model was predictive of binding of other small molecule agonists, effectively distinguishing these from 1065 approved drug decoys with an area under curve value of 99%. The model also selectively enriched for agonist compounds, with 130 agonists identified by ROC analysis when seeded in 2175 non-agonist ligands of the type 1 CCK receptor (area under curve 78%). Benzodiazepine agonists in this series docked in consistent pose within this pocket, with a key role played by Leu(7.39), whereas the role of this residue was less clear for chemically distinct agonists. PMID:23754289

  10. Wnt Agonist Attenuates Liver Injury and Improves Survival after Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kuncewitch, Michael; Yang, Weng-Lang; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is well characterized in stem cell biology and plays a critical role in liver development, regeneration, and homeostasis. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through its known proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 70% hepatic ischemia by microvascular clamping of the hilum of the left and median lobes of the liver for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. Wnt agonist (2-amino-4-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino]-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, 5 mg/kg BW) or vehicle (20% DMSO in saline) in 0.5 ml was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 h prior to ischemia or infused intravenously over 30 min right after ischemia. Blood and tissue samples from the pre-treated groups were collected 24 h after reperfusion, and a survival study was performed. Hepatic expression of ?-catenin and its downstream target gene Axin2 were decreased after I/R while Wnt agonist restored their expression to sham levels. Wnt agonist blunted I/R-induced elevations of AST, ALT, and LDH and significantly improved the microarchitecture of the liver. The cell proliferation determined by Ki67 immunostaining significantly increased with Wnt agonist treatment and inflammatory cascades were dampened in Wnt agonist-treated animals, as demonstrated by attenuations in IL-6, myeloperoxdase, iNOS and nitrotyrosine. Wnt agonist also significantly decreased the amount of apoptosis, as evidenced by decreases in both TUNEL staining as well as caspase-3 activity levels. Finally, the 10-day survival rate was increased from 27% in the vehicle group to 73% in the pre-treated Wnt agonist group and 55% in the Wnt agonist post-ischemia treatment group. Thus, we propose that direct Wnt/?-catenin stimulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatic I/R. PMID:23143067

  11. PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone does not enhance performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) regulate the metabolic and contractile characteristics of myofibres. PPAR proteins are nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors and regulate the expression of multiple genes. AMPK has been described as a master metabolic regulator which also controls gene expression through the direct phosphorylation of some nuclear proteins. Since it was discovered that both PPARdelta agonists (GW1516) and AMPK activators (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribofuranoside, known as AICAR) are very effective performance-enhancing substances in sedentary mice, the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) included AICAR and GW1516 in the prohibited list of substances as metabolic modulators in the class 'Hormone and metabolic modulators'. Thiazolidinediones are PPARgamma agonists that can induce similar biological effects to those of PPARdelta and PPARdelta-AMPK agonists. Thus in this study, the effects of pioglitazone on mitochondrial biogenesis and performance were evaluated. Blood glucose levels and the protein expression of the intermediates involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway and the citrate synthase activity were determined in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), endurance capacity, and grip strength before and after the training period were also determined. The MAV endurance capacity and grip strength of trained animals significantly increased. We found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) protein content and citrate synthase activity significantly increased in the soleus muscle of trained animals. No effect of treatment was found. Therefore in our study, pioglitazone administration did not affect mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway. PMID:24259440

  12. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate > clobetasone butyrate > betamethasone 17-valerate > difluprednate > betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate > Dex > betamethasone > 6?-methylprednisolone > prednisolone > cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from < 3.0-78 ng L(-1) (median: 29 ng L(-1), n = 50). To evaluate the contribution of the target GCs, theoretical Dex-EQs were calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each GC by its respective REP. Our calculation of Dex-EQ contribution for individual GR agonists indicated that the well-known GCs cortisol and Dex should not be given priority for subsequent in vivo testing, monitoring and removal experiments, but rather the highly potent synthetic GCs clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate (REP = 28 and 3.1) as well as other unidentified compounds are important GR agonists in STP effluents in Japan. PMID:25965047

  13. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-02-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors; or (v) 'multi-targeting'. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  14. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes. PMID:24038158

  15. GPS Based Daily Activity Patterns in European Red Deer and North American Elk (Cervus elaphus): Indication for a Weak Circadian Clock in Ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Ensing, Erik P.; Ciuti, Simone; de Wijs, Freek A. L. M.; Lentferink, Dennis H.; ten Hoedt, André; Boyce, Mark S.; Hut, Roelof A.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS) is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus), one in the Netherlands (red deer), the other in Canada (elk). GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands) or after sunrise (Canada) and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale) and local weather (on an annual scale). In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in) light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent. PMID:25208246

  16. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-02-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptor Agonists as Analgesics without Abuse Liability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:23421672

  18. The actions of prolonged exposure to cholinergic agonists on isolated bladder strips from the rat.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, James I; Rouget, Celine; Palea, Stefano; Korstanje, Cees

    2015-07-01

    The present study was done to explore the cholinergic systems operating in the wall of the isolated rat bladder. In a first set of experiments, bladder strips in vitro were subjected to cumulative concentration-response curve (CRC) to non-selective muscarine agonist carbachol or the partially M2>M3 selective agonist arecaidine to establish optimal concentration to be used thereafter. In a second set of experiments, the effects of drugs (solifenacin, isoproterenol, and mirabegron) were tested on urinary bladder contraction induced by the non-selective muscarinergic agonist carbachol. For both agonists, the contractile responses are qualitatively similar: an initial transient rise in tension followed by complex bursts of high-frequency small 'micro'-contractions superposed on a tonic contraction, with immediate transient 'rebound' contraction after the agonist is washed from the preparation. This rebound contraction is greater with carbachol than arecaidine. Components of the responses to cholinergic stimulation, notably the micro-contractions, were found to be differently stimulated and inhibited by the M3>M2 selective antagonist solifenacin and by the ?-adrenoceptor agonists isoprenaline and mirabegron. A physiological role for the muscarinic dependent phasic contractions and the micro-anatomical elements that might be involved are not known but may be related to non-voiding activity observed during filling cystometry in conscious animals related to afferent discharge and possibly sensation. Furthermore, suggestions for the potential impact of these findings and design of further studies in relation to bladder physiology, pharmacology, and pathology are discussed. PMID:25980359

  19. Estrogen receptor (ER) subtype agonists alter monoamine levels in the female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Laura S; Zafian, Peter T; Gautreaux, Claris; Gordon, Marisa; Alves, Stephen E; Correa, Lucia; Lorrain, Daniel S; Hickey, Gerard J; Luine, Victoria

    2010-11-01

    We assessed the effects of subtype-selective ER agonists on monoamine levels in discrete regions of the female rat brain. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats were treated for 4 days with vehicle, 17?-estradiol (E; 0.05mg/kg), an ER? agonist (C19; 3mg/kg) or an ER? agonist (PPT; 3mg/kg) and samples from brain regions were assessed for monoamines and metabolites. We also assessed effects of ER? modulation on baseline and fenfluramine-induced release of monoamines in hippocampus using microdialysis. In the first study, E and the ER? agonist increased norepinephrine in cortex and all three ER ligands increased it in the ventral hippocampus. Changes in levels of the noradrenergic metabolite, MHPG and the dopaminergic metabolite, DOPAC were noted in brain areas of ER ligand-treated animals. E also increased levels of 5HIAA in three brain areas. In the microdialysis study, there were no differences among groups in baseline levels of monoamines. However, E and the ER? agonist increased levels of the dopaminergic metabolite, HVA following fenfluramine. In summary, activation of the two nuclear ERs with selective agonists affects monoamine and metabolite levels in discrete brain areas, a number of which are known to play key roles in cognitive and affective function. PMID:20800684

  20. Bioactivity screening and mass spectrometric confirmation for the detection of PPAR? agonists that increase type 1 muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Bovee, Toine F H; Blokland, Marco; Kersten, Sander; Hamers, Astrid R M; Heskamp, Henri H; Essers, Martien L; Nielen, Michel W F; van Ginkel, Leendert A

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR?). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPAR? agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPAR? target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRT-PCR analysis. Exposure of HepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPAR? expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPAR? agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose-response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2-based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V). PMID:24287635

  1. Rapid kinetics of 2-adrenergic agonist binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, W.; Neubig, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    Activation of 2-adrenergic receptors in human platelets results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC). To elucidate the relation between agonist binding and response, the authors have used a novel rapid-mix quench method to compare the kinetics of binding and response. At functionally effective concentrations, the time course of binding of the full 2-agonist, (TH)UK14,304 (UK), to purified platelet membranes was faster than could be measured manually. Using the rapid-mix quench method, agonist binding was quantitated for times for 0.3 to 60 seconds. UK binding exhibited biexponential kinetics. The rate constant of the fast binding component increases linearly with agonist concentration from 1 to 100 nM with a second order rate constant and 7 x 10WM s (at 25C). The slow rate constant was nearly independent of agonist concentration. The half times of the fast and slow components of binding for 100 nM UK are 1.5 seconds and approximately 2 minutes respectively. The rate and magnitude of the fast binding was unaffected by 10 M GTP whereas the magnitude of the slow phase was markedly reduced. Inhibition of forskolin stimulated AC by 100 M epinephrine occurs with a lag of 5-10 seconds in the presence of 10 M GTP. At lower GTP concentrations, this lag is prolonged. The observation that the fast component of agonist binding precedes inhibition even at agonist concentrations 20-fold lower than the EC40 for responses indicates that the rate limiting step in inhibition of AC is distal to the binding of agonist.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome Abolishes Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist Stimulation of SERCA in Coronary Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Dineen, Stacey L; McKenney, Mikaela L; Bell, Lauren N; Fullenkamp, Allison M; Schultz, Kyle A; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Chalasani, Naga; Sturek, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) doubles the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists induce weight loss, increase insulin secretion, and improve glucose tolerance. Studies in healthy animals suggest cardioprotective properties of GLP-1 receptor agonists, perhaps partially mediated by improved sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) activity. We examined the acute effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on coronary smooth muscle cells (CSM) enzymatically isolated from lean, healthy Ossabaw miniature swine. Intracellular Ca(2+) handling was interrogated with fura-2. The GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide activated SERCA but did not alter other Ca(2+) transporters. Further, we tested the hypothesis that chronic, in vivo treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonist AC3174 would attenuate coronary artery disease (CAD) in swine with MetS. MetS was induced in 20 swine by 6 months' feeding of a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet. Swine were then randomized (n = 10/group) into placebo or AC3174 treatment groups and continued the diet for an additional 6 months. AC3174 treatment attenuated weight gain, increased insulin secretion, and improved glucose tolerance. Intravascular ultrasound and histology showed no effect of AC3174 on CAD. MetS abolished SERCA activation by GLP-1 receptor agonists. We conclude that MetS confers vascular resistance to GLP-1 receptor agonists, partially through impaired cellular signaling steps involving SERCA. PMID:25845661

  3. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.5mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-?-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC50=0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other. PMID:23537660

  4. Identification of multiple 5-HT? partial agonist clinical candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Michael A; Johnson, David E; Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Coffman, Karen J; Drummond, Elena M; Hudson, Emily L; Fisher, Katherine E; Noguchi, Hirohide; Waizumi, Nobuaki; McDowell, Laura L; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Pettersen, Betty A; Schmidt, Anne W; Tseng, Elaine; Stutzman-Engwall, Kim; Rubitski, David M; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Grimwood, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    The cognitive impairments observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are in part a consequence of reduced acetylcholine (ACh) levels resulting from a loss of cholinergic neurons. Preclinically, serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT(4)) agonists are reported to modulate cholinergic function and therefore may provide a new mechanistic approach for treating cognitive deficits associated with AD. Herein we communicate the design and synthesis of potent, selective, and brain penetrant 5-HT(4) agonists. The overall goal of the medicinal chemistry strategy was identification of structurally diverse clinical candidates with varying intrinsic activities. The exposure-response relationships between binding affinity, intrinsic activity, receptor occupancy, drug exposure, and pharmacodynamic activity in relevant preclinical models of AD were utilized as key selection criteria for advancing compounds. On the basis of their excellent balance of pharmacokinetic attributes and safety, two lead 5-HT(4) partial agonist candidates 2d and 3 were chosen for clinical development. PMID:22974325

  5. OX40 agonist therapy enhances CD8 infiltration and decreases immune suppression in the tumor.

    PubMed

    Gough, Michael J; Ruby, Carl E; Redmond, William L; Dhungel, Birat; Brown, Alexis; Weinberg, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Acquisition of full T-cell effector function and memory differentiation requires appropriate costimulatory signals, including ligation of the costimulatory molecule OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134). Tumors often grow despite the presence of tumor-specific T cells and establish an environment with weak costimulation and immune suppression. Administration of OX40 agonists has been shown to significantly increase the survival of tumor-bearing mice and was dependent on the presence of both CD4 and CD8 T cells during tumor-specific priming. To understand how OX40 agonists work in mice with established tumors, we developed a model to study changes in immune cell populations within the tumor environment. We show here that systemic administration of OX40 agonist antibodies increased the proportion of CD8 T cells at the tumor site in three different tumor models. The function of the CD8 T cells at the tumor site was also increased by administration of OX40 agonist antibody, and we observed an increase in the proportion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells within the tumor. Despite decreases in the proportion of T regulatory cells at the tumor site, T regulatory cell function in the spleen was unaffected by OX40 agonist antibody therapy. Interestingly, administration of OX40 agonist antibody caused significant changes in the tumor stroma, including decreased macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-beta. Thus, therapies targeting OX40 dramatically changed the tumor environment by enhancing the infiltration and function of CD8 T cells combined with diminished suppressive influences within the tumor. PMID:18593921

  6. Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  7. MULTIPLE STRESSORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR AGONISTS AND HYPOXIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is predicted that reciprocal crosstalk occurs between these two pathways, such that activation of each pathway will cause decreased activity in the other pathway. Accordingly, it is predicted that hypoxia and AhR agonists will exacerbate one another’s toxicity. Thi...

  8. gamma-Aminobutyric acidA agonists differentially augment gnawing induced by indirect-acting dopamine agonists in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, E; Geter-Douglass, B; Witkin, J M

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from structure-activity, molecular biology, ligand binding and behavioral studies has suggested potential differences in the pharmacological effects of indirect dopamine agonists. Striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is under the regulatory control of GABAergic inputs. The ability of agonists of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors to enhance stereotyped gnawing was used as a method for dissociating the pharmacological effects of indirect-acting dopamine agonists. Gnawing on corrugated cardboard was studied in C57BL/6J mice. The GABAA agonists, gaboxadol HCl (THIP) and muscimol, were not effective in augmenting gnawing in the presence of the direct-acting dopamine agonists, apomorphine, pergolide, RU 24213 or SKF 38393. In addition, THIP did not enhance the gnawing produced by cocaine, bupropion, GBR 12909 or WIN 35428. In contrast, THIP produced marked augmentation of the gnawing induced by methylphenidate, (+)-amphetamine, methamphetamine, amfonelic acid, indatraline, nomifensine, diclofensine, mazindol and GBR 12935. The qualitative differences in potentiation were not caused by differences in the maximal effect of the drugs alone, inadequate dose or routes of administration, or by differences in duration of action. Neither can the absence of potentiation be accounted for by unique effects of THIP; muscimol was only marginally effective in potentiating the effects of WIN 35428 and bupropion but completely inactive in augmenting the effects of cocaine and GBR 12909. Muscimol was efficacious in augmenting the effects of the drugs for which THIP was active. These results add to a small but growing literature that demonstrates differences in the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of indirect dopamine agonists. The methods used here may help in defining the molecular and neural substrates of these differential effects. PMID:9435169

  9. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related ?2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related ?2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  10. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related ?2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related ?2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  11. PPAR agonists regulate brain gene expression: relationship to their effects on ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura B; Most, Dana; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. Although prescribed for dyslipidemia and type-II diabetes, PPAR agonists also possess anti-addictive characteristics. PPAR agonists decrease ethanol consumption and reduce withdrawal severity and susceptibility to stress-induced relapse in rodents. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms facilitating these properties have yet to be investigated. We tested three PPAR agonists in a continuous access two-bottle choice (2BC) drinking paradigm and found that tesaglitazar (PPAR?/?; 1.5 mg/kg) and fenofibrate (PPAR?; 150 mg/kg) decreased ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice while bezafibrate (PPAR?/?/?; 75 mg/kg) did not. We hypothesized that changes in brain gene expression following fenofibrate and tesaglitazar treatment lead to reduced ethanol drinking. We studied unbiased genomic profiles in areas of the brain known to be important for ethanol dependence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala, and also profiled gene expression in liver. Genomic profiles from the non-effective bezafibrate treatment were used to filter out genes not associated with ethanol consumption. Because PPAR agonists are anti-inflammatory, they would be expected to target microglia and astrocytes. Surprisingly, PPAR agonists produced a strong neuronal signature in mouse brain, and fenofibrate and tesaglitazar (but not bezafibrate) targeted a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the amygdala. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed co-expression of treatment-significant genes. Functional annotation of these gene networks suggested that PPAR agonists might act via neuropeptide and dopaminergic signaling pathways in the amygdala. Our results reveal gene targets through which PPAR agonists can affect alcohol consumption behavior. PMID:25036611

  12. ?2-Adrenoceptor agonists as novel, safe and potentially effective therapies for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Bartus, Raymond T; Bétourné, Alexandre; Basile, Anthony; Peterson, Bethany L; Glass, Jonathan; Boulis, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic and progressive neuromuscular disease for which no cure exists and better treatment options are desperately needed. We hypothesize that currently approved ?2-adrenoceptor agonists may effectively treat the symptoms and possibly slow the progression of ALS. Although ?2-agonists are primarily used to treat asthma, pharmacologic data from animal models of neuromuscular diseases suggest that these agents may have pharmacologic effects of benefit in treating ALS. These include inhibiting protein degradation, stimulating protein synthesis, inducing neurotrophic factor synthesis and release, positively modulating microglial and systemic immune function, maintaining the structural and functional integrity of motor endplates, and improving energy metabolism. Moreover, stimulation of ?2-adrenoceptors can activate a range of downstream signaling events in many different cell types that could account for the diverse array of effects of these agents. The evidence supporting the possible therapeutic benefits of ?2-agonists is briefly reviewed, followed by a more detailed review of clinical trials testing the efficacy of ?-agonists in a variety of human neuromuscular maladies. The weight of evidence of the potential benefits from treating these diseases supports the hypothesis that ?2-agonists may be efficacious in ALS. Finally, ways to monitor and manage the side effects that may arise with chronic administration of ?2-agonists are evaluated. In sum, effective, safe and orally-active ?2-agonists may provide a novel and convenient means to reduce the symptoms of ALS and possibly delay disease progression, affording a unique opportunity to repurpose these approved drugs for treating ALS, and rapidly transforming the management of this serious, unmet medical need. PMID:26459114

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of thienopyrimidine derivatives as GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Moon-Kook; Lee, Kyu Myung; Kim, Il Hyang; Jang, Yoon Kyung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Lee, Jun Mi; Jung, Kwan-Young; Kumar, Jaladi Ashok; Rhee, Sang Dal; Jung, Won Hoon; Song, Jin Sook; Bae, Myung Ae; Kim, Kwang Rok; Ahn, Jin Hee

    2014-09-01

    A series of thienopyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their GPR119 agonistic ability. Several thienopyrimidine derivatives containing R(1) and R(2) substituents displayed potent GPR119 agonistic activity. Among them, compound 5d, which is a prototype, showed good in vitro activity with an EC50 value of 3 nM and human and rat liver microsomal stability. Compound 5d exhibited no CYP inhibition and induction, Herg binding, or mutagenic potential. Compound 5d showed increase insulin secretion in beta TC-6 cell and lowered the glucose excursion in mice in an oral glucose-tolerance test. PMID:25082125

  14. Identification of a New Type of Covalent PPAR? Agonist using a Ligand-Linking Strategy.

    PubMed

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Yoshida, Kotaro; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Akita, Toru; Kakizuka, Akira; Irie, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Nagao, Masaya

    2015-12-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. The ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of PPAR? has a large Y-shaped cavity with multiple subpockets where multiple ligands can simultaneously bind and cooperatively activate PPAR?. Focusing on this unique property of the PPAR? LBP, we describe a novel two-step cell-based strategy to develop PPAR? ligands. First, a combination of ligands that cooperatively activates PPAR? was identified using a luciferase reporter assay. Second, hybrid ligands were designed and synthesized. For proof of concept, we focused on covalent agonists, which activate PPAR? through a unique activation mechanism regulated by a covalent linkage with the Cys285 residue in the PPAR? LBP. Despite their biological significance and pharmacological potential, few covalent PPAR? agonists are known except for endogenous fatty acid metabolites. With our strategy, we determined that plant-derived cinnamic acid derivatives cooperatively activated PPAR? by combining with GW9662, an irreversible antagonist. GW9662 covalently reacts with the Cys285 residue. A docking study predicted that a cinnamic acid derivative can bind to the open cavity in GW9662-bound PPAR? LBP. On the basis of the putative binding mode, structures of both ligands were linked successfully to create a potent PPAR? agonist, which enhanced the transactivation potential of PPAR? at submicromolar levels through covalent modification of Cys285. Our approach could lead to the discovery of novel high-potency PPAR? agonists. PMID:26414848

  15. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  16. Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in macrophages by cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Servio H.; Reichenbach, Nancy L.; Fan, Shongshan; Rom, Slava; Merkel, Steven F.; Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-zhe; Persidsky, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes and macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Previous studies showed that activation of the CB2 can attenuate inflammatory responses and affect HIV-1 infectivity in T cells and microglia. Here, we report that CB2 agonists can also act as immunomodulators on HIV-1-infected macrophages. First, our findings indicated the presence of elevated levels of CB2 expression on monocytes/macrophages in perivascular cuffs of postmortem HIV-1 encephalitic cases. In vitro analysis by FACS of primary human monocytes revealed a step-wise increase in CB2 surface expression in monocytes, MDMs, and HIV-1-infected MDMs. We next tested the notion that up-regulation of CB2 may allow for the use of synthetic CB2 agonist to limit HIV-1 infection. Two commercially available CB2 agonists, JWH133 and GP1a, and a resorcinol-based CB2 agonist, O-1966, were evaluated. Results from measurements of HIV-1 RT activity in the culture media of 7 day-infected cells showed a significant decrease in RT activity when the CB2 agonist was present. Furthermore, CB2 activation also partially inhibited the expression of HIV-1 pol. CB2 agonists did not modulate surface expression of CXCR4 or CCR5 detected by FACS. We speculate that these findings indicate that prevention of viral entry is not a central mechanism for CB2-mediated suppression in viral replication. However, CB2 may affect the HIV-1 replication machinery. Results from a single-round infection with the pseudotyped virus revealed a marked decrease in HIV-1 LTR activation by the CB2 ligands. Together, these results indicate that CB2 may offer a means to limit HIV-1 infection in macrophages. PMID:23463725

  17. Propagation of conformational changes during ?-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sounier, Rémy; Mas, Camille; Steyaert, Jan; Laeremans, Toon; Manglik, Aashish; Huang, Weijiao; Kobilka, Brian K; Déméné, Héléne; Granier, Sébastien

    2015-08-20

    µ-Opioid receptors (µORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by a structurally diverse spectrum of natural and synthetic agonists including endogenous endorphin peptides, morphine and methadone. The recent structures of the ?OR in inactive and agonist-induced active states (Huang et al., ref. 2) provide snapshots of the receptor at the beginning and end of a signalling event, but little is known about the dynamic sequence of events that span these two states. Here we use solution-state NMR to examine the process of ?OR activation using a purified receptor (mouse sequence) preparation in an amphiphile membrane-like environment. We obtain spectra of the ?OR in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of the high-affinity agonist BU72 alone, or with BU72 and a G protein mimetic nanobody. Our results show that conformational changes in transmembrane segments 5 and 6 (TM5 and TM6), which are required for the full engagement of a G protein, are almost completely dependent on the presence of both the agonist and the G protein mimetic nanobody, revealing a weak allosteric coupling between the agonist-binding pocket and the G-protein-coupling interface (TM5 and TM6), similar to that observed for the ?2-adrenergic receptor. Unexpectedly, in the presence of agonist alone, we find larger spectral changes involving intracellular loop 1 and helix 8 compared to changes in TM5 and TM6. These results suggest that one or both of these domains may play a role in the initial interaction with the G protein, and that TM5 and TM6 are only engaged later in the process of complex formation. The initial interactions between the G protein and intracellular loop 1 and/or helix 8 may be involved in G-protein coupling specificity, as has been suggested for other family A G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245377

  18. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of opioid agonists on respiratory motor output produced by isolated brainstems from adult turtles (Trachemys)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephen M.; Moris, Christina M.; Bartman, Michelle E.; Wiegel, Liana M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine how central opioid receptor activation alters turtle breathing, respiratory-related hypoglossal (XII) motor bursts were recorded from isolated adult turtle brainstems during 60-min bath-applications of agonists for delta- (DOR), kappa- (KOR), or nociceptin/orphanin (NOR) receptors. DADLE (DOR agonist) abolished XII burst frequency at 0.3-0.5 ?M. DPDPE (DOR agonist) increased frequency by 40-44% at 0.01-0.1 ?M and decreased frequency by 88 ± 8% at 1.0 ?M. U-50488 and U-59693 (KOR agonists) decreased frequency by 65-68% at 100 ?M and 50 ?M, respectively. Orphanin (NOR agonist) decreased frequency by 31-51% at 1.0-2.0 ?M during the first 30-min period. Orphanin (0.5 and 2.0 ?M) increased bursts/episode. Although morphine (10 ?M) abolished frequency in nearly all brainstems, subsequent co-application of phenylephrine (?1-adrenergic agonist, 20-100 ?M) with morphine restored activity to 16-78% of baseline frequency. Thus, DOR, KOR, and NOR activation regulates frequency and NOR activation regulates episodicity, while ?1-adrenergic receptor activation reverses opioid-induced respiratory depression in turtles. PMID:19833235

  19. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists potentiate a slow afterdepolarization in CNS neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that, in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN), metabotropic glutamate receptor (met-GluR) agonists evoked a slow depolarization accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance and burst firing. We have speculated that the burst firing elicited by met-GluR agonists may be due to activation or enhancement of a non-specific cation current, which exists in some DLSN neurons. Now we report that a slow afterdepolarization (sADP) mediated by a non-specific cation current was potentiated by both 1S,3R-ACPD and quisqualate. In addition, met-GluR agonists unmask a sADP in DLSN neurons which did not show a sADP under control conditions. Our data suggest that a non-specific cation current can be potentiated by activation of the met-GluR.

  20. Reconstitution of high-affinity opioid agonist binding in brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Remmers, A.E.; Medzihradsky, F. )

    1991-03-15

    In synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex, the {mu} selective agonist ({sup 3}H)dihydromorphine in the absence of sodium, and the nonselective antagonist ({sup 3}H)naltrexone in the presence of sodium, bound to two populations of opioid receptor sites with K{sub d} values of 0.69 and 8.7 nM for dihydromorphine, and 0.34 and 5.5 nM for naltrexone. The addition of 5 {mu}M guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)) strongly reduced high-affinity agonist but not antagonist binding. Exposure of the membranes to high pH reduced the number of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding sites by 90% and low K{sub m}, opioid-sensitive GTPase activity by 95%. In these membranes, high-affinity agonist binding was abolished and modulation of residual binding by GTP({gamma}S) was diminished. Alkali treatment of the glioma cell membranes prior to fusion inhibited most of the low K{sub m} GTPase activity and prevented the reconstitution of agonist binding. The results show that high-affinity opioid agonist binding reflects the ligand-occupied receptor - guanine nucleotide binding protein complex.

  1. Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors *

    PubMed Central

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Griffith, Adam; Oloff, Scott; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Brown, Justin T.; Goddard, William A.; Mailman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored for the D1 receptor. We selected two novel agonists of therapeutic interest that meet these criteria (the isochroman A-77636, and the isoquinoline dinapsoline), and compared the fates of the D1 receptor after internalization in response to these two compounds with that of dopamine. We found that dopamine caused the receptor to be rapidly recycled to the cell surface within 1 h of removal. Conversely, A-77636 caused the receptor to be retained intracellularly up to 48 h after agonist removal. Most surprisingly, the D1 receptor recovered to the cell surface 48 h after removal of dinapsoline. Taken together, these data indicate that these agonists target the D1 receptor to different intracellular trafficking pathways, demonstrating that the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor is operative for cellular events that are temporally downstream of immediate receptor activation. We hypothesize that these differential effects result from interactions of the synthetic ligands with aspects of the D1 receptor that are distal from the ligand binding domain. PMID:17067639

  2. Identification of dual PPAR?/? agonists and their effects on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quanqing; Hanh, Jacky; Váradi, Linda; Cairns, Rose; Sjöström, Helena; Liao, Vivian W Y; Wood, Peta; Balaban, Seher; Ong, Jennifer Ai; Lin, Hsuan-Yu Jennifer; Lai, Felcia; Hoy, Andrew J; Grewal, Thomas; Groundwater, Paul W; Hibbs, David E

    2015-12-15

    The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms; PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR?, play central roles in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Dual PPAR?/? agonists, which stimulate both PPAR? and PPAR? isoforms to similar extents, are gaining popularity as it is believed that they are able to ameliorate the unwanted side effects of selective PPAR? and PPAR? agonists; and may also be used to treat dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus simultaneously. In this study, virtual screening of natural product libraries, using both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery approaches, identified ten potential dual PPAR?/? agonist lead compounds (9-13 and 16-20). In vitro assays confirmed these compounds to show no statistically significant toxicity to cells, with the exception of compound 12 which inhibited cell growth to 74.5%±3.5 and 54.1%±3.7 at 50?M and 100?M, respectively. In support of their potential as dual PPAR?/? agonists, all ten compounds upregulated the expression of cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in THP-1 macrophages, with indoline derivative 16 producing the greatest elevation (2.3-fold; 3.3-fold, respectively). Furthermore, comparable to the activity of established PPAR? and PPAR? agonists, compound 16 stimulated triacylglycerol accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as well as fatty acid ?-oxidation in HuH7 hepatocytes. PMID:26616289

  3. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 ?M) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other protocols, and delineate the use of oxytocin to strengthen the efficiency of electrical stimulation to activate locomotor circuits. PMID:24658101

  4. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

  5. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    E-print Network

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2015-01-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, $\\beta_0^{\\rm mid} = p_{\\rm gas} / p_B$. For $10^5 \\geq \\beta_0^{\\rm mid} \\geq 10$ the effective $\\alpha$-viscosity parameter scales as a power-law. Dynamo activity persists up to and includin...

  6. Effect of structurally constrained oxime-ether linker on PPAR subtype selectivity: Discovery of a novel and potent series of PPAR-pan agonists.

    PubMed

    Makadia, Pankaj; Shah, Shailesh R; Pingali, Harikishore; Zaware, Pandurang; Patel, Darshit; Pola, Suresh; Thube, Baban; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Suthar, Dinesh; Shah, Maanan; Giri, Suresh; Trivedi, Chitrang; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj; Bahekar, Rajesh

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of thaizole and oxazole containing phenoxy acetic acid derivatives is reported as PPAR-pan agonists. Incorporation of structurally constrained oxime-ether based linker in the chemotype of a potent PPAR? selective agonist GW-501516 was adapted as designing strategy. In vitro, selected test compounds 12a, 12c, 17a and 18a showed PPAR-pan agonists activities and among these four compounds tested, 12a emerged as highly potent and efficacious compound, while 17a exhibited moderate and balanced PPAR-pan agonistic activity. In vivo, selected test compounds 12a and 17a exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities in relevant animal models. These results support our hypothesis that the introduction of structurally constrained oxime-ether linker between lipophilic tail and acidic head plays an important role in modulating subtype selectivity and subsequently led to the discovery of potent PPAR-pan agonists. PMID:21215640

  7. Agonist Met antibodies define the signalling threshold required for a full mitogenic and invasive program of Kaposi's Sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bardelli, Claudio; Sala, Marilena; Cavallazzi, Umberto; Prat, Maria . E-mail: mprat@med.unipmn.it

    2005-09-09

    We previously showed that the Kaposi Sarcoma line KS-IMM express a functional Met tyrosine kinase receptor, which, upon HGF stimulation, activates motogenic, proliferative, and invasive responses. In this study, we investigated the signalling pathways activated by HGF, as well as by Met monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), acting as full or partial agonists. The full agonist Mab mimics HGF in all biological and biochemical aspects. It elicits the whole spectrum of responses, while the partial agonist Mab induces only wound healing. These differences correlated with a more prolonged and sustained tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor and MAPK evoked by HGF and by the full agonist Mab, relative to the partial agonist Mab. Since Gab1, JNK and PI 3-kinase are activated with same intensity and kinetics by HGF and by the two agonist antibodies, it is concluded that level and duration of MAPK activation by Met receptor are crucial for the induction of a full HGF-dependent mitogenic and invasive program in KS cells.

  8. Agonist-Induced Endocytosis and Receptor Phosphorylation Mediate Resensitization of Dopamine D2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dongim; Zheng, Mei; Min, Chengchun; Ma, Lan; Kurose, Hitoshi; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were analyzed using mutant dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in which all possible GPCR kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites were mutated or the affinity for ?-arrestins was altered. Agonist-induced internalization of D2Rs involved a phosphorylation-dependent component, which was mediated by serine/threonine (S/T) residues in the second loop and T225 in the third loop, and a phosphorylation-independent component. GRK2-mediated enhancement of the internalization and inhibition of D2R signaling did not involve receptor phosphorylation, and only the former required the enzymatic activity of GRK2. The phosphorylation-deficient mutant (D2R-intracellular loop 2/3) recycled more slowly and showed more agonist-induced desensitization than did the wild-type D2R, suggesting that receptor phosphorylation mediates the recycling of the internalized receptors and enhances receptor resensitization. Blockade of the agonist-induced internalization of D2R-intracellular loop 2/3 provoked desensitization as in wild-type D2R, suggesting that certain cellular processes other than receptor dephosphorylation occurring within the endocytic vesicle are responsible for the resensitization of D2R. When dissociation between D2R and ?-arrestin was inhibited or when the expression of cellular ?-arrestins was decreased, agonist-induced desensitization of D2R did not occur, suggesting that dissociation from ?-arrestin is the main cellular process required for resensitization of D2R and is achieved through agonist-induced internalization. These results indicate that, in the regulation of some GPCRs, phosphorylation-independent association with ?-arrestin plays a major role in agonist-induced desensitization. PMID:20160122

  9. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  10. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  11. ?(2) -adrenoceptor agonists: current and future direction.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2011-05-01

    Despite the passionate debate over the use of ?(2) -adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of airway disorders, these agents are still central in the symptomatic management of asthma and COPD. A variety of ?(2) -adrenoceptor agonists with long half-lives, also called ultra long-acting ?(2) -adrenoceptor agonists (ultra-LABAs; indacaterol, olodaterol, vilanterol, carmoterol, LAS100977 and PF-610355) are currently under development with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. It is likely that the once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes. As combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a LABA is important for treating patients suffering from asthma, and a combination with an inhaled long-acting antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) is important for treating COPD patients whose conditions are not sufficiently controlled by monotherapy with a ?(2) -adrenoceptor agonist, some novel once-daily combinations of LABAs and ICSs or LAMAs are under development. PMID:21232045

  12. ?2-adrenoceptor agonists: current and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Despite the passionate debate over the use of ?2-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of airway disorders, these agents are still central in the symptomatic management of asthma and COPD. A variety of ?2-adrenoceptor agonists with long half-lives, also called ultra long-acting ?2-adrenoceptor agonists (ultra-LABAs; indacaterol, olodaterol, vilanterol, carmoterol, LAS100977 and PF-610355) are currently under development with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. It is likely that the once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes. As combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a LABA is important for treating patients suffering from asthma, and a combination with an inhaled long-acting antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) is important for treating COPD patients whose conditions are not sufficiently controlled by monotherapy with a ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, some novel once-daily combinations of LABAs and ICSs or LAMAs are under development. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21232045

  13. Lead Exposure Alters the Development of Agonistic

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Lead Exposure Alters the Development of Agonistic Behavior in Golden Hamsters M. Catalina Cervantes@mail.utexas.edu ABSTRACT: We tested the effects of exposure to different doses of lead acetate (either 0, 25, 100, or 400-specific effect of lead exposure on the development of aggression during puberty at doses resulting in blood

  14. Corepressors of agonist-bound nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, Igor; Aneskievich, Brian J.

    2007-09-15

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) rely on coregulator proteins to modulate transcription of target genes. NR coregulators can be broadly subdivided into coactivators which potentiate transcription and corepressors which silence gene expression. The prevailing view of coregulator action holds that in the absence of agonist the receptor interacts with a corepressor via the corepressor nuclear receptor (CoRNR, 'corner') box motifs within the corepressor. Upon agonist binding, a conformational change in the receptor causes the shedding of corepressor and the binding of a coactivator which interacts with the receptor via NR boxes within the coregulator. This view was challenged with the discovery of RIP140 which acts as a NR corepressor in the presence of agonist and utilizes NR boxes. Since then a number of other corepressors of agonist-bound NRs have been discovered. Among them are LCoR, PRAME, REA, MTA1, NSD1, and COPR1 Although they exhibit a great diversity of structure, mechanism of repression and pathophysiological function, these corepressors frequently have one or more NR boxes and often recruit histone deacetylases to exert their repressive effects. This review highlights these more recently discovered corepressors and addresses their potential functions in transcription regulation, disease pharmacologic responses and xenobiotic metabolism.

  15. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim’s likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  16. Peptide length and folding state govern the capacity of staphylococcal ?-type phenol-soluble modulins to activate human formyl-peptide receptors 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Maren; Linke, Dirk; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Most staphylococci produce short ?-type PSMs and about twice as long ?-type PSMs that are potent leukocyte attractants and toxins. PSMs are usually secreted with the N-terminal formyl group but are only weak agonists for the leukocyte FPR1. Instead, the FPR1-related FPR2 senses PSMs efficiently and is crucial for leukocyte recruitment in infection. Which structural features distinguish FPR1 from FPR2 ligands has remained elusive. To analyze which peptide properties may govern the capacities of ?-type PSMs to activate FPRs, full-length and truncated variants of such peptides from Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were synthesized. FPR2 activation was observed even for short N- or C-terminal ?-type PSM variants once they were longer than 18 aa, and this activity increased with length. In contrast, the shortest tested peptides were potent FPR1 agonists, and this property declined with increasing peptide length. Whereas full-length ?-type PSMs formed ?-helices and exhibited no FPR1-specific activity, the truncated peptides had less-stable secondary structures, were weak agonists for FPR1, and required N-terminal formyl-methionine residues to be FPR2 agonists. Together, these data suggest that FPR1 and FPR2 have opposed ligand preferences. Short, flexible PSM structures may favor FPR1 but not FPR2 activation, whereas longer peptides with ?-helical, amphipathic properties are strong FPR2 but only weak FPR1 agonists. These findings should help to unravel the ligand specificities of 2 critical human PRRs, and they may be important for new, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies. PMID:25724390

  17. A pharmacological profile of the novel, peripherally-selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753.

    PubMed

    Barber, A; Bartoszyk, G D; Bender, H M; Gottschlich, R; Greiner, H E; Harting, J; Mauler, F; Minck, K O; Murray, R D; Simon, M

    1994-12-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of the novel diarylacetamide kappa-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753, have been compared with those of ICI 197067 (a centrally-acting kappa agonist) and ICI 204448 (a peripherally-selective kappa agonist). 2. EMD 61753 binds with high affinity (IC50 5.6 nM) and selectivity (kappa:mu:delta:sigma binding ratio 1:536:125: > 1,786) to kappa-opioid receptors and is a full and potent (IC50 54.5 nM) agonist in an in vitro assay for kappa-opioid receptors (rabbit vas deferens preparation). 3. Systemically-applied [14C]-EMD 61753 is found in high concentrations in the lungs, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys. Considerably less radioactivity is detected in the whole brain, and this radioactivity is concentrated in the region of the cerebral ventricles in the choroid plexuses. EMD 61753 penetrates only poorly into the CNS. 4. EMD 61753 was weakly effective in pharmacological tests of central activity. This compound reversed haloperidolol-induced DOPA accumulation in the nucleus accumbens of the rat only at a dose of 30 mg kg-1, s.c., (doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 1.0, 10 and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., were inactive). Hexobarbitone-induced sleeping in mice was prolonged by EMD 61753 at threshold doses of 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., whereas the motor performance of rats in the rotarod test was impaired by EMD 61753 with an ID50 value of 453 mg kg-1, s.c. 5. EMD 61753 produced dose-dependent, naloxone-reversible antinociception in the mouse formalin test (1st phase ID50 1.9 mg kg-1, s.c., and 10.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; 2nd phase ID50 0.26 mg kg-1, s.c., and 3.5 mg kg-1, p.o.) and rodent abdominal constriction test (ID50 mouse 1.75 mg kg-1, s.c., and 8.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; ID50 rat 3.2 mg kg-1, s.c., and 250 mg kg-1, p.o.). EMD 61753 was inactive, or only weakly effective, in the rat pressure test under normalgesic conditions. After the induction of hyperalgesia with carrageenin, however, this compound elicited potent, dose-dependent (ID50 0.08 mg kg-1, s.c., and 6.9 mg kg-1, p.o., after remedial application, and 0.2 mg kg-1, s.c., and 3.1 mg kg-1, p.o., after prophylactic application) and naloxone-reversible antinociception. The antinociceptive action of systemically-applied (50 mg kg-1, p.o.) EMD 61753 in the hyperalgesic pressure test was completely inhibited by injection of the K-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine (100 Lg) into the inflamed tissue, a result which indicates that this opioid effect is mediated peripherally.6. Cutaneous plasma protein extravasation produced by antidromic electrical stimulation of the rat saphenous nerve was dose-dependently inhibited by systemically-applied EMD 61753 (ID13 values 3.7 mg kg-1, s.c., and 35.8 mg kg-1, p.o.), and this effect was completely antagonized by intraplantar application of norbinaltorphimine (50 microg). Extravasation elicited by the intraplantar application of substance P (10 microg) was not influenced by the administration of EMD 61753.7. EMD 61753 produced dose-dependent diuresis in non-hydrated rats at doses of and above 1.0 mg kg-1, s.c., and 10 mg kg-1, p.o., and in saline-loaded rats at doses of and above 10 mg kg-1, s.c.,and 30mgkg-1, p.o.8. The prostaglandin-mediated fall in mean arterial blood pressure elicited in anaesthetized rats by i.v.application of arachidonic acid was not inhibited by prior treatment with EMD 61753 (10mg kg-1,p.o.). Thus, a blockade of prostaglandin synthesis via inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase activity does not contribute to the in vivo effects of EMD 61753 and its metabolites.9 The present experiments therefore indicate that EMD 61753 is a potent, selective and orally-effective full ic-opioid receptor agonist which has a limited ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and elicit centrally-mediated sedation, putative aversion, diuresis, and antinociception. The inhibitory actions of systemically-applied EMD 61753 against hyperalgesic pressure nociception and neurogenic inflammation are mediated peripherally, probably by opioid receptors on the endings of sensory nerve fibres. PMID:7889287

  18. Consequences of the presence of a weak fault on the stress and strain within an active margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Godard, V.; Bourlange, S.

    2009-12-01

    Accreting margins often display an outer thrust and fold belt and an inner forearc domain overlying the subduction plate. Assuming that this overlying material behaves as Coulomb material, the outer wedge and the inner wedge are classically approximated as a critical state and a stable state Coulomb wedge, respectively. Critical Coulomb wedge theory can account for the transition from wedge to forearc. However, it cannot be used to determine the state of stress in the transition zone, nor the consequences of a discontinuity within the margin. The presence of a discontinuity such as a splay fault having a low effective friction coefficient should affect the stress state within the wedge, at least locally around the splay fault. Moreover, the effective friction coefficient of the seismogenic zone is expected to vary during the seismic cycle, and this may influence the stability of the Coulomb wedges. We use the ADELI finite element code (Chery and Hassani, 2000) to model the quasi-static stress and strain of a decollement and splay fault system, within a two dimensional elasto-plastic wedge with Drucker-Prager rheology. The subduction plane, the basal decollement of the accretionary wedge and the splay fault are modeled with contact elements. The modeled margin comprises an inner and an outer domain with distinct tapers and basal friction coefficients. For a given splay fault geometry, we evaluate the friction coefficient threshold for splay fault activation as a function of the basal friction coefficients, and examine the consequences of motion along the splay fault on stress and strain within the wedge and on the surface slope at equilibrium. Friction coefficients are varied in time to mimic the consequence of the seismic cycle on the static stress state and strain distribution. Results show the possibility of coexistence of localized extensional regime above the splay fault within a regional compressional regime. Such coexistence is consistent with stress orientation estimation made from breakouts in the Nankai accretionary prim (Kinoshita et al, 2009).

  19. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C.; do Nascimento, João B. P.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Malnic, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs) which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10%) have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs. PMID:25784876

  20. Effects of an LH-RH agonist on reproductive responses and endocrinological parameters in landais ganders.

    PubMed

    Sellier, N; Do Thi, D X; Rousselot-Pailley, D; Péczely, P; de Reviers, M; Guémené, D

    1995-10-15

    Semen quantitative (sperm production) and qualitative parameters (percentage of live and normal spermatozoa, sperm motility, egg fertility and hatchability), as well as hormonal parameters (LH and testosterone plasma concentrations) were compared for landais ganders, which were treated or not, with an LH-RH agonist prior to being sexually active. Treatment with the LH-RH agonist at this physiological stage delayed the onset of sperm production in some of the treated males. Although, comparable data were obtained during the first half of the reproductive period, treatment with the LH-RH agonist maintained sperm output at higher levels during its second half. Although the percentage of normal and live spermatozoa, sperm motility and true hatchability did not differ, the LH-RH agonist treatment had a positive effect on gosling production because of the higher fertility of the treated birds during the second part of the reproductive period. Treatment induced a large short-term decrease in testosterone levels followed by a rebound, leading to higher levels during the second half of the reproductive period. We conclude that treatment of ganders with an LH-RH agonist partially prevented the naturally occurring decline in sperm production and induced an increase in the rate of fertility rates during the second half of the productive period. PMID:16727776

  1. A combined ligand and structure based approach to design potent PPAR-alpha agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhoke, Gaurao V.; Gangwal, Rahul P.; Sangamwar, Abhay T.

    2012-11-01

    A combined ligand and structure based pharmacophore modeling approach was employed to reveal structural and chemical features necessary for PPAR-alpha agonistic activity. The best HypoGen pharmacophore model Hypo1 for PPAR-alpha agonists contains two hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA), two general hydrophobic (H), and one negative ionizable (NI) feature. In addition, one structure based pharmacophore model was developed using LigandScout3.0, which has identified additional three hydrophobic features. Further, molecular docking studies of all agonists showed hydrogen bond interactions with important amino acids (Ser280, Tyr314 and Tyr464) and these interactions were compared with Hypo1, which shows that the Hypo1 has a good predictive ability. The screened virtual hits from Hypo1 were subjected to the Lipinski's rule of five, structure based pharmacophore screening and molecular docking analysis. Finally, three novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected as possible candidates for the designing of potent PPAR-alpha agonists. Combination of these two approaches results in designing an ideal pharmacophore model, which provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel PPAR-alpha agonists.

  2. Pharmacological properties of acid N-thiazolylamide FFA2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew J; Tsoulou, Christina; Ward, Emma; Gower, Elaine; Bhudia, Nisha; Chowdhury, Forhad; Dean, Tony W; Faucher, Nicolas; Gangar, Akanksha; Dowell, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    FFA2 is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids. Propionate (C3) and 4-chloro-?-(1-methylethyl)-N-2-thiazolyl-benzeneacetamide (4-CMTB), the prototypical synthetic FFA2 agonist, evoke calcium mobilization in neutrophils and inhibit lipolysis in adipocytes via this G-protein-coupled receptor. 4-CMTB contains an N-thiazolylamide motif but no acid group, and 4-CMTB and C3 bind to different sites on FFA2 and show allosteric cooperativity. Recently, FFA2 agonists have been described that contain both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate groups, reminiscent of bitopic ligands. These are thought to engage the carboxylate-binding site on FFA2, but preliminary evidence suggests they do not bind to the same site as 4-CMTB even though both contain N-thiazolylamide. Here, we describe the characterization of four FFA2 ligands containing both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate. (R)-3-benzyl-4-((4-(2-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoic acid (compound 14) exhibits allosteric agonism with 4-CMTB but not C3. Three other compounds agonize FFA2 in [35S]GTP?S-incorporation or cAMP assays but behave as inverse agonists in yeast-based gene-reporter assays, showing orthosteric antagonism of C3 responses but allosteric antagonism of 4-CMTB responses. Thus, the bitopic-like FFA2 ligands engage the orthosteric site but do not compete at the site of 4-CMTB binding on an FFA2 receptor molecule. Compound 14 activates FFA2 on human neutrophils and mouse adipocytes, but appears not to inhibit lipolysis upon treatment of human primary adipocytes in spite of the presence of a functional FFA2 receptor in these cells. Hence, these new ligands may reveal differences in coupling of FFA2 between human and rodent adipose tissues. PMID:26236484

  3. Agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulate self-renewal of cardiac stem cells and promote their survival

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Victoria; Majid, Sonia S.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Hare, Joshua M.; Rodrigues, Claudia O.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) in heart failure models are associated with an increase in the number of ckit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The goal of the present study was to determine the presence of GHRH-R in CSCs, the effect of GHRH-R agonists on their proliferation and survival, and the mechanisms involved. We investigated the expression of GHRH-R in CSCs of different species and the effect of GHRH-R agonists on their cell proliferation and survival. GHRH-R is expressed in ckit+ CSCs isolated from mouse, rat, and pig. Treatment of porcine CSCs with the GHRH-R agonist JI-38 significantly increased the rate of cell division. Similar results were observed with other GHRH-R agonists, MR-356 and MR-409. JI-38 exerted a protective effect on survival of porcine CSCs under conditions of oxidative stress induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Treatment with JI-38 before exposure to peroxide significantly reduced cell death. A similar effect was observed with MR-356. Addition of GHRH-R agonists to porcine CSCs induced activation of ERK and AKT pathways as determined by increased expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT. Inhibitors of ERK and AKT pathways completely reversed the effect of GHRH-R agonists on CSC proliferation. Our findings extend the observations of the expression of GHRH-R by CSCs and demonstrate that GHRH-R agonists have a direct effect on proliferation and survival of CSCs. These results support the therapeutic use of GHRH-R agonists for stimulating endogenous mechanisms for myocardial repair or for preconditioning of stem cells before transplantation. PMID:25404316

  4. Agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulate self-renewal of cardiac stem cells and promote their survival.

    PubMed

    Florea, Victoria; Majid, Sonia S; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V; Hare, Joshua M; Rodrigues, Claudia O

    2014-12-01

    The beneficial effects of agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) in heart failure models are associated with an increase in the number of ckit(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The goal of the present study was to determine the presence of GHRH-R in CSCs, the effect of GHRH-R agonists on their proliferation and survival, and the mechanisms involved. We investigated the expression of GHRH-R in CSCs of different species and the effect of GHRH-R agonists on their cell proliferation and survival. GHRH-R is expressed in ckit(+) CSCs isolated from mouse, rat, and pig. Treatment of porcine CSCs with the GHRH-R agonist JI-38 significantly increased the rate of cell division. Similar results were observed with other GHRH-R agonists, MR-356 and MR-409. JI-38 exerted a protective effect on survival of porcine CSCs under conditions of oxidative stress induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Treatment with JI-38 before exposure to peroxide significantly reduced cell death. A similar effect was observed with MR-356. Addition of GHRH-R agonists to porcine CSCs induced activation of ERK and AKT pathways as determined by increased expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT. Inhibitors of ERK and AKT pathways completely reversed the effect of GHRH-R agonists on CSC proliferation. Our findings extend the observations of the expression of GHRH-R by CSCs and demonstrate that GHRH-R agonists have a direct effect on proliferation and survival of CSCs. These results support the therapeutic use of GHRH-R agonists for stimulating endogenous mechanisms for myocardial repair or for preconditioning of stem cells before transplantation. PMID:25404316

  5. Effect of an ?2 agonist (mivazerol) on limiting myocardial ischaemia in stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K; Dargie, H; de Bono, D P; Oliver, M; Wulfert, E; Kharkevitch, T

    1999-01-01

    A specific ?2 agonist, mivazerol, known to be effective in reducing myocardial ischaemia when given intravenously immediately before an exercise tolerance test, produced a significant increase in exercise duration and time to the onset of angina when given orally over a two week period to 25 patients with stable angina. A non-significant trend to reduction in electrocardiographic signs of ischaemia was also noted. The clinical relevance of this improvement now needs to be tested in larger numbers.???Keywords: ?2 agonist; sympathetic activity; myocardial ischaemia; stable angina; exercise tolerance test PMID:10455094

  6. Synthesis and SAR studies of bicyclic amine series GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Sakairi, Masao; Kogami, Masakazu; Torii, Masafumi; Kataoka, Hiroyo; Fujieda, Hiroki; Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kataoka, Daisuke; Okamoto, Ryuji; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Okabe, Morio; Inoue, Megumi; Takahashi, Naoki; Harada, Satoko; Watanabe, Nobuhide

    2012-08-01

    We disclosed a novel series of G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonists based on a bicyclic amine scaffold. Through the optimization of hit compound 1, we discovered that the basic nitrogen atom of bicyclic amine played an important role in GPR119 agonist activity expression and that an indanone in various bicyclic rings was suitable in this series of compounds. The indanone derivative 2 showed the effect of plasma glucose control in oGTT and scGTT in the rodent model. PMID:22765901

  7. Discovery of AZD3199, An Inhaled Ultralong Acting ?2 Receptor Agonist with Rapid Onset of Action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of dibasic des-hydroxy ?2 receptor agonists has been prepared and evaluated for potential as inhaled ultralong acting bronchodilators. Determination of activities at the human ?-adrenoreceptors demonstrated a series of highly potent and selective ?2 receptor agonists that were progressed to further study in a guinea pig histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model. Following further assessment by onset studies in guinea pig tracheal rings and human bronchial rings contracted with methacholine (guinea pigs) or carbachol (humans), duration of action studies in guinea pigs after intratracheal (i.t.) administration and further selectivity and safety profiling AZD3199 was shown to have an excellent over all profile and was progressed into clinical evaluation as a new ultralong acting inhaled ?2 receptor agonist with rapid onset of action. PMID:24900851

  8. Anticancer Role of PPAR? Agonists in Hematological Malignancies Found in the Vasculature, Marrow, and Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Haidaris, P. J.; Pollock, S. J.; Ramon, S.; Guo, N.; Woeller, C. F.; Feldon, S. E.; Phipps, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of targeted cancer therapies in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation treatment has increased overall survival of cancer patients. However, longer survival is accompanied by increased incidence of comorbidities due, in part, to drug side effects and toxicities. It is well accepted that inflammation and tumorigenesis are linked. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists are potent mediators of anti-inflammatory responses, it was a logical extension to examine the role of PPAR? agonists in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This paper has two objectives: first to highlight the potential uses for PPAR? agonists in anticancer therapy with special emphasis on their role when used as adjuvant or combined therapy in the treatment of hematological malignancies found in the vasculature, marrow, and eyes, and second, to review the potential role PPAR? and/or its ligands may have in modulating cancer-associated angiogenesis and tumor-stromal microenvironment crosstalk in bone marrow. PMID:20204067

  9. The PPAR? Agonist Pioglitazone Ameliorates Aging-Related Progressive Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Deleuze, Sebastien; Zuo, Yiqin; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Ma, Li-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists not only improve metabolic abnormalities of diabetes and consequent diabetic nephropathy, but they also protect against nondiabetic chronic kidney disease in experimental models. Here, we found that the PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone protected against renal injury in aging; it reduced proteinuria, improved GFR, decreased sclerosis, and alleviated cell senescence. Increased local expression of PPAR-? paralleled these changes. Underlying mechanisms included increased expression of klotho, decreased systemic and renal oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial injury. Pioglitazone also regulated p66Shc phosphorylation, which integrates many signaling pathways that affect mitochondrial function and longevity, by reducing protein kinase C-?. These results suggest that PPAR-? agonists may benefit aging-related renal injury by improving mitochondrial function. PMID:19797472

  10. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Berthiaume, Y; Staub, N C; Matthay, M A

    1987-01-01

    We did experiments to determine whether beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized ventilated adult sheep and, if so, whether the increase is mediated by beta receptors and what mechanism is involved. We instilled 100 ml of autologous serum either alone or with a beta-adrenergic agonist (terbutaline, 10(-5) M, or epinephrine, 5.5 X 10(-6) M) into one lower lobe. After 4 h both terbutaline and epinephrine increased lung liquid clearance. The increase in lung liquid clearance was inhibited when propranolol (a beta blocker) or amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) was added to the terbutaline. Increased clearance was not explained by changes in pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary blood flow, or lung lymph flow. We conclude that beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized intact adult sheep. This increase is mediated through beta receptors and probably depends on increased active transport of sodium across the alveolar barrier. Images PMID:2879851

  11. PPAR{alpha} agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus . E-mail: klaus.eder@landw.uni-halle.de

    2006-11-24

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPAR{alpha} agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPAR{alpha} agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  12. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-09-18

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  13. Discovery of Natural Phenols as G Protein-Coupled Receptor-35 (GPR35) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and characterization of natural phenols as G protein-coupled receptor-35 (GPR35) agonists. Pharmacological characterization using label-free dynamic mass redistribution and Tango ?-arrestin translocation assays revealed that GPR35-active natural phenols are divergent in their biased agonism. PMID:24900447

  14. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  15. Estrogen Receptor ? Agonists Differentially Affect the Growth of Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Marzagalli, Monica; Casati, Lavinia; Moretti, Roberta M.; Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Limonta, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive malignancy; its incidence is increasing worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Clinical observations indicate that estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is expressed in melanoma tissues and its expression decreases with tumor progression, suggesting its tumor suppressive function. These experiments were performed to investigate the effects of ER? activation on melanoma cell growth. Methods and Results Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by counting the cells by hemocytometer. ER? transcriptional activity was evaluated by gene reporter assay. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by restriction enzyme assay and ER? isoforms were identified by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated that ER? is expressed in a panel of human melanoma cell lines (BLM, WM115, A375, WM1552). In BLM (NRAS-mutant) cells, ER? agonists significantly and specifically inhibited cell proliferation. ER? activation triggered its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity of ER? agonists was associated with an altered expression of G1-S transition-related proteins. In these cells, global DNA was found to be hypomethylated when compared to normal melanocytes; this DNA hypomethylation status was reverted by ER? activation. ER? agonists also decreased the proliferation of WM115 (BRAF V600D-mutant) cells, while they failed to reduce the growth of A375 and WM1552 (BRAF V600E-mutant) cells. Finally, we could observe that ER? isoforms are expressed at different levels in the various cell lines. Specific oncogenic mutations or differential expression of receptor isoforms might be responsible for the different responses of cell lines to ER? agonists. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ER? is expressed in melanoma cell lines and that ER? agonists differentially regulate the proliferation of these cells. These data confirm the notion that melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor and that genetic profiling is mandatory for the development of effective personalized therapeutic approaches for melanoma patients. PMID:26225426

  16. PPAR? agonist from Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man-Li; Irwin, Dianne; Li, Xiao-Ning; Sauriol, Françoise; Shi, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Yu-Fang; Huo, Chang-Hong; Li, Li-Geng; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen

    2012-12-28

    A phytochemical investigation of Chromolaena odorata resulted in the isolation of five new compounds, 5a?,6,9,9a?,10-pentahydro-10?-hydroxy-7-methylanthra[1,2-d][1,3]dioxol-5-one (1), 1,2-methylenedioxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2), 3-hydroxy-1,2,4-trimethoxy-6-methylanthraquinone (3), 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy-6-methylanthraquinone (4), and 7-methoxy-7-epi-medioresinol (5), together with 12 known compounds, odoratin (6), 3?-acetyloleanolic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), ombuin (9), 4,2'-dihydroxy-4',5',6'-trimethoxychalcone (10), (-)-pinoresinol (11), austrocortinin (12), tianshic acid (13), cleomiscosin D (14), (-)-medioresinol (15), (-)-syringaresinol (16), and cleomiscosin A (17). All the compounds were evaluated for their PPAR? transactivation activity, and compound 6 showed moderate activity with an EC(50) value of 3.10 ?M. PMID:23186307

  17. Detecting associations between behavioral addictions and dopamine agonists in the Food & Drug Administration’s Adverse Event database

    PubMed Central

    Gendreau, Katherine E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Studies have reported higher prevalences of four behavioral addictions (binge eating, compulsive shopping, hypersexuality, and pathological gambling) in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s disease relative to non-dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s. However, recent case-control and epidemiological studies suggest that prevalences of behavioral addictions in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s may be similar to background population rates. This study tests that hypothesis by examining the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for evidence of these associations, taking into account the potential impact of publicity on reporting rates. Methods: FAERS reports in 2004 (pre-publicity for all but pathological gambling) and 2007 (post-publicity for all four behaviors) were analyzed. A threshold consisting of ?3 cases, proportional reporting ratio ?2, and ?2 with Yates’ correction ?4 was used to detect signals (drug-associated adverse reactions) involving any of five dopamine agonists and any of four behavioral addictions. Results: No reports containing compulsive shopping and no signal for binge eating and dopamine agonists were found in either year. A weak signal was found for hypersexuality in 2004, with a stronger signal in 2007. A robust signal was found for pathological gambling in 2004, with a more robust signal in 2007. Discussion/Conclusions: These results suggest that publicity may increase reporting rates in the FAERS. Findings for binge eating, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality suggest that prevalences of these behaviors among those treated with dopamine agonists may be similar to background population rates and thus may not reflect an adverse safety signal. Further investigation of the relationship between dopamine agonists and behavioral addictions is warranted. PMID:25215211

  18. Signal transduction and functional selectivity of F15599, a preferential post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Martel, J-C; Assié, M-B; Buritova, J; Lauressergues, E; Cosi, C; Heusler, P; Slot, L Bruins; Colpaert, FC; Vacher, B; Cussac, D

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors may provide enhanced therapy against depression. We describe the signal transduction profile of F15599, a novel 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Experimental approach: F15599 was compared with a chemical congener, F13714, and with (+)8-OH-DPAT in models of signal transduction in vitro and ex vivo. Key results: F15599 was highly selective for 5-HT1A receptors in binding experiments and in [35S]-GTP?S autoradiography of rat brain, where F15599 increased labelling in regions expressing 5-HT1A receptors. In cell lines expressing h5-HT1A receptors, F15599 more potently stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, compared with G-protein activation, internalization of h5-HT1A receptors or inhibition of cAMP accumulation. F13714, (+)8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT displayed a different rank order of potency for these responses. F15599 stimulated [35S]-GTP?S binding more potently in frontal cortex than raphe. F15599, unlike 5-HT, more potently and efficaciously stimulated G?i than G?o activation. In rat prefrontal cortex (a region expressing post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors), F15599 potently activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and strongly induced c-fos mRNA expression. In contrast, in raphe regions (expressing pre-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors) F15599 only weakly or did not induce c-fos mRNA expression. Finally, despite its more modest affinity in vitro, F15599 bound to 5-HT1A receptors in vivo almost as potently as F13714. Conclusions and implications: F15599 showed a distinctive activation profiles for 5-HT1A receptor-mediated signalling pathways, unlike those of reference agonists and consistent with functional selectivity at 5-HT1A receptors. In rat, F15599 potently activated signalling in prefrontal cortex, a feature likely to underlie its beneficial effects in models of depression and cognition. PMID:19154445

  19. Activities of X-ray binaries accompanied by a neutron star with weak magnetic field: Cir X-1, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Asai, Kazumi

    This paper is presented on X-ray activities of X-ray binaries accompanied by a neutron star with weak magnetic field. Neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs) have been well studied so far, but there are still unknown problems concerning activities of outbursts and X-ray spectral features. We can define the soft and hard states which show different spectra created from each disk structure. These states depend on the gas accretion rate causing viscosity change in the disk, whereas we have pointed out an importance of magnetic field in NS-LMXB for X-ray activities (Matsuoka & Asai 2013). Thus, we have obtained decay features occurred by a propeller effect for Aql X-1 and 4U1608-52, and thus, we have defined the propeller effect levels of these sources (Asai et al. 2013). A companion star of Cir X-1 is a star of B5~A0 type, but it has X-ray spectral feature similar to NS-LMXB as well as it produced type I X-ray bursts. A long history over 40 years of X-ray observations has provided that Cir X-1 X-ray intensities have many varieties from continuous variable fluxes with Z-type feature of NS-LMXB to recurrent outburst fluxes with Atoll-type feature on a time scale of years. Recent MAXI observations have revealed a strange sudden decay feature in some outbursts. It is difficult to explain this decay feature by the simple picture which causes by ordinary mechanisms known in NS-LMXB such as a state transition, a propeller effect and a brink due to disk irradiation (Powell et al. 2007). Therefore, we introduced new type of instability of the accretion disk in relation to stellar wind stripping effect (Asai et al. 2014) which may be common to a system consisting of a compact star and an ordinary massive star.

  20. PPAR alpha agonists improve renal preservation in kidneys subjected to chronic in vitro perfusion: interaction with mannitol.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Travis C; Mi, Zaichuan; Bastacky, Sheldon I; McHale, Teresa; Melhem, Mona F; Sonalker, Prajakta A; Tofovic, Stevan P; Jackson, Edwin K

    2007-03-01

    We developed methods for prolonged (12 h), sterile, normothermic perfusion of rat kidneys and screened compounds for renal preservation including: mitochondrial transition pore inhibitor (decylubiquinone); caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonists (gemfibrozil, WY-14643); antioxidants (trolox, luteolin, quercetin); growth factors (HGF, PDGF, EGF, IGF-1, VEGF, transferrin); calpain inhibitor (Z-Val-Phe-CHO); calmodulin inhibitor (W7); K(ATP) opener (minoxidil, minoxidil sulfate); PARP inhibitor (3-aminobenzamide); calcium channel blocker (verapamil); V(2) agonist (DDAVP); diuretics (acetazolamide, hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, mannitol); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta agonist (L-165041); dopamine agonist (dopamine); essential fatty acid (linolenic acid); beta-NAD; urea; uric acid; and aldosterone. In pilot studies, only PPARalpha agonists and mannitol provided promising results. Accordingly, these agents were investigated further. Fifteen rat kidneys were perfused for 12 h with L-15 media at 37 degrees C in the absence or presence of mannitol, gemfibrozil, gemfibrozil + mannitol or WY-14643. Chronic perfusion in untreated kidneys caused destruction of glomerular and tubular architecture (light and electron microscopy), disappearance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-alpha(1) (Western blotting), and apoptosis (Apoptag staining). Gemfibrozil and WY-14643 marginally improved some biomarkers of renal preservation. However, the combination of gemfibrozil with mannitol markedly improved all parameters of renal preservation. We conclude that PPARalpha agonists, particularly when combined with mannitol, protect organs from normothermic, perfusion-induced damage. PMID:17291221

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (3',5'-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-aryl/alkyl-methanone selective CB2 inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Presley, Chaela S; Mustafa, Suni M; Abidi, Ammaar H; Moore, Bob M

    2015-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) selective agonists and inverse agonists possess significant potential as therapeutic agents for regulating inflammation and immune function. Although CB2 agonists have received the greatest attention, it is emerging that inverse agonists also manifest anti-inflammatory activity. In process of designing new cannabinoid ligands we discovered that the 2,6-dihydroxy-biphenyl-aryl methanone scaffold imparts inverse agonist activity at CB2 receptor without functional activity at CB1. To further explore the scaffold we synthesized a series of (3',5'-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-aryl/alkyl-methanone analogs and evaluated the CB1 and CB2 affinity, potency, and efficacy. The studies reveal that an aromatic C ring is required for inverse agonist activity and that substitution at the 4 position is optimum. The resorcinol moiety is required for optimum CB2 inverse agonist activity and selectivity. Antagonist studies against CP 55,940 demonstrate that the compounds 41 and 45 are noncompetitive antagonists at CB2. PMID:26275680

  2. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  3. Discovery of a novel series of indoline carbamate and indolinylpyrimidine derivatives as potent GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenjiro; Sugimoto, Hiromichi; Rikimaru, Kentaro; Imoto, Hiroshi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Miyashita, Hirohisa; Odani, Tomoyuki; Murata, Toshiki

    2014-03-01

    GPR119 has emerged as an attractive target for anti-diabetic agents. We identified a structurally novel GPR119 agonist 22c that carries a 5-(methylsulfonyl)indoline motif as an early lead compound. To generate more potent compounds of this series, structural modifications were performed mainly to the central alkylene spacer. Installation of a carbonyl group and a methyl group on this spacer significantly enhanced agonistic activity, resulting in the identification of 2-[1-(5-ethylpyrimidin-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl]propyl 7-fluoro-5-(methylsulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-1-carboxylate (20). To further expand the chemical series of indoline-based GPR119 agonists, several heterocyclic core systems were introduced as surrogates of the carbamate spacer that mimic the presumed active conformation. This approach successfully produced an indolinylpyrimidine derivative 37, 5-(methylsulfonyl)-1-[6-({1-[3-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]piperidin-4-yl}oxy)pyrimidin-4-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole, which has potent GPR119 agonist activity. In rat oral glucose tolerance tests, these two indoline-based compounds effectively lowered plasma glucose excursion and glucose-dependent insulin secretion after oral administration. PMID:24508142

  4. Cannabinoid receptor agonists protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Thayer, S A

    1998-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists act presynaptically to inhibit the release of glutamate. Because other drugs with this action are known to reduce excitotoxicity, we tested several cannabimimetics in a model of synaptically mediated neuronal death. Reduction of the extracellular Mg2+ concentration to 0.1 mM evoked a repetitive pattern of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) spiking that, when maintained for 24 hr, resulted in significant neuronal death. The [Ca2+]i spiking and cell death in this model result from excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, as indicated by the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i spiking and neuronal death by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist CGS19755 (10 microM). The cannabimimetic drug Win55212-2 (100 nM) completely blocked [Ca2+]i spiking and prevented neuronal death induced by low extracellular Mg2+ concentrations. These effects on [Ca2+]i spiking and viability were stereoselective and were prevented by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (100 nM). The partial agonist CP55940 (100 nM) also afforded significant protection from excitotoxicity. Cannabimimetic drugs did not protect cells from the direct application of glutamate (30 microM). These data suggest that cannabimimetic drugs may slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:9730904

  5. Serotonergic agonists stimulate inositol lipid metabolism in rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, M.; Godfrey, P.P.; Minchin, M.C.W.; McClue, S.J.; Young, M.M.

    1985-10-28

    The metabolism of inositol phospholipids in response to serotonergic agonists was investigated in rabbit platelets. In platelets prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)-inositol, in a medium containing 10 mM LiCl which blocks the enzyme inositol-1-phosphatase, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused a dose-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP). This suggests a phospholipase-C-mediated breakdown of phosphoinositides. Ketanserin, a selective 5-HT/sub 2/ antagonist, was a potent inhibitor of the 5-HT response, with a Ki of 28 nM, indicating that 5-HT is activating receptors of the 5-HT/sub 2/ type in the platelet. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and quipazine also caused dose-related increases in inositol phosphate levels, though these were considerably less than those produced by 5-HT. These results show that relatively small changes in phosphoinositide metabolism induced by serotonergic agonists can be investigated in the rabbit platelet, and this cell may therefore be a useful model for the study of some 5-HT receptors. 30 references, 4 figures.

  6. Agonists block currents through acetylcholine receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Sine, S M; Steinbach, J H

    1984-08-01

    We have examined the effects of high concentrations of cholinergic agonists on currents through single acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels on clonal BC3H1 cells. We find that raised concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh; above 300 microM) or carbamylcholine (Carb; above 1,000 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent reduction in the mean single-channel current. Raised concentrations of suberyldicholine (Sub; above 3 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent increase in the number of brief duration low-conductance interruptions of open-channel currents. These observations can be quantitatively described by a model in which agonist molecules enter and transiently occlude the ion-channel of the AChR. PMID:6478036

  7. TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) regulates junctional proteins in tubular epithelial cells via canonical NF-?B pathway and ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Berzal, Sergio; González-Guerrero, Cristian; Rayego-Mateos, Sandra; Ucero, Álvaro; Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ramos, Adrián M

    2015-07-01

    The tubular epithelium may be intrinsically involved in promoting kidney injury by junctional instability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix remodelling. In this work, we investigated whether the pleiotropic and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), could be able to disturb junctional protein expression and to induce EMT of tubular cells. In cultured murine proximal tubular cells TWEAK induced phenotypic changes that were accompanied by F-actin redistribution, loss of epithelial adherent (E-cadherin, Cadherin-16, ?-catenin) and tight junction (ZO-1) proteins, and re-expression of the mesenchymal protein Vimentin. The transcriptional repressors Snail and HNF1? were also modulated by TWEAK. In a murine model of obstructive renal pathology, TWEAK expression correlated with the appearance of the mesenchymal marker ?SMA in kidney tubular cells. Mechanistically, the epithelial changes induced by TWEAK, including loss of epithelial integrity and EMT, via Fn14 were TGF-?1 independent, but mediated by several intracellular signaling systems, including the canonical NF-?B, ERK activation and the vitamin D receptor modulation. These results highlight potential contributions of TWEAK-induced inflammatory mechanisms that could unveil new pathogenic effects of TWEAK starting tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis. PMID:25536182

  8. Regulation of protein kinases in exocrine secretory cells during agonist-induced exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Söling, H D; Padel, U; Jahn, R; Thiel, G; Kricke, P; Fest, W

    1985-01-01

    Stimulation of exocytosis in exocrine glands is associated with an increased phosphorylation of several particulate proteins. Irrespective of the type of secretagogue (cAMP-dependent agonists, calcium-dependent agonists, calcium ionophores, phorbol esters) exocytosis is always accompanied by an enhanced phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6. It is shown by an analysis of the phosphopeptide pattern of the in vivo and the in vitro phosphorylated S6 protein that the protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of the S6 protein during enhanced exocytosis is protein kinase C. This is so irrespective of whether the agonist uses cAMP or calcium as second messenger. Experiments with isolated guinea pig parotid gland lobules reveal that not only the acetylcholine analog carbamoylcholine, but also the beta-agonist isoproterenol lead within seconds to an increased formation of diacylglycerol. As diacylglycerol increases the affinity of protein kinase C for calcium this finding would explain why the phosphorylation pattern of the S6 protein reflects activation of protein kinase C also under conditions where (as in the case of stimulation with beta-agonists) cAMP is the primary second messenger. It would further explain why the changes of the phosphorylation of individual histones observed during agonist-induced exocytosis in the parotid gland are quite similar for isoproterenol on one hand and carbamoylcholine on the other. A 22 K protein which becomes phosphorylated only when cAMP serves as second messenger is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. A possible relationship of this protein with the calcium transport ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum is under investigation. PMID:4072796

  9. Protection against cisplatin ototoxicity by adenosine agonists.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Craig A; Ramkumar, Vickram; Jones, Brett; Tsukasaki, Naoki; Rybak, Leonard P

    2004-05-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that causes ototoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies have shown that cisplatin causes an upregulation of A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) in the cochlea, and that application of the adenosine agonist, R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), to the round window (RW) results in significant increases in cochlear glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. These data suggest that adenosine receptors (ARs) are an important part of the cytoprotective system of the cochlea in response to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of various adenosine agonists on cisplatin ototoxicity using RW application. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were recorded in anesthetized chinchillas at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16kHz. The auditory bullae were surgically opened, and 1mM R-PIA, 10microM 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX)/R-PIA (1mM) cocktail, 100microM 2-chloro-N-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), 2-[4-(2-p-carboxy-ethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS) or vehicle were applied to the RW. After 90min, the remaining solution was removed and cisplatin was applied to the RW. The bullae were closed and the animals recovered for 72h, after which, follow-up ABRs were performed. Cochleae were harvested for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for lipid peroxides. Pre-administration of the A(1)AR agonists R-PIA or CCPA significantly reduced cisplatin-induced threshold c